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  • 801.
    Wang, Wei
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    WebRTC Quality Control in Contextual Communication Systems2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Audio and video communication is a universal task with a long history of technologies. Recent examples of these technologies include Skype video calling, Apple’s Face Time, and Google Hangouts. Today, these services offer everyday users the ability to have an interactive conference with both audio and video streams. However, many of these solutions depend on extra plugins or applications installing on the user’s personal computer or mobile device. Some of them also are subject to licensing, introducing a huge barrier for developers and restraining new companies from entering this area. The aim of Web Real-Time Communications (WebRTC) is to provide direct access to multimedia streams in the browser, thus making it possible to create rich media applications using web technology without the need for plugins or developers needing to pay technology license fees.

    Ericsson develops solutions for communication targeting professional and business users. With the increasing possibilities to gather data (via cloud-based applications) about the quality experienced by users in their video conferences, new demands are placed on the infrastructure to handle this data. Additionally, there is a question of how the stats should be utilized to automatically control the quality of service (QoS) in WebRTC communication systems.

    The thesis project deployed a WebRTC quality control service with methods of data processing and modeling to assess the perceived video quality of the ongoing session, and in further produce appropriate actions to remedy poor quality. Lastly, after evaluated on the Ericsson contextual test platform, the project verified that two of the stats-parameters (network delay and packet loss percentage) for assessing QoS have the negative effect on the perceived video quality but with different influence degree. Moreover, the available bandwidth turned out to be an important factor, which should be added as an additional stats-parameter to improve the performance of a WebRTC quality control service.

  • 802.
    Wang, Willy
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Evaluating the use of PXI modules in tests of a radio base station2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis project was carried out at the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) department at Ericsson AB. One of the department’s goals is to seek a possible replacement to the box test instruments by utilizing PCI extension for instrumentation (PXI) modules. The main objective of this project is to evaluate how different PXI modules work during testing of a radio base station (RBS), in terms of performance, test time, and cost. A downlink decoder was implemented in LabVIEW with an extension called MathScript and several software test solutions were examined to measure error vector magnitude (EVM), frequency error, and power, and to perform parallel measurements in a multiple radio access technology (multi-RAT) test configuration. Moreover, several uplink tests were performed to decide if PXI modules are a suitable substitute for the previous box based test instruments. The findings from this study show that PXI modules can replace the previous box based test instruments. However it was concluded that not all areas can be covered and not all discrete test instrument can (yet) be replaced. Future work should complete the downlink decoder implementation in the field programmable gate array (FPGA) level in order to further improve the performance further. Future work should also examine if it is possible to replace all of the discrete test instruments with PXI modules.

  • 803.
    Wang, Xiaoxin
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    3G HSDPA Performance In Mobile Internet Connections2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A key objective for 3G wireless networks, such as the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS), is the explicit support for data communications for mobile users. Today, the dominant transport protocol in the Internet is the Transport Control Protocol (TCP). Since TCP was not tailored for wireless networks, there are some performance issues occurring when TCP traffic is transferred over a UMTS radio link.

    In this paper, the characteristics of TCP and UMTS are specified and the problems of TCP over UMTS dedicated channels (DCHs) are analyzed. The problem is high delays implying low utilization of allocated resources for small file transfers or due to packet losses. High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)’s potential to solve the problem is studied. Since in HSDPA, High-Speed Downlink shared channel (HS-DSCH) is introduced as an alternative of DCH on downlink packet access, a model of HS-DSCH is built and simulations are performed in order to compare its TCP performance with DCH. The focus is on studying retransmission delay and Block Error Rate (BLER) targets. Some scheduling methods are also compared. The results indicate that HS-DSCH gives better TCP performance than a DCH, and that advanced scheduling methods gives similar result as round robin if there are packet losses. Moreover, a somewhat surprising result is found regarding fast retransmission and channel utilization for increasing BLER targets.

  • 804.
    Wang, Yun
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Jiang, Wenxuan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Statistical Processing of IEEE 802.15.4 Data Collected in Industrial Environment2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor network, which is constitute of autonomous sensors, is used for monitoring physical or environmental conditions like temperature, sound, pressure, and so on. The dispersed sensors or nodes will respectively pass their data through the network to the main location. Currently, several standards are ratified or in developing for wireless sensor network, like Wireless Hart, ISA, 100.11a, WIA-PAA, IEEE 802.15.4, etc. Among the standards, Zigbee is often used in industrial applications that require short-range and low-rate wireless transfer. In the research, all the data is collected under industrial environment using IEEE 802.15.4 compliant physical layer, some packets are interfered only by multi-path fading while others are also interfered by Wi-Fi interference. The goal of the thesis is to find out the dependence between the received power (RSS), correlation value (CORR) and bit error rate (BER) of the received message, and their distribution in situations both when the packet is lost or not. Besides, the performance of bit error rate such as the distribution and the features of burst error length under Wi-Fi interference or not will also be tested. All of them are based on a precise statistical processing. 

  • 805.
    Wannas, Hussain
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Full Duplex Multiuser MIMO with Massive Arrays2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Half-Duplex Multiuser Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (HD MU-MIMO) systemscurrently employed in communication systems are not experiencing the selfinterference(SI) problem but they are not optimal in terms of efficiency and interms of resources used (time and frequency resources). Ignoring the effect of largescalefading, we start by explaining the uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) parts ofthe MU-MIMO system and how the sum-rate is calculated. We also introduce thethree linear receivers/precoders, Maximum-Ratio Combining (MRC)/Maximum-Ratio Transmission (MRT), Zero-Forcing (ZF), and Minimum Mean-Square Error(MMSE) and which of the three types is going to be used in the study of Full-Duplex Multiuser Multiple-input Multiple-output (FD MU-MIMO) system. Thenwe introduce FD MU-MIMO system, and how the equation used to calculate thesum-rate of the UL part changes when the SI occurs, and why SI problem is notpresent in the DL part. Next, we introduce the spectral efficiency (SE), and howto calculate it and why it is taken as a parameter to compare HD and FD systems.Also the effect of SI on FD MU-MIMO system is presented through simulationgraphs, then we move to show how to reduce SI effect by increasing the number ofantennas in the base-station (BS). Lastly, we take the effect of large scale fading inorder to reach a simple statistical model in the form cumulative distribution function(CDF) graph for different values of SI and compare those of FD MU-MIMOsystem to HD MU-MIMO. The results show that FD MU-MIMO together withmassive MIMO technology is very promising and would save time and frequencyresources which means an increase in the SE but SI must be below a certain level.

  • 806.
    Wase, Ulrika
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Teleinformatik.
    Integration av Orbix och distributionen av objekt inom Ericsson Broadband System1996Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 12 poäng / 18 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten dokumenterar mitt examensarbete som utfördes på Ellemtel Utvecklings AB / Ericsson Utvecklings AB1 i Älvsjö juli -december 1995. Ericsson Utvecklings AB är ett utvecklingsbolag inom Ericsson-koncernen vilket utvecklar systemplattformar för telekommunikation.

    Rapporten behandlar distribuerade objektsystem. Bland dessa behandlas framförallt Ericssons egen utvecklade samt Orbix, en kommersiellprodukt utvecklad av Iona Technologies Ltd. Min uppgiftvar att integrera dessa. Rapporten vänder sig till Dig som har grundläggande kunskaper om datorer och distributions mekanismer.

  • 807.
    Wazir, Omerjan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Data- och elektroteknik.
    Frantsalis, Ioannis
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Data- och elektroteknik.
    Prestandautvärdering av Bluetooth och Wi-Fi för en smart hubb2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet har utförts på uppdrag av företaget Seavus som såg ett behov avatt minska kabelanvändning i kontoret. Enhetsanvändning kan effektiviseras medhjälp av en central styrenhet, en så kallad smart hubb.Ett problem är att välja mellan Bluetooth och Wi-Fi för kommunikation mellan an-vändaren och den smarta hubben. Valet kan bero på flera faktorer som exempelvis,bandbredd (datahastighet), jitter (fördröjningsvariation) och paketförluster, vilkaär viktiga parametrar för att bedöma kvaliteten på kommunikationen.Plattformen Raspberry Pi tillsammans med kompatibel programvara användes föratt utföra prestandatester mellan Bluetooth och Wi-Fi i olika miljöer.Resultatet visade att Wi-Fi lämpar sig bäst för kommunikation med hög datahas-tighet och lågt jitter men där relativt hög grad av paketförlust är acceptabelt. Blue-tooth lämpar sig bäst för kommunikation med låg datahastighet, med högt jitteroch där det är viktigt att ha så låg paketförlust som möjligt.

  • 808.
    Wei, Li
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Teleinformatik.
    Gateway between Packet and Switched Networks for Speech Communication1994Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a result of a six month thesis work which was carried out and completed with the support of Ericsson Radio Systems AB in Kista, Stockholm. The purpose of this work was to connect the ordinary telephone world and the computer world by building a gateway between them. Since the hardware today is already qualified for such an idea, sofware construction including programming in Erland and C became the major task of the thesis. The system consists of an Ericsson MD110, an embedded computer as the gateway, programs supporting speech communication between workstations over an Ethernet LAN, speech communication between telephones attached to the MD110, and the speech communication between obe telephone and one workstation via the gateway.

  • 809.
    Weltz, Max
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Dial over Data solution2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of computer networks has lead to the adoption of Internet-based solutions for reducing telephony costs. This has proved to be a boon to callers who can reach the other party directly via the Internet. Unfortunately numerous business persons still need to call to and from mobile phones which are currently a domain where the customers are generally tightly bound to their operators.

    To provide a simple solution to this problem for companies, Opticall AB has designed an integrated system called the Dial over Data solution, coupling a mobile interface with a low-rate communication channel, which allows calls to be originated remotely at the best price, exploiting the customer company's existing network. This scheme allows the customer company to easily control telecommunications costs, to monitor their employees' efficiency, and more generally speaking to claim a central role in the communications of their employees. The proposed solution allows distant callers (usually employees of the customer company) to benefit from the company's internal network, which is usually more cost effective and offering connectivity to more networks than a cell phone. The Dial over Data solution enables communication between any phone accessible from the customer company's telephony network (such as SIP clients, landline phones, and mobile phones) at a lower cost.</p> This thesis project analyzes existing technologies and compares them to the pre-existing prototype to ascertain the validity of the method and of the components used. This project also explains the improvements brought to the features offered by the DoD solution: the initial prototype has been developed into a stable and functional product, and has been tested internally. Prompted by a need for scalability and additional features, the replacement of Asterisk for the handling of SIP calls by other SIP servers has also been considered and tested.

  • 810.
    Wen, Daliang
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Teleinformatik.
    MPLS Label Distribution in an Edge Router1998Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid growth of the Internet has increased the demand for higher bandwidth and better performance. One of the alternatives to satisfy such demands MPLS, (Multi-Protocol Label Switching). The key feature of MPLS is IP switching. It maps the destination address to a locally defined label. The packets can then be forwarded through the network by only examining the label value and no further routing table lookups are needed. One of the key components of MPLS’s is Label Distribution. The goal of Label Distribution is to negotiate labels with the neighbor MPLS nodes using a signaling protocol LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) and update the label information in a local database called LIB (Label Information Base).

    In this thesis, the author will present an overview of the MPLS network and the MPLS system components within an Label Edge Router (LER), which is a router located at the edge of an MPLS network. Furthermore, the implementation of the Label Distribution component in a Label Edge Router of an MPLS system is described and evaluated.

  • 811.
    Wendelin, Kurt Kristoffer
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Teleinformatik.
    Platform Independent Software for Remote Control of a GPS Receiver1998Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With all of the excitement over the World Wide Web on the desktop, the benefits of applying the same technology to embedded devices were fully realized only recently. A device attached to the Internet with an HTTP server running on it can provide for remote access to documentation, monitoring, and configuration of the device from a Web browser on any platform.

    In this project, the Jupiter GPS receiver is used as a prototype device to explore this concept. A client-server system gives access to the full functionality of the GPS attached to a remote host. The client is written in Java and documented in HTML, and the GPS receiver is connected to a Motorola PowerPC board running the VxWorks real-time operating system. This integrates important Web technologies into an embedded environment.

  • 812.
    Wennlund, Andreas
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Context-aware Wearable Device for Reconfigurable Application Networks2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context information available in wearable devices is believed to be useful in many ways. It allows for hiding much of the complexity from the user, thus enabling simpler user interfaces and less user interaction when carrying out tasks on behalf of a user, as well as enabling network operators to provide a better interface to thirdparty service providers who will provide and deliver wireless services. Using the available context information from the wearable device, optimization of service delivery in wireless networks, such as setting up optimal delivery paths between two wearable devices, may be possible without using a third party to do negotiations. In order to fully enable context-awareness, a clear model for how to sense, manage, derive, store, and exchange context information must be defined. This will then provide the platform needed to enable development of context-aware applications that can exploit the possibilities of context-aware computing. The model must take into consideration parameters such as memory usage and power and bandwidth consumption, in order to be efficient on all types of platforms and in all types of networks. It must also be modular enough to survive replacing and upgrading of internal parts.

    Today little research is available about sensing context information, sensor management, APIs towards other applications, and how and how often to present context information to applications. Since context aware computing relies heavily on the ability to obtain and represent context information, sensing strategies greatly affect efficiency and performance. It is therefore of great interest to develop and evaluate models for carrying out these tasks in order to exploit the results of context awareness research. This thesis will identify and design several components of such a model, as well as test and evaluate the design, in order to be able to make conclusions to whether is lives up to the expectations stated.

    In order to make the proper design decisions, a full understanding of the context-awareness research area and the goals and purposes of context-aware computing are required. To understand the entire picture is crucial to find a suitable solution. Therefore, determining an efficient sensor input and management strategy, along with a powerful and flexible API for applications, which are the goals of this thesis, fully qualifies as a significant master thesis assignment.

  • 813.
    Wennström, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Kontinuerlig temperaturmätning i bädden på gratevagnar2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag (LKAB) är en gruvdriftskoncern med järnmalmsbrytning som huvudsaklig verksamhet. En av produkterna tas fram genom att raffinera järnmalm till pellets vilket är en efterfrågad produkt vid ståltillverkning.

     

    Vid sintring av råkulor till pellets är temperaturen väsentlig för att få så hög oxidation som möjligt av magnetit till hematit och för att få rätt fasthet. För att reglera värmen bör temperaturen mätas bland råkulorna eftersom det är kulornas temperatur som är det viktiga.

                                     

    Projektet går ut på att undersöka möjligheterna att mäta temperatur bland råkulor på gratevagnar som åker genom en pelletsugn med ett permanent mätsystem. Här ställs höga krav på mätsystemet på grund av miljö, portabilitet och drifttid.

    Miljöanalyser gjordes för att ta reda på vilken påfrestning ett mätsystem bör klara av. Förslag om placering av mätutrustning framtogs genom kartläggning av miljön. En värmeundersökning utfördes av vad hög värme har för påverkan på elektroniska komponenter som kan behövas till ett mätsystem.

    Det gjordes även en undersökning över vilka komponenter som kan klara av den värme ett mätsystem kan bli utsatt för. Utifrån detta kunde ett prototypmätsystem konstrueras för att mäta temperaturen där ett mätsystem kan placeras på en gratevagn samt för att skapa möjlighet för mätningar med termoelement i bädd. Mätsystemet skapades med trådlös kommunikation, möjlighet till loggning av data och med möjlighet att ansluta tre termoelement av typ S. Olika typer av trådlös kommunikation utvärderades för att se vad som kan vara mest lämpat med tanke på miljö, räckvidd, strålning och strömförbrukning.

    Strömförsörjning undersöktes för att hitta den mest lämpade strömförsörjningen med längst drifttid och högst funktionalitet.

    En utredning gjordes för att hitta monteringsmöjligheter av ett mätsystem på en gratevagn. Värmeavskärmning och isolering undersöktes för att få ner temperaturen i kapslingen och för elektroniken i ett mätsystem.

    Några olika temperaturgivare granskades för att hitta en som klarar av att mäta temperaturer upp till 1500°C och som fysiskt kan monteras på en gratevagn.

  • 814.
    Westermark, Christian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Mobile Multiplayer Gaming2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The last ten years, online multiplayer games have become very popular. During the same time period mobile terminals and cellular networks have undergone a tremendous technical evolution. Therefore it is natural to wonder why we have not seen an online mobile multiplayer gaming revolution yet. The answer to this question is of great value for companies selling mobile systems. This answer is important in order to understand how to fill up today’s empty networks with traffic and what kind of traffic these games will generate.

    This thesis is a continuation of Mattias Åkervik’s thesis. It gives the reader an understanding of what kind of wireless technologies are on the market today and how they perform. Given this performance background, some suitable games were chosen to examine how they perform over a particular cellular network and to determine the perceived gaming quality that a user experience. The thesis also examines the particular packet traffic characteristics generated by these games to gain a better understanding of how to better adapt cellular networks towards gaming.

    Finally the market will be analyzed. Not only how large this potential market is, but to examine if there are some market issues preventing the revolution in network cellular on-line multiplayer games.

  • 815.
    Westin, Ola
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    TCP Performance in Wireless Mobile Multi-hop Ad Hoc Networks2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    There are many issues that limit the performance of wireless mobile multi-hop ad hoc networks (MANETs). One of them is that TCP is not well adapted to networks where routes can change or disappear often. In this paper the behaviour of a standard TCP implementation is studied in situations typical for MANETs and compared to the behaviour of a partial implementation of a ATCP, a TCP modification that is intended to increase performance in MANETs.

    Simulations with simple scenarios show that TCP easily creates a full network load which causes send failures and decreased throughput performance. In some cases the partial ATCP implementation increases throughput but more often it causes an increased amount of duplicate retransmissions. In these scenarios it is unlikely that even a complete ATCP implementation would increase throughput performance.

    A few modifications to ATCP and TCP are analysed. Especially a limit of the congestion window size shows a large throughput increase. The results are inconclusive, the simulations are too simple to show if the results are applicable in more complex scenarios. It is not clear if ATCP actually is useful in a MANET.

  • 816.
    Wiberg, Niklas
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Teleinformatik.
    Profile Handling Gateway/Proxy2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    When home users surf the Internet (i.e. use the World Wide Web) today, be it by dial-up or by other means, they are virtually anonymous to the sites they visit. Many sites would, according to Iquity Systems’ experience, like to know more about their visitors in order to target the advertisements (e.g. banners) displayed, services offered, etc. It is also likely that site owners are interested in the type of people that visit their site.

    Iquity Systems would like to provide a system that is capable of providing Internet site owners with profile data of the visitors, as well as sharing usage accounts with Iquity’s telephony products. The system should also be supportive of a rating model that lets an access provider running the system charge a user differently for the access, depending on whether the user is presented with targeted advertisements or not. This solution shall be able to be integrated with other parts of the company’s IQ platform. One of these parts is a system for accounting, while another is a user profile handling database.

    This paper discusses the design of such a system.

  • 817.
    Wickbom, Carl
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Teleinformatik.
    SIP and payments: a way of controlling the price2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    IP-telephony is said to be the future of telephony, reducing infrastructure investments and enabling new services. IP-telephony solutions exist already in some business buildings as a replacement for PSTN or on the Internet as IP-to-IP telephony. However, before IP-telephony will be a realistic replacement for PSTN two major problems must be solved though; billing and guarantee of the expected QoS. Without the possibility of revenue no company would like to invest money and without QoS no customer will want to replace PSTN with IP-telephony. IP-to-IP telephony exists with best effort traffic for free today, and it will not be possible to charge for it in the future. By introducing value-added features such as PSTN gateway connection, bandwidth reservation and services such as call screening and redirecting, a way of charging the customer is presented in this report.

    The payment solution developed in this thesis is based on SIP and Jalda. The system is built in modules, all with a specific task, hence creating a distributed system, which does not depend on a central part, and following existing standards, avoiding a proprietary solution. It is also general enough to support other types of media than speech, enabling several business ideas including video on demand.

    Security has to be considered seriously when dealing with Internet payments. The solution presented contains both the advantages of SIP with authentication and message encryption, as well as authentication and accounting by Jalda. Authorization is not a problem, as no one will get access to the services without paying, and anyone willing to pay will be granted access. It ends up being a distributed payment solution.

    SIP has the necessary characteristics for constructing billing solutions. As payment seems to be a solvable problem there remains one major difficulty with IP-telephony. Until QoS can be guaranteed or the interference reduced to a minimum, it is not reasonable to imagine IP-telephony replacing PSTN except in well managed intranets where the network can be over dimensioned in such a way as to provide the necessary QoS.

  • 818.
    Wickman, Tomas
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Evaluation of communication protocols between vehicle and server: Evaluation of data transmission overhead by communication protocols2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis project has studied a number of protocols that could be used to communicate between a vehicle and a remote server in the context of Scania’s connected services. While there are many factors that are of interest to Scania (such as response time, transmission speed, and amount of data overhead for each message), this thesis will evaluate each protocol in terms of how much data overhead is introduced and how packet loss affects this overhead. The thesis begins by giving an overview of how a number of alternative protocols work and what they offer with regards to Scania’s needs. Next these protocols are compared based on previous studies and each protocol’s specifications to determine which protocol would be the best choice for realizing Scania’s connected services. Finally, a test framework was set up using a virtual environment to simulate different networking conditions. Each of the candidate protocols were deployed in this environment and setup to send sample data. The behaviour of each protocol during these tests served as the basis for the analysis of all of these protocols. The thesis draws the conclusion that to reduce the data transmission overhead between vehicles and Scania’s servers the most suitable protocol is the UDP based MQTT SN.

  • 819.
    Widfeldt, Fredrik
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Teleinformatik.
    sage of LDAP for managing users and resources in a computer network1997Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today most organizations keep several separated information directories in which for example computer passwords, e-mail addresses, telephone numbers etc. are stored. A big problem is that much of the information is stored in more than one of the directories and thus it is easy for inconsistencies to develop between the directories. A solution to the problem is to store the information only once - in a central directory server where client applications could access it. LDAP is a protocol used by clients to retrieve information from a directory server.

    This report describes how an LDAP directory may be used to share user data in a computer network. First the concept of distributed directory information is presented. Then LDAP is carefully described and compared with X.500, a larger and more complex service. After that we look at the possibility to implement LDAP when developing own systems. Deployment issues and available LDAP products are discussed. A project demo system is presented and described. The demo system shows how different systems can share user information stored in an LDAP directory and how operating systems may be migrated with the directory. One of the more important parts of the system is a gateway server, forwarding NIS requests to the LDAP directory.

    The goal of the report is to make the reader aware of distributed directory services and what important role they probably will have in the near future.

  • 820.
    Wiklander, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Mobile Resource Awareness2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    New types of cellular networks are appearing on the market, such as GPRS and UMTS. In addition to this, an increasing number of places are being equipped with wireless LAN extensions to the Internet. Simultaneously, new mobile devices are becoming available that can perform complex computations based on events from various input devices and/or information sources. The combination of extended network connectivity and new mobile devices creates new opportunities for network computing.

    This paper presents a scenario where network enabled applications can interact with mobile devices to create a smart space. The ambition is to create a system where mobile devices can be aware of what resources are present at a specific location. The prototype solution in this paper uses an XML-based protocol and a tuple space architecture as a message passing mechanism.

  • 821.
    Wiren, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Data Storage Cost Optimization Based on Electricity Price Forecasting with Machine Learning in a Multi-Geographical Cloud Environment2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As increased demand of cloud computing leads to increased electricity costs for cloud providers, there is an incentive to investigate in new methods to lower electricity costs in data centers. Electricity price markets suffer from sudden price spikes as well as irregularities between different geographical electricity markets.

    This thesis investigates in whether it is possible to leverage these volatilities and irregularities between different electricity price markets, to offload or move storage in order to reduce electricity price costs for data storage.

    By forecasting four different electricity price markets it was possible to predict sudden price spikes and leverage these forecasts in a simple optimization model to offload storage of data in data centers and successfully reduce electricity costs for data storage.

  • 822.
    Wu, Jun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Signal Collecting Platform and "Handprint" Positioning System2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile computing is an emerging research field in recent years. Although the computation capability of main stream smartphones are several orders of magnitude better than computers twenty years ago, the capacity of battery does not increase at same speed. To save energy, some recent work tries to schedule network traffic according to signal strength variations. To achieve this goal, a database that is used for storing signal strength distribution is essential.We first design and implement a platform to collect cellular network information, including Cell-ID and signal strength information. The platform is designed as a distributed system that supports collecting signal strength data by using crowdsourcing approach.We then deploy the platform and collect signal strength information in Otaniemi area (Finland). After analysing the collected data, we observe several interesting phenomenons. (1) the density of base stations is out of expectation; (2) cells is becoming smaller; (3) in most places a device may connect to different base stations. Based on these observations, we design a new energy-efficient positioning system called “handprint”, which utilises signal strength information from neighbouring smartphones to assist positioning. Compared with Google Geolocation API and other existing work, our “handprint” system can improve positioning accuracy by more than 20%.

  • 823.
    Wu, Xiao
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    SIP on an Overlay Network2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of mobile (specifically: wide area cellular telephony) technology, users’ requirements have changed from the basic voice service based on circuit switch technology to a desire for high speed packet based data transmission services. Voice over IP (VoIP), a packet based service, is gaining increasing attention due to its high performance and low cost. However, VoIP does not work well in every situation. Today Network address translation (NAT) traversal has become the main obstruction for future VoIP deployment.

    In this thesis we analyze and compare the existing NAT traversal solutions. Following this, we introduce a VoIP over IPSec (VOIPSec) solution (i.e., a VoIP over IPSec virtual private network (VPN) scheme) and an extended VOIPSec solution mechanism. These two solutions were tested and compared to measure their performance in comparison to a version of the same Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) user agent running without IPSec.

    In the proposed VOIPSec solution, the IPSec VPN tunnel connects each of the SIP clients to a SIP server, thus making all of the potential SIP participants reachable, i.e., solving the NAT traversal problem. All SIP signaling and media traffic for VoIP calls are transmitted through this prior established tunnel. This VPN tunnel provides the desired universal means for VoIP traffic to traverse NAT equipment. Additionally, the IPSec VPN also guarantees the security of VoIP calls at the IP level.

    In order to improve the security level of media streams for the VOIPSec solution, we deployed and evaluated an extended VOIPSec solution which provides end-to-end protection of the real time media traffic. In this extended VOIPSec solution, we used SRTP instead of RTP to carry the media content. This extended method was shown to provide all of the advantages of VOIPSec and SRTP without any additional delay for the media traffic (as compared to the VoIPSec solution).

    Note that the solution proposed in this thesis may be of limited practical importance in the future as more NATs become VoIP capable; but the solution is currently essential for facilitating the increasing deployment of VoIP systems in practice. For VoIP calls that do not need end-to-end security, we recommend the use of the VOIPSec solution as a means to solve the NAT traversal problem and to protect traffic at the IP level. When application to application security is not needed we prefer the VOIPSec solution to the extended VOIPSec solution for the following reasons: (1) our test results show that the time for call setup for the extended VOIPSec solution is twice time the time needed for the VOIPSec solution and the extended VOIPSec solution requires the use of user agents that support SRTP. While, the VOIPSec solution does not require a special user agent and all VoIP clients in the market are compatible with this solution. However, when more SIP user agents add support for SRTP, the extended VOIPSec solution will be applicable for users of these SIP user agents.

  • 824.
    Wu, Yongliang
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Aggregating product reviews for the Chinese market2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As of December 2007, the number of Internet users in China had increased to 210 million people. The annual growth rate reached 53.3 percent in 2008, with the average number of Internet users increasing every day by 200,000 people. Currently, China's Internet population is slightly lower than the 215 million internet users in the United States. [1]

    Despite the rapid growth of the Chinese economy in the global Internet market, China’s e-commerce is not following the traditional pattern of commerce, but instead has developed based on user demand. This growth has extended into every area of the Internet.

    In the west, expert product reviews have been shown to be an important element in a user’s purchase decision. The higher the quality of product reviews that customers received, the more products they buy from on-line shops. As the number of products and options increase, Chinese customers need impersonal, impartial, and detailed products reviews. This thesis focuses on on-line product reviews and how they affect Chinese customer’s purchase decisions.

    E-commerce is a complex system. As a typical model of e-commerce, we examine a Business to Consumer (B2C) on-line retail site and consider a number of factors; including some seemingly subtitle factors that may influence a customer’s eventually decision to shop on website. Specifically this thesis project will examine aggregated product reviews from different on-line sources by analyzing some existing western companies. Following this the thesis demonstrates how to aggregate product reviews for an e-business website.

    During this thesis project we found that existing data mining techniques made it straight forward to collect reviews. These reviews were stored in a database and web applications can query this database to provide a user with a set of relevant product reviews. One of the important issues, just as with search engines is providing the relevant product reviews and determining what order they should be presented in. In our work we selected the reviews based upon matching the product (although in some cases there are ambiguities concerning if two products are actually identical or not) and ordering the matching reviews by date - with the most recent reviews present first.

    Some of the open questions that remain for the future are: (1) improving the matching - to avoid the ambiguity concerning if the reviews are about the same product or not and (2) determining if the availability of product reviews actually affect a Chinese user's decision to purchase a product.

  • 825.
    Xie, Tian
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Kommunikationsteori.
    Knowledge discovery and machinelearning for capacity optimizationof Automatic Milking RotarySystem2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Dairy farming as one part of agriculture has thousands of year’s history. The increasingdemands of dairy products and the rapid development of technology bring dairyfarming tremendous changes. Started by first hand milking, dairy farming goes throughvacuum bucket milking, pipeline milking, and now parlors milking. The automatic andtechnical milking system provided farmer with high-efficiency milking, effective herdmanagement and above all booming income.DeLaval Automatic Milking Rotary (AMRTM) is the world’s leading automatic milkingrotary system. It presents an ultimate combination of technology and machinerywhich brings dairy farming with significant benefits. AMRTM technical milking capacityis 90 cows per hour. However, constrained by farm management, cow’s condition andsystem configuration, the actual capacity is lower than technical value. In this thesis, anoptimization system is designed to analyze and improve AMRTM performance. The researchis focusing on cow behavior and AMRTM robot timeout. Through applying knowledgediscover from database (KDD), building machine learning cow behavior predictionsystem and developing modeling methods for system simulation, the optimizing solutionsare proposed and validated.

  • 826.
    Xing, Hanwen
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Liu, Xin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    A Lithium-ion Battery Charger2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

       Nowadays personal small electronic devices like cellphones are more and more popular, but the various batteries in need of charging become a problem. This thesis aims to explain a Lithium-ion charger which can control the current and voltage so that it can charge most kinds of popular batteries. More specifically, Li-ion battery charging is presented. The charging circuit design, simulation and the measurements will also be included.

  • 827.
    Xiong, Xuelin
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    SCTP and Diameter Parameters for High Availability in LTE Roaming2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today mobile network operators utilize IP Packet exchange (IPX) carriers to interconnect their networks with other operators. Mobile network operators are free to choose one IPX carrier for their data traffic and another for their control traffic. This thesis examines the case of control traffic, specifically Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) carrying Diameter protocol traffic arising from users roaming from their home Long Term Evolution (LTE) network to another operator’s LTE network.

    The thesis project aims to identify a set of SCTP parameter configurations that can provide improved application/service level availability between two Diameter nodes in different network connectivity environments, specifically for IPX carriers who are Diameter service providers. These service providers provide Diameter connectivity for their customers who are mobile network operators. These mobile network operators in turn provide LTE roaming services to their customers.

    Unfortunately, applying the ‘One size fits all’ configuration recommendations given in the SCTP documentation is unsuitable for different network environments. In addition, the amount of Diameter signaling traffic is growing at a very rapid rate. Therefore, it is valuable to identify suitable parameter selection criteria for Diameter service providers to ensure 100% Diameter connectivity reliability for their customers. In this thesis project, author investigated how tuning SCTP parameter values affect Diameter message transmission in terms of Round Trip Delay and identified its determining parameters for packet loss recovery performance. Both IPX carriers and mobile network operators may use these values as reference when attempting to ensure high availability of Diameter transmissions under reliable, semi reliable, and unreliable network transport conditions.

  • 828.
    Xiong, Ziyi
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Socio-economic Impact of Fiber to the Home in Sweden2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) has been talked about since the introduction of fiberin the 1970s. It is nowadays shaping up to be the foundation of our newdigital society, bringing economic prosperity and a multitude of business,social, and entertainment opportunities to its users. The increased consumerdemand for high-speed network accessibility is being taken more and moreseriously and a fiber-based network is able to cope with these growing demandsdue to its wide bandwidth and reliability. Today there is a practical need forquantitative analysis regarding the socio-economic impacts of fiber-basedaccess networks. This analysis could be used as an indicator/reference for allthe stakeholder entities as they consider future investments anddevelopments. Sweden is a suitable target country for this analysis since ithas adopted fiber for some years and the benefits that FTTH has brought seemto already be tangible.

    The primary value of this thesis lies ininvestigation of its quantified evidence of the socio-economic impacts of FTTHdeployment in Sweden. This has been achieved based on data from the SwedishPost and Telecommunications Authority (PTS), Statistics Sweden (SCB), previousrelated studies, and information collected on-line from operators involved inthe fiber market, along with empirical analysis based on multivariateregression models.

    The results of the study show that fiber penetrationhas had a significant impact on the population’s evolution, specially the netamount of migration into a municipality, which indicates the attractiveness ofmunicipalities per se. It is therefore reasonable to suggest that localgovernment and local authorities take fiber deployment into consideration, ifthey want to attract people to stay for further local development. The studyalso analyzed the competition in fiber-based open networks and the prices ofsubscribing for 10/10 Mbps symmetrical Internet Service. Study findingsrevealed that networks with multiple competing service providers have a widerrange of services and a lower price: the more ISPs competing in a fibernetwork, the lower consumer prices. Specifically, for each new serviceprovider present in the network, there will be 5 SEK per month decrease of theaverage price of the Internet services, and an approximately 7 SEK per monthreduction in the lowest price.

    Nevertheless, a number of socio-economicimpacts remain unquantifiable as of the current time and due to the limitedavailable data. It is recommended to incorporate more socio-economic effectsin future research in order to draw a more complete picture for all theinterested sectors, and to supplement the data with recent figures for 2012and 2013.

  • 829.
    Yang, Ching-Hsiang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem.
    Screen Content Coding in HEVC: Mixed Raster Content with Matching Pursuit2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 830.
    Yang, Dekun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Investigation of a new integration test environment: Facilitating offline debugging of Hardware-in-the-Loop2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced automatic testing is very important in development and research within the vehicle industry. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) systems give the ability to validate Electronic Control Units (ECUs) based on software simulation without gathering all of the physical hardware. This enables testing by providing inputs and examining the corresponding outputs of the ECUs in a simpler and safer way than in traditional physical testing. HIL offers the advantage that we can verify and validate the functions of ECUs prior to full-scale hardware production.

    On the contrary, because HIL systems are normally released as general-purpose test beds, it takes time to embed them into the current system. Additionally, the question of how to fill the gap between the HIL and the test environment is even more critical when the test bed is expected to be used for a long period of time without modifications. Furthermore, HIL systems are precious. It is not practical and will be considered as a waste of resource if it is used exclusively by testers. Scania’s RESI group uses Client-Server architecture to make it more flexible. The HIL system is hosted at server side while the testers operate it at client side. This architecture enables different implementations of client and server as long as a same protocol is applied, but this still does not solve the problem that the HIL is not always accessible when the testers want to debug their scripts. The testers want to find a solution to achieve this goal offline (without servers).

    To solve the problem, we first investigated which programming languages are used in the industry. Without doubt, there is no dominant language that ideally suits all situations, so secondly, we developed a new test environment. The new environment including “Dummy Mode” and “Mat Mode” is able to provide script validation service on basic and logic levels without servers. The result shows the Dummy mode is able to reach a higher detection rate (99.3%) on simple errors comparing to the current environment (81.3%). By reproducing and reusing the result of HIL system, Mat mode is able to identify logic errors and provide better assistance when the logic errors are found. In general, the proposed environment is able to show a better way of using HIL which makes the whole system more efficient and productive.

  • 831.
    Yang, Xi
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    The Use of One-Time Password and RADIUS Authentication in a GSS-API Architecture2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Generic Security Service Application Program Interface (GSS-API) is an architecture that facilitates applications using distributed security services in a mechanism-independent fashion. GSS-API is supported by various underlying mechanisms and technologies such as Kerberos version 5 and public-key technologies. However, no one-time password based GSS-API mechanism existed.

    This thesis focuses on an investigation using one-time passwords together with RADIUS authentication as a protection facility for a GSS-API mechanism. This thesis presents a security architecture using one-time passwords to establish a GSS-API security context between two communicating peers.

    The proposed one-time password based GSS-API mechanism could be used to enhance the security of user authentication. Moreover, the mechanism can greatly facilitate static-password based system’s transition to stronger authentication.

  • 832.
    Yanggratoke, Rerngvit
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikation: Infrastruktur och tjänster, Telekommunikationssystem, TSLab.
    GPU Network Processing2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Networking technology is connecting more and more people around the world. It has become an essential part of our daily life. For this connectivity to be seamless, networks need to be fast. Nonetheless, rapid growth in network traffic and variety of communication protocols overwhelms the Central Processing Units (CPUs) processing packets in the networks. Existing solutions to this problem such as ASIC, FPGA, NPU, and TOE are not cost effective and easy to manage because they require special hardware and custom configurations.

    This thesis approaches the problem differently by offloading the network processing to off-the-shelf Graphic Processing Units (GPUs). The thesis's primary goal is to find out how the GPUs should be used for the offloading. The thesis follows the case study approach and the selected case studies are layer 2 Bloom filter forwarding and flow lookup in Openflow switch. Implementation alternatives and evaluation methodology are proposed for both of the case studies. Then, the prototype implementation for comparing between traditional CPU-only and GPU-offloading approach is developed and evaluated.

    The primary findings from this work are criteria of network processing functions suitable for GPU offloading and tradeoffs involved. The criteria are no inter-packet dependency, similar processing flows for all packets, and within-packet parallel processing opportunity. This offloading trades higher latency and memory consumption for higher throughput.

  • 833.
    Yi, Xiaokun
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Adaptive Wireless Multimedia Services2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Context-awareness is a hot topic in mobile computing currently. A lot of importance is being attached to facilitating the user of various mobile computing devices to provide services that are more “user-centric”. One aspect of context-awareness is to perceive variations in available resources, and to make decisions based on the feedback to enable applications to automatically adapt to the current environment.

    For Voice over IP (VoIP) software phones (softphones), variations in network performance lead to fluctuations in the quality of the communication. Therefore, by making these softphones more adaptive to the network environment will, to some extent, mask such fluctuations. Dynamic voice and video adaptation derives from the fact that different coder-decoders (CODEC) have different characteristics, even the same CODECs with a different configuration can behave quite differently, in terms of bandwidth consumption, packet size, etc.

    Minisip is a VoIP client application which was implemented on and targeted for a Linux platform. One of my tasks was to port Minisip to Microsoft’s Windows Mobile operating system, running on an HP IPAQ Pocket PC H5550. Such handheld computer enables the user to communication while they are moving about, thus increasing the probability that the characteristics of the network connection will change. Building upon this port, the next task was to add dynamic voice and video CODEC adaptation. Dynamic voice and video CODEC adaptation on Minisip poses several challenges, for example, in what way can the network performance be determined and what adaptation strategy can achieve high call quality while making efficient utilization of available network resources.

    In order to make the proper design choices, several estimation models will be discussed, these are used to determine an efficient, un-intrusive, and light weight means of dynamic CODEC selection within Minisip. This thesis only implemented audio CODEC adaptation of Minisip, and the evaluation of the resulting prototype shows that such dynamic adaptation is both feasible and practical; further more, video CODEC adaptation would be a more significant extension to this work in the future.

  • 834.
    Yunda Lozano, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Improving vertical handover performance for RTP streams containing voice: Using network parameters to predict future network conditions in order to make a vertical handover decision2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless local area networks WLAN and Voice over IP technologies enable local low cost wireless telephony, while cellular networks offer wide-area coverage. The use of dual mode WLAN-cellular terminals should allow cost savings by automatically switching from GSM to WLAN networks whenever it is feasible. However, in order to allow user mobility during a call, a handover procedure for transferring a call between the WLAN interface and the cellular network should be defined. The decision algorithm that triggers such a handover is critical to maintain voice quality and uninterrupted communication. Information or measurements collected from the network may be used to anticipate when the connection will degrade to such a point that a handover is desirable in order to allow a sufficient time span for the handover’s successful execution. It is the delay in detecting when to make a handover and the time to execute it that motivates the need for a prediction.

    The goal of this thesis is therefore to present a method to predict when a handover should be made based upon network conditions. We selected a number of WLAN and VoIP software tools and adapted them to perform the measurements. These tools allowed us to measure parameters of the WLAN’s physical and link layers. Packet losses and jitter measurements were used as well. We have assumed that there is ubiquitous cellular coverage so that we only have to be concerned with upward handovers (i.e, from the WLAN to the cellular network and not the reverse). Finally we have designed and evaluated a mechanism that triggers the handover based in these measurements.

  • 835.
    Zafar, Bilal
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Network Coding Employing Product Coding at Relay Stations2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Network coding is a useful tool to increase the multicast capacity of networks. The traditional approach to network coding involving XOR operation has several limitations such as low robustness and can support only two users/packets at a time,per relay, in the mixing process to achieve optimal error performance. We propose the employment of product coding at the relay station instead of xor and investigate such a system where we use the relay to generate product codes by combining packets from different users.Our scheme uses relays to transmit only the redundancy of the product code instead of the whole product code.We seek to employ product coding can be able to support more than two users/packets per relay per slot,while maintaining a good error performance. Our scheme can accomodate as many users per relay as the costituent block code allows, thus reducing the number of relays required in the network. Product codes also offer increased robustness and flexibility as well as several other advantages, such as proper structure for burst error correction without extra interleaving. We compare the performance of such a scheme to the conventional xor scheme and see that our scheme not only reduces the number of relays required but gives improved error performance as well as. Another encouraging result is that our scheme starts to significantly outperform the conventional one by introducing a gain at the relay.

  • 836.
    Zahidi, Salman
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Informationskodning.
    Biometrics - Evaluation of Current Situation2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Information security has always been a topic of concern in the world as an emphasis on new techniques to secure the identity of a legitimate user is regarded as top priority. To counter such an issue, we have a traditional way of authentication factors “what you have” and “what you know” in the form of smart cards or passwords respectively. But biometrics is based on the factor “who are you” by analyzing human physical or behavioral characteristics. Biometrics has always been an efficient way of authorization and is now considered as a $1500 million industry where fingerprints dominate the biometrics while iris is quickly emerging as the most desirable form of biometric technique.The main goal of this thesis is to compare and evaluate different biometrics techniques in terms of their purpose, recognition mechanism, market value and their application areas. Since there are no defined evaluating criteria, my method of evaluation was based on a literature survey from internet, books, IEEE papers and technical surveys. Chapter 3 is focused on different biometrics techniques where I discuss them briefly but in chapter 4, I go deeper into Iris, fingerprints, facial techniques which are prominent in biometrics world. Lastly, I had a general assessment of the biometrics, their future growth and suggested specific techniques for different environment like access controls, e-commerce, national ids, and surveillance.

  • 837.
    Zandieh, Behdis
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Indoor Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN): Measurement and Modeling from a user perspective2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    If we had detailed wireless local area network (WLAN) coverage maps, both staff and equipment could be used more efficiently, for example, less time would be spent searching for connectivity. In addition, system administrators could understand their WLAN's utilization better, thus enabling better planning for where to install new access points, where to remove access points, where to change the type of antenna, etc. This thesis concerns creating detailed indoor coverage models by using measured network performance - in order to enable both users and administrators to visualize the network coverage. Today a user can only easily know about the access points that they currently hear – in the location where they currently are. Giving the users and administrators access to a model of the entire campus coverage will allow them to understand not only the _local_ coverage, but the patterns of coverage (or lack there of). However, no efficient modeling techniques are currently available for those deploying and operating indoor WLANs.

    The thesis begins with some general background information and then examines a number of WLAN survey tools; in terms of both their performance and cost. Following this a number of related projects are presented. This background provides the motivation for why a new tool is needed and what functions such a tool should have.

    Next a site survey of the KTH campus in Kista was conducted using a newly developed survey application. This application was developed to better meet the requirements derived from the missing functionality of existing tools. In addition, developing this application gave the author an opportunity to learn a new objectoriented programming language, i.e. C# and the .NET environment. Learning to use this new environment was essential to building both an easy to use application and collecting the data from the system - the later was often not straight-forward.

    ne of the key issues after data collection is how to present the collected data to the user and how this varies depending upon the user’s interests and task. An initial representation of the experimental data is presented as a manually painted coverage map overlayed onto a map. Next the thesis examines how to integrate the experimental data using Google’s SketchUp in order to build a 3D model of the WLAN coverage on this campus.

    Future work related to this thesis should focus on how to automate the collection of data and how to automate the presentation of the resulting experimental data.

  • 838.
    Zapolskas, Vytautas
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Securing Cloud Storage Service2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing brought flexibility, scalability, and capital cost savings to the IT industry. As more companies turn to cloud solutions, securing cloud based services becomes increasingly important, because for many organizations, the final barrier to adopting cloud computing is whether it is sufficiently secure.

    More users rely on cloud storage as it is mainly because cloud storage is available to be used by multiple devices (e.g. smart phones, tablets, notebooks, etc.) at the same time. These services often offer adequate protection to user's private data. However, there were cases where user's private data was accessible to other users, since this data is stored in a multi-tenant environment. These incidents reduce the trust of cloud storage service providers, hence there is a need to securely migrate data from one cloud storage provider to another.

    This thesis proposes a design of a service for providing Security as a Service for cloud brokers in a federated cloud. This scheme allows customers to securely migrate from one provider to another. To enable the design of this scheme, possible security and privacy risks of a cloud storage service were analysed and identified. Moreover, in order to successfully protect private data, data protection requirements (for data retention, sanitization, and processing) were analysed. The proposed service scheme utilizes various encryption techniques and also includes identity and key management mechanisms, such as "federated identity management".

    While our proposed design meets most of the defined security and privacy requirements, it is still unknown how to properly handle data sanitization, to meet data protection requirements, and provide users data recovery capabilities (backups, versioning, etc.).

  • 839.
    Zeeck, Simon
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Teleinformatik.
    Cellular Interworking: Handover between WATM and GSM1998Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In a wireless environment, it is interesting to roam between different wireless systems, especially if the coverage of one or more of these systems are limited to a certain restricted area, or if there is a cost difference. My work has focused on the support of continuous handover in such a case. The work has focused on Wireless ATM and GSM as bearers for data traffic. The mobile terminal is considered to connect to the GSM or Wireless ATM network. Internet (IP networking) is considered to be the aim of the connection.

    UMTS will probably be the base for new cellular systems. The UMTS core network will most likely be based on ATM. This is what is suggested in the standardization and has support from both Ericsson and Nokia. The WATM is an interesting option for "high speed" wireless network interface that can be connected to UMTS.

    The solution has tried the approch of combining layer 2 tunneling with layer 3 signalling and investigated another solution than network layer mobility.The reasons to investigate this has been:

    • Layer 2 tunneling is a well-know and proven concept in cellular networks
    • The layer 2 connection can be transparently changed while being mobile.
    • Both QoS and traffic parameters in layer2 (e.g., ATM) can be used
    • The freedom and power of IP on layer 3 for signaling (and for data, of course)
  • 840.
    Zhang, Congcong
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informations- och kommunikationssystem.
    A Distributed Range Query Framework for Internet of Things2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With the rapid development of information technology, applications referring to the Internet of things are booming. Applications that gather information from sensors and affect the context environment with actuators can provide customized and intelligent behaviour to users. These applications have become widely used nowadays in daily life and have initiated the multi-dimensional range query demand referring to the Internet of things. As the data information is fully distributed and the devices like sensors, mobile phones, etc., has limited resources and finite energy, supporting efficient range query is a tough challenge. In this paper, we have proposed a distributed range query framework for Internet of things. In order to save energy costs and reduce the network traffic, we suggest a reporting data range mechanism in the sensing peers, which choose to report a data range and report again only when the peer senses an abnormal data instead of the common moving data method. In addition, we selected some strong peers to be used as the super peers to create a data index by collecting the reporting data range, which will be used for performing range queries. The study has shown that our proposal framework could reduce resource costs in the less strong peers like sensors and mobile phones, and reduce network traffic among all the peers within the network, as well as support a range query function. According the evaluation results, the reporting data range method could greatly reduce the data migration times and save energy costs, and the data index could significantly reduce accessing unnecessary peers and diminish the network traffic.

  • 841.
    Zhang, Hao
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informations- och kommunikationssystem.
    A Peer to Peer Security Protocol for the Internet of Things: Secure Communication for the SensibleThings Platform2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With the rapid development of the Internet connected technologies and applications, people are keen on embracing the convenience and practi-­‐‑ calities they brings. As all kinds of technologies improve, the Internet of Things matures and is able to provide more advanced services to people, which connects a variety of devices, systems and applications beyond traditional machine-­‐‑to-­‐‑machine. However, it covers a variety of devices, protocols and applications, which makes it much more complex than a normal network. Nevertheless, equipped with appropriate security solutions, the Internet of Things is promising to bring us more conven-­‐‑ iences and be widely applied in our daily life. And like the main appli-­‐‑ cation areas, wireless sensor networks with a frequent but short com-­‐‑ munication character, it requires an efficient and flexible protocol to protect the information. To protect the traffic of the Internet of Things is the focal point of this research work. Although many protocols for the Internet have been put forward, it is still not enough to meet the increas-­‐‑ ingly complex requirements from applications. Many of them are not efficient enough to adapt the device diversity and timely communica-­‐‑ tion environment. This research work is trying to address this problem, by proposing a peer-­‐‑to-­‐‑peer security protocol to satisfy this varied environment. Secure communication is implemented on an open sourced platform for the Internet of Things. The philosophy of the platform it implemented on is also inherited to this protocol and the implementation. It avoids unnecessary handshakes between entities, which makes it more efficient in a wireless sensor network. Modulariza-­‐‑ tion and unit test are adapted in implementation to enhance the robust of the system. Its dynamic security level adjustment feature satisfies the realistic demand on one platform this protocol is implemented on. Finally, with a comparison test and an analysis using the BAN logic, the result shows that the proposed protocol is efficient to meet the specific goals and applicable for the platform. 

  • 842.
    Zhang, Hengchong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Non-binary Authentication: Supplicant2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    There are a number of authentication methods for wireless local area networks. The IEEE 802.1x standard is one such method. This standard specifies a port-based access control protocol. There are three entities involved: a supplicant (a device that wishes to have network access and perhaps other services), an Access Point (AP) or other port to which access is to be controlled, and an Authentication Server (AS). The goal of this project was to design, implement, and evaluate a prototype of a non-binary alternative to IEEE 802.1x authentication. This report focuses on the supplicant. Specifically it describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a supplicant program to test and stress the authenticator, in order to evaluate a non-binary authentication process.

    Following, a brief introduction is given to the problem that is to be solved, a number of existing IEEE 802.1x supplicants are described and compared. Following this, a number of potential non-binary authentication processes are analyzed. The ability of a supplicant to send and receive packets before and after authentication is also examined. Based upon our implementation and evaluation of a supplicant and an emulation of the non-binary authentication process, we conclude that non-binary authentication is both feasible and valuable. Furthermore, the thesis evaluates why and how non-binary authentication is valuable from the viewpoint of a supplicant. Additional future work is suggested at the end of this thesis.

  • 843.
    Zhang, Shasha
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Device aggregation with data networking: Implementing a Personal Area Network2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Technology is advancing rapidly and intelligent devices are becoming affordable and wireless infrastructure is becoming pervasive. Personal information technology appliances have become part of our life, via cellular phones, PDAs, Bluetooth headsets, handheld keyboards, GPS, and digital cameras. In the future, new intelligent devices will be invented as technology evolves. However, because multiple devices provide similar (but different) functionality it is complex for the average user to choose a single device. Moreover, today it is hard to configure, administer, and use several different appliances together. In order to be utilized in an effective manner and in an accessible way, personal devices should be aggregated, i.e., connected together via a local area network so that they can appear to the user as if they were a single device.

    This paper introduces a connection model based on device aggregation to realize shared state, the behavior of a shared appliance, and with the superset of the individual device functionality. Such an aggregated logical device might even exhibit functions which a user would have a very hard time realizing by manually combining devices. This will facilitate the user’s control over their appliances (build of different devices), but acting as one device.

    The project was a joint effort with David Sabaté Mogica. We developed such a system based on Dynamic Host Client protocol (DHCP) and Service Location Protocol (SLP) for service discovery and Virtual Network Computing (VNC) for remote desktop control. The system builds on a laboratory network environment. This thesis concerns the implementation and evaluation of service discovery. The Remote desktop control was researched and implemented separately and will be reported separately. Service discovery between two computers has been implemented using a custom program developed for a PDA. However, at present the PDA only sends a DA request packet with DHCP. However, service discovery has been successfully tested between two computers. This provided an important base for the programming on PDA and the future development of a similar program for a cellular phone.

  • 844.
    Zhang, Yan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Wireless sensor network for volcano monitoring2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The monitoring of volcanoes for risk assessment has deployed single sensors for years. This kind of system requires manual supervision to monitor each sensor, which makes the monitoring work not flexible and efficient enough to adapt to variable volcano environments. With the development of wireless sensor networks, the accuracy and coverage of volcano observations can be improved by deploying networked sensors. This paper proposes a wireless sensor network prototype for volcano remote monitoring, which was built and tested in a field campaign in volcano Etna, Italy in September of 2004.Hardware design of sensors, in-depth sensor network design and software module architecture will be introduced in this paper. The experience gained from the practical work in volcano Etna will be used in an upcoming volcano monitoring project.

  • 845.
    Zhang, Yuanhui
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Evaluating a publish/subscribe proxy for HTTP2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasingly high speed of the Internet and its wide spread usage, the current Internet architecture exhibits some problems. The publish/subscribe paradigm has been developed to support one of the most common patterns of communication. It makes “information” the center of communication and removes the “location-identity split” (i.e., that objects are at specific locations to which you must communicate with to access the object). In this thesis project a publish/subscribe network is built and then used in the design, implementation, and evaluation of a publish/subscribe proxy for today’s HTTP based communication. By using this proxy users are able to use their existing web browser to send both HTTP requests and Publish/Subscribe Internet Routing Paradigm (PSIRP) requests. A publish/subscribe overlay is responsible for maintaining PSIRP contents. The proxy enables web browser clients to benefit from the publish/subscribe network, without requiring them to change their behavior or even be aware of the fact that the content that they want to access is being provided via the publish/subscribe overlay. The use of the overlay enables a user’s request to be satisfied by any copy of the content, potentially decreasing latency, reducing backbone network traffic, and reducing the load on the original content server. One of the aims of this thesis is to make more PSIRP content available, this is done by introducing a proxy who handles both HTTP and PSIRP requests, but having received content as a result of an HTTP response it publishes this data as PSIRP accessible content. The purpose is to foster the introduction and spread of content based access.

  • 846.
    Zhao, Zhengjian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Mediating updates using a web based service2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission had approved the Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH) regulations in the year 2006, and will begin to implement it form 1 June 2007. This regulation greatly increases safety of protection for the users of chemicals, but it also brought a problem for the manufactures as well as downstream users. That is they have to generate and distribute much more Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) then before. This work is difficult for most companies since this job usually was done manually. The new regulation requires a much more efficient method to generate and distribute them.

    This thesis project addresses the problem of automatically distributing MSDS and the corresponding metadata. It presents the underlying technology selected for this project. It gives a brief introduction of this project, the underlying technologies used, along with the methods used to deliver relevant and up to date materials safety information.

    At last an HTTP web application approach was selected to solve the problem, the resulting application can efficiently notify a downstream user of the newly updated MSDS and transport the corresponding file and metadata. It is truly data driven, therefore the downstream user does not need to check for updates everyday, instead will be notified when there is an available update.

  • 847.
    Zhou, Jia
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Adding bandwidth specification to a AAA Sever2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) are key elements in network security. In many networks, clients can use resources only after they have been authenticated by an authentication server and authorized to use these resources. In some cases the server will also maintain accounting records in order for an operator (a provider of resources) to charge the account/subscriber for using the service. There are four main AAA protocols being used today. Of these RADIUS is the mostly widely used.

    This thesis starts with an introduction to AAA protocols, and then goes in the details of RADIUS. In order to perform a practical evaluation of how the AAA could be improved, FreeRADIUS was selected as the base code for this project; because this implementation is one of the most widely used RADIUS servers. A proposal for how to improve AAA performance is introduced and the implementation steps needed to realize these improvements are shown. Additionally, some experiments have been conducted to show both the correct functioning of the resulting implementation and to examine if there is a performance improvement. Following this some conclusions are drawn based upon a comparison with a traditional AAA server.

    A key element of the change in AAA which is proposed is the use of a non-binary IEEE 802.1x process. This new non-binary solution introduces a new type of AAA server and requires the re-thinking of a number of traditional AAA design decisions. It is expected that this change will have a significant impact, but will require some time for exposure, implementation by others, and a more extensive evaluation that was possible during the period of this thesis project.

    One of the most important conclusions drawn during this thesis is the difficulty of making a change in authentication and authorization, because of the large amount of interaction between both the various protocols and the standards which have been developed for these protocols. Thus one of the difficult aspects of the task is how to introduce a change in a protocol while maintaining backward compatibility for others who have not adopted this change -- without requiring the addition of a protocol version field.

    A second important conclusion is that doing this implementation in three separate parts with different students being responsible for the different parts revealed just how complex the interaction of protocol design decisions are. While a working version of the entire set of changes proved to be impossible, it was observed that the different parts could be decoupled more than initially expected.

  • 848.
    Zhu, Wanning
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Multipoint Relay flooding: Network coding improvements2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Network coding is a new research area with potential to reduce network resources. With network coding, intermediate nodes forward packets that are linear combinations of previously received packets.

    The type of networks we consider are vehicle mounted mobile tactical radio networks. Tactical communication may be required in areas where pre-deployed base stations are unavailable. Mobile ad hoc networks satisfy this requirement. Due to low antenna heights, network resources are scarce inmobile networks without base stations. Broadcast traffic, which disseminates information network-wide, is very important in tactical mobile networks. Multipoint relay flooding is a well-known technique for efficient distribution of broadcast traffic. It is therefore interesting to evaluate how much network coding can reduce the number of transmissions in a mobile ad hoc network. In this thesis we show that it is possible to further reduce the number of transmissions for Multipoints Relay flooding by using network coding. However, this improvement is largely theoretical - there has been no effort to evaluate this approach in practice.

  • 849.
    Zografos, Alexandros
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Wireless Sensor-based Agricultural Monitoring System2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today energy resources are becoming scarcer and therefore more valuable. In conjunction with the population growth over last century, the need for finding new, more efficient, and sustainable methods of agricultural cultivation and food production has become more critical. To facilitate this process, we are designing, building, and evaluating a system for precision agriculture which provides farmers with useful data about the soil, the water supply, and the general condition of their fields in a user friendly, easily accessible manner. Our system aims to make cultivation and irrigation more efficient as the farmer is able to make better informed decisions and thus save time and resources.

    The diversity of location and climatic effects upon agricultural cultivation, along with other environmental parameters over time makes the farmer’s decision-making process more complicated and requires additional empirical knowledge. Applying wireless sensor networks for monitoring environmental parameters and combining this information with a user-customized web service may enable farmers to exploit their knowledge in an efficient way in order to extract the best results from their agricultural cultivation. The system can scale based on each farmer’s demands and the resulting ensemble of collected information may represent a valuable resource for future use, in addition to its use for real-time decision making. The design of the precision agriculture system contains a prototype solution regarding the sensor platform and a customizable service that can be utilized in different ways and by several entities.

  • 850.
    Åhman, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Wallstersson, Marcus
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    EVH2 protocol: Performance analysis and Wireshark dissector development2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    EVH2 is a proprietary application layer protocol developed by Aptilo Networks and used in their software product. Currently the only way to inspect EVH2 traffic is by using their own application. This application inspects no traffic other than EVH2. Since Aptilo continuously develops this protocol it is important to see how changes in the protocol affect its performance. This thesis examines possible ways to facilitate the use and development of the protocol.

    To analyse EVH2 network traffic along with traffic from other protocols another approach is needed. Wireshark is an application capable of inspecting traffic of multiple protocols simultaneously and uses dissectors to decode each packet. This thesis describes the development and evaluation of a Wireshark plugin dissector for inspection of EVH2 traffic.

    Performance tests of EVH2 will provide feedback about protocol changes. This thesis creates a platform for performance evaluation by introducing a test suite for performance testing. A performance evaluation of EVH2 was conducted using the developed test suit.

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