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  • 8651.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Characterizing reading comprehension of mathematical texts2006In: Educational Studies in Mathematics, ISSN 0013-1954, E-ISSN 1573-0816, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 325-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares reading comprehension of three different texts: two mathematical texts and one historical text. The two mathematical texts both present basic concepts of group theory, but one does it using mathematical symbols and the other only uses natural language. A total of 95 upper secondary and university students read one of the mathematical texts and the historical text. Before reading the texts, a test of prior knowledge for both mathematics and history was given and after reading each text, a test of reading comprehension was given. The results reveal a similarity in reading comprehension between the mathematical text without symbols and the historical text, and also a difference in reading comprehension between the two mathematical texts. This result suggests that mathematics in itself is not the most dominant aspect affecting the reading comprehension process, but the use of symbols in the text is a more relevant factor. Although the university students had studied more mathematics courses than the upper secondary students, there was only a small and insignificant difference between these groups regarding reading comprehension of the mathematical text with symbols. This finding suggests that there is a need for more explicit teaching of reading comprehension for texts including symbols.

  • 8652.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Matematik, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Do students need to learn how to use their mathematics textbooks?: The case of reading comprehension2008In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 53-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main question discussed in this paper is whether students need to learn how to read mathematical texts. I describe and analyze the results from different types of studies about mathematical texts; studies about properties of mathematical texts, about the reading of mathematical tasks, and about the reading of mathematical expository texts. These studies show that students seem to develop special reading strategies for mathematical texts that are not desirable. It has not been possible to find clear evidence for the need of a specific ”mathematical reading ability”. However, there is still a need to focus more on reading in mathematics teaching since students seem to develop the non-desirable reading strategies.

  • 8653.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Mathematics, Technology and Science Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Do students need to learn how to use their mathematics textbooks?: The case of reading comprehension2008In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 53-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main question discussed in this paper is whether students need to learn how to read mathematical texts. I describe and analyze the results from different types of studies about mathematical texts; studies about properties of mathematical texts, about the reading of mathematical tasks, and about the reading of mathematical expository texts. These studies show that students seem to develop special reading strategies for mathematical texts that are not desirable. It has not been possible to find clear evidence for the need of a specific ”mathematical reading ability”. However, there is still a need to focus more on reading in mathematics teaching since students seem to develop the non-desirable reading strategies.

  • 8654.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tillämpad matematik.
    Epistemological beliefs and communication in mathematics education at upper secondary and university levels2009In: Perspectives on mathematical knowledge. Proceedings of MADIF 6, the 6th Swedish Mathematics Education Research Seminar, Stockholm, January 29-30, 2008 / [ed] Christer Bergsten, Barbro Grevholm, Thomas Lingefjärd, Linköping: Svensk förening för matematikdidaktisk forskning (SMDF) , 2009, p. 132-134Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8655.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Epistemological beliefs and communication in mathematics education at upper secondary and university levels2009In: Perspectives on mathematical knowledge. Proceedings of MADIF 6, the 6th Swedish Mathematics Education Research Seminar, Stockholm, January 29-30, 2008 / [ed] Christer Bergsten, Barbro Grevholm, Thomas Lingefjärd, Linköping: Svensk förening för matematikdidaktisk forskning (SMDF) , 2009, p. 132-134Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8656.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Matematik, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Kan vi separera läsning från matematikämnet?2009In: Dyslexi, ISSN 1401-2480, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 18-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    För uppgifter som man använder i undervisning eller prov i matematik så vill man i första hand utveckla eller testa kunskaper i matematik och inte elevernas läsförmåga. Om undervisning i matematik bygger mycket på läsning så verkar det finnas större risk att elever som har svårigheter med läsning också kommer få svårigheter med matematikämnet. En tanke kan därför vara att man vill separera läsning från matematikämnet, för att på så sätt undvika dessa potentiella problem. Mitt syfte med denna artikel är att analysera vissa aspekter av relationer mellan läsning och matematik, för att på detta sätt se om och hur en sådan separering kan göras.

  • 8657.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Mathematics, Technology and Science Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Kan vi separera läsning från matematikämnet?2009In: Dyslexi, ISSN 1401-2480, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 18-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    För uppgifter som man använder i undervisning eller prov i matematik så vill man i första hand utveckla eller testa kunskaper i matematik och inte elevernas läsförmåga. Om undervisning i matematik bygger mycket på läsning så verkar det finnas större risk att elever som har svårigheter med läsning också kommer få svårigheter med matematikämnet. En tanke kan därför vara att man vill separera läsning från matematikämnet, för att på så sätt undvika dessa potentiella problem. Mitt syfte med denna artikel är att analysera vissa aspekter av relationer mellan läsning och matematik, för att på detta sätt se om och hur en sådan separering kan göras.

  • 8658.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet.
    Kognitiva och metakognitiva perspektiv på läsförståelse inom matematik2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There seems to exist a general belief that one needs to learn specifically how to read mathematical texts, that is, a need to develop a special kind of reading ability for such texts. However, this belief does not seem to be based on research results since it does not exist much research that focus on reading comprehension in mathematics.

    The main purpose of this dissertation is to examine whether a reader needs special types of knowledge or abilities in order to read mathematical texts. Focus is on students’ reading of different kinds of texts that contain mathematics from introductory university level. The reading of mathematical texts is studied from two different perspectives, on the one hand a cognitive perspective, where reading abilities and content knowledge are studied in relation to reading comprehension, and on the other a metacognitive perspective, where focus is on beliefs and how a reader determines whether a text has been understood or not.

    Three empirical studies together with theoretical discussions, partly based on two literature surveys, are included in this dissertation. The literature surveys deal with properties of mathematical texts and reading in relation to problem solving. The empirical studies compare the reading of different types of texts, partly mathematical texts with texts with content from another domain and partly different types of mathematical texts, where focus is on the use of symbols and texts focusing on conceptual or procedural knowledge. Furthermore, students’ beliefs about their own reading comprehension and about texts and reading in general in mathematics are studied, in particular whether these beliefs are connected to reading comprehension.

    The results from the studies in this dissertation show that the students seem to use a special type of reading ability for mathematical texts; to focus on symbols in a text. For mathematical texts without symbols, a more general reading ability is used, that is, a type of ability also used for texts with content from another domain. The special type of reading ability used for texts including symbols affects the reading comprehension differently depending on whether the text focuses on conceptual or procedural knowledge. Compared to the use of the more general reading ability, the use of the special reading ability creates a worse reading comprehension.

    There seems to exist a need to focus on reading and reading comprehension in mathematics education since results in this dissertation show that courses at the upper secondary level (course E) and at the university level (in algebra and analysis) do not affect the special reading ability. However, the mentioned results show that this focus on reading does not necessarily need to be about learning to read mathematical texts in a special manner but to use an existing, more general, reading ability also for mathematical texts.

    Results from the metacognitive perspective show a difference between conscious aspects, such as regarding beliefs and reflections about comprehension, and unconscious aspects, such as the more automatic processes that make a reader understand a text, where also metacognitive processes are active. In particular, beliefs, which have been examined through a questionnaire, do not have a clear and independent effect on reading comprehension.

    From the texts used in these studies and the participating students, there seems not do be a general need to view the reading of mathematical texts as a special kind of process that demands special types of reading abilities. Instead, the development of a special type of reading ability among students could be caused by a lack of experiences regarding a need to read different types of mathematical texts where similarities with reading in general can be highlighted and used.

  • 8659.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kognitiva och metakognitiva perspektiv på läsförståelse inom matematik2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There seems to exist a general belief that one needs to learn specifically how to read mathematical texts, that is, a need to develop a special kind of reading ability for such texts. However, this belief does not seem to be based on research results since it does not exist much research that focus on reading comprehension in mathematics.

    The main purpose of this dissertation is to examine whether a reader needs special types of knowledge or abilities in order to read mathematical texts. Focus is on students’ reading of different kinds of texts that contain mathematics from introductory university level. The reading of mathematical texts is studied from two different perspectives, on the one hand a cognitive perspective, where reading abilities and content knowledge are studied in relation to reading comprehension, and on the other a metacognitive perspective, where focus is on beliefs and how a reader determines whether a text has been understood or not.

    Three empirical studies together with theoretical discussions, partly based on two literature surveys, are included in this dissertation. The literature surveys deal with properties of mathematical texts and reading in relation to problem solving. The empirical studies compare the reading of different types of texts, partly mathematical texts with texts with content from another domain and partly different types of mathematical texts, where focus is on the use of symbols and texts focusing on conceptual or procedural knowledge. Furthermore, students’ beliefs about their own reading comprehension and about texts and reading in general in mathematics are studied, in particular whether these beliefs are connected to reading comprehension.

    The results from the studies in this dissertation show that the students seem to use a special type of reading ability for mathematical texts; to focus on symbols in a text. For mathematical texts without symbols, a more general reading ability is used, that is, a type of ability also used for texts with content from another domain. The special type of reading ability used for texts including symbols affects the reading comprehension differently depending on whether the text focuses on conceptual or procedural knowledge. Compared to the use of the more general reading ability, the use of the special reading ability creates a worse reading comprehension.

    There seems to exist a need to focus on reading and reading comprehension in mathematics education since results in this dissertation show that courses at the upper secondary level (course E) and at the university level (in algebra and analysis) do not affect the special reading ability. However, the mentioned results show that this focus on reading does not necessarily need to be about learning to read mathematical texts in a special manner but to use an existing, more general, reading ability also for mathematical texts.

    Results from the metacognitive perspective show a difference between conscious aspects, such as regarding beliefs and reflections about comprehension, and unconscious aspects, such as the more automatic processes that make a reader understand a text, where also metacognitive processes are active. In particular, beliefs, which have been examined through a questionnaire, do not have a clear and independent effect on reading comprehension.

    From the texts used in these studies and the participating students, there seems not do be a general need to view the reading of mathematical texts as a special kind of process that demands special types of reading abilities. Instead, the development of a special type of reading ability among students could be caused by a lack of experiences regarding a need to read different types of mathematical texts where similarities with reading in general can be highlighted and used.

  • 8660.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Learning mathematics by reading - a study of students interacting with a text2003In: Nordic pre-conference to ICME 10, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8661.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics.
    Learning mathematics by reading - a study of students interacting with a text2003In: Nordic pre-conference to ICME 10, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8662.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Matematik, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Läsförståelsens roll inom matematikutbildning2009In: Matematikdidaktiska frågor: Resultat från en forskarskola / [ed] Gerd Brandell, Göteborg: Nationellt centrum för matematikutbildning (NCM), Göteborgs universitet , 2009, 1, p. 154-165Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel beskriver undersökningar kring hur universitetsstudenter och skolelever läser olika typer av texter. Frågor jag vill besvara är hur man bör förhålla sig till läsning inom matematikutbildning och om man behöver behandla läsförståelse som en del av undervisning inom matematik. I artikeln behandlar jag undersökningar kring läsning av uppgiftstexter samt undersökningar kring läsning av förklarande texter. Därefter jämför jag dessa olika typer av lässituationer och noterar då vissa likheter mellan lässtrategier som elever använder sig av i de olika situationerna. Bland annat noterar jag att texter som innehåller symboler tycks aktivera en speciell lässtrategi hos elever. Denna strategi verkar handla om att fokusera på symboler och andra typer av nyckelord i texten, vilket resulterar i en sämre läsförståelse. En slutsats är därför att det finns behov av att behandla läsning i matematikundervisning eftersom elever på egen hand tenderar att utveckla bristfälliga lässtrategier. Jag diskuterar också förslag på hur man kan göra detta. Som avslutning i artikeln diskuterar jag även hur resultaten om läsning kan ses i relation till andra forskningsresultat.

  • 8663.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Mathematics, Technology and Science Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Läsförståelsens roll inom matematikutbildning2009In: Matematikdidaktiska frågor: Resultat från en forskarskola / [ed] Gerd Brandell, Göteborg: Nationellt centrum för matematikutbildning (NCM), Göteborgs universitet , 2009, 1, p. 154-165Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel beskriver undersökningar kring hur universitetsstudenter och skolelever läser olika typer av texter. Frågor jag vill besvara är hur man bör förhålla sig till läsning inom matematikutbildning och om man behöver behandla läsförståelse som en del av undervisning inom matematik. I artikeln behandlar jag undersökningar kring läsning av uppgiftstexter samt undersökningar kring läsning av förklarande texter. Därefter jämför jag dessa olika typer av lässituationer och noterar då vissa likheter mellan lässtrategier som elever använder sig av i de olika situationerna. Bland annat noterar jag att texter som innehåller symboler tycks aktivera en speciell lässtrategi hos elever. Denna strategi verkar handla om att fokusera på symboler och andra typer av nyckelord i texten, vilket resulterar i en sämre läsförståelse. En slutsats är därför att det finns behov av att behandla läsning i matematikundervisning eftersom elever på egen hand tenderar att utveckla bristfälliga lässtrategier. Jag diskuterar också förslag på hur man kan göra detta. Som avslutning i artikeln diskuterar jag även hur resultaten om läsning kan ses i relation till andra forskningsresultat.

  • 8664.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tillämpad matematik.
    Metacognition and reading - criteria for comprehension of mathematics texts2006In: Proceedings of the 30th conference of the International group for the psychology of mathematics education / [ed] J. Novotná, H. Moraová, M. Krátká and N. Stehlíková, Prague: The International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education , 2006, p. 289-296Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses categories of comprehension criteria to examine students’ reasons for stating that they do, or do not, understand a given mathematics text. Nine student teachers were individually interviewed, where they read a text and commented on their comprehension, in particular, why they felt they did, or did not, understand the text. The students had some difficulties commenting on their comprehension in this manner, something that can be due to that much of comprehension monitoring, when criteria for comprehension are used, might be operating at an unconscious cognitive level. Some specific aspects of mathematics texts are examined, such as the symbolic language and conceptual and procedural understanding.

  • 8665.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Metacognition and reading - criteria for comprehension of mathematics texts2006In: Proceedings of the 30th conference of the International group for the psychology of mathematics education / [ed] J. Novotná, H. Moraová, M. Krátká and N. Stehlíková, Prague: The International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education , 2006, Vol. 4, p. 289-296Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses categories of comprehension criteria to examine students’ reasons for stating that they do, or do not, understand a given mathematics text. Nine student teachers were individually interviewed, where they read a text and commented on their comprehension, in particular, why they felt they did, or did not, understand the text. The students had some difficulties commenting on their comprehension in this manner, something that can be due to that much of comprehension monitoring, when criteria for comprehension are used, might be operating at an unconscious cognitive level. Some specific aspects of mathematics texts are examined, such as the symbolic language and conceptual and procedural understanding.

  • 8666.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Relationships between epistemological beliefs and properties of discourse: Some empirical explorations2010In: Mathematics and mathematics education: Cultural and social dimensions. Proceedings of MADIF 7 / [ed] C. Bergsten, E. Jablonka & T. Wedege, Linköping: Svensk förening för matematikdidaktisk forskning, SMDF , 2010, p. 241-250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I investigate what types of epistemologies are conveyed through properties of mathematical discourse in two lectures. A main purpose is to develop and explore methods for a type of analysis for this investigation. The analysis focuses on the types of statements and types of arguments used in explicit argumentations in the lectures. This type of analysis proves to be useful when characterizing epistemological aspects of lectures. However, some limitations are also noted, in particular that it was common to use more implicit types of argumentations in the lectures, which was not included as data in the present analysis.

  • 8667.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Relationships between epistemological beliefs and properties of discourse: Some empirical explorations2010In: Mathematics and mathematics education: Cultural and social dimensions. Proceedings of MADIF 7 / [ed] C. Bergsten, E. Jablonka & T. Wedege, Linköping: Svensk förening för matematikdidaktisk forskning, SMDF , 2010, p. 241-250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I investigate what types of epistemologies are conveyed through properties of mathematical discourse in two lectures. A main purpose is to develop and explore methods for a type of analysis for this investigation. The analysis focuses on the types of statements and types of arguments used in explicit argumentations in the lectures. This type of analysis proves to be useful when characterizing epistemological aspects of lectures. However, some limitations are also noted, in particular that it was common to use more implicit types of argumentations in the lectures, which was not included as data in the present analysis.

  • 8668.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Students' summaries of mathematical lectures: Comparing the discourse of students with the discourse of lectures2012In: Mathematics Education: Expanding Horizons. Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia / [ed] J. Dindyal, L. P. Cheng & S. F. Ng, Singapore: MERGA , 2012, p. 578-585Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on a distinction between process- and object-oriented discourses when characterising the discourse of university students' summaries of lectures and examining connections between students' discourse and the discourse of lectures. Results show that students' discourse in general tends to be process-oriented, by their use of active verbs and little use of nominalisations. Students' summaries of process-oriented lectures also tend to be more process-oriented, but the differences between individual students are larger than differences caused by variations of the discourse in the lectures.

  • 8669.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Students' summaries of mathematical lectures: Comparing the discourse of students with the discourse of lectures2012In: Mathematics Education: Expanding Horizons. Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia / [ed] J. Dindyal, L. P. Cheng & S. F. Ng, Singapore: MERGA , 2012, p. 578-585Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on a distinction between process- and object-oriented discourses when characterising the discourse of university students' summaries of lectures and examining connections between students' discourse and the discourse of lectures. Results show that students' discourse in general tends to be process-oriented, by their use of active verbs and little use of nominalisations. Students' summaries of process-oriented lectures also tend to be more process-oriented, but the differences between individual students are larger than differences caused by variations of the discourse in the lectures.

  • 8670.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    The ontology of beliefs from a cognitive perspective2010In: Proceedings of the conference MAVI-15: Ongoing research on beliefs in mathematics education, September 8-11, 2009, Genoa, Italy / [ed] F. Furinghetti & F. Morselli, Genoa: Department of Mathematics, University of Genoa , 2010, p. 35-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to refine existing theories of beliefs, attention is given to the ontology of beliefs, in particular how a belief can be seen as a mental object or a mental process. The analysis focuses on some central aspects of beliefs; unconsciousness, context­ualization, and creation and change of beliefs, but also relates to research metho­dology. Through the analysis, the creation of belief is highlighted as a central aspect for more in-depth theories of beliefs. The outline of a theoretical framework is described – a framework that has the benefit of creating a coherent integration of all different aspects discussed, and which can also be used as a framework when designing and analyzing methods for empirical research.

  • 8671.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    The ontology of beliefs from a cognitive perspective2010In: Proceedings of the conference MAVI-15: Ongoing research on beliefs in mathematics education, September 8-11, 2009, Genoa, Italy / [ed] F. Furinghetti & F. Morselli, Genoa: Department of Mathematics, University of Genoa , 2010, p. 35-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to refine existing theories of beliefs, attention is given to the ontology of beliefs, in particular how a belief can be seen as a mental object or a mental process. The analysis focuses on some central aspects of beliefs; unconsciousness, context­ualization, and creation and change of beliefs, but also relates to research metho­dology. Through the analysis, the creation of belief is highlighted as a central aspect for more in-depth theories of beliefs. The outline of a theoretical framework is described – a framework that has the benefit of creating a coherent integration of all different aspects discussed, and which can also be used as a framework when designing and analyzing methods for empirical research.

  • 8672.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    The role of mathematical competencies in curriculum documents in different countries2018In: Perspectives on professional development of mathematics teachers: Proceedings of MADIF 11, The eleventh research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education, Karlstad, January 23–24, 2018 / [ed] Johan Häggström, Yvonne Liljekvist, Jonas Bergman Ärlebäck, Maria Fahlgren, Oduor Olande, Karlstad: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF, 2018, p. 131-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inclusion of competencies in curriculum documents can be seen as an international reform movement in mathematics education. The purpose of this study is to understand which role mathematical competencies have in curriculum documents in different countries, with a focus on the relationship between competencies and content. Curriculum documents from 11 different countries were analysed. The results reveal three different themes of variation, concerning if the competencies are specific to mathematics, if competencies are described as learning goals, and if such learning goals are differentiated between grade levels.

  • 8673.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    The role of theory when studying epistemological characterizations of mathematics lecture(r)s2012In: The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast, ISSN 1551-3440, E-ISSN 1551-3440, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 431-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presented in this paper is a contribution to the scientific discussion about the role and use of theory in mathematics education research. In particular, focus is here on the use of and comparison between different types of theories and frameworks, which is discussed primarily through the example of an empirical study examining what types of messages about mathematics are conveyed in lectures. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how different types of theories and frameworks can affect different parts of the research process.

  • 8674.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    The role of theory when studying epistemological characterizations of mathematics lecture(r)s2012In: The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast, ISSN 1551-3440, E-ISSN 1551-3440, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 431-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presented in this paper is a contribution to the scientific discussion about the role and use of theory in mathematics education research. In particular, focus is here on the use of and comparison between different types of theories and frameworks, which is discussed primarily through the example of an empirical study examining what types of messages about mathematics are conveyed in lectures. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how different types of theories and frameworks can affect different parts of the research process.

  • 8675.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    The roles of prior knowledge when students interpret mathematical texts2010In: The first sourcebook on nordic research in mathematics education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and contributions from Finland / [ed] Bharath Sriraman, Christer Bergsten, Simon Goodchild, Gudbjorg Palsdottir, Bettina Dahl Søndergaard & Lenni Haapasalo, Charlotte, NC, USA: Information Age Publishing , 2010, p. 431-440Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter I examine what roles different types of prior knowledge have in the comprehension process when reading mathematical texts. Through theoretical analyses, three central aspects are highlighted; cognitive structure, cognitive process, and metacognition. For all these three aspects, questions arise regarding relationships between general and content-specific types of prior knowledge. Some empirical studies are described that study these questions.

  • 8676.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    The roles of prior knowledge when students interpret mathematical texts2010In: The first sourcebook on nordic research in mathematics education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and contributions from Finland / [ed] Bharath Sriraman, Christer Bergsten, Simon Goodchild, Gudbjorg Palsdottir, Bettina Dahl Søndergaard & Lenni Haapasalo, Charlotte, NC, USA: Information Age Publishing, 2010, p. 431-440Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter I examine what roles different types of prior knowledge have in the comprehension process when reading mathematical texts. Through theoretical analyses, three central aspects are highlighted; cognitive structure, cognitive process, and metacognition. For all these three aspects, questions arise regarding relationships between general and content-specific types of prior knowledge. Some empirical studies are described that study these questions.

  • 8677.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Matematik, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Theories of epistemological beliefs and communication: A unifying attempt2009In: Proceedings of the 33rd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 2009, p. 4-257-4-264Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to develop more detailed knowledge about possible effects of beliefs in mathematics education, it is suggested that we look more in-depth at more general types of theories. In particular, the study of relations between epistemological beliefs and communication is put forward as a good starting point in this endeavor. Theories of the constructs of epistemological beliefs and communication are analyzed in order to try to create a coherent theoretical foundation for the study of relations between the two constructs. Although some contradictions between theories are found, a type of unification is suggested, building on the theories of episte­mological resources and discursive psychology.

  • 8678.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Mathematics, Technology and Science Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Theories of epistemological beliefs and communication: A unifying attempt2009In: Proceedings of the 33rd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 2009, p. 4-257-4-264Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to develop more detailed knowledge about possible effects of beliefs in mathematics education, it is suggested that we look more in-depth at more general types of theories. In particular, the study of relations between epistemological beliefs and communication is put forward as a good starting point in this endeavor. Theories of the constructs of epistemological beliefs and communication are analyzed in order to try to create a coherent theoretical foundation for the study of relations between the two constructs. Although some contradictions between theories are found, a type of unification is suggested, building on the theories of episte­mological resources and discursive psychology.

  • 8679.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    To translate between different perspectives in belief research: a comparison between two studies2011In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 16, no 1-2, p. 57-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common problem in belief research seems to be a missing link between aspects of theory and empirical analyses and results. This issue highlights a question of how dependent empirical studies about beliefs actually are on the theoretical perspective described in the study. In this paper, I examine relationships between two different perspectives. One perspective focuses on belief change, and seems to rely on a type of cognitive perspective, where beliefs can be characterized as mental objects. The other perspective argues for moving away from such cognitive perspective and instead to adopt a participatory perspective in the analysis of mathematics teaching. The results show that the study about belief change is not dependent on seeing beliefs as mental objects, but that this study could as well have been located within a participatory perspective.

  • 8680.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    To translate between different perspectives in belief research: a comparison between two studies2011In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 16, no 1-2, p. 57-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common problem in belief research seems to be a missing link between aspects of theory and empirical analyses and results. This issue highlights a question of how dependent empirical studies about beliefs actually are on the theoretical perspective described in the study. In this paper, I examine relationships between two different perspectives. One perspective focuses on belief change, and seems to rely on a type of cognitive perspective, where beliefs can be characterized as mental objects. The other perspective argues for moving away from such cognitive perspective and instead to adopt a participatory perspective in the analysis of mathematics teaching. The results show that the study about belief change is not dependent on seeing beliefs as mental objects, but that this study could as well have been located within a participatory perspective.

  • 8681.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    What is the basis for self-assessment of comprehension when reading mathematical expository texts?2015In: Reading Psychology, ISSN 0270-2711, E-ISSN 1521-0685, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 673-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to characterize students’ self-assessments when reading mathematical texts, in particular regarding what students use as a basis for evaluations of their own reading comprehension. A total of 91 students read two mathematical texts, and for each text they performed a self-assessment of their comprehension and completed a test of reading comprehension. Students’ self-assessments were to a less degree based on their comprehension of the specific text read, but more based on prior experiences. However, the study also produced different results for different types of texts and when focusing on different aspects of reading comprehension.

  • 8682.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    What is the basis for self-assessment of comprehension when reading mathematical expository texts?2015In: Reading Psychology, ISSN 0270-2711, E-ISSN 1521-0685, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 673-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to characterize students’ self-assessments when reading mathematical texts, in particular regarding what students use as a basis for evaluations of their own reading comprehension. A total of 91 students read two mathematical texts, and for each text they performed a self-assessment of their comprehension and completed a test of reading comprehension. Students’ self-assessments were to a less degree based on their comprehension of the specific text read, but more based on prior experiences. However, the study also produced different results for different types of texts and when focusing on different aspects of reading comprehension.

  • 8683.
    Österholm, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå universitet, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Methodological issues when studying the relationship between reading and solving mathematical tasks2012In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 5-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine four statistical methods used for characterizing mathematical test items regarding their demands of reading ability. These methods rely on data of students' performance on test items regarding mathematics and reading and include the use of regression analysis, factor analysis and different uses of correlation coefficients. Our investigation of these methods focuses on aspects of validity and reliability, using data from PISA 2003 and 2006. The results show that the method using factor analysis has the best properties when taking into account aspects of both validity and reliability.

  • 8684.
    Österholm, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Methodological issues when studying the relationship between reading and solving mathematical tasks2012In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 5-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine four statistical methods used for characterizing mathematical test items regarding their demands of reading ability. These methods rely on data of students' performance on test items regarding mathematics and reading and include the use of regression analysis, factor analysis and different uses of correlation coefficients. Our investigation of these methods focuses on aspects of validity and reliability, using data from PISA 2003 and 2006. The results show that the method using factor analysis has the best properties when taking into account aspects of both validity and reliability.

  • 8685.
    Österholm, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå universitet, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    What is so special about mathematical texts?: Analyses of common claims in research literature and of properties of textbooks2013In: ZDM - the International Journal on Mathematics Education, ISSN 1863-9690, E-ISSN 1863-9704, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 751-763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study surveys claims in research articles regarding linguistic properties of mathematical texts, focusing on claims supported by empirical or logical arguments. It also performs a linguistic analysis to determine whether some of these claims are valid for school textbooks in mathematics and history. The result of the survey shows many and varying claims that mainly describe mathematical texts as highly compact, precise, complex, and containing technical vocabulary. However, very few studies present empirical support for their claims, and the few empirical studies that do exist contradict the most common, and unsupported, claims, since no empirical study has shown mathematical texts to be more complex than texts from other subjects, and any significant differences rather indicate the opposite. The linguistic analysis in this study is in line with previous empirical studies and stands in contrast to the more common opinion in the unsupported claims. For example, the mathematics textbooks have significantly shorter sentences than the history textbooks.

  • 8686.
    Österholm, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    What is so special about mathematical texts?: Analyses of common claims in research literature and of properties of textbooks2013In: ZDM - the International Journal on Mathematics Education, ISSN 1863-9690, E-ISSN 1863-9704, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 751-763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study surveys claims in research articles regarding linguistic properties of mathematical texts, focusing on claims supported by empirical or logical arguments. It also performs a linguistic analysis to determine whether some of these claims are valid for school textbooks in mathematics and history. The result of the survey shows many and varying claims that mainly describe mathematical texts as highly compact, precise, complex, and containing technical vocabulary. However, very few studies present empirical support for their claims, and the few empirical studies that do exist contradict the most common, and unsupported, claims, since no empirical study has shown mathematical texts to be more complex than texts from other subjects, and any significant differences rather indicate the opposite. The linguistic analysis in this study is in line with previous empirical studies and stands in contrast to the more common opinion in the unsupported claims. For example, the mathematics textbooks have significantly shorter sentences than the history textbooks.

  • 8687.
    Österholm, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå universitet, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    What mathematical task properties can cause an unnecessary demand of reading ability?2012In: Proceedings of Norma 11, The Sixth Nordic Conference on Mathematics Education in Reykjavík, May 11-14, 2011 / [ed] G. H. Gunnarsdóttir, F. Hreinsdóttir, G. Pálsdóttir, M. Hannula, M. Hannula-Sormunen, E. Jablonka, U. T. Jankvist, A. Ryve, P. Valero & K. Wæge, Reykjavík, Iceland: University of Iceland Press , 2012, p. 661-670Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we utilize results from Swedish students in PISA 2003 and 2006 to examine what types of task properties predict the demand of reading ability of a task. In particular, readability properties (sentence length, word length, common words, and information density) and task type properties (content, competence, and format) are examined. The results show that it is primarily readability properties of a task that predict the task’s demand of reading ability, in particular word length and to some extent information density (measured through the noun-verb quotient).

  • 8688.
    Österholm, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    What mathematical task properties can cause an unnecessary demand of reading ability?2012In: Proceedings of Norma 11, The Sixth Nordic Conference on Mathematics Education in Reykjavík, May 11-14, 2011 / [ed] G. H. Gunnarsdóttir, F. Hreinsdóttir, G. Pálsdóttir, M. Hannula, M. Hannula-Sormunen, E. Jablonka, U. T. Jankvist, A. Ryve, P. Valero & K. Wæge, Reykjavík, Iceland: University of Iceland Press, 2012, p. 661-670Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we utilize results from Swedish students in PISA 2003 and 2006 to examine what types of task properties predict the demand of reading ability of a task. In particular, readability properties (sentence length, word length, common words, and information density) and task type properties (content, competence, and format) are examined. The results show that it is primarily readability properties of a task that predict the task’s demand of reading ability, in particular word length and to some extent information density (measured through the noun-verb quotient).

  • 8689.
    Österholm, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    The study of difficult vocabulary in mathematics tasks: a framework and a literature reviewManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the methodology of research on difficult vocabulary in mathematics tasks. The contribution consists of a framework for the study of difficult vocabulary in mathematics tasks and a literature review of empirical research in the area. The framework includes five main aspects of word difficulty that have been examined in empirical studies and discuss these in the light of theories on reading comprehension. In addition, methodological issues are presented in relation to each main aspect. The literature review examines both methodological aspects of 36 reviewed articles, and synthesizes results on difficult vocabulary. The literature review shows that a commonly used method—to study several word aspects together—is very unfortunate from the perspective of building accumulative knowledge about difficult vocabulary in mathematics tasks. The only well-supported conclusion possible to draw from the synthesis of results from the empirical studies, is that some word aspects are not related to task difficulty.

  • 8690.
    Österholm, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstads universitet & Uppsala universitet.
    van Bommel, Jorryt
    Karlstads universitet.
    Utvärdering av Matematiklyftets resultat: slutrapport2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8691.
    Österholm, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Mittuniversitetet.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstads universitet & Uppsala universitet.
    van Bommel, Jorryt
    Karlstads universitet.
    Utvärdering av Matematiklyftets resultat: slutrapport2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8692.
    Österholm, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Uppsala universitet.
    van Bommel, Jorryt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Utvärdering av Matematiklyftets resultat: slutrapport2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Matematiklyftet är en fortbildning för alla lärare i Sverige som undervisar i matematik. Den genomfördes 2012-2016. Kärnan i fortbildningen var det kollegiala lärandet. Lärare arbetade tillsammans med olika moduler som var och en bestod av didaktiskt material att använda vid planering, diskuss-ioner och genomförande av matematikundervisning, samt vid kollegiala reflektioner och diskussioner. Genom modulerna belystes primärt fyra olika didaktiska perspektiv: (1) att undervisa matematik utifrån förmågorna, (2) bedömning för lärande och undervisning i matematik, dvs. formativ bedömning, (3) rutiner/interaktioner i klassrummet och (4) klassrumsnormer/sociomatematiska normer.

    Denna rapport presenterar en utvärdering av Matematiklyftets resultat där det undersökts i vilken utsträckning Matematiklyftet har bidragit till att utveckla en bestående undervisningskultur och en bestående fortbildningskultur. Utvärderingen syftar också till att identifiera faktorer som gynnar eller missgynnar Matematiklyftets resultat och ska även fungera både formativt och summativt. Det innebär att både slutsatser om hur Matematiklyftet har uppnått målen att utveckla undervisnings- och fortbildningskulturen och slutsatser om hur stöd till planeringar och genomförande av liknande fort-bildningssatsningar formuleras. Urvalet i utvärderingen består av 35 grund-och gymnasieskolor. På varje skola har tre lärare slumpmässigt valts ut att ingå i utvärderingen, dvs. totalt 105 lärare. I utvärderingen ingår också varje skolas rektor och representant för skolhuvudman. Skolorna har besökts vid två tillfällen för att kunna undersöka förändring i undervisnings- och fortbildningskultur. Datamaterialet består av observationer av matematiklektioner och av kollegiala samtal, intervjuer och enkäter med lärare och rektorer, samt intervjuer med representanter för skolhuvudmän. I datamaterialet ingår även insamlade dokument (t.ex. fortbildningsplaner och kopior av undervisningsmaterial) och bakgrundsinformation om de besökta skolorna (från externa databaser). Denna rapport utgör slutrapporten för utvärderingen av Matematiklyftets resultat. Nedan redovisas utvärderingens huvudsakliga resultat tillsammans med rekommendationer inför framtida fortbildningssatsningar av samma typ som Matematiklyftet.

  • 8693.
    Österlind, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Drama i skolan – lärare och dramapedagoger i samverkan2017In: Book of abstract, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2017, p. 4-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad händer när lärare i grundskolan samarbetar över längre tid med dramapedagoger från kulturskolan? Vilka förväntningar och farhågor finns inför det långsiktiga samarbetet? Hur upplevs drama i skolan av respektive yrkeskategori? Sker ett ömsesidigt, kollegialt lärande? I vilken grad bidrar mötet mellan olika professioner till att medverkande dramapedagoger och lärare ’tvingas’ formulera sig, och därmed till verbalisering av deras tysta kunskap?

    Projektet som ligger till grund för studien genomfördes under ett läsår i en låg- och mellan-stadieskola. Dramapedagoger och klasslärare arbetade tillsammans i stort sett varje vecka, med den övergripande målsättningen att stärka elevernas lek, kreativitet, samarbete och språk.

    Olika typer av datainsamling gjordes inom ramen för projektet, men här redovisas endast en mindre del knuten till yrkesutövarna. Lärare och dramapedagoger besvarade enkäter i början och slutet av projektperioden, samt intervjuades individuellt. 

    Drama är inget ämne i svensk skola, och det finns formellt sett inga ’dramalärare’ i Sverige. Flertalet verksamma lärare har mycket begränsad kunskap om drama. Dramapedagoger saknar vanligtvis lärarutbildning och arbetar i regel utanför skolan, i mer informella lärandesituationer där deltagande är frivilligt. Det finns alltså anledning att undersöka om och hur ett långsiktigt samarbete mellan representanter för dessa yrkesgrupper kan innebära ökad förståelse för varandras kompetens. En möjlig konsekvens av ett sådant samarbete är ett behov att formulera vad man annars tenderar att ta för givet, vilket innebär att tyst kunskap blir explicit. Resultat från den preliminära analysen av enkäter och intervjuer kommer att presenteras, med fokus på de båda yrkeskategoriernas förväntningar, erfarenheter och lärande under processens gång. Hur kan dramapedagogen dela med sig av sin dramakompetens till läraren? Hur kan läraren skapa förståelse för skolans villkor hos dramapedagogen?

  • 8694.
    Österlind, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Estetiska inslag - vacker väv eller tappade trådar?2012In: Uttryck: lärande, estetik, kommunikation, ISSN 2001-4090, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 48-49Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8695.
    Österling, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    To Survey what Students Value in Mathematics Learning: Translation and adaptation to Swedish language and context of an international survey, focusing on what students find important in mathematics learning.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 8696.
    Österling, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Andersson, Annica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Measuring Immesurable Values2013In: Proceedings of the 37th conference of the international group for the psychology of mathematics education (PME), vol 2 / [ed] Lindmeier, A. M. & Heinze, A., PME , 2013, p. 17-24Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8697.
    Österlund, Lise-Lotte
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics Technology and Science Education.
    Ekborg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics Technology and Science Education.
    Students’ understanding of redox reactions in three situations2009In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 115-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Redox models that explain electrochemical issues have been found to be difficult to teach and to learn. The aim of this study was to investigate students’ reasoning about redox reactions in three situations, how they used the activity series of metals and if they transferred knowledge between domains. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with ten students on two different occasions and dealt with three situations 1) a laboratory practical on corrosion; 2) a demonstration of zinc and copper sulphate solution; and 3) a corroded sculpture. The results indicated that the electron model was fundamental and reinforced. The identification of the reducing agent in the situations was unproblematic. The students’ conceptions regarding the oxidizing agent varied and diverged from the scientific model in some situations. Depending on the situation, the activity series of metal became a tool as well as an obstacle. Some transfer of knowledge between the classroom and the outdoor situation was indicated.

  • 8698.
    Österlund, Maria
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Kokkola, Lydia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Celebrating the Margins: Families and Gender in the Work of the Swedish Picturebook Artist Pija Lindenbaum2014In: Bookbird: A Journal of International Children's Literature, ISSN 0006-7377, E-ISSN 1918-6983, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 77-82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8699.
    Österman, Tove
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Logic and Metaphysics.
    Bråting, Kajsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Dewey and mathematical practice: revisiting the distinction between procedural and conceptual knowledge2019In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We identify a recent trend in school mathematics as well as in some of the research literature in mathematics education: an emphasis on the practical uses of mathematics and an increased emphasis on verbalizations as opposed to numerical and computational skills. With tools provided by John Dewey, an early advocate of contextual and practical knowledge, we analyse the common research framework for discussing mathematical knowledge in terms of the procedural and the conceptual. We argue that procedural and conceptual knowledge should not be seen as opposites, and that the tendency to treat them as such might be avoided by emphasising the notion of operational skill. We argue that this is important in order for the students to gain both the contextual knowledge and the computational skill entailed in mathematical knowledge.

  • 8700.
    Östling, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Att arbeta med musik i förskolan: En enkät- och intervjustudie om musik som ett didaktiskt verktyg för lärande2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Music is not mentioned to a large extent in the curriculum for Swedish preschools (National Agency, 2016). Preschool teachers don’t have any guidelines to relate to in their planning and implementation of music activities. This creates a complexity when working with music. Because of this further knowledge is needed in this area and that is why this study aims to illustrate didactic considerations in the planning and implementation of music activities in the preschool. This can further lead to inspire others to implement music in the preschool. The study looks closer at how music is valued and used as a didactic learning tool. This is done with the help of a questionnaire aimed at active preschool teachers (30 participants) and one interview. The study has a didactic perspective as a theoretical starting point and the results are analyzed and connected to the didactic triangle (Wahlström, 2015) and the didactic questions what, why and how (Ferm Thorgersen, 2012).

     

    The result determines that music is a legitimate tool for developing children’s knowledge in several areas for example language, mathematics, science and movement. The result illustrates didactic considerations, how music activities are formed and the priority when planning and implementing music activities. The study also illustrates different ways of working with music and the preschool teachers relation to music. By contributing with new knowledge the study can therefore make it easier for others to work with music together with children in the preschool. If there are clear goals for learning and the activity is characterized by children’s influence can this lead to rewarding and fun music activities in the preschool.

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  • asciidoc
  • rtf