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  • 851.
    Wall-Reinius, Sandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Olausson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Ankre, Rosemarie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Dahlberg, Annika
    Stockholms universitet.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Lundberg, Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Bodén, Bosse
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Undersökning bland besökare i södra Jämtlandsfjällen sommaren 20132015Report (Other academic)
  • 852.
    Wang, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    How do we look on Instagram?: A communication strategy for Swedish branding agencies.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Marketing today is no longer mainly about using traditional medias to reach a desired public. As consumers are moving to the digital world for information search, social media has provided new possibilities for companies to market themselves online. Newly started branding agencies often have a limited budget for marketing, but the need to increase brand awareness is high. In this situation, social media will be a good solution, because it is easy to use, cost effective and has a great range of reach to the desired target group. Instagram is a photo-sharing based app where the communication is done visually, which can be a good choice for branding agencies.

    The purpose of this thesis is to suggest a strategy for Instagram using results from a study of Swedish branding agencies’ use of Instagram, during a period of one year. The empirical study was done using a quantitative content analysis, in combination with an image analysis. A selection of six agencies were used for the two analyses to gain understanding of the research topic. Findings showed that Instagram was mainly used to humanize the agencies’ identity, and at the same time filled a showcasing function. A digital strategy plan was created for a Swedish branding agency called LLC Design. The plan created a total of 62 posts for a period of six months, with four different themes called Vi Värmland, Vi i LLC, Showcase and Kunskap, to deliver diverse content.

  • 853.
    Westerback, Axel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Husic, Sanel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Landsbygdsturismen - destinationsutveckling på landsbygden.2018Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 854.
    Wiandt, Lotta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Bredberg, Pernilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Borta bra eller hemma bästa: En studie om turistens resmönster och motiv2019Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 855.
    Widnemark, Linn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Hur gymnasieelevers världsbild påverkas av erfarenheter från skolans geografiundervisning, egna resande och inflytande från populärkultur2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningens syfte är att ta reda på hur gymnasieelevernas världsbild påverkas av erfarenheterna som erhålls genom det egna resandet, skolans geografiundervisning samt populärkulturens påverkan på elevernas uppfattning av världen. Med hjälp av följande tre frågeställningar har syftet uppfyllts. Vad beskriver eleverna att de lärt sig av skolans geografiundervisning? Hur framträder erfarenheter från egna resor i ungdomars världsbild? På vilket sätt påverkas ungdomars världsbild av inflytandet från populärkultur? 

    Studien kommer delvis använda samt utgå från tidigare forskning som har gjorts inom ämnet för att sedan kombinera detta med en egen kvalitativ studie med semistrukturerade intervjuer som har gjorts med tre gymnasieelever. Resultatet redogörs sedan genom en tematisk analys.

    Tidigare forskning inom geografididaktik påvisar att populärkulturella fenomen som TV, film, populärmusik och internet är viktiga element i elevers lärande. Genom att integrera dessa element i lärandet och klassrummet skapar man förutsättning för lärande genom en teori som kallas kulturpedagogik (Morgan 2010. s. 294). 

    Undersökningens resultat bekräftar likheter med den tidigare forskningen som har gjorts inom ämnet om hur elevernas världsbild och uppfattning om världen påverkas av skolans geografiundervisning, det egna resandet samt populärkulturen. Några av undersökningens resultat visar att ungdomarna har sämre kunskap om länder som media rapporterar mindre om och av svaren framgår också att respondenterna menar att det främst är en negativ bild som massmedia förmedlar om länder i Afrika. Länder och världsdelar som ungdomarna hade mest kunskap om var platser som de bor eller har bott i, semestrat i eller som de mött genom olika populärkulturella element som tv, internet eller sport. 

     

  • 856.
    Wikman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Fernbratt, Elisabeth
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Allmänhetens uppfattning av den värmländska symbolen.2017Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 857.
    Wilkins, Karin
    et al.
    University of Texas at Austin.
    Enghel, Florencia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    The privatization of development through global communication industries:Living Proof?2013In: Media Culture and Society, ISSN 0163-4437, E-ISSN 1460-3675, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 165-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development is meant to alleviate problems in the interests of the public good, yet thegrowing dominance of private donors problematizes this conceptualization. Workingthrough a political-economic analysis of development, we see global communications asan industry that channels wealth from citizens into the hands of few corporate moguls,who then have the resources to assert their agendas in a global development context.We begin by conceptualizing development and social change within communicationstudies, paying attention to the privatization of aid within global capitalism. Next,we contextualize our case study, describing the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundationand ONE, promoted by Bono, as the funding and management settings of the LivingProof campaign. We analyze the initiative’s construction of development problems,its articulation of how communication is expected to work toward social change, andits conceptualizations of success. The dominant theme of Living Proof program is that“real people” have achieved development success, which can be shared as “proof” withwebsite consumers. We conclude by considering how such a framing serves the agenda of privatized development within a neoliberal project.

  • 858.
    Wolf-Watz, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    On Environmental Grounds: Outdoor Recreation, Place Relations and Environmental Sustainability2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the relationship between outdoor recreation and environmental concern as part of the wider issue of environmental sustainability in late-modern societies. It includes studies of environmentalists’ (that is environmentally committed individuals’) preferences and motivations with regard to outdoor recreation, and covers the inquiries of whether and how outdoor recreation can influence levels of environmental concern.

    The questions addressed are how environmentalists engage in outdoor recreation, with what motives, and whether participation in outdoor recreation can influence levels of environmental concern. Empirically, the thesis is based on a mixed methods approach, including analyses of data from a national survey on outdoor recreation and a qualitative case study of the organization Nature and Youth Sweden (Fältbiologerna). Theoretically, it is based on the concepts of place, habitus and field.

    Study results show that environmentally committed individuals favor participation in appreciative activities in areas perceived as pristine, preferably away from urban environments. Motivations refer to these preferences, but also to aspects of discursive context, social identity and social position. These aspects are also found to be crucial regarding the influence of outdoor recreation on environmental concern. Thus, study results also show a lack of support for environmental concern as an automatic outcome of outdoor recreation. It is rather a combination of interconnected conditions referred to as: favorable place relations, adequate outdoor experience and appropriate social context.

    The thesis contributes to new knowledge on the relationships and connections between outdoor recreation and environmental sustainability. While the results are of importance with regard to planning for outdoor recreation and development of nature-based tourism, they are of particular interest for environmental organizations, schools and other institutions working for a more sustainable society.

  • 859.
    Wolf-Watz, Daniel
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Beery, Thomas
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Öhman, Johan
    Örebro universitet, Örebro.
    Friluftsliv och miljöengagemang2013In: Friluftsliv i förändring: resultat från ett forskningsprogram : slutrapport / [ed] Fredman, Peter; Stenseke, Marie; Sandell, Klas & Mossing, Anders, Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket , 2013, p. 145-159Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 860.
    Wrinell, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Den tillfälliga (besöks)platsen – Gillespie Road: En fallstudie om en gata i närheten av en fotbollsarena2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 861.
    Zandbergs, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    "Let's Drink to 1997": The handover of Hong Kong, as seen in Hong Kong cinema 1986-19922015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Taking a look at ten films from the Hong Kong golden age 1986-1992 and how the common themes in these relate to the handover from United Kingdom to China in 1997, this essay investigates this with the use of a thematic analysis as well as with the theories of seeing “cinema as a mirror” and the way that the society and people of Hong Kong as a whole are reflected and identified in these films. From this it can be seen that the handover and themes closely related to it is recurring throughout the films of this period, but also how society and major political events are reflected in cinema.

  • 862.
    Zejnel, Adam
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Frosterus, Anton
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Bakom väggarna i Våxnäs: En kvalitativ studie om hur fysisk utformning påverkar trygghet2018Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The physical design is the foundation of a well functioning society. Urban planning therefore plays an important role in the prevention of segregation. In today's Sweden there are serious difficulties, where the gaps are increasing in more and more cities. Class differences are clearly reflected in society where high income earners choose to settle in places that exclude the less wealthy people. Thus, marginalized areas are created, which are often referred to as more insecure.

    This thesis thus studies how the physical design tends to affect the father's perception of safety, as well as the concerns of their children. The aim of the study is therefore to achieve a deeper understanding, this from an in-depth perspective. In order to study the depth, therefore, qualitative interviews have been conducted with fathers in Våxnäs. With the help of previous and empirical research, the question formulations are examined in order to answer the purpose of the study.

    The study shows that physical factors, such as the condition of the area, lighting and areas without overview, affect the father's and their children's perception of safety. Continuingly, security is also affected by social and socio-economic aspects. Groupages and drugs are common in socio-economically weaker areas, causing concern and insecurity. Thus, this results in the fact that fathers frame restrictions of their children. The study shows that the physical design affects fathers perceptions of the security of Våxnäs. However, the subject is complex, as several aspects of interaction with each other affect the safety as a whole.

  • 863.
    Zineldin, Josef
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Fogelberg, Martina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Magnusson, Walter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Festivalsäkerhet2018Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 864.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Klassen i dialog med omvärlden: Pedagogiska vinster när skolan syns på nätet2013Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 865.
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Gold of Lapland: Turismutveckling - det goda exemplet i Västerbotten2009Report (Other academic)
  • 866.
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013). Umeå universitet.
    Selling a place in the sun: International property mediation as production of lifestyle mobility2012In: Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, ISSN 1303-2917, E-ISSN 2156-6909, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 251-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buying property abroad is not a new phenomenon, but academic research into the complexities of international property mediation is underdeveloped. This paper adopts a wide perspective on lifestyle-driven mobilities, including the semi-permanent relocation of Swedes to warmer destinations in the Mediterranean and other regions, and explores the functions of international property mediation. On the basis of data gathered from interviews with property agents, the objectives are to describe the organization of the international property sector, to understand the mediating roles of property agents, and position property mediation as production of lifestyle mobility. Property agents are understood to play a crucial role as intermediaries, influencing the client’s decisions by combining instrumental, interactionary, communicative, and social functions of mediation. Because of their superior expertise on property transaction procedures and regulations, area characteristics and contact networks, agents may influence clients’ decisions; however this also depends on their skills in interpreting client expectations and experiences, and the ability of the client to manage the process themselves.

  • 867.
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013). Umeå universitet.
    The Best of Both Worlds: Aspirations, Drivers and Practices of Swedish Lifestyle Movers in Malta2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has often been claimed that contemporary societies are shaped by globalization; the rapid interconnections of societies, economies, markets, flows and information potentially linking all places in the world to each other. In search for experiences, variation, escape or comfort, individuals are travelling, circulating, and migrating between places, challenging the notions of ‘home’ and ‘away’, ‘everyday’ and ‘extraordinary’. This thesis addresses the ways lifestyle-led mobilities are produced and performed, by studying the mobility trajectories and experiences of Swedes dividing their time seasonally between Sweden and Malta. It explores how movers are faced with a structural framework that both facilitates and directs their choices concerning mobility, and how they interpret and respond to these structures. It also explores the imaginaries, meanings, and feelings for place, identity, and lifestyle that the movers negotiate through their mobility practices and through the links they create and sustain in places. Thus, this thesis is situated in an evolving field of research on lifestyle mobilities. Lifestyle mobilities are here defined as those mobility practices undertaken by individuals based on their freedom of choice, of a temporal or more permanent duration, with or without any significant ‘home base(s)’, that are primarily driven by aspirations to increase ‘quality of life’, and that are primarily related to the individuals’ lifestyle values. The thesis is based on four individual papers exploring different aspects lifestyle mobility. The aim is to understand how production and performance aspects of lifestyle mobilities are related, and how notions of identity and belonging are negotiated in relation to lifestyle mobility practices. The production aspect relates to those structures and frameworks that create, facilitate, or sometimes delimit opportunities for lifestyle mobility while the performance aspect focuses on individual agency and meaning of lifestyle mobility practices. The studies are based on in-depth interviews with Swedish movers in Malta, and focus on how structural frameworks and mediations influence the ways that movers manoeuvre, manipulate or adapt to structures and influences in order to arrange their life context to achieve ‘quality of life’. A second aim focuses on the ways that movers reflect upon their identities and belongings as they travel routinely between two (or more) significant places, and how this may influence mobility practices. It is concluded that structures and mediations are both facilitating and delimiting movers’ space of choice regarding mobility decisions. Through their agency, movers negotiate their space of choice by allocating resources and experience, accessing supportive networks and tailoring their access to entitlements. The production and performance aspects of lifestyle mobility practices are interlinked in complex ways.

  • 868. Öhman, Johan
    et al.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Environmental concerns and outdoor studies: nature as fosterer2016In: Routledge International Handbook of Outdoor Studies / [ed] Humberstone, Barbara; Prince, Heather & Henderson, Karla A., New York: Routledge , 2016, p. 30-39Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 869. Öhman, Johan
    et al.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Naturmötets betydelse i utbildning för hållbar utveckling2015In: Naturmötespraktiker och miljömoraliskt lärande / [ed] Östman, Leif, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2015, p. 255-267Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 870.
    Öhman, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Outdoor Recreation in Exergames: A New Step in the Detachement From Nature2016In: Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, ISSN 1472-9679, E-ISSN 1754-0402, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 285-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new teaching aidexergamesis increasing in popularity in schools and is regarded as an interesting, varied and effective way of improving students' fitness. These exercise television games often contain references to physical activities carried out in different outdoor landscapes. The purpose of this article is to examine the views of landscape and nature offered by the games and the consequences this may have for students' relationships with nature and future environmental commitment. The methodological approach used is companion meaning analysis: the meaning of nature that follows when playing the games. The results show a controlled landscape that is perfectly arranged for the activity (functional specialisation). It is an obvious anthropocentric base and commands an instrumental value where nature is valuable because it satisfies our felt preferences (demand value). Exergames can thus be seen as a further step in an ongoing detachment process from the physical landscape (indoorisation).

  • 871.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Alias2009In: The Essential Cult Television Reader / [ed] David Lavery, Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky , 2009, p. 22-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 872.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Anything you can do, I can do better?: Professional journalists vs. citizen journalistsin six European countries2013In: International Communication Gazette, ISSN 1748-0485, E-ISSN 1748-0493, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 35-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on 63 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with professional journalists across career stages and across media in six European countries (UK, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland and Sweden), and is concerned with how journalists answer the question: How is what you do different from what citizen journalists do? Based on existing literature on journalistic authority and the professional project, three areas where claims to professional legitimacy and distinction from amateurs are identified: expertise, duty and autonomy. The interview data show that while claims based on expertise and duty are common when professional journalists want to demarcate the boundary between them and citizen journalism, claims based on direct reference to autonomy are non-existent. However, claims based indirectly on reference to autonomy, but institutional or collective rather than individual autonomy, are common. Indeed the key result of this study is that legitimacy claims based on the collective nature of the journalistic endeavour are very common, in contrast to earlier constructions of journalistic professionalism, which emphasized individualism and individual autonomy.

  • 873.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Clientelism, Elites and the Media in Central and Eastern Europe2012In: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 497-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that the traditional political science definition of clientelism is insufficient for explaining how the media fit in with clientelistic systems in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). It is suggested that a broader understanding of clientelism, looking in particular at how media are used as elite-to-elite communication tools as well as elite-to-mass communication tools, better explains the place of the media in the clientelistic systems of the CEE nations. Empirically, it is based on a set of 272 elite and expert interviews conducted across ten CEE countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia) in 2010 and 2011. The article presents some general findings on the nature and character of the linkages between political elites and the media, and the extent to which such linkages can be considered clientelistic. Then follows a discussion of specific practices of media instrumentalization, charting the many ways in which the media can function as a resource in conflicts and negotiations between clientelistic elite networks, directly as well as indirectly. Particular attention is given to the phenomena of advertorials and kompromat.

  • 874.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Comparative Journalism Research: an Overview2012In: Sociology Compass, ISSN 1751-9020, E-ISSN 1751-9020, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 769-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This overview focuses on the most common type of comparative journalism research, which is cross-national comparative research. The overview presents a typology for different types of comparative journalism research, based on whether the research interest is in journalism as an activity or as a product; and, in the case of journalism as an activity, whether the interest is in the system level, the organizational level, or the individual level of journalism. The overview finds that the analysis of journalism on the individual level and of journalism as a product are the most common types of comparative research, whereas comparative analysis of journalism on the organizational level is much under-studied.

  • 875.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Det journalistiska arbetets förändring2015In: Handbok i journalistikforskning / [ed] Michael Karlsson & Jesper Strömbäck, Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 497-513Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 876.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Epistemologies and Professional Roles2017In: Journalistic Role Performance: Concepts, Contexts, and Methods / [ed] Claudia Mellado, Lea Hellmueller & Wolfgang Donsbach, New York: Routledge, 2017, p. 75-89Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 877.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Journalism and Change2018In: Journalism / [ed] Tim P Vos, Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2018, p. 555-574Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 878.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Journalism as institution and work in Europe, circa 1860: A comparative history of journalism2013In: Media History, ISSN 1368-8804, E-ISSN 1469-9729, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 393-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a comparative historical analysis of the relationship between journalism as institution (i.e., a particular set of organizations in society) and journalism as work (i.e., an activity practiced by individuals) in four European countries: Britain, Sweden, Germany, and Estonia. The analysis compares the institutional context of journalistic work in these four countries around 1860, focusing in particular on the organization of journalistic labor at the national newspaper of record. The historical comparison reveals how exceptional the British case is. The study finds that British journalism circa 1860 exhibited a high division of labor, high labor specialization, and was increasingly focused on news gathering and production. Swedish and German journalism exhibited an emerging division of labor and labor specialization, and was focused on political debate (rather than news gathering and production). Estonian journalism exhibited hardly any division of labor or labor specialization, and was focused on raising national awareness.

  • 879.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Journalism as Institution and Work in Europe, Circa 1860: A Comparative History of Journalism2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the relationship between journalism as institution (i.e. the collective of organizations involved in the production of journalism) and journalism as work (i.e. as an activity performed by individuals) by comparing and contrasting journalism – as exemplified by the ‘newspaper of record’ in each respective country – in four European countries, Britain, Sweden, Germany and Estonia, around 1860. The focus is on the organization of journalistic work and on journalism as salaried labour. In particular Britain has been studies extensively in this regard before, so this paper uses Britain and the Times as its prime example but also highlights the exceptional nature of this case and uses comparative analysis to demonstrate key differences in the journalism-as-work/journalism-as-institution relationship between these four countries.

  • 880.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Journalism cannot solve journalism's problems2019In: Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism, ISSN 1464-8849, E-ISSN 1741-3001, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 226-228Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 881.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Journalistic Ideals Versus Journalistic Practice: The Relationship Between Role Perception and Valued Skills Among Journalists in Six European Countries2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research into the role perceptions of journalism is well-established, but there is significantly less research on whether such perceptions translate into actual journalistic practice. This presentation explores this link between journalistic ideals and journalistic practice by studying the relationship between role perceptions and valued skills among journalists. Do the skills journalists place value on somehow match the perceptions they have of their societal role? This is examined using comparative survey data from six Europan countries: Britain, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Sweden.

  • 882.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Journalists, PR Professionals and the Practice of Paid News in Central and Eastern Europe: An Overview2016In: Central European Journal of Communication, ISSN 1899-5101, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 5-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 883.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Journalists thinking about precarity: Making sense of the "new normal"2018In: # ISOJ Journal, ISSN 2328-0700, E-ISSN 2328-0662, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 109-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the effects of precarity on thinking about professionalism and professional identity among journalists, based on a re-analysis of three different datasets of semi-structured in-depth interviews (gathered in 2008-09, 2010-12 and 2017, respectively) with journalists (n = 63, 55 and 11, respectively) across 14 European countries. The study shows that journalists in this cross-national sample are “primed” for precarity; i.e. they largely accept precarity as natural part of journalism because precarity is in line with key professional norms such as norms of entrepreneurship and meritocracy.

  • 884.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Newsworkers: A Comparative European Perspective2016Book (Other academic)
  • 885.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Participation or outsourcing?: Some reflections on the space and status of newswork in the digital news ecosystem.2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When discussing the contemporary changing media environment, participation is often viewed as a good in and of itself (e.g Rosen 1999, Bruns, Allan 2013) – various forms of citizen participation in various news/journalistic ventures are viewed as a type of fulfillment of the normative ideals of journalism as a democratic institution. Many researchers have noted the limits of such participation, as well as analyzed the problems (of quality, of trustworthiness, of inclusion, etc) inherent in different forms of ‘pro-am’ production of news content and news texts (e.g. Singer et al 2011, Paterson & Domingo 2005, Reich 2008, to mention but a few examples), but the overall perspective on participation is positive.

    I am here presenting an alternative view on participation on journalism, arguing that the democratic good of participation can easily become the democratic problem of outsourcing. Today, many forms of journalistic labour are unpaid or paid at very low rates, as well as produced outside the news organization per se: journalistic production is becoming outsourced. Based on existing research on outsourcing and on contemporary journalistic production, I argue that the shift to fluid, casual labor where more of the risk is borne by the individual employee (Benner 2002; Deuze 2007) that is increasingly characterizing news work in the new digital ecosystem will thus have far-reaching consequences for the emergence and continued health of something usually considered to be a key part of journalism as a democratic institution: professional values.

  • 886.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Reassessing journalism as a profession2010In: The Routledge Companion to News and Journalism / [ed] Stuart Allan, Abingdon: Routledge, 2010, 2, p. 568-577Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 887.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Reporters, Editors, and Networkers: Trends in Journalistic Work Roles and Journalistic Labour Across Europe2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the findings from a comparative study of journalists from Britain, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland and Sweden. Based on an email survey of 2,238 news professionals, we found that journalistic skills can be grouped into three distinctive dimensions: reporting, editorial and networking skills. The data also show some key similarities – reporting skills are the most highly valued across all six countries, and editorial skills the least valued. But there are also important differences, which we suggest can mainly be explained by historical differences in how the functional role of journalism has been viewed. Editorial skills are more highly valued in Germany, Italy and Poland and reporting skills are accorded the highest value in Britain and Sweden. The most interesting finding is perhaps the emergence of what seems like a new or at least somewhat different functional role of the journalist: that of the networker (emphasizing social skills like networking, teamwork and time management). Complementary data from a qualitative interview study of journalists in the same six countries indicate that this role is most prevalent among younger journalists and to a great extent is a response to changes in the organization of journalistic labor, e.g. increased prevalence of project work and work in ad hoc groups, increased labor precariousness, and the gradual convergence of the newsroom.

  • 888.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Review of Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska & Gunnar Nygren (eds.) Journalism in Change: Journalistic Culture in Poland, Russia and Sweden2016In: Central European Journal of Communication, ISSN 1899-5101, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 137-140Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 889.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Technology and journalism-as-labour: historical perspectives2010In: Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism, ISSN 1464-8849, E-ISSN 1741-3001, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 57-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological determinism is common among journalists when reflecting on changes in their profession; several studies show that journalists ascribe great power and independent agency to technology. There are at least two reasons for the persistence of technological determinism as an explanatory factor among journalists vis-a-vis their own work: first, technology is a highly integrated and therefore very tangible part of the everyday working life of journalists; and second, the technological paradigm for explaining change in journalism has deep historical roots. It is argued that analysing journalism as labour presents a way to address both the integration of technology in the everyday working practices of journalists, and the history of the inter-relations between journalism and technology. It is further argued that journalism studies as a field has not paid much attention to journalism as labour. This article is concerned with the second part of this programme for research, i.e. the historical analysis of journalism as labour. The framework of analysis is based on labour process theory, focusing on four themes in the history of journalism: (1) the importance of the separation of conception and execution of labour; (2) the increased differentiation of the labour process; (3) the use of technology to increase productivity; and (4) the deskilling of labour.

  • 890.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    The Maiden Tribute and the Naming of Monsters: two case studies of popular journalism as alternative public sphere2006In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 851-868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to contribute to the ongoing discussion about the critical potential of tabloid journalism. It does so through a comparison of two popular journalism campaigns: the “Maiden Tribute” campaign in the London newspaper the Pall Mall Gazette in 1885 (dealing with underage prostitution), and the “naming-and-shaming” campaign in the News of the World in 2000, concerning child abuse and paedophilia. The main research question is whether any or both of these campaigns can be viewed as contributions to an alternative public sphere, as defined using concepts from Örnebring and Jönsson (2004

    16.           Örnebring  ,   Henrik       and     Jönsson  ,   Anna Maria     (  2004  )   “Tabloid Journalism and the Public Sphere: a historical perspective on tabloid journalism”  ,    Journalism Studies    5  (  3  ), pp.   283  –  95  .[Taylor & Francis Online]View all references) and Atton (2002

    1.        Atton, Chris. 2002. Alternative Media, London: Sage. View all references). Three aspects of the campaigns are compared: (1) How they discursively frame the issue at hand, (2) How they discursively frame the key actors present in the texts, and (3) What mode of address is employed. The purpose of this comparison is to examine whether the campaigns open up alternative possibilities in how they frame and present the issue and the actors, and in how they address and give space to their audiences. The main result is that the Pall Mall Gazette campaign has the greater claim to being a contribution to an alternative public sphere in terms of how it frames the issue and the actors. The article further argues that while there is a distinct potential of tabloid journalism to contribute to an alternative public sphere in certain circumstances, this potential should not be overstated.

  • 891.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    The producer as consumer – of what?: User-generated tabloid content in The Sun (UK) and Aftonbladet (Sweden)2008In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 771-785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of user-generated content (UGC) is often thought to blur further the distinction between (media) producers and (media) consumers. Many media organizations, in particular newspapers, have developed extensive sections of their Web pages based on UGC. But there is still relatively little discussion of the exact relationship between producing and consuming in these sections. What is being produced and what is being consumed? Does the blurring of the producer–consumer represent a real shift in power away from traditional media/news organizations, or is the rise of UGC just a way for newspapers to get content produced “for free”? This article analyses UGC provision in two tabloid newspapers, The Sun (UK) and Aftonbladet (Sweden)—both newspapers generally considered to be very successful in terms of their online presence—by comparing (1) the levels of involvement required by users, (2) the types of content produced, and (3) the modes of production used. The results show that both tabloids are similar in that they provide users with the opportunity to generate mostly popular culture-oriented content and personal/everyday life-oriented content, but little or no opportunity to generate news/information-oriented content.

  • 892.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Transmedia histories: Disjunctions and continuities2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents two case studies of transmedial entertainment, one of the pulp franchise The Shadow and one of the contemporary franchise Transformers. The article argues that previous studies of transmedia entertainment have focused too much on narrative in a strict sense (plot/story), ignoring the interplay between the contexts of production and reception as well as narrative elements other than plot, notably those that create the greater narrative ‘world’. The article therefore focuses on an integrated analysis of the production/reception of the two transmedia properties, and the narrative disjunctions created by extending a transmedia world across different media platforms. The study finds that transmedia narratives cannot be understood without taking media industry objectives into account, and that previous studies have overemphasized the narrative integration of transmedial properties.

  • 893.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Outsourcing newswork2016In: Handbook of Digital Journalism / [ed] David Domingo, Tamara Witschge, Alfred Hermida, Chris Anderson, London: Sage Publications, 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 894.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörns Högskola.
    User-generated content and the news: Empowerment of citizens or an interactive illusion?2011In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 127-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The involvement of citizens in public life through the Internet, variously described by terms such as interactivity and user-generated content, is frequently held up as a democracy-enhancing development. However, these concepts say little about the exact nature and character of media–audience relations. We wish to introduce a more detailed taxonomy of user-generated content (UGC) that takes issues of power and influence into account. We examine the media–reader relationship (in online newspapers) by looking at (1) degree of participation and (2) type of content. We also suggest that it might be fruitful to think in terms of a political economy of UGC. Our results show that users are mostly empowered to create popular culture-oriented content and personal/everyday life-oriented content rather than news/informational content. Direct user involvement in news production is minimal. There is a clear political economy of UGC: UGC provision in mainstream media to a great extent addresses users-as-consumers and is part of a context of consumption

  • 895.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    The labor of journalism: Challeneges of technological and economic restructuring2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will analyze how the technological and economic restructuring of journalistic labor impacts on three key theoretical concepts in journalism:  routines, professionalism and autonomy. Journalistic labor will be analyzed along three dichotomous dimensions: paid/unpaid, skilled/unskilled and individual/collective.

    For most of the 20th century, defining journalism in terms of labor (for the purposes of this paper, “labor” is defined as exertion that generates surplus value, organized through a contractual employer-employee relationship) was straightforward: journalistic labor was done by those who were employed, commonly on permanent, full-time contracts, by traditional media organizations. It was essentially not possible to conduct the work of a journalist outside this system.

    Many of the key journalism scholars of the postwar era imported concepts and theories from the sociology of work and used them to analyze journalism – among them routines (e.g. Gans 1979, Tuchman 1978), professionalism and the related concept of professional roles  (e.g. Johnstone, Slawski & Bowman 1976, Tunstall 1971) and autonomy (e.g. Breed 1955, Merrill 1974). However, when reading these works today, it is striking that the intellectual foundation of these concepts is that journalism is conducted by people who are in stable contractual relationships with likewise stable, large organizations. This, as we know, is not true anymore.

    The introduction of digital technologies and networked communications poses many challenges to the understanding of journalism as labor. The barriers of entry for performing journalistic work (though not necessarily labor, see below) have all but disappeared. It is now possible for individuals to produce and distribute news content without the need for a large organization and expensive production equipment. Conversely, as distribution channels multiply and become more fragmented, audiences can also increasingly chose to not consume journalistic content, or to consume journalistic content that is available at no cost to the end-user. It is at once easier to perform journalistic work and harder to get (adequately) paid for it, i.e. to perform journalistic labor. Permanent full-time jobs in journalism are getting fewer in most of the Western world, and freelancing, part-time work and occupational fluidity (e.g. journalists producing news one day and PR material the next) are becoming more common. While journalism scholarship has had much to say about the challenges of the new digital, networked environment, less attention has been paid to the validity of the many underlying concepts and theories that presuppose a particular way of organizing journalistic labor (Deuze 2007, 2011 being notable exceptions).

                                 We focus here on three concepts in particular – routines,  professionalism, and autonomy.  The theoretical challenges to these concepts are examined using three dichotomous dimensions: paid vs. unpaid labor (and its close companion, work time vs. free time), skilled vs unskilled labor, and individual vs. collective labor. What types of journalistic labor can you be expected to be paid for, and what do you increasingly have to do for free? If journalism can be outsourced and journalists replaced by algorithms and software (see Clerwall, 2014), how “skilled” is journalistic labor? As employers shift risk and responsibility to employees, individual journalists have to spend more time on personal branding and marketing. This has consequences for the possibilities of doing collective work (as in a traditional newsroom setting) when you may be competing with colleagues for scarce resources. We argue that ongoing fundamental changes to how journalistic labor is organized also require fundamentally rethinking many of the key concepts of journalism studies.

  • 896.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    The Space of Journalistic Work: A Theoretical Model2018In: Communication Theory, ISSN 1050-3293, E-ISSN 1468-2885, Vol. 28, no 04, p. 403-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attempts to define journalism are often normative in nature but do not add to our theoretical understanding of what journalism is. There is a need for journalism scholarship to recognize explicitly that journalism is a space in which participants are not equal—or even similar—in terms of status, influence, work tasks, and working conditions. This paper offers a theoretical model combining the field theory of Pierre Bourdieu with recent insights from the sociology of work in order to articulate how journalistic work is stratified across three dimensions: journalistic capital, resource access, and material security. These dimensions create a space in which to place different types of journalistic work in order to make sense of contemporary journalism.

  • 897.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Autonomy from the inside: Journalists’ perceptions of workplace autonomy in five European countries2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 898.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Dimensions of journalistic workplace autonomy: A five-nation comparison2016In: Javnost - The Public, ISSN 1318-3222, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 307-326, article id 1215833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how journalists perceive workplace autonomy in five European countries, based on an email survey (N = 2238) conducted in the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Sweden and Estonia. The article argues that the workplace level functions as a link between the macro level of external pressures and the micro level of perceived influences on news work. Using principal component analysis we explore the dimensionality of workplace autonomy based on a set of 20 survey questions. Regression analysis is then used on the dimensions found in order to determine what affects perception of autonomy in the different dimensions. The most salient explanatory variables are found on the country and organisational levels, whereas the variables age, experience, gender, managerial role and medium have no or limited effects. The results show the organisational and country levels being integrated and that national journalistic culture is the most salient factor explaining perception of autonomy.

  • 899.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Mellado, Claudia
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile.
    Valued skills among journalists: An exploratory comparison of six European nations2016In: Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism, ISSN 1464-8849, E-ISSN 1741-3001, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-national comparative studies of journalists generally focus on the demographic characteristics and/or the values and role-perception of journalists. Systematic studies of journalistic skills have been rare, however. This article reports the findings from a comparative study of journalists from Britain, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Sweden. Based on an email survey of 2238 news professionals, journalistic skills can be grouped into three distinctive dimensions: reporting, editing, and networking skills.

    The data also show a number of similarities, but also important differences regarding the importance journalists give to different professional skills in different European countries.

  • 900.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Mellado, Claudia
    University of Santiago de Chile.
    Valued Skills Among Journalists: An Exploratory Comparison of Six European Nations2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-national comparative studies of journalists generally focus on the demographic characteristics and/or the values and role-perception of journalists. Comparisons of journalistic skills have been rare, however. This paper reports the findings from a comparative study of journalists from Britain, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland and Sweden. Based on an email survey of 2,238 news professionals, we found that journalistic skills can be grouped into three distinctive dimensions: reporting, editorial and networking skills. The data also show some key similarities – reporting skills are the most highly valued across all six countries, and editorial skills the least valued. But there are also important differences, which we suggest can mainly be explained by historical differences in how the functional role of journalism has been viewed. Editorial skills are more highly valued in Germany, Italy and Poland and reporting skills are accorded the highest value in Britain and Sweden.

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