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  • 851.
    Videll, Gustav
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Andrén, Christoffer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    När livet sätts på spel: En kvalitativ studie angående upplevelsen av spelberoendet2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to answer how people with a non-active gambling addiction described their situation as gambling addicts. The study is based on five interviews that were transcribed and then analyzed using a content analysis. The analysis is based on previous research and the theory the defining moment by Devine and Sparks (2014) aswell as Becker (2006) theory about outsiders. The result is presented with the help of themes and categories. The study results show that all respondents experienced negative consequences as a result of gambling. The consequences could prove economically, health, social, at the workplace and also affected the respondents relatives. Furthermore, it was found that all respondents spent a great deal of their time playing. Motivation was a major factor in the fact that the respondents eventually managed to withdraw from the game addiction.

  • 852.
    Vikman, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Mattsson, Carl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Samtalets betydelse för utredningsprocessen: En kvalitativ studie om Migrationsverkets arbete med ensamkommande flyktingbarn2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Migration Agency carry out the decision of who is going to get a residence permit. This study has the purpose to examine how the Migration Agency investigation procedure is, furthermore how they take in account for a child's perspective and legal certainty. Method for this has been qualitative interviews with administration officers and decision makers at the Migration Agency. This study lays its ground mainly on two constructs: Childs perspective and legal certainty for the purpose to immerse in the Migration Agency work. This study concludes that the one who seeks asylum has to make its identity probable and an important part of this is the interview of the unaccompanied child by case workers at the Migration Agency. This study also concludes that the case workers at the Migration Agency have a mutual view of the rule of law and that all actions are grounded in words of the act. To work with a child perspective is according to the Migration Agency to use an individual approach to all unaccompanied children and this is made by considering the applicant age, gender, background and maturity. 

  • 853.
    Vikstrom, Pernilla
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Bjorkman, Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Ingela K.
    Lunds universitet.
    Olsson, Anna-Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). NU Hlth Care, Dept Psychiat, Trollhattan.
    Rosen, Birgitta
    Lunds universitet.
    Atypical sensory processing pattern following median or ulnar nerve injury: a case-control study2018In: BMC Neurology, ISSN 1471-2377, E-ISSN 1471-2377, Vol. 18, article id 146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to brain plasticity a transection of a median or ulnar nerve results in profound changes in the somatosensory areas in the brain. The permanent sensory deprivation after a peripheral nerve injury might influence the interaction between all senses. The aim of the study was to investigate if a median and/or ulnar nerve injury gives rise to a changed sensory processing pattern. In addition we examined if age at injury, injured nerve or time since injury influence the sensory processing pattern. Methods: Fifty patients (40 men and 10 women, median age 43) operated due to a median and/or ulnar nerve injury were included. The patients completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile questionnaire, which includes a comprehensive characterization on how sensory information is processed and how an individual responds to multiple sensory modalities. AASP categorizes the results into four possible Quadrants of behavioral profiles (Q1-low registration, Q2-sensory seeking, Q3-sensory sensitivity and Q4-sensory avoiding). The results were compared to 209 healthy age and gender matched controls. Anova Matched Design was used for evaluation of differences between the patient group and the control group. Atypical sensory processing behavior was determined in relation to the normative distribution of the control group. Results: Significant difference was seen in Q1, low registration. 40% in the patient group scored atypically in this Quadrant compared to 16% of the controls. No correlation between atypical sensory processing pattern and age or time since injury was seen. Conclusion: A peripheral nerve injury entails altered sensory processing pattern with increased proportion of patients with low registration to sensory stimulus overall. Our results can guide us into more client centered rehabilitation strategies.

  • 854.
    Vikström Johansson, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Upplevelsen av att komma ut som homosexuell i vuxen ålder: En fenomenologisk studie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay was to explore the experience of coming out as gay as an adult. Ten participants, disclosing their homosexuality in their twenties or later, and living as openly gay today, were interviewed. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, six themes were identified: the heterosexual norm, coming out, validation – invalidation, the importance of community and belonging, identity/identity process, and role models. Together, these themes gives the big picture of the participants’ experience of coming out as gay. They show how the participant’s identity processes and coming out processes are linked, and how the heteronormativity influences the participants’ experiences of themselves before they came out as gay, as well as their experience of the coming out process as a whole. The conclusion that were drawn is that the heteronormativity influences the participants’ lives in many ways and plays an important role in their coming out.

  • 855.
    Vinterlycka, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    ”Han grips med byxorna nere”: En studie om framställningen av sexköpande män i Aftonbladet och Expressen under perioden 1997-20052016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background to the study is to see how men as sex buyers are presents in two tabloids, Aftonbladet and Expressen. Not least which social identities ascribes to them and if they are put in a broader social context. Media can be seen as active participants in the society. Media texts are often presents as a conveyer of a reflection of reality. It is the image of men as sex buyers as the media texts conveys and what truths and aspects they highlights that the study would look into. Two databases was used to find the media texts and analyzed on the basis of previous research on prostitution, gender- and masculinity theories. A discourse analysis approach was used as a method. The result shows that men usually paired with a number of different social identities. It could be about what jobs they have, how their economic status looks like, which marital status they have and what sexual needs they have. The problems of men as sex buyers falls on an individual level, combined with their immediate environment. Something that is frequently neglected in the texts is to put the purchase of sex buyers in a larger societal context and discuss issues of gender order and to see the buying of sex in terms of a lack of equality.

  • 856.
    Vänerhagen, Kristian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Den valfria nödvändigheten: Diskurser om mäns föräldraledighet i svenska föräldratidningar2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 857.
    Wagman, Petra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Aktivitetsbalans hos personer med ångest och/eller depression som möter arbetsterapeut2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Anxiety syndromes and depressive disorders are common causes of sickness absence and problems with functioning and with activities in everyday life. Thus, they may involve difficulties achieving occupational balance i.e. being satisfied with the amount of and variation in the activities of everyday life.This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the level of occupational balance in people suffering from anxiety and/or depression and what is associated with higher occupational balance in this group.The 118 participants (98 females) were recruited from outpatient mental health care and primary health care. They met these inclusion criteria: 18 to 65 years of age; diagnosed with anxiety and/or depression; having activity problems and had completed the Occupational Balance Questionnaire (OBQ, ranging 0-65 where higher is better). They answered background questions and instruments to measure occupational balance, anxiety, depression, quality of life, performance of activities and satisfaction with the performance of activities. Their answers were analyzed using descriptive and analytic statistics, and logistic regression.The results showed that occupational balance was given a low rating. No gender difference was identified but occupational balance differed in participants varying in anxiety, depression, quality of life, performance and satisfaction with performance of activities. In a logistic regression, occupational balance above the median was associated with: being satisfied with performance of activities; reporting a high quality of life and low level of depression.The study adds empirical support to the relationship between everyday activities and occupational balance which is valuable for professions that are aiming to enhance occupational balance, health and well-being in their clients.

  • 858.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Hakansson, Carita
    Lund University, Sweden..
    Hedin, Katarina
    Region Jönköping, Sweden;Linkoping University, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden..
    Gunnarsson, A. Birgitta
    Kronoberg County Council, Sweden; Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Factors associated with higher occupational balance in people with anxiety and/or depression who require occupational therapy treatmentIn: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Anxiety and depressive disorders are associated with problems with everyday occupations, including difficulties achieving occupational balance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe occupational balance in people suffering from anxiety and/or depression and the factors that are associated with better self-rated occupational balance. Material: One hundred and eighteen participants were recruited from outpatient mental health care and primary health care. The participants were 18-65 years, had a diagnosis of anxiety and/or depression, and had problems in everyday occupations. They answered questionnaires on occupational balance, psychological symptoms, quality of life and everyday occupations. Results: A generally low rating of occupational balance was found; however, the scores differed depending on the participants' degree of anxiety and depression, their quality of life, their occupational performance and satisfaction with their occupational performance. Logistic regression analyses revealed that high quality of life, high satisfaction with occupational performance and low level of depression were associated to occupational balance. Conclusion: The results indicate that enhanced satisfaction with life and with performance of everyday occupations are relevant factors for achieving occupational balance in clients diagnosed with anxiety and/or depression.

  • 859. Wahl, Anna
    et al.
    Holgersson, Charlotte
    Linghag, Sophie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Regnö, Klara
    Chefskap, jämställdhet och etik2013In: Chefsarbetets etik / [ed] Brytting, Tomas, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 2, p. 146-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 860. Wahl, Anna
    et al.
    Holgersson, Charlotte
    Linghag, Sophie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Regnö, Klara
    Chefskap, jämställdhet och etik2012In: Chefsarbetets etik / [ed] Brytting, Tomas, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2012, 1, p. 146-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 861. Wahl, Anna
    et al.
    Linghag, Sophie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centrum för genusforskning.
    Män har varit här längst: Jämställdhet och förnyelse i industriella organisationer.2013Book (Other academic)
  • 862.
    Wahlkrantz, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    En jämförelse av kvinnors attityder till pojkars och flickors copingstrategier: Utifrån en kvantitativ skattning av copingstrategiers lämplighet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this study was to compare women’s attitudes towards children’s use of coping strategies, depending on the child’s gender. An independent measurement (using an online survey) with between group design was used. The dependent variable was a self-assessed rating of how appropriate the child’s use of coping strategies were. The independent variable was the gender of the child using two conditions; boy (Emil) and girl (Emma). The gender of the child was presented using two scenarios of a ten-year-old child, only differentiating on name and pronoun. Self-assessed ambivalent sexism, gender stereotypes and the belief of how children’s behavior is explained (though heritage or environment) were controlled for. Earlier research has shown that boys and girls use coping strategies to a different extent depending on gender. Research has also indicated that some coping strategies have a positive correlation with well-being and other coping strategies have a negative association. How parents guide their children to use coping strategies affect the child’s use of coping strategies. Thus, to research adults’ attitudes towards children’s use of coping strategies and if they differ depending on the child’s gender is important. An independent t-test indicated that the women considered the coping strategy emotional support to be more appropriate for boys than for girls. All other coping strategies were perceived as equally appropriate for boys and girls. The study indicates that the participants have a high awareness of gender matters. Conclusions are that high awareness of gender matters among women may be related to the attitude that coping strategies are equally appropriate for boys and girls.

  • 863.
    Wahlkrantz, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    En kvantitativ korrelationsstudie mellan exekutiva funktioner och sömn bland universitetsstudenter2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Exekutiva funktioner ligger till grund för många andra kognitiva funktioner och krävs för komplexa kognitiva uppgifter så som kreativ problemlösning, kommunikation och beslutsfattande. Sömnbrist har tidigare visat sig ha ett samband med prestationen av exekutiva funktioner. Föreliggande studies syfte var att undersöka om det finns ett samband mellan naturligt förekommande sömnvariationer och exekutiv funktion. Studien utfördes med ett kvasiexperimentellt upplägg där exekutiva förmågor mättes genom de två kognitiva testerna Tower of Hanoi och Trail-Making test. Sömn mättes genom en självskattning av sömnens kvalitet respektive kvantitet.Tjugotvå studenter från Karlstad Universitet deltog i studien, varav 11 kvinnor och 11 män. Spearman’s rangkorrelationskoefficient visade ingen signifikant korrelation mellan testresultaten och den självskattade sömnen. Detta indikerar att en koppling mellan exekutiva funktioner och naturligt varierande sömn saknas.

  • 864.
    Wallin Hall, Linnea
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    "Man göra som svenskar - men jag är inte svensk": En kvalitativ intervjustudie om svenskhet och svensk identitet genomförd med lärare och deltagare på en utbildning i svenska för invandrare2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har haft som syfte att undersöka och beskriva vilka föreställningar om svenskhet och svensk identitet som existerar hos lärare och deltagare på en utbildning i svenska för invandrare (SFI). Utifrån ett kvalitativt angreppssätt så har fyra lärare och fyra deltagare kopplade till SFI intervjuats. Resultatet har analyserats inom en symbolisk interaktionistisk ram, och med hjälp av teori kring och begrepp som kategorisering, ”social order”, normer, socialisationsprocessen, sociala ritualer samt identitet. Teori kring språk och kommunikation har också använts. Studiens resultat visar på ett antal gemensamma föreställningar om svenskhet bland lärare och deltagare. I dessa föreställningar länkas svenskhet i stor utsträckning till en specifik uppsättning värderingar, ett antal egenskaper kopplat till beteende, firandet av några speciella högtider samt en särskild inställning till tid. Ett par uttalanden synliggör också att det finns ett specifikt utseende kopplat till svenskhet, men utan att detta utseende blir närmare beskrivet. I relation till hur intervjupersonerna identitetsmässigt förhåller sig till den svenskhet de beskriver så distanserar sig SFI-deltagarna från denna och uppvisar starka band till sin tidigare nationella och etniska härkomst. De lever i Sverige men ser sig inte som svenskar och i de flesta fall ses detta heller inte som något som kommer ändras med tiden. Ur lärarnas perspektiv på vem de betraktar som svensk så framstår en bra behärskning av det svenska språket som den viktigaste aspekten för en identifiering av någon som svensk, men även vissa normerande praktiker som kopplas till svenskhet verkar nödvändiga att anpassa sig till för att bli betraktad som svensk.

  • 865.
    Wallin, Nicole
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Berggren Liljestrand, Robert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    ” Jag ser ju vad som står men hur fungerar det i praktiken?”: En kvalitativ studie om nyexaminerade socionomers och snart utexaminerade socionomstudenters upplevelser av sina juridiska kunskaper som myndighetsutövare på individ- och familjeomsorgen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate newly graduated social workers and soon to be graduated students of social work and their experiences regarding legal knowledge as practitioners working in individual and family care. The study was carried out with the help of a qualitative method. The material was collected through semi-structured interviews with social workers working in different areas such as child and family-care, financial assistance and addiction-intervention care. The interviewees presented their experiences of differences and gaps, confidence in their own legal knowledge, the inevitable possibility to interpret, time during education, further development of legal knowledge, and promotional and inhibiting factors for learning. The theory being used is Aristotle's theory of knowledge and its further development of Kant and Ryle. The study consistently contains a professional-theoretical perspective. In addition, previous research has been used to link the results with both the theoretical perspective and the interviewees' statements. The result shows that there is a difference and a gap between studies and working life and that a large part of the legal knowledge comes from the work. The majority considered that they had acquired basic legal knowledge from their education but they wanted more in-depth knowledge. They also considered that the work as a social worker is complex, as the different areas within the law they work with leave a great deal of room for individual interpretations. Half of all interviewees also described a need for further development. A large part of previous research correlates with what emerged from the study's results. According to the interviewees, a large part of their knowledge derives from practical experience while there is an imminent desire to combine the practice with the theory.

  • 866.
    Wamala, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    I Have to Give an “I Can” Attitude: Gender Patterns in Beeping Practices2013In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intentional missed calling, referred to as beeping through the mobile phone, is a popular communication practice among Africans. Targeting young mobile phone users in Uganda, this article builds on previous research on beeping, but focuses on gender as a point of analysis. Data informing this article are based on 76 qualitative interviews with university students and recent graduates who are currently employed, and the results indicate that beeping practices are embedded in sociocultural, normative, gender patterns. The data also show that beeping is a multilayered exercise that each individual at some social-relational level engages in: It is the relationship to the beep recipient that negotiates this practice. Mapping local, diverse expressions of masculinities and femininity at the intersection of beeping activities, the study offers some recommendations on how Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in general can be useful signals of understanding sociological order.

  • 867.
    Wamala, Caroline Victoria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Theater, Gender, and Development: Merging Traditional and New Media to Address Communication Challenges in Uganda2014In: Signs (Chicago, Ill.), ISSN 0097-9740, E-ISSN 1545-6943, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 866-874Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 868.
    Wannstedt Lundström, Helena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    ”#intejag – men jag har minastrategier”: En kvalitativ studie om äldre kvinnors upplevelser kring #metoo-rörelsen ochnya begrepp2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 869.
    Wasshede, Cathrin
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Wettergren, Åsa
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Jonsson, Annika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Heteronormativitet och emotioner2015In: Feministiskt tänkande och sociologi: Teorier, begrepp och tillämpningar / [ed] Anna Hedenus, Sofia Björk, Oksana Shmulyar Gréen, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 199-213Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 870.
    Waygood, E. Owen D.
    et al.
    Polytechnique Montréal, Canada.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Mitra, Raktim
    Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.
    Introduction to Transport and Child Wellbeing2019In: Children´s travel and wellbeing / [ed] Waygood, E.O.D., Friman, M., Olsson, L. E., & Mitra, R., Elsevier, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 871.
    Waygood, E.Owen D.
    et al.
    Polytechnique Montreal , Canada.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Mitra, Raktim
    Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.
    Transportation and Children’s Well-Being2019 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation and Children’s Well-Being applies an ecological approach, examining the social, psychological and physical impacts transport has on children at the individual and community level. Drawing on the latest multidisciplinary research in transport, behavior, policy, the built environment and sustainability, the book explains the pathways and mechanisms by which transport affects the different domains of children’s travel. Further, the book identifies the influences of transportation with respect to several domains of well-being, highlighting the influences of residential location on travel by different modes and its impact on the long-term choices families make.

    The book concludes with proposed evidence-based solutions using real-world examples that support positive influences on well-being and eliminate or reduce negative solutions.

  • 872.
    Wegerif, Andrew Arendt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Idéer i förändring: Förändringar i ideologisk orientering i borgerliga regeringsförklaringar 1976-20102014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this study is to investigate whether the way that Swedish politicians speak about and describe society (mainly Swedish society) has changed over time. The perspective of the study is a social-constructive one, which means that the way that politicians speak about society is viewed as a part of the constant construction of our consciousness of, and thereby of, society. The examined material is five Swedish right-wing statements of government policy, issued in 1976, 1979, 1991, 2006 and 2010. The method used to analyze these statements is a form of quantitative content analysis.

    Concretely the aim of the study is to longitudinally examine if there are differences regarding which ideological ideas that are dominant in the analyzed statements of government policy. This is done with the help of two different forms of content analysis. Comparisons are made both regarding the occurrence of certain ideologically charged terms in the different statements, and regarding the share of neoright (libertarian- and neoconservative) as opposed to alternative, mainly social-liberal ideas expressed in the material.

    The analysis shows that measured in this way there are considerable differences in ideological orientation between the different statements of government policy. The strongest result, which can also be seen as a confirmation of the results of several previous studies, is one which points to a swing to the right between 1979 and 1991. The analysis also shows that since 1991 the share of neoright ideas has remained relatively stable, but that a gradual shift within the neoright spectrum of ideas has taken place since then, a shift from markedly libertarian ideas in 1991, to libertarian with an element of neoconservative, almost nationalist ideas in 2010.

  • 873.
    Wennerström, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Psykologiska strategier hos ryttare: Skillnader i användandet av psykologiska strategier i avseende träning och tävling samt gren inom ridsporten2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A quantitative study has been conducted with the aim of investigating the extent to which psychological strategies are used by riders as well as whether there were any differences in the use of psychological strategies during training and competition and between the disciplines of the equestrian sport. Furthermore, it examined whether there was a connection between the use of psychological strategies and experienced achievement-level. To measure this a Swedish version of the self-assessment instrument Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) was used. 185 equestrians participated in the study, whence 107 of them competed in dressage, 39 of them competed in jumping and 38 of them competed in another discipline. The result showed a significant difference in the use of psychological strategies in training and competition, where the psychological strategies was used more in the training sessions. The result also showed a significant difference in the use of psychological strategies between the disciplines, it showed that the equestrians who jumped and participated in another discipline used more automaticity in competition than dressage riders. In addition, there was a positive significant relationship between the degree of perceived performance on competition and the use of psychological strategies. There were also a positive significant relationship between the degree of perceived performance on training and the use of psychological strategies. The conclusion is that the population used more psychological strategies in training sessions and they experience that a high degree of using psychological strategies results in a high degree of perceived performance.

  • 874.
    Westling, Sven
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Förutsäger optimism och kreativt självförtroende den kreativa prestationen?: En kvantitativ enkätstudie på studenter i Karlstad.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien avsåg att utreda om det går att förutsäga kreativ prestation med hjälp av kreativt självförtroende och optimism. Studien jämförde även hur tidigare forskning och resultatet i föreliggande studie förhöll sig till varandra. En internetbaserad enkätstudie genomfördes med 281 studenter vid Karlstads universitet. Enkäten bestod av tre delar med etablerade instrument för  genererade mått på kreativt självförtroende, optimism och kreativ prestation. Resultatet visade att det inte fanns någon koppling mellan optimism och kreativ prestation då ingen signifikant korrelation hittades. Det fanns däremot en signifikant korrelation mellan det kreativa självförtroendet och den kreativa prestationen. En regressions- analys genomfördes med kreativt självförtroende som prediktor för kreativ prestation men denna visade att det var en mycket liten del av den kreativa prestationen som kunde förklaras av det kreativa självförtroendet.

  • 875.
    Westman, Jessica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Child victims, their memory and The National Institute of Child Health and Development Protocol2017In: Interviewing child witnesses: Proceedings of the 2016 Theoretical Course / [ed] Sara Landström, Göteborgs universitet, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 876.
    Westman, Jessica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Drivers of Children's Travel Satisfaction2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is twofold: Firstly, it explores the reasons parents state for choosing the car to take their children to school; Secondly, it investigates how the characteristics of the journey relate to children’s wellbeing, mood, and cognitive performance. This thesis consists of three papers (Papers I, II, and III). Participating in Paper I were 245 parents of schoolchildren aged between 10 and 15 in Värmland County, Sweden. These parents answered a questionnaire wherein they stated to what degree certain statements correlated with their decision to choose the car. In Paper II, 237 children in grade 4 (aged 10-11), in the City of Staffanstorp, Sweden, recorded all their journeys in a diary over one school week, also reporting on their travel mode, current mood while travelling, activities on arrival, and experiences vis-à-vis those activities. Participating in Paper III was a sample of 345 children aged between 10 and 15 attending five public schools in Värmland County, Sweden. These children rated their current mood, filled out the Satisfaction with Travel Scale (capturing the travel experience), reported details about their journeys, and took a word fluency test.

    Parents’ wish to accompany their children to school, and the convenience of the car, both impact upon the travel mode decision. In addition, parents also seem to choose the car regardless of the distance between home and school. The findings further reveal that the mood children are in varies with how they travel and where they go, and that there is a difference between boys’ and girls’ experiences. Children who travel by car experience the lowest degree of quality and activation, something which is maintained throughout the school day (especially for girls). Social activities during travel bring a higher degree of quality and excitement, while solitary activities bring more stress. The findings further show that using a smartphone, or doing a combination of activities during the journey, results in better cognitive performance. Thus, it is concluded that the mode choice that parents make for their children correlates with those children’s mood and experience. Specifically, where and how children travel, what they do when they travel, and how long they travel for affect their experiences, mood, and/or cognitive performance.

  • 877.
    Westman, Jessica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Experiences of Everyday Travel: Through the Lens of a Child2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate how children experience their everyday travel. More specifically how do certain travel characteristics influence children’s current mood, experiences of their everyday travel, and their cognitive performance. The thesis consists of two papers (Papers I and II). In Paper I, 206 children (101 girls) in grade 4 (aged 10), in the city of Staffanstorp in Sweden, recorded all their journeys in a diary during one school week, along with reports of their travel mode, their current mood while travelling (ranging from very sad to very happy and from very tired to very alert), their activities on arrival, and their experiences regarding those activities. In Paper II, a sample of 344 children (165 girls) between the ages of 10 and 15 was taken at five public schools in Värmland County, Sweden. The children rated their current mood, filled out the Satisfaction with Travel Scale (capturing the travel experience), reported details about their journeys, and took a word-fluency test.

    The findings show that children’s immediate affective experiences (current mood) vary with how they travel and where they go, and that there is a difference between boys’ and girls’ experiences. Children who travel by car experience the lowest degree of quality and activation, something which is also maintained throughout the school day (as the case with activation). Social activities during travel add to higher degree of quality and excitement, while solitary activities bring more stress. The findings further show that using a smartphone or doing a combination of activities during the journey results in better cognitive performance, as do longer traveling times. It is concluded that where and how children travel, what they do when traveling, and for how long they travel all affect children’s travel experiences, mood, and/or cognitive performance. This thesis sheds light on a neglected research area – which is the experiences of travel – through the lens of a child.

  • 878.
    Westman, Jessica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    How to measure Children’s Life Satisfaction and Satisfaction with School Travel2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 879.
    Westman, Jessica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Travel and child wellbeing: The cognitive and psychological domains.2019In: Transport and Children’s Wellbeing / [ed] Owen Waygood, Margareta Friman, Lars Olsson, Raktim Mitra, Elsevier, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 880.
    Westman, Jessica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Children’s Satisfaction with Travel to School2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 881.
    Westman, Jessica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Children’s Travel to School: Satisfaction, Current Mood, and Cognitive Performance2017In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 1365-1382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate whether travel mode, travel time, and travel activities influence children’s satisfaction with their travel to school, their current mood, and their cognitive performance after arriving at school. A sample of 344 children (165 girls) between the ages of 10 and 15 were recruited at five public schools in Värmland County, Sweden. Directly after arriving at school, the children rated; how they felt on two scales ranging from very sad to very happy and from very tired to very alert; filled out the Satisfaction with Travel Scale adapted for children; reported details about their journeys; and took a word-fluency test. The results showed that traveling by school bus and walking or cycling were experienced as having a higher quality than traveling by car. Children who engaged in conversation during their journeys reported a higher quality and more positive feelings than children who were passive during their journeys. A shorter journey was experienced as having a higher quality and resulting in more positive feelings. Children traveling for longer durations, and using their smartphones or doing a combination of activities during their journeys, performed better in the word-fluency test.

  • 882.
    Westman, Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Styrkor i arbetet: En kvalitativ studie om anställdas möjligheter att använda sina styrkor i arbetet.2019Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att få djupare förståelse för hur anställda i olika yrken upplever möjligheten att använda sina styrkor i arbetet. Genom en kvalitativ intervjustudie med 5 heltidsanställda inom olika yrken identifierades med tematisk analys tre teman som beskrev deras upplevelser. Det första temat Att känna sig sedd och betydelsefull handlade om att känna att chefen tog tillvara på ens kunskaper och åsikter. Det andra temat Att kunna göra ett bra jobb handlade om att möjligheten att använda sina styrkor bidrog till positiva känslor i arbetet. Det sista temat Att känna sig begränsad av arbetets utformning handlade om att det fanns vissa begränsningar för att använda styrkor, men att det också kan vara positivt att lära sig nya saker. I det fyller kollegor en viktig funktion i att hjälpas åt och komplettera varandra. Det framgår att bemötande från chefen, samt att det finns en vilja att ta tillvara på anställdas kunskaper är viktigt för möjligheten att använda styrkor i arbetet.

  • 883.
    Widemalm, My
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    The forum as a friend: parental mental illness and communication on open Internet forums2015In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 50, no 10, p. 1601-1607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to identify how daughters or sons to parents suffering from mental illness perceive their situation. The objective was to provide new knowledge based on what they communicate on open Internet forums.

    METHODS:The sample consisted of forum posts written by individuals who reported that they had mentally ill parents. Data collection comprised 301 comments from 35 forum threads on 5 different Swedish Internet forums, and predetermined inclusion criteria were used. Data were analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis.

    RESULTS:The analysis generated four themes: "Caregiver burden," "Knowledge seeking," "Support from the forum," and "Frustration and powerlessness over health care." The results showed that parents' mental illness affected the forum writers on several levels, and they often felt stigmatized. The writers often lacked knowledge of their parents' mental illness and sought out Internet forums for information and support from peers in similar situations. The psychiatric care given to the parents was a source of dissatisfaction among the forum writers, who often felt that their parents did not receive adequate care.

    CONCLUSIONS:This study shows that fear of stigmatization and perceived lack of care and support caused forum writers to anonymously seek out Internet forums for information and support from others with similar experiences. The role of social support and the attractiveness of anonymity and availability typical for open Internet forums ought to be considered by health care professionals and researchers when developing new ways for providing support for children or adolescents with a mentally ill parent.

  • 884.
    Widmark, Linnéa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Återfallspreventiva färdigheter: Utvecklandet av Widmarks Relapse Prevention Scale Version 1: En explorativ studie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The lack of measuring instruments for relapse prevention skills and for that reason there is no studies with direct focus regarding to which extent previous course takers has developed their skills after completing the course. Therefore this study aimed to develop and evaluate a new measurement for relapse prevention skills. The study was conducted as a cross sectional design where empirical data was collected through an online survey. The survey was directed to people who had personal experience of alcohol- and drug abuse or addiction. Sixty-one men, woman and intergenders participated in the study where all stated that they had completed a course in relapse prevention answered the survey. Data where analyzed with a principal component analysis (PCA) for an exploratory examination of the new measurements factors and each factor’s reliability. The study resulted in a measuring instrument with three factors who explained 62% of the total variance. Eight statements were reduced due to factorial loadings under 0,50, which lead to a total of 18 statements. The instrument was deemed to have attained good reliability based on Cronbach's alpha values for the respective factors (α= 0,776, α= 0,813, α= 0,749) as well as for the scale as a whole (α=0,856). It was also assessed to have attained good validity. The conclusions are that Widmarks Relapse Prevention Scale Version 1 (WRPS Version 1) makes it possible for further studies within the field and can be used as an objective instrument as a course evaluation. Measuring results based on WRPS Version 1 is considered to provide feedback on how well important skills are achieved and maintained, enabling more accessible care for course participants who have not developed good relapse preventive skills.

    Key words: measurement, PCA, psychometric properties, relapse prevention, WRPS Version 1

  • 885.
    Wigstrand Högberg, Evelina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    SOCIALA TILLGÅNGAR: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med syfte att identifiera varför ungdomar väljer att stanna i Grums kommun2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 886.
    Wik, Ellinor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    #Fitspo - Fitness inspiration: En kvalitativ studie om fitnessprofilers påverkan på unga tjejer i sin träning.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 887.
    Wiksell, Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Campaigning for cooperatives as resistance to neoliberal capitalism2017In: Journal of Political Power, ISSN 2158-379X, E-ISSN 2158-3803, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 236-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the eventual performance of critical resistance to neoliberal capitalism in the discourse of a marketing campaign that promotes the organisational form of cooperatives. Through discourse analysis, this article shows that the performed resistance activity in the campaign discourse is non-critical resistance since the dominant discourse of neoliberal capitalism is reproduced. The analysis displays that affective and economic articulations are intertwined in resistance through the discursive promotion of cooperation. The article contributes to understandings of cooperation as potential resistance to neoliberal capitalism, and highlights the risk of resistance simultaneously reproducing the power of dominant discourses. 

  • 888.
    Wiksten, Isabell
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Ström, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Sociala medier - en påverkande faktor på identitetsutveckling och psykiskt välbefinnande: En kvalitativ studie om unga kvinnors uppfattningar och erfarenheter av sociala medier2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine and highlight young women’s opinions and experiences of how Social Media affect their identity development and psychological well-being. It’s a qualitative study based on two focus groups, including three women in each group who studies on an academic level and are in the ages 18-25. One individual interview was also conducted with a professional, who works at a support clinic for mental illness amongst youth. The theoretical basis of the analysis is symbolic interactionism, social interaction, stigma and shame. The study is based on a symbolic interactionist perspective which highlights social interaction, stigma and shame. According to the women, Social Media can have both positive and negative impact on their identity development and psychological well-being. The women experiencing that Social Media increases users’ awareness of beauty standards; others judgement of one others’ presentation of themselves; stress caused by constant availability and exposure of information. The study shows that stress and a negative self-image can decrease the psychological well-being and affect the identity development.

  • 889.
    Wikström, Barbro
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Att gå, och hitta sig själv: En kvalitativ studie om upplevelse av att vandra på pilgrimsled2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the experience of going on a pilgrimage through a qualitative method. Nine individual interviews was conducted and analyzed with thematic analysis. The inclusion criteria required that the participants should have walked on pilgrimage at least two days. Thematic analysis revealed five themes. The first theme,Concern and apprehension, which described the respondents concerns about the hiking, both physically, practical and psychological. The second theme, The approach on the walk, describing that sub-goals and self-efficacy enabled the walkers to reach the goal. The third theme, Part of a context, described what other hikers and the culture along the trail meant for the hikers experience of feeling safe and connected. The forth theme, The meditative wanderinggave room for thoughts and feelings, describing the experience of the monotonous in the walking that opened up for emotions and thoughts that need to be processed and finally the fifth theme, Collision between the outer and inner world, which showed that it is not so easy to share an experience of internal change. The results showed that important decisions were taken during walking and that the meditative and open culture of feelings during walking enabled respondents to get in touch with their emotions and get the feeling of well being. The conclusion was that it is important for people to have places and time to reflect and think about life in order to feel good. That walking on pilgrimage is a tool for it and an opportunity to physically move while finding yourself.

  • 890.
    Wikström, Barbro
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Att vara sin egen lyckas smed: Att fylla livet med mening och inte bara med årEn kvalitativ studie om personer över 80 år tillhörande den fjärde åldern2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie undersökte personer över 80 år och tillhör den mycket sena vuxenåldern som också kallas ”den fjärde åldern”. Fyra personer intervjuades individuellt och de delade med sig av sin berättelse om sin vardag och genom det också förhållningsätt till sin livssituation.Genom tematisk analys framkom tre teman: temat Förhållningssätt till livet visade på vikten av att ha förmåga och tilltro till sig själv att kunna påverka sitt eget liv. Temat Möten som ger livet mening pekade på att den sociala gemenskapen är en stor del av glädjen i livet. Slutligen temat Kroppens förgänglighet som speglade att åldrandet gör att kroppen tappar funktioner men att det finns möjligheter att förhålla sig till det på ett positivt sätt.Slutsatserna var att det är viktigt att ha drömmar och framtidstro. Att kunskaper om åldrande kan hjälpa till med anpassning och acceptans och att det också hjälper till att inse vad som går eller inte går att påverka i sitt liv. Den egna rollen att påverka och vara aktiv i sin vardag är alltså viktig även för personer över 80 år. Ett bra sätt att förhålla sig till sitt liv är att förstå vikten av att det man gör påverkar det egna och andras liv. För att klara av att Vara sin egen lyckas smed behöver man tilltro till sig själv och sin egen förmåga och kunna acceptera det som inte går att förändra. Men man behöver också inse kraften i att få och be om hjälp av andra i sin gemenskap.

  • 891.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, G.
    Larsson, M.
    Starrin, B.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Quality of care from the elderly person's perspective: Subjective importance and perceived reality1995In: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, Vol. 7, p. 140-149-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 892.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Wikstrom, Fredrik
    Örebro University.
    Wetter-Edman, Katarina
    Örebro University.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Decisions on Recycling or Waste: How Packaging Functions Affect the Fate of Used Packaging in Selected Swedish Households2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 4794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intention of this paper is to learn more about why consumers choose whether or not to recycle, with special attention given to the functions of the packaging itself, in order to provide suggestions for improvements in packaging design, recycling systems and the environmental assessment of different packaging designs. The study focussed on ten households in Sweden that where motivated to participate in the study in order to gain an understanding of the complex matter of this decision-making process. The intention of implementing an interview-based qualitative study was to gain rich data and to reach beyond the respondents' immediate verbal responses. The respondents were interviewed with open-ended questions, which were supported with pictures of packaging; additionally, their waste bins were examined. This explorative study suggests a set of obstacles that cause consumers to dispose of packaging relating to the functions of packaging. The different obstacles that determine whether or not packaging is recycled were organised according to three different themes: the attitude towards cleanliness, the effort required to clean and sort and uncertainties about the best environmental alternative. The different functions of packaging do in fact influence all of the identified themes and; therefore, influence the decisions consumers make with regards to the recycling of specific packaging. The identified packaging functions were easy toseparate different materials, easy to separate different parts, easy to clean,easy to empty, easy to reseal, easy to compress and communication regarding recycling. Consumer behaviour with regards to specific packaging functions and recycling should be further investigated. It should also be considered for inclusion in design processes, to increase the chance of materials being recycled, and in food-packaging life-cycle assessments, to provide results that align more closely with reality.

  • 893.
    Wirsén, Erik
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Åkerlund, Simon
    Malmö University.
    Ingvarsdotter, Karin
    Malmö University.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Östman, Margareta
    Malmö University.
    Persson, Karin
    Malmö University.
    Burdens experienced and perceived needs of relatives of persons with SMI: A systematic meta-synthesis.2017In: Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 0963-8237, E-ISSN 1360-0567, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Close relatives of people with severe mental illness (SMI) experience problems known as family burdens. In addition, they may have their own needs for support, something often overlooked by the healthcare system. Meta-syntheses in this area may help explore the meaning of the experience of living with someone who has a SMI.

    AIM: Our aim was to describe the burdens experienced and needs perceived on a daily basis by relatives to someone who has a SMI.

    METHODS: The databases PubMed, CINAHL, and PsychInfo were searched using a systematic search strategy. Studies were screened for relevance and quality was appraised. A meta-synthesis of nine qualitative studies was then conducted.

    RESULTS: The nine studies discerned the following themes. Burden themes; Forced to carry a sometimes unbearable burden; Burdened by own ill-health and disrupted relationships; Distressed and stigmatized by society. Needs themes; strengthening protective factors; Skills and practical support greatly appreciated.

    CONCLUSIONS: The burdens and needs of relatives of persons with SMI strongly influence their lives. They require relief from both practical and emotional burdens. Family interventions and other programs to support relatives should be encouraged with this knowledge in mind.

  • 894.
    Wold, Caroliine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Det stressar mig att hjälpa dig!: En kvantitativ studie om organisatoriskt medborgarskapsbeteende och arbetsrelaterad stress bland industri- respektive omsorgsanställda.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Women are more sick from work than men, which according to new research may depends on that men and women typically work under different working conditions. More women than men work in caring professions, which may require a different type of loyalty than work in technical professions. Loyalty can be linked to organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if OCB correlated with work-related stress, and if there were differences in the OCB and work-related stress among industrial workers and social care workers and also between men and women. The study had a between individual design and data were collected through questionnaires consisting of two already validated instrument; OCB-C, which measured the organizational citizenship behavior and WSQ which measured work-related stress.

    The result was a slightly positive significant correlation between OCB and work-related stress. Higher levels of OCB correlated with increased stress. Differences between gender and occupation for OCB and work-related stress were analyzed through independent two-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test. According to the results men showed slightly higher levels of OCB than women, especially among care workers. Higher levels of OCB means employees more often voluntarily embrace additional tasks at work. All tests indicated that care workers have higher levels of both OCB and work-related stress than industrial workers. For most test women showed more work-related stress than men.

    The results from the two different tests differed for both OCB and work-related stress for both men and women, which makes it difficult to make conclusions about which result that best represents the reality. To be able to make conclusions about how OCB in addition to gender and working conditions can cause work-related stress, further research is needed.

  • 895.
    Wurm, Matilda
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Anniko, Malin
    Örebro universitet.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Flink, Ida
    Örebro universitet.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro universitet.
    Musculoskeletal pain in early adolescence: A longitudinal examination of pain prevalence and the role of peer-related stress, worry, and gender2018In: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 111, p. 76-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Adolescence is a time of change during which several health problems, such as pain problems, increase. Psychosocial mechanisms involved in this development, such as interpersonal stressors and worry, are still understudied, especially longitudinally. The first aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in Swedish adolescents between the ages 13 and 15 using pain grades. The second aim was to study the role of peer-related stress, worry, and gender in the development of musculoskeletal pain problems over time. Methods: Adolescents in 18 public schools were followed from 7th to 9th grade (N = 1181) and answered self-report questionnaires at three time points. Prevalence was assessed at all three time points and a moderated mediation analysis investigated if peer-related stress in 7th grade predicted musculoskeletal pain two years later and if this relationship was mediated by worry in 8th grade. Gender was entered as a moderator. Results: In 7th grade, 8.4% of adolescents reported musculoskeletal pain with some functional impairment. In 8th and 9th grade around 10% of adolescents reported musculoskeletal pain problems, with girls reporting a higher prevalence than boys. Peer-related stress in 7th grade predicted musculoskeletal pain problems in 9th grade, mediated by worry in 8th grade. The mediation was moderated by gender: peer-related stress predicted worry for girls, but not for boys. Conclusion: Peer-related stress and worry seem to be involved in the development of pain over time. These factors should therefore be targeted in preventative interventions and during treatment.

  • 896.
    Wärme, Jesper
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Vuxen anknytning som prediktion av copingstrategier: En enkätstudie om vuxen anknytning och copingstrategier2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A quantitative survey study has been carried out to investigate possible correlations and predictions between adult attachment and coping strategies. The sample for the study was 133 students from various Universities and colleges in Sweden who answered a questionnaire. . To measure adult attachment this study used Experience in close relationship (ECR-R), and copingstrategies was measured by Brief COPE. Data collected were analyzed in SPSS using the Pearson correlationcoefficient test and multiple regression analysis.

    The results from the present study showed significant negative correlation between anxiety loaded attachment and problem focused coping. The results also showed a significant negative correlation between avoidance attachment and problem focused coping. The results from the present study showed a significant correlation between anxiety loaded attachment and dysfunctional coping. The results also showed a significant correlation between avoidance attachment and dysfunctional coping. The study results showed that there was no correlation between anxiety loaded attachment and emotion focused coping. The results also showed that there was no correlation between avoidance attachment and emotion focused coping. The result from the present study showed that anxiety loaded extension was a significant predictor of problem-focused coping where 15% of the variance of problem-focused was explained. Anxiety loaded attachment was a significant predictor of dysfunctional coping where 22% of the variance was explained.

    The conclusions are that students with anxiety loaded and avoidance attachment use lower grade of problem-focused coping. Students with anxiety and avoidance attachment uses increasingly dysfunctional coping strategies. It is concluded that variables other than adult attachment affects using various coping strategies.

  • 897.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Heuristics and resource depletion: eye-tracking customers’ in situ gaze behavior in the field2014In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, no 1, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When we visit a retail outlet, we go there to complete some type of shopping goal. These goals may be very specific and precisely planned prior to entering the store, or more abstract, and something we think of on the spur of the moment. The stores may display tens of thousands of different products, making it difficult to achieve the shopping goal in a rational manner. As a result, we use different types of heuristics to meet our shopping goals. In this study, we investigate how a customer’s visual attention is influenced by their shopping goal, based on the results of three field experiments in three different contexts—a gas station, a sports store, and a grocery store. Firstly we establish that differences do exist in viewing behavior based on whether shopping goals are planned or unplanned. A more complex and unplanned shopping goal leads to increased observations of in-store stimulus. We then study whether or not the complexity of the first shopping goal also influences the viewing behavior of the next shopping goal, independently of the characteristics of the second goal. The findings confirm that complex decision heuristics deplete cognitive recourse. This finding results in diminished visual attention during subsequent choices. In turn, this has implications for a customer’s shopping behavior.

  • 898.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Unsold is unseen … or is it?: Examining the role of peripheral vision in the consumer choice process using eye-tracking methodology2018In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 120, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In visual marketing, the truism that “unseen is unsold” means that products that are not noticed will not be sold. This truism rests on the idea that the consumer choice process is heavily influenced by visual search. However, given that the majority of available products are not seen by consumers, this article examines the role of peripheral vision in guiding attention during the consumer choice process. In two eye-tracking studies, one conducted in a lab facility and the other conducted in a supermarket, the authors investigate the role and limitations of peripheral vision. The results show that peripheral vision is used to direct visual attention when discriminating between target and non-target objects in an eye-tracking laboratory. Target and non-target similarity, as well as visual saliency of non-targets, constitute the boundary conditions for this effect, which generalizes from instruction-based laboratory tasks to preference-based choice tasks in a real supermarket setting. Thus, peripheral vision helps customers to devote a larger share of attention to relevant products during the consumer choice process. Taken together, the results show how the creation of consideration set (sets of possible choice options) relies on both goal-directed attention and peripheral vision. These results could explain how visually similar packaging positively influences market leaders, while making novel brands almost invisible on supermarket shelves. The findings show that even though unsold products might be unseen, in the sense that they have not been directly observed, they might still have been evaluated and excluded by means of peripheral vision. This article is based on controlled lab experiments as well as a field study conducted in a complex retail environment. Thus, the findings are valid both under controlled and ecologically valid conditions.

  • 899.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Ricardo, Matos
    Unveiling the Hidden Aspects of Service Innovation: Using Eye Tracking to Understand and Enhance Customer Experience2019In: Service Innovation For Sustainable Business: Stimulating, Realizing And Capturing The Value From Service Innovation / [ed] Per Kristensson, Peter Magnusson, Lars Witell, New Jersey: World Scientific, 2019, p. 179-202Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 900.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Sponseller, Kay
    Adult Habilitat Ctr, Landstinget i Värmland, Sweden..
    Pettersson, Ola
    Embint Technol, Örebro, Sweden..
    Bared, Anders
    Aurena Labs AB, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Evaluating gaze-driven power wheelchair with navigation support for persons with disabilities2015In: Journal of rehabilitation research and development, ISSN 0748-7711, E-ISSN 1938-1352, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 815-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes a novel add-on for powered wheelchairs that is composed of a gaze-driven control system and a navigation support system. The add-on was tested by three users. All of the users were individuals with severe disabilities and no possibility of moving independently. The system is an add-on to a standard power wheelchair and can be customized for different levels of support according to the cognitive level, motor control, perceptual skills, and specific needs of the user. The primary aim of this study was to test the functionality and safety of the system in the user's home environment. The secondary aim was to evaluate whether access to a gaze-driven powered wheelchair with navigation support is perceived as meaningful in terms of independence and participation. The results show that the system has the potential to provide safe, independent indoor mobility and that the users perceive doing so as fun, meaningful, and a way to reduce dependency on others. Independent mobility has numerous benefits in addition to psychological and emotional well-being. By observing users' actions, caregivers and healthcare professionals can assess the individual's capabilities, which was not previously possible. Rehabilitation can be better adapted to the individual's specific needs, and driving a wheelchair independently can be a valuable, motivating training tool.

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