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  • 851.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    "Not one word of it made any sense": Hyperbolic Synecdoche in the British National Corpus2016In: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1654-6970, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A distinct metonymic pattern was discovered in the course of conducting a corpus-based study of figurative uses of WORD. The pattern involved examples such as Not one word of it made any sense and I agree with every word. It was labelled ‘hyperbolic synecdoche’, defined as a case in which a lexeme which typically refers to part of an entity (a) is used to stand for the whole entity and (b) is described with reference to the end point on a scale. Specifically, the speaker/writer selects the perspective of a lower-level unit (such as word for ‘utterance’), which is quantified as NOTHING or ALL, thus forming a subset of ‘extreme case formulations’. Hyperbolic synecdoche was found to exhibit a restricted range of lexicogrammatical patterns involving word, with the negated NOTHING patterns being considerably more common than the ALL patterns. The phenomenon was shown to be common in metonymic uses in general, constituting one-fifth of all cases of metonymy in word. The examples of hyperbolic synecdoche were found not to be covered by the oftquoted ‘abbreviation’ rationale for metonymy; instead, they represent a more roundabout way of expression. It is shown that other cases of hyperbolic synecdoche exist outside of word and the domain of communication (such as ‘time’ and ‘money’).

  • 852.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Pragmatics of discourse2016In: Discourse Studies, ISSN 1461-4456, E-ISSN 1461-7080, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 223-226Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 853.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, English.
    Qualitative analysis of overuse, underuse and equal use in learner corpus research: Learner writing and the textual distribution and rhetorical moves of a linguistic pattern [invited talk]2013Other (Other academic)
  • 854.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Remember that your reader cannot read your mind: Problem/solution-oriented metadiscourse in teacher feedback on student writing2017In: English for specific purposes (New York, N.Y.), ISSN 0889-4906, E-ISSN 1873-1937, Vol. 45, p. 54-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feedback on student writing is a common type of discourse to which university teachers dedicate much time. A pilot corpus of feedback—40,000 words representing five teachers’ comments on 375 student texts—was investigated for metadiscourse, defined as reflexive expressions referring to the evolving discourse, the writer-speaker, or the audience. The overarching question concerned how visible the writer, reader and current text were. To help determine how the feedback data may be unique, comparisons were made to previous studies investigating metadiscourse in other types of academic discourse, both written (university student proficient L1 writing and university student L2 writing) and spoken (university lectures). The feedback data had considerably higher proportions of metadiscourse and the overall frequency of metadiscourse was exceptionally high. The student reader (‘you’) was considerably more visible than the teacher writer giving feedback (‘I’). The material involved large quantities of references to the text, e.g. ‘here’ used to indicate trouble spots. Previously studied data have resulted in a view of metadiscourse as prototypically discourse-organising, but the metadiscourse in feedback is instead problem/solution-oriented, serving the metalinguistic function and aiming to solve communication problems. The findings have led to a revision of the model of metadiscourse in which the roles of the writer, audience and text are multidimensional rather than one-dimensional. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  • 855.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Review of Egan, Thomas and Dirdal, Hildegunn (eds). 2017. Cross-linguistic Correspondences: From Lexis to Genre2018In: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1654-6970, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 247-254Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 856.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Review of Salazar, Danica. Lexical Bundles in Native and Non-native Scientific Writing: Applying a Corpus-Based Study to Language Teaching2016In: International Journal of Learner Corpus Research, ISSN 2215-1478, E-ISSN 2215-1486, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 125-129Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 857.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Selecting quantitative data for qualitative analysis: a case study connecting a lexicogrammatical pattern to rhetorical moves2014In: Journal of English for Academic Purposes, ISSN 1475-1585, E-ISSN 1878-1497, Vol. 16, p. 68-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learner corpus research involves studying large collections of data to achieve a certain degree of representativeness, which means that it is often not doable to examine a full set of data qualitatively. An important issue, then, is how to select a subset for further qualitative analysis. This study illustrates a selection method, taking quantitative results as a starting-point, for a qualitative study of a lexicogrammatical pattern. Three configurations are examined, involving not only statistically significant differences (overuse and under-use), but also similarities (equal use). What is studied is the anticipatory it pattern ("It is however important to interpret these findings with caution") in apprentice writing in linguistics by learners and native speakers of English. The method yielded 463 tokens in 62 learner and 82 native-speaker essays. The research questions were (i) What are the connections between the selected subpatterns of anticipatory it and specific rhetorical moves? and (ii) Are there indications of learner behaviour in the connections between subpatterns and rhetorical moves? Most subpatterns were found to be specialised for a few moves. The two groups mostly used the subpatterns for the same rhetorical work, but the learners used important and clear subpatterns for a greater range of moves. 

  • 858.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, English.
    The latest word on figurative language: Metonymy trumps metaphor in the domain of communication2012In: SLE 2012. Stockholm University. Book of abstracts, 2012, p. 6-6Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 859.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, English.
    There’s not a penny in your pocket, but we believe every single word you say: The extremes of hyperbolic synecdoche in the domains of money and language2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 860.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Variability in learner corpora2015In: Cambridge Handbook of Learner Corpus Research / [ed] Granger, S., Gilquin, G., Meunier, F., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corpora and corpus-based methods can make a contribution to the study of variability in learner language for two main reasons. One reason is that the study of linguistic variation itself is particularly amenable to quantitative and corpus-based analysis. The corpus, especially when used in combination with metadata about the learners represented and about the situation in which the language was produced, enables the researcher to quantify and compare data in systematic ways. The quantitative corpus results can then be used to verify or falsify claims made in the second language acquisition (SLA) literature or to generate new hypotheses about learner language. Another reason is that the focus on naturally occurring language in corpus work means that the types of learner data studied represent authentic language use. There is much experimental work in SLA, which means that the language analysed is produced in an experimental setting (such as a laboratory), typically solely for the express purpose of linguistic analysis. While there are many good reasons for the experimental elicitation of linguistic data – the complexity of language use is reduced; the language production and variables potentially affecting it can be controlled; the likelihood of capturing relevant types of linguistic output can be maximised – it is also the case that such data simply do not represent the full gamut of authentic language use. Almost inevitably, researchers who study learner corpus data will encounter linguistic variability and will need to account for it. Learner corpus research has paid a great deal of attention to the influence of the mother-tongue background on learner language (see Chapter 15, this volume), but it has tended to neglect other factors that may exert an influence and that may serve to account for some of the variability attested in learner corpora. This chapter will discuss some of these alternative factors and demonstrate how important they can be in language production in general and in foreign/second language production in particular. 2 Core issues Language is not a static phenomenon, but rather varies – sometimes considerably – depending on why it is used, where it is used, by whom it is used, and so on.

  • 861.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Variation in Metadiscursive “You” Across Genres:: From Research Articles to Teacher Feedback2018In: Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, ISSN 2630-5984, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 777-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes the theme of metadiscourse across genres as a point of departure. To illustrate variation in the use of metadiscourse, reflexive uses of second person “you” are examined in different genres and discourse types, all of which represent academic discourse. The material includes university lectures, research articles, advanced university student essays and teacher feedback on student writing. The data is analysed both quantitatively, taking frequency into consideration, and qualitatively, taking discourse function into consideration. The extended units in which “you” occurs are compared across genres and discourse types to highlight the considerable variability of metadiscursive uses. One of the implications of the variation found— which was brought to the fore especially through the study of teacher feedback—is that our conceptualisations of metadiscourse are overly influenced by the type of data that have been in focus in research to date: highly visible written genres at the highly monologic end of the continuum. The metadiscourse in teacher feedback was found to be primarily about solving communication problems rather than organising the discourse and telling the reader how to respond to it. In fact, the feedback material is congruous with Roman Jakobson’s original conceptualisation of the metalinguistic function as solving communication problems.

  • 862.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    "What I want you to remember is…": Audience orientation in monologic academic discourse2014In: Intersubjectivity and Intersubjectification in Grammar and Discourse: Theoretical and descriptive advances / [ed] Brems, Lieselotte, Lobke Ghesquière & Freek Van de Velde, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, p. 101-127Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 863.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    "What I want you to remember is…": Audience orientation in monologic academic genres2012In: English Text Construction, ISSN 1874-8767, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 101-120Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 864.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Writer/reader visibility in research articles:: Variability across language, regional variety, discipline and gender2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Writer/reader visibility in research articles has been studied contrastively between English and other languages (e.g. Dahl 2004; Pérez Llantada 2010; Sanderson 2008; Vassileva 1998). This study considers several variables potentially affecting discourse patterns: language culture (English; Swedish), regional variety (British; American English), discipline (History; Linguistics; Literary Studies) and gender. The phenomenon studied is metadiscourse, defined as reflexive linguistic expressions referring to the evolving discourse itself, including references to the writer-speaker and the audience of the current discourse (Ädel 2006). The study is based on a 1.6 million word corpus of single-authored research articles. The English-language material consists of 96 and the Swedish material 70 articles. All three disciplines are represented in the English material, but the Swedish material presently includes only Linguistics. The findings include first and second person pronouns used metadiscursively. Nouns referring to the writer/reader were also studied and found to be marginal. Second-person pronouns occur rarely in the English and never in the Swedish material. First-person pronoun use exhibits considerable variation: occurrences of ‘I’ range from 1-28 and ‘we’ from 0.5-32 per 10,000 words. There are disciplinary trends in the English data, with an average of 15 occurrences/article in Linguistics, 11 in Literary Studies and 3 in History, following the same order as in Sanderson (2008). The results for regional variety are similar, with the exception of ‘we’, used considerably more often by the British authors. No major differences based on gender were found, in contrast to Sanderson (2008). In the Swedish material, ‘I’ is almost twice as frequent as ‘we’, which makes it dissimilar to both the British data where ‘we’ predominates and the US data where the distribution is even. The talk closes with a discussion of multivariate statistics, consistency in findings and research design in this type of research on scholarly writing practices.

     

    References

    Ädel, A. (2006). Metadiscourse in L1 and L2 English. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

    Dahl, T. (2004). Textual metadiscourse in research articles: A marker of national culture or of academic discipline? Journal of Pragmatics, 36(10), 1807–1825.

    Pérez-Llantada, C. (2010). The discourse functions of metadiscourse in published academic writing: Issues of culture and language. In Ädel, A. & A. Mauranen (Eds.) Nordic

    Journal of English Studies, 9(2), 41–68.

    Sanderson, T. (2008). Corpus, Culture, Discourse. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.

    Vassileva, I. (1998). Who am I/who are we in academic writing?: A contrastive analysis of authorial presence in English, German, French, Russian and Bulgarian. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8(2).

  • 865.
    Ädel, Annelie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, English.
    Carrio-Pastor, María Luisa
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Seminar on “Technology implementation in second language teaching”2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 866.
    Ädel, Annelie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Nyström Höög, Catharina
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish.
    "Rädda, larma, släck" eller "stå kvar och tryck på knappen"?: Språkvetenskapliga perspektiv på brandskyddsinformation2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samtidens diskussioner handlar mycket om resurser och resursutnyttjande. Det forskningsprojekt som skisseras här är en strävan att i en mångvetenskaplig forskningsmiljö ta vara på den resurs som språkvetenskaplig kompetens innebär. Sommarens skogsbränder, inte minst i våra egna hemtrakter, har gett upphov till en diskussion om brand och säkerhet och inspirerade oss till att inventera den brandskyddsinformation som finns i vår omedelbara närhet, och utifrån den diskutera hur det kommunikativa förloppet kring brandskyddsinformation ser ut, och hur vi som språkvetare skulle kunna bidra till att vår förberedelse inför det som ”inte ska inträffa” kan bli så bra som möjligt.

    Projektets övergripande ärende är att öka förståelsen av vad ett språkvetenskapligt perspektiv kan tillföra till arbete med brandsäkerhet och utrymning. I den upptaktsfas där projektet befinner sig har vi samlat ett material av utrymningsskyltar och brandinstruktioner inom Högskolan Dalarnas väggar. Skyltarna är antingen monomodalt visuella eller multimodala genom att bygga på både visuella och verbala resurser (jfr Forceville & Kjeldsen 2018). I en explorativ analys kombinerar vi erfarenheter från klarspråksforskning och multimodal analys för att identifiera möjliga läsningar och begriplighetsproblem i materialet.

    Ett drag som gör den här typen av texter intressant är att det verkar viktigare att de finns, än att de läses och förstås. Det gör att utrymningsanvisningarna påminner både om sådana texter som måste finnas i organisatoriska kontexter, värdegrunder och andra policydokument, och om andra säkerhetstexter där förekomst är viktigare än reception, såsom säkerhetsgenomgångar på flygplan. Det saknas en precis terminologi för att ringa in den här ”rituella” funktionen hos texter, och där kan projektet lämna ett viktigt bidrag.

    I nästa steg planerar vi att anordna fokusgruppssamtal för att komma i kontakt med den specialistkultur som präglar produktionen av skyltar och anslag och för att kontrastera lekmäns förståelse av utrymningsinformation mot specialisters.

  • 867.
    Ädel, Annelie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, English.
    Swales, John
    University of Michigan.
    Narratives of nature in English and Swedish: Butterfly books and the case of Argynnis paphia2013In: Of butterflies and birds, of dialects and genres: Essays in honour of Philip Shaw / [ed] Melchers, G., N.-L. Johannesson & B. Björkman, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2013, p. 17-34Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 868.
    Åhman Billing, Tina
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    The Female Protagonists in Thackeray’s Vanity Fair: A Corpus Linguistic Study of Keywords, Collocations, and Characterisation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay uses corpus linguistic methods to study aspects of the novel Vanity Fair by W M Thackeray. The aim is to study the way Thackeray chose to describe his two female protagonists, Rebecca Sharp and Amelia Sedley. This is accomplished by a closer study of keywords in Vanity Fair, created by using a reference corpus consisting of thirteen novels by Victorian authors. These keywords are used to define semantic fields related to the novel. Keywords from the semantic field closest to the protagonists are studied in context. In addition, adjectives that collocate with the names of the protagonists are analyzed to compare the characterization of each woman. The study indicates that Thackeray has used fewer adjectives to describe Amelia than Rebecca, but that he has used these more frequently, which may cause readers to form a stronger mental picture of Amelia’s character sooner than they do for Rebecca’s.

  • 869.
    Åkerwall, Therese
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Neutrality in political interviews: A conversational analysis focusing on the expected neutrality provided by the interviewer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine the norms of conversational behaviour expected by a journalist in political interviews and the ability to maintain objectivity or not, depending on the interaction with the political participants. The data is a transcript from a political interview in the US featuring a senior journalist and three political participants belonging to various political parties. The transcript will be analysed through conversational analysis to study the sequential patterns and content to discover non-neutral actions by the interviewer.

  • 870.
    Öhqvist, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Comparison of Authentic and Simplified Texts: A case study of Wuthering Heights 2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to explore in what way Graded Readers are different from authentic texts against the background of English as a Second Language (ESL) and the use of authentic and simplified text in ESL teaching. The material used for this purpose is the authentic text of Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë and two upper-intermediate Graded Readers from two different publishers. The study uses the software readability-score and manual analysis to examine the texts with regards to lexical choice, language structure and story. The study showed that the Graded Readers are simplified in all aspects studied. Moreover, the Graded Readers differ from each other as well, most notably in the style of the text due to sentence structure and story simplification. This could imply that different authors of Graded Readers adopt different styles when simplifying text and that the grading levels are not comparable between different publishers.

  • 871.
    Öhrn, Petra
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Exclusive Magic: A Postmodern Analysis of Inclusion/Exclusion of the Other in the Harry Potter-series2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 872.
    Östman, Klara
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Neutral or not?: A study of gender (in)equality in the use of professional terms in English.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Jenny Cheshire, current editor in chief of

    Language in Society, stated that there is a bias of masculine terms and referents in the English language (1985, p. 22). This poses a problem, both linguistically and socially, and conscious language reforms need to be imposed in order for the bias to drastically be countered (1985, p. 22). In the past decades, gender-neutral terms, such as chairperson has been gaining ground in English, particularly in business discourse, and are contributing to create a more gender-neutral language. According to Cheshire (2008), media discourse is enormously influential (p.9) in the way we communicate, and this study investigates patterns in the use of chairperson and salesperson, as well as historically male professions priest and manager and female professions nurse and secretary. The data for this study is taken from the TIME Magazine Corpus. The results of this study show that masculine gender collocates appear commonly with the historically female professions and conversely for the historically male professions which appear more often with feminine collocates. Furthermore, through analysis of 1,000 instances of the terms in the corpus, it is noted that there are differences as to how the professions are connected with other words as well. Sexuality, nationality and physicality are ways in which the collocates of the terms differ. It is noted that, over time, there have been both increases and decreases in how gender collocates appear with the terms and that the frequency in usage of the feminine, masculine and gender-neutral terms have all been noted to vary in usage over the past century in the selected discourse.

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