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  • 801.
    Wikman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Fernbratt, Elisabeth
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Allmänhetens uppfattning av den värmländska symbolen.2017Student paper second term, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 802.
    Wilkins, Karin
    et al.
    University of Texas at Austin.
    Enghel, Florencia
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för HumanIT. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    The privatization of development through global communication industries:Living Proof?2013Inngår i: Media Culture and Society, ISSN 0163-4437, E-ISSN 1460-3675, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 165-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Development is meant to alleviate problems in the interests of the public good, yet thegrowing dominance of private donors problematizes this conceptualization. Workingthrough a political-economic analysis of development, we see global communications asan industry that channels wealth from citizens into the hands of few corporate moguls,who then have the resources to assert their agendas in a global development context.We begin by conceptualizing development and social change within communicationstudies, paying attention to the privatization of aid within global capitalism. Next,we contextualize our case study, describing the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundationand ONE, promoted by Bono, as the funding and management settings of the LivingProof campaign. We analyze the initiative’s construction of development problems,its articulation of how communication is expected to work toward social change, andits conceptualizations of success. The dominant theme of Living Proof program is that“real people” have achieved development success, which can be shared as “proof” withwebsite consumers. We conclude by considering how such a framing serves the agenda of privatized development within a neoliberal project.

  • 803.
    Wolf-Watz, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    On Environmental Grounds: Outdoor Recreation, Place Relations and Environmental Sustainability2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the relationship between outdoor recreation and environmental concern as part of the wider issue of environmental sustainability in late-modern societies. It includes studies of environmentalists’ (that is environmentally committed individuals’) preferences and motivations with regard to outdoor recreation, and covers the inquiries of whether and how outdoor recreation can influence levels of environmental concern.

    The questions addressed are how environmentalists engage in outdoor recreation, with what motives, and whether participation in outdoor recreation can influence levels of environmental concern. Empirically, the thesis is based on a mixed methods approach, including analyses of data from a national survey on outdoor recreation and a qualitative case study of the organization Nature and Youth Sweden (Fältbiologerna). Theoretically, it is based on the concepts of place, habitus and field.

    Study results show that environmentally committed individuals favor participation in appreciative activities in areas perceived as pristine, preferably away from urban environments. Motivations refer to these preferences, but also to aspects of discursive context, social identity and social position. These aspects are also found to be crucial regarding the influence of outdoor recreation on environmental concern. Thus, study results also show a lack of support for environmental concern as an automatic outcome of outdoor recreation. It is rather a combination of interconnected conditions referred to as: favorable place relations, adequate outdoor experience and appropriate social context.

    The thesis contributes to new knowledge on the relationships and connections between outdoor recreation and environmental sustainability. While the results are of importance with regard to planning for outdoor recreation and development of nature-based tourism, they are of particular interest for environmental organizations, schools and other institutions working for a more sustainable society.

  • 804.
    Wolf-Watz, Daniel
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Beery, Thomas
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Öhman, Johan
    Örebro universitet, Örebro.
    Friluftsliv och miljöengagemang2013Inngår i: Friluftsliv i förändring: resultat från ett forskningsprogram : slutrapport / [ed] Fredman, Peter; Stenseke, Marie; Sandell, Klas & Mossing, Anders, Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket , 2013, s. 145-159Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 805.
    Wrinell, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Den tillfälliga (besöks)platsen – Gillespie Road: En fallstudie om en gata i närheten av en fotbollsarena2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 806.
    Zandbergs, Simon
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    "Let's Drink to 1997": The handover of Hong Kong, as seen in Hong Kong cinema 1986-19922015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Taking a look at ten films from the Hong Kong golden age 1986-1992 and how the common themes in these relate to the handover from United Kingdom to China in 1997, this essay investigates this with the use of a thematic analysis as well as with the theories of seeing “cinema as a mirror” and the way that the society and people of Hong Kong as a whole are reflected and identified in these films. From this it can be seen that the handover and themes closely related to it is recurring throughout the films of this period, but also how society and major political events are reflected in cinema.

  • 807.
    Zejnel, Adam
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Frosterus, Anton
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Bakom väggarna i Våxnäs: En kvalitativ studie om hur fysisk utformning påverkar trygghet2018Student paper second term, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den fysiska utformningen är grunden till ett väl fungerande samhälle. Samhällsplaneringen spelar därför en väsentlig roll i förebyggandet mot segregation. I dagens Sverige råder allvarliga svårigheter, där klyftorna ökar i allt fler städer. Klasskillnader speglas tydligt i samhället där höginkomsttagare väljer att bosätta sig vid platser som exkluderar de mindre välbärgade människorna. Således skapas marginaliserade områden, vilka ofta nämns som mer otrygga.

    I denna uppsats studeras således hur den fysiska utformningen tenderar att påverka fäders uppfattning om tryggheten, samt oron över deras barn. Målsättningen med studien är därav att uppnå en djupare förståelse, detta genom ett inifrånperspektiv. För att just studera djupet har därför kvalitativa intervjuer utförts med fäder i Våxnäs. Med hjälp av den tidigare och empiriska forskningen undersöks studiens frågeställningar, för att kunna besvara studiens syfte.

    I studien framgår det att fysiska faktorer, såsom områdets skick, belysning samt områden utan översyn, påverkar fäders och deras barns uppfattning av trygghet. Fortsättningsvis påverkas tryggheten även av sociala och socioekonomiska aspekter. Grupperingar och droger är vanligt förekommande i socioekonomiskt svagare områden, vilket orsakar en oro och otrygghet. Således resulterar detta i att fäder utformar restriktioner för sina barn. Studien visar att den fysiska utformningen påverkar fäders uppfattande av tryggheten i Våxnäs. Dock är ämnet komplext, då flera aspekter i samspel med varandra påverkar tryggheten i sin helhet.

  • 808.
    Zineldin, Josef
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Fogelberg, Martina
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Magnusson, Walter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Festivalsäkerhet2018Student paper second term, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 809.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Klassen i dialog med omvärlden: Pedagogiska vinster när skolan syns på nätet2013Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 810.
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Gold of Lapland: Turismutveckling - det goda exemplet i Västerbotten2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 811.
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013). Umeå universitet.
    Selling a place in the sun: International property mediation as production of lifestyle mobility2012Inngår i: Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, ISSN 1303-2917, E-ISSN 2156-6909, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 251-267Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Buying property abroad is not a new phenomenon, but academic research into the complexities of international property mediation is underdeveloped. This paper adopts a wide perspective on lifestyle-driven mobilities, including the semi-permanent relocation of Swedes to warmer destinations in the Mediterranean and other regions, and explores the functions of international property mediation. On the basis of data gathered from interviews with property agents, the objectives are to describe the organization of the international property sector, to understand the mediating roles of property agents, and position property mediation as production of lifestyle mobility. Property agents are understood to play a crucial role as intermediaries, influencing the client’s decisions by combining instrumental, interactionary, communicative, and social functions of mediation. Because of their superior expertise on property transaction procedures and regulations, area characteristics and contact networks, agents may influence clients’ decisions; however this also depends on their skills in interpreting client expectations and experiences, and the ability of the client to manage the process themselves.

  • 812.
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013). Umeå universitet.
    The Best of Both Worlds: Aspirations, Drivers and Practices of Swedish Lifestyle Movers in Malta2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    It has often been claimed that contemporary societies are shaped by globalization; the rapid interconnections of societies, economies, markets, flows and information potentially linking all places in the world to each other. In search for experiences, variation, escape or comfort, individuals are travelling, circulating, and migrating between places, challenging the notions of ‘home’ and ‘away’, ‘everyday’ and ‘extraordinary’. This thesis addresses the ways lifestyle-led mobilities are produced and performed, by studying the mobility trajectories and experiences of Swedes dividing their time seasonally between Sweden and Malta. It explores how movers are faced with a structural framework that both facilitates and directs their choices concerning mobility, and how they interpret and respond to these structures. It also explores the imaginaries, meanings, and feelings for place, identity, and lifestyle that the movers negotiate through their mobility practices and through the links they create and sustain in places. Thus, this thesis is situated in an evolving field of research on lifestyle mobilities. Lifestyle mobilities are here defined as those mobility practices undertaken by individuals based on their freedom of choice, of a temporal or more permanent duration, with or without any significant ‘home base(s)’, that are primarily driven by aspirations to increase ‘quality of life’, and that are primarily related to the individuals’ lifestyle values. The thesis is based on four individual papers exploring different aspects lifestyle mobility. The aim is to understand how production and performance aspects of lifestyle mobilities are related, and how notions of identity and belonging are negotiated in relation to lifestyle mobility practices. The production aspect relates to those structures and frameworks that create, facilitate, or sometimes delimit opportunities for lifestyle mobility while the performance aspect focuses on individual agency and meaning of lifestyle mobility practices. The studies are based on in-depth interviews with Swedish movers in Malta, and focus on how structural frameworks and mediations influence the ways that movers manoeuvre, manipulate or adapt to structures and influences in order to arrange their life context to achieve ‘quality of life’. A second aim focuses on the ways that movers reflect upon their identities and belongings as they travel routinely between two (or more) significant places, and how this may influence mobility practices. It is concluded that structures and mediations are both facilitating and delimiting movers’ space of choice regarding mobility decisions. Through their agency, movers negotiate their space of choice by allocating resources and experience, accessing supportive networks and tailoring their access to entitlements. The production and performance aspects of lifestyle mobility practices are interlinked in complex ways.

  • 813. Öhman, Johan
    et al.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Environmental concerns and outdoor studies: nature as fosterer2016Inngår i: Routledge International Handbook of Outdoor Studies / [ed] Humberstone, Barbara; Prince, Heather & Henderson, Karla A., New York: Routledge , 2016, s. 30-39Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 814. Öhman, Johan
    et al.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Naturmötets betydelse i utbildning för hållbar utveckling2015Inngår i: Naturmötespraktiker och miljömoraliskt lärande / [ed] Östman, Leif, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2015, s. 255-267Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 815.
    Öhman, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Outdoor Recreation in Exergames: A New Step in the Detachement From Nature2016Inngår i: Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, ISSN 1472-9679, E-ISSN 1754-0402, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 285-302Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new teaching aidexergamesis increasing in popularity in schools and is regarded as an interesting, varied and effective way of improving students' fitness. These exercise television games often contain references to physical activities carried out in different outdoor landscapes. The purpose of this article is to examine the views of landscape and nature offered by the games and the consequences this may have for students' relationships with nature and future environmental commitment. The methodological approach used is companion meaning analysis: the meaning of nature that follows when playing the games. The results show a controlled landscape that is perfectly arranged for the activity (functional specialisation). It is an obvious anthropocentric base and commands an instrumental value where nature is valuable because it satisfies our felt preferences (demand value). Exergames can thus be seen as a further step in an ongoing detachment process from the physical landscape (indoorisation).

  • 816.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Alias2009Inngår i: The Essential Cult Television Reader / [ed] David Lavery, Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky , 2009, s. 22-27Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 817.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Anything you can do, I can do better?: Professional journalists vs. citizen journalistsin six European countries2013Inngår i: International Communication Gazette, ISSN 1748-0485, E-ISSN 1748-0493, Vol. 75, nr 1, s. 35-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on 63 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with professional journalists across career stages and across media in six European countries (UK, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland and Sweden), and is concerned with how journalists answer the question: How is what you do different from what citizen journalists do? Based on existing literature on journalistic authority and the professional project, three areas where claims to professional legitimacy and distinction from amateurs are identified: expertise, duty and autonomy. The interview data show that while claims based on expertise and duty are common when professional journalists want to demarcate the boundary between them and citizen journalism, claims based on direct reference to autonomy are non-existent. However, claims based indirectly on reference to autonomy, but institutional or collective rather than individual autonomy, are common. Indeed the key result of this study is that legitimacy claims based on the collective nature of the journalistic endeavour are very common, in contrast to earlier constructions of journalistic professionalism, which emphasized individualism and individual autonomy.

  • 818.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Clientelism, Elites and the Media in Central and Eastern Europe2012Inngår i: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 497-515Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that the traditional political science definition of clientelism is insufficient for explaining how the media fit in with clientelistic systems in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). It is suggested that a broader understanding of clientelism, looking in particular at how media are used as elite-to-elite communication tools as well as elite-to-mass communication tools, better explains the place of the media in the clientelistic systems of the CEE nations. Empirically, it is based on a set of 272 elite and expert interviews conducted across ten CEE countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia) in 2010 and 2011. The article presents some general findings on the nature and character of the linkages between political elites and the media, and the extent to which such linkages can be considered clientelistic. Then follows a discussion of specific practices of media instrumentalization, charting the many ways in which the media can function as a resource in conflicts and negotiations between clientelistic elite networks, directly as well as indirectly. Particular attention is given to the phenomena of advertorials and kompromat.

  • 819.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Comparative Journalism Research: an Overview2012Inngår i: Sociology Compass, ISSN 1751-9020, E-ISSN 1751-9020, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 769-780Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This overview focuses on the most common type of comparative journalism research, which is cross-national comparative research. The overview presents a typology for different types of comparative journalism research, based on whether the research interest is in journalism as an activity or as a product; and, in the case of journalism as an activity, whether the interest is in the system level, the organizational level, or the individual level of journalism. The overview finds that the analysis of journalism on the individual level and of journalism as a product are the most common types of comparative research, whereas comparative analysis of journalism on the organizational level is much under-studied.

  • 820.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Det journalistiska arbetets förändring2015Inngår i: Handbok i journalistikforskning / [ed] Michael Karlsson & Jesper Strömbäck, Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, s. 497-513Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 821.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Epistemologies and Professional Roles2017Inngår i: Journalistic Role Performance: Concepts, Contexts, and Methods / [ed] Claudia Mellado, Lea Hellmueller & Wolfgang Donsbach, New York: Routledge, 2017, s. 75-89Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 822.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Journalism and Change2018Inngår i: Journalism / [ed] Tim P Vos, Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2018, s. 555-574Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 823.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Journalism as institution and work in Europe, circa 1860: A comparative history of journalism2013Inngår i: Media History, ISSN 1368-8804, E-ISSN 1469-9729, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 393-407Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a comparative historical analysis of the relationship between journalism as institution (i.e., a particular set of organizations in society) and journalism as work (i.e., an activity practiced by individuals) in four European countries: Britain, Sweden, Germany, and Estonia. The analysis compares the institutional context of journalistic work in these four countries around 1860, focusing in particular on the organization of journalistic labor at the national newspaper of record. The historical comparison reveals how exceptional the British case is. The study finds that British journalism circa 1860 exhibited a high division of labor, high labor specialization, and was increasingly focused on news gathering and production. Swedish and German journalism exhibited an emerging division of labor and labor specialization, and was focused on political debate (rather than news gathering and production). Estonian journalism exhibited hardly any division of labor or labor specialization, and was focused on raising national awareness.

  • 824.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Journalism as Institution and Work in Europe, Circa 1860: A Comparative History of Journalism2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the relationship between journalism as institution (i.e. the collective of organizations involved in the production of journalism) and journalism as work (i.e. as an activity performed by individuals) by comparing and contrasting journalism – as exemplified by the ‘newspaper of record’ in each respective country – in four European countries, Britain, Sweden, Germany and Estonia, around 1860. The focus is on the organization of journalistic work and on journalism as salaried labour. In particular Britain has been studies extensively in this regard before, so this paper uses Britain and the Times as its prime example but also highlights the exceptional nature of this case and uses comparative analysis to demonstrate key differences in the journalism-as-work/journalism-as-institution relationship between these four countries.

  • 825.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Journalism cannot solve journalism's problems2019Inngår i: Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism, ISSN 1464-8849, E-ISSN 1741-3001, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 226-228Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 826.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Journalistic Ideals Versus Journalistic Practice: The Relationship Between Role Perception and Valued Skills Among Journalists in Six European Countries2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research into the role perceptions of journalism is well-established, but there is significantly less research on whether such perceptions translate into actual journalistic practice. This presentation explores this link between journalistic ideals and journalistic practice by studying the relationship between role perceptions and valued skills among journalists. Do the skills journalists place value on somehow match the perceptions they have of their societal role? This is examined using comparative survey data from six Europan countries: Britain, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Sweden.

  • 827.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Journalists, PR Professionals and the Practice of Paid News in Central and Eastern Europe: An Overview2016Inngår i: Central European Journal of Communication, ISSN 1899-5101, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 5-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 828.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Journalists thinking about precarity: Making sense of the "new normal"2018Inngår i: # ISOJ Journal, ISSN 2328-0700, E-ISSN 2328-0662, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 109-127Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the effects of precarity on thinking about professionalism and professional identity among journalists, based on a re-analysis of three different datasets of semi-structured in-depth interviews (gathered in 2008-09, 2010-12 and 2017, respectively) with journalists (n = 63, 55 and 11, respectively) across 14 European countries. The study shows that journalists in this cross-national sample are “primed” for precarity; i.e. they largely accept precarity as natural part of journalism because precarity is in line with key professional norms such as norms of entrepreneurship and meritocracy.

  • 829.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Newsworkers: A Comparative European Perspective2016Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 830.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Participation or outsourcing?: Some reflections on the space and status of newswork in the digital news ecosystem.2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    When discussing the contemporary changing media environment, participation is often viewed as a good in and of itself (e.g Rosen 1999, Bruns, Allan 2013) – various forms of citizen participation in various news/journalistic ventures are viewed as a type of fulfillment of the normative ideals of journalism as a democratic institution. Many researchers have noted the limits of such participation, as well as analyzed the problems (of quality, of trustworthiness, of inclusion, etc) inherent in different forms of ‘pro-am’ production of news content and news texts (e.g. Singer et al 2011, Paterson & Domingo 2005, Reich 2008, to mention but a few examples), but the overall perspective on participation is positive.

    I am here presenting an alternative view on participation on journalism, arguing that the democratic good of participation can easily become the democratic problem of outsourcing. Today, many forms of journalistic labour are unpaid or paid at very low rates, as well as produced outside the news organization per se: journalistic production is becoming outsourced. Based on existing research on outsourcing and on contemporary journalistic production, I argue that the shift to fluid, casual labor where more of the risk is borne by the individual employee (Benner 2002; Deuze 2007) that is increasingly characterizing news work in the new digital ecosystem will thus have far-reaching consequences for the emergence and continued health of something usually considered to be a key part of journalism as a democratic institution: professional values.

  • 831.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Reassessing journalism as a profession2010Inngår i: The Routledge Companion to News and Journalism / [ed] Stuart Allan, Abingdon: Routledge, 2010, 2, s. 568-577Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 832.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Reporters, Editors, and Networkers: Trends in Journalistic Work Roles and Journalistic Labour Across Europe2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the findings from a comparative study of journalists from Britain, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland and Sweden. Based on an email survey of 2,238 news professionals, we found that journalistic skills can be grouped into three distinctive dimensions: reporting, editorial and networking skills. The data also show some key similarities – reporting skills are the most highly valued across all six countries, and editorial skills the least valued. But there are also important differences, which we suggest can mainly be explained by historical differences in how the functional role of journalism has been viewed. Editorial skills are more highly valued in Germany, Italy and Poland and reporting skills are accorded the highest value in Britain and Sweden. The most interesting finding is perhaps the emergence of what seems like a new or at least somewhat different functional role of the journalist: that of the networker (emphasizing social skills like networking, teamwork and time management). Complementary data from a qualitative interview study of journalists in the same six countries indicate that this role is most prevalent among younger journalists and to a great extent is a response to changes in the organization of journalistic labor, e.g. increased prevalence of project work and work in ad hoc groups, increased labor precariousness, and the gradual convergence of the newsroom.

  • 833.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Review of Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska & Gunnar Nygren (eds.) Journalism in Change: Journalistic Culture in Poland, Russia and Sweden2016Inngår i: Central European Journal of Communication, ISSN 1899-5101, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 137-140Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 834.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Technology and journalism-as-labour: historical perspectives2010Inngår i: Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism, ISSN 1464-8849, E-ISSN 1741-3001, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 57-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological determinism is common among journalists when reflecting on changes in their profession; several studies show that journalists ascribe great power and independent agency to technology. There are at least two reasons for the persistence of technological determinism as an explanatory factor among journalists vis-a-vis their own work: first, technology is a highly integrated and therefore very tangible part of the everyday working life of journalists; and second, the technological paradigm for explaining change in journalism has deep historical roots. It is argued that analysing journalism as labour presents a way to address both the integration of technology in the everyday working practices of journalists, and the history of the inter-relations between journalism and technology. It is further argued that journalism studies as a field has not paid much attention to journalism as labour. This article is concerned with the second part of this programme for research, i.e. the historical analysis of journalism as labour. The framework of analysis is based on labour process theory, focusing on four themes in the history of journalism: (1) the importance of the separation of conception and execution of labour; (2) the increased differentiation of the labour process; (3) the use of technology to increase productivity; and (4) the deskilling of labour.

  • 835.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    The Maiden Tribute and the Naming of Monsters: two case studies of popular journalism as alternative public sphere2006Inngår i: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. 851-868Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to contribute to the ongoing discussion about the critical potential of tabloid journalism. It does so through a comparison of two popular journalism campaigns: the “Maiden Tribute” campaign in the London newspaper the Pall Mall Gazette in 1885 (dealing with underage prostitution), and the “naming-and-shaming” campaign in the News of the World in 2000, concerning child abuse and paedophilia. The main research question is whether any or both of these campaigns can be viewed as contributions to an alternative public sphere, as defined using concepts from Örnebring and Jönsson (2004

    16.           Örnebring  ,   Henrik       and     Jönsson  ,   Anna Maria     (  2004  )   “Tabloid Journalism and the Public Sphere: a historical perspective on tabloid journalism”  ,    Journalism Studies    5  (  3  ), pp.   283  –  95  .[Taylor & Francis Online]View all references) and Atton (2002

    1.        Atton, Chris. 2002. Alternative Media, London: Sage. View all references). Three aspects of the campaigns are compared: (1) How they discursively frame the issue at hand, (2) How they discursively frame the key actors present in the texts, and (3) What mode of address is employed. The purpose of this comparison is to examine whether the campaigns open up alternative possibilities in how they frame and present the issue and the actors, and in how they address and give space to their audiences. The main result is that the Pall Mall Gazette campaign has the greater claim to being a contribution to an alternative public sphere in terms of how it frames the issue and the actors. The article further argues that while there is a distinct potential of tabloid journalism to contribute to an alternative public sphere in certain circumstances, this potential should not be overstated.

  • 836.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    The producer as consumer – of what?: User-generated tabloid content in The Sun (UK) and Aftonbladet (Sweden)2008Inngår i: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. 771-785Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of user-generated content (UGC) is often thought to blur further the distinction between (media) producers and (media) consumers. Many media organizations, in particular newspapers, have developed extensive sections of their Web pages based on UGC. But there is still relatively little discussion of the exact relationship between producing and consuming in these sections. What is being produced and what is being consumed? Does the blurring of the producer–consumer represent a real shift in power away from traditional media/news organizations, or is the rise of UGC just a way for newspapers to get content produced “for free”? This article analyses UGC provision in two tabloid newspapers, The Sun (UK) and Aftonbladet (Sweden)—both newspapers generally considered to be very successful in terms of their online presence—by comparing (1) the levels of involvement required by users, (2) the types of content produced, and (3) the modes of production used. The results show that both tabloids are similar in that they provide users with the opportunity to generate mostly popular culture-oriented content and personal/everyday life-oriented content, but little or no opportunity to generate news/information-oriented content.

  • 837.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Transmedia histories: Disjunctions and continuities2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents two case studies of transmedial entertainment, one of the pulp franchise The Shadow and one of the contemporary franchise Transformers. The article argues that previous studies of transmedia entertainment have focused too much on narrative in a strict sense (plot/story), ignoring the interplay between the contexts of production and reception as well as narrative elements other than plot, notably those that create the greater narrative ‘world’. The article therefore focuses on an integrated analysis of the production/reception of the two transmedia properties, and the narrative disjunctions created by extending a transmedia world across different media platforms. The study finds that transmedia narratives cannot be understood without taking media industry objectives into account, and that previous studies have overemphasized the narrative integration of transmedial properties.

  • 838.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Outsourcing newswork2016Inngår i: Handbook of Digital Journalism / [ed] David Domingo, Tamara Witschge, Alfred Hermida, Chris Anderson, London: Sage Publications, 2016Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 839.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörns Högskola.
    User-generated content and the news: Empowerment of citizens or an interactive illusion?2011Inngår i: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 127-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The involvement of citizens in public life through the Internet, variously described by terms such as interactivity and user-generated content, is frequently held up as a democracy-enhancing development. However, these concepts say little about the exact nature and character of media–audience relations. We wish to introduce a more detailed taxonomy of user-generated content (UGC) that takes issues of power and influence into account. We examine the media–reader relationship (in online newspapers) by looking at (1) degree of participation and (2) type of content. We also suggest that it might be fruitful to think in terms of a political economy of UGC. Our results show that users are mostly empowered to create popular culture-oriented content and personal/everyday life-oriented content rather than news/informational content. Direct user involvement in news production is minimal. There is a clear political economy of UGC: UGC provision in mainstream media to a great extent addresses users-as-consumers and is part of a context of consumption

  • 840.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    The labor of journalism: Challeneges of technological and economic restructuring2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will analyze how the technological and economic restructuring of journalistic labor impacts on three key theoretical concepts in journalism:  routines, professionalism and autonomy. Journalistic labor will be analyzed along three dichotomous dimensions: paid/unpaid, skilled/unskilled and individual/collective.

    For most of the 20th century, defining journalism in terms of labor (for the purposes of this paper, “labor” is defined as exertion that generates surplus value, organized through a contractual employer-employee relationship) was straightforward: journalistic labor was done by those who were employed, commonly on permanent, full-time contracts, by traditional media organizations. It was essentially not possible to conduct the work of a journalist outside this system.

    Many of the key journalism scholars of the postwar era imported concepts and theories from the sociology of work and used them to analyze journalism – among them routines (e.g. Gans 1979, Tuchman 1978), professionalism and the related concept of professional roles  (e.g. Johnstone, Slawski & Bowman 1976, Tunstall 1971) and autonomy (e.g. Breed 1955, Merrill 1974). However, when reading these works today, it is striking that the intellectual foundation of these concepts is that journalism is conducted by people who are in stable contractual relationships with likewise stable, large organizations. This, as we know, is not true anymore.

    The introduction of digital technologies and networked communications poses many challenges to the understanding of journalism as labor. The barriers of entry for performing journalistic work (though not necessarily labor, see below) have all but disappeared. It is now possible for individuals to produce and distribute news content without the need for a large organization and expensive production equipment. Conversely, as distribution channels multiply and become more fragmented, audiences can also increasingly chose to not consume journalistic content, or to consume journalistic content that is available at no cost to the end-user. It is at once easier to perform journalistic work and harder to get (adequately) paid for it, i.e. to perform journalistic labor. Permanent full-time jobs in journalism are getting fewer in most of the Western world, and freelancing, part-time work and occupational fluidity (e.g. journalists producing news one day and PR material the next) are becoming more common. While journalism scholarship has had much to say about the challenges of the new digital, networked environment, less attention has been paid to the validity of the many underlying concepts and theories that presuppose a particular way of organizing journalistic labor (Deuze 2007, 2011 being notable exceptions).

                                 We focus here on three concepts in particular – routines,  professionalism, and autonomy.  The theoretical challenges to these concepts are examined using three dichotomous dimensions: paid vs. unpaid labor (and its close companion, work time vs. free time), skilled vs unskilled labor, and individual vs. collective labor. What types of journalistic labor can you be expected to be paid for, and what do you increasingly have to do for free? If journalism can be outsourced and journalists replaced by algorithms and software (see Clerwall, 2014), how “skilled” is journalistic labor? As employers shift risk and responsibility to employees, individual journalists have to spend more time on personal branding and marketing. This has consequences for the possibilities of doing collective work (as in a traditional newsroom setting) when you may be competing with colleagues for scarce resources. We argue that ongoing fundamental changes to how journalistic labor is organized also require fundamentally rethinking many of the key concepts of journalism studies.

  • 841.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    The Space of Journalistic Work: A Theoretical Model2018Inngår i: Communication Theory, ISSN 1050-3293, E-ISSN 1468-2885, Vol. 28, nr 04, s. 403-423Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Attempts to define journalism are often normative in nature but do not add to our theoretical understanding of what journalism is. There is a need for journalism scholarship to recognize explicitly that journalism is a space in which participants are not equal—or even similar—in terms of status, influence, work tasks, and working conditions. This paper offers a theoretical model combining the field theory of Pierre Bourdieu with recent insights from the sociology of work in order to articulate how journalistic work is stratified across three dimensions: journalistic capital, resource access, and material security. These dimensions create a space in which to place different types of journalistic work in order to make sense of contemporary journalism.

  • 842.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Autonomy from the inside: Journalists’ perceptions of workplace autonomy in five European countries2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 843.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Dimensions of journalistic workplace autonomy: A five-nation comparison2016Inngår i: Javnost - The Public, ISSN 1318-3222, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 307-326, artikkel-id 1215833Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how journalists perceive workplace autonomy in five European countries, based on an email survey (N = 2238) conducted in the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Sweden and Estonia. The article argues that the workplace level functions as a link between the macro level of external pressures and the micro level of perceived influences on news work. Using principal component analysis we explore the dimensionality of workplace autonomy based on a set of 20 survey questions. Regression analysis is then used on the dimensions found in order to determine what affects perception of autonomy in the different dimensions. The most salient explanatory variables are found on the country and organisational levels, whereas the variables age, experience, gender, managerial role and medium have no or limited effects. The results show the organisational and country levels being integrated and that national journalistic culture is the most salient factor explaining perception of autonomy.

  • 844.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Mellado, Claudia
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile.
    Valued skills among journalists: An exploratory comparison of six European nations2016Inngår i: Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism, ISSN 1464-8849, E-ISSN 1741-3001, s. 1-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-national comparative studies of journalists generally focus on the demographic characteristics and/or the values and role-perception of journalists. Systematic studies of journalistic skills have been rare, however. This article reports the findings from a comparative study of journalists from Britain, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Sweden. Based on an email survey of 2238 news professionals, journalistic skills can be grouped into three distinctive dimensions: reporting, editing, and networking skills.

    The data also show a number of similarities, but also important differences regarding the importance journalists give to different professional skills in different European countries.

  • 845.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Mellado, Claudia
    University of Santiago de Chile.
    Valued Skills Among Journalists: An Exploratory Comparison of Six European Nations2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-national comparative studies of journalists generally focus on the demographic characteristics and/or the values and role-perception of journalists. Comparisons of journalistic skills have been rare, however. This paper reports the findings from a comparative study of journalists from Britain, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland and Sweden. Based on an email survey of 2,238 news professionals, we found that journalistic skills can be grouped into three distinctive dimensions: reporting, editorial and networking skills. The data also show some key similarities – reporting skills are the most highly valued across all six countries, and editorial skills the least valued. But there are also important differences, which we suggest can mainly be explained by historical differences in how the functional role of journalism has been viewed. Editorial skills are more highly valued in Germany, Italy and Poland and reporting skills are accorded the highest value in Britain and Sweden.

  • 846.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Möller, Cecilia
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    In the Margins of Journalism: Gender and livelihood among local (ex-) journalists in Sweden2018Inngår i: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 12, nr 8, s. 1051-1060Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on journalists and journalistic work has focused on journalists with permanent, full-time employment. Given the rapid decrease of such employment opportunities, we argue that journalism research needs to pay more attention to those who those who have had to leave their jobs and either stopped doing journalism entirely, or who have switched to a freelance career (sometimes combining journalism with other work). This category of people is at once becoming more marginalized and “the new normal” within the occupation: In this paper, we furthermore focus on local (Swedish) journalists and ex-journalists. Based on a set of semi-structured interviews (n = 12) with ex-journalists who share the experience of having lost their permanent, full-time jobs, we use the concept of livelihood as an analytical tool. The concept of livelihood highlights the shift from journalism as a job practiced exclusive of other jobs to an activity conducted alongside other income-generating activities and makes it possible to analyse leaving the occupation from a context that incorporates the whole life situation of the respondents. This also contributes to the current wave of studies of journalism and job loss by adding qualitative data about individual experiences of job loss to the existing quantitative survey evidence.

  • 847.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörns Högskola.
    Journalistiken i ett jämförande perspektiv2015Inngår i: Handbok i journalistikforskning / [ed] Michael Karlsson & Jesper Strömbäck, Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, s. 23-40Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 848.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Rantanen, Terhi
    London School of Economics and Political Science.
    Editorial: Special issue on media in Central and Eastern Europe2013Inngår i: Global Media and Communication, ISSN 1742-7665, E-ISSN 1742-7673, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 189-193Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 849. Øian, Hogne
    et al.
    Fredman, Peter
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Sæþórsdóttir, Anna Dóra
    Tyrväinen, Liisa
    Søndergaard Jensen, Frank
    Tourism, nature and sustainability: A review of policy instruments in the Nordic countries2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
14151617 801 - 849 of 849
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