Change search
Refine search result
14151617 801 - 821 of 821
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 801.
    Wårdh, Inger
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Interfaculty Units, Centre for Clinical Research.
    Sörensen, Stefan
    Development of an index to measure oral health care priority among nursing staff.2005In: Gerodontology, ISSN 0734-0664, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 84-90Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 802.
    Zidar, Maria Norfjord
    et al.
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Div Publ Hlth Sci, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Larm, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Malardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Div Publ Hlth Sci, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Tillgren, Per
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Div Publ Hlth Sci, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Div Publ Hlth Sci, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Non-attendance of mammographic screening: the roles of age and municipality in a population-based Swedish sample2015In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 14, article id 157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Inequality in health and health care is increasing in Sweden. Contributing to widening gaps are various factors that can be assessed by determinants, such as age, educational level, occupation, living area and country of birth. A health care service that can be used as an indicator of health inequality in Sweden is mammographic screening. The non-attendance rate is between 13 and 31 %, while the average is about 20 %. This study aims to shed light on three associations: between municipality and non-attendance, between age and non-attendance, and the interaction of municipality of residence and age in relation to non-attendance. Methods: The study is based on data from the register that identifies attenders and non-attenders of mammographic screening in a Swedish county, namely the Radiological Information System (RIS). Further, in order to provide a socio-demographic profile of the county's municipalities, aggregated data for women in the age range 40-74 in 2012 were retrieved from Statistics Sweden (SCB), the Public Health Agency of Sweden, the National Board of Health and Welfare, and the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. The sample consisted of 52,541 women. Analysis conducted of the individual data were multivariate logistic regressions, and pairwise chi-square tests. Results: The results show that age and municipality of residence associated with non-attendance of mammographic screening. Municipality of residence has a greater impact on non-attendance among women in the age group 70 to 74. For most of the age categories there were differences between the municipalities in regard to non-attendance to mammographic screening. Conclusions: Age and municipality of residence affect attendance of mammographic screening. Since there is one sole and pre-selected mammographic screening facility in the county, distance to the screening facility may serve as one explanation to non-attendance which is a determinant of inequity. From an equity perspective, lack of equal access to health and health care influences facility utilization.

  • 803.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Depression and Antisocial Behaviour in Adolescents: Influence of Social Status, Shaming, and Gene-Environment Interaction2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigated (1) social status and shaming experiences in relation to aggressive behaviour and depression, and (2) gene-environment interactions between two genetic polymorphisms related to the serotonergic system – MAOA-VNTR and 5HTTLPR – and experiences of maltreatment in relation to delinquent behaviour and depression among adolescents.

    The four included studies are based on questionnaire data from the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2006 (SALVe-2006). A total of 5396 students in 9th (15-16 years old) grade of elementary school and 2nd (17-18 years old) grade of high school comprised the target population. The students in 2nd grade of high school also provided a saliva sample for gene extraction.

    There were strong associations between shaming experiences and both aggressive behaviour and depression. In addition, individuals who reported many shaming experiences and had either low or high social status had increased risks of physical aggression or depression, whereas medium social status seemed to have a protective effect.

    Gene-environment interactions were found between experiences of maltreatment and the MAOA-VNTR in relation to delinquent behaviour. Moreover, the direction of the gene-environment interaction differed depending on sex: boys with the short (S) variant of the MAOA-VNTR, in contrast to girls with the long (LL) variant, had the highest risk of delinquency in combination with maltreatment.

    Gene-environment interactions were also found between experiences of maltreatment and the 5HTTLPR in relation to depression among girls. The girls that were homozygous for the S allele (SS) had the highest risk of depression in combination with maltreatment. Among boys however, no gene-environment interaction was found between the 5HTTLPR and maltreatment in relation to depression.

    In conclusion, it is important to consider both genetic effects, and psychosocial factors such as social status, shaming experiences, and experiences of maltreatment when investigating different aspects of health and behaviour among adolescents.

  • 804.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Nordquist, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Self-Reported Family Socioeconomic Status, the 5-HTTLPR Genotype, and Delinquent Behavior in a Community-Based Adolescent Population2013In: Aggressive Behavior, ISSN 0096-140X, E-ISSN 1098-2337, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 52-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twin and adoption studies have demonstrated a significant contribution of both genetic and environmental factors to antisocial and delinquent behavior. Associations have been reported between the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and aggression, and between socioeconomic status (SES), aggression, and serotonergic functions of the brain. We aimed to investigate associations between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and family SES in relation to delinquent behavior among adolescents. A total of 1,467 17- to 18-year-old students in the county of Västmanland, Sweden, anonymously completed a questionnaire and gave a saliva sample. Family SES had a U-shaped relation to delinquency, where adolescents with low and high family SES were the most delinquent. There were curvilinear interactions between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and family SES in relation to delinquency. Among individuals having high family SES, boys with the LL (homozygous for the long allele) or LS (heterozygous) genotypes and girls with the SS (homozygous for the short allele) or LS (heterozygous) genotypes showed the highest delinquency scores. Among individuals having low family SES, boys with the LL (homozygous for the long allele) genotype and girls with the LS (heterozygous) genotype showed the highest delinquency scores. The present study suggests evidence for an interaction between family SES and the 5-HTTLPR genotype in relation to juvenile delinquency.

  • 805.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Larm, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    The buffering effect of tangible social support on financial stress: influence on psychological well-being and psychosomatic symptoms in a large sample of the adult general population2014In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 13, p. 85-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Financial stress is an important source of distress and is related to poor mental and physical health outcomes. The present study investigated whether tangible social support could buffer the effect of financial stress on psychological and psychosomatic health. Methods: Two separate postal surveys were sent to random samples in five counties in Sweden in 2004 and 2008, with a total of 84 263 respondents. The questionnaires included questions about financial stress, tangible social support, psychosomatic symptoms, and psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12). Results: Individuals with high financial stress and low tangible social support had six to seven times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and many psychosomatic symptoms. By contrast, individuals with high financial stress and high tangible social support had only two to three times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and three to four times increased odds ratios for many psychosomatic symptoms, suggesting a buffering effect of tangible social support. Consistent with the buffering hypothesis, there were significant interactions between financial stress and social support, particularly in relation to low psychological well-being. Conclusions: Social support had its strongest effect at high levels of financial stress. The question whether the altering of our social networks may improve physical health is important for the prevention of ill health in people experiencing financial stress. Strengthening social networks may have the potential to influence health-care costs and improve quality of life.

  • 806.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nordquist, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Nilsson, Kent W
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Impact of the interaction between the 5HTTLPR polymorphism and maltreatment on adolescent depression.: A population-based study2009In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 524-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serotonin plays a central role in mood regulation and the development of depressive disorders. The present study investigated whether a functional polymorphism (5HTTLPR) of the serotonin transporter gene interacts with maltreatment in the prediction of depression. A cohort of 17-18 year old students (n=1482) anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life and Health in Vestmanland 2006 and gave a saliva sample for DNA extraction. An association between maltreatment and adolescent depression was found independent of sex. When the whole population was analyzed, no main effect of 5HTTLPR in association with depression was found. When separated by sex, a significant main effect and a GxE interaction effect of the SS allele was found among girls. No gene main effect or GxE interaction effect was found among boys. The present study confirms previous findings of sex differences in interaction effects between the 5HTTLPR polymorphism and maltreatment in the prediction of adolescent depression.

  • 807.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Nilsson, Kent W
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Subjective social status and shaming experiences in relation to adolescent depression2009In: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, ISSN 1072-4710, E-ISSN 1538-3628, Vol. 163, no 1, p. 55-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate associations between social status, shaming experiences and adolescent depression by the use of a status-shaming model.

    Design: Population-based self-report cohort study.

    Setting: Västmanland, Sweden.

    Participants: A cohort of 5396 students in grade nine (15-16 years old) and second year of high school (17-18 years old).

    Intervention: Participants completed the anonymous questionnaire Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland - 2006 (SALVe 2006) during class hours.

    Outcome Measures: We investigated prevalence of depression according to DSRS (DSM IV, A-criterion), in relation to subjective social status, shaming experiences, and social background factors. Social status was measured in two ways - attributed status of a family’s socioeconomic and social standing, and acquired status of peer group and school. Binary logistic regressions were used for the analyses.

    Results: Shaming experiences and low social status interacted in relation to depression. If shaming experiences were present, participants with both high and low attributed status showed an elevated risk for depression (OR 5.4-6.9), whereas medium status seemed to have a protective function. For acquired status, the highest elevated risk was found among participants with low status (OR 6.7-8.6).

    Conclusions: It is possible that a person’s social status may influence the risk for depression when subjected to shaming experiences. The study contributes to the mapping of the influence of social status on health, and may have essential implications in the understanding, prevention and treatment of adolescent depression.

  • 808.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Individual biological sensitivity to environmental influences: testing the differential susceptibility properties of the 5HTTLPR polymorphism in relation to depressive symptoms and delinquency in two adolescent general samples2018In: Journal of neural transmission, ISSN 0300-9564, E-ISSN 1435-1463, Vol. 125, no 6, p. 977-993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gene-environment interaction research field in psychiatry has traditionally been dominated by the diathesis-stress framework, where certain genotypes are assumed to confer increased risk for adverse outcomes in a stressful environment. In later years, theories of differential susceptibility, or biological sensitivity, suggest that candidate genes that interact with environmental events do not exclusively confer a risk for behavioural or psychiatric disorders but rather seem to alter the sensitivity to both positive and negative environmental influences. The present study investigates the susceptibility properties of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) in relation to depressive symptoms and delinquency in two separate adolescent community samples: n = 1457, collected in 2006; and n = 191, collected in 2001. Two-, three-, and four-way interactions between the 5HTTLPR, positive and negative family environment, and sex were found in relation to both depressive symptoms and delinquency. However, the susceptibility properties of the 5HTTLPR were distinctly less pronounced in relation to depressive symptoms. If the assumption that the 5HTTLPR induces differential susceptibility to both positive and negative environmental influences is correct, the previous failures to measure and control for positive environmental factors might be a possible explanation for former inconsistent findings within the research field.

  • 809.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Social capital in relation to alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Sweden2013In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 12, p. 33-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social capital has lately received much attention in public health research. However, few studies have examined the influence of social capital on alcohol consumption, smoking and drug use which have strong influence on public health. The present cross-sectional study investigated whether two measures of social capital were related to substance use in a large population of Swedish adolescents. Methods: A total of 7757 13-18 year old students (participation rate: 78.2%) anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2008 which included questions on sociodemographic background, neighbourhood social capital, general social trust, alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Results: Individuals within the group with low neighbourhood social capital had an approximately 60% increased odds of high alcohol consumption, more than three times increased odds of smoking and more than double the odds of having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high neighbourhood social capital. Individuals within the group with low general social trust had approximately 50% increased odds of high alcohol consumption and double the odds of smoking and having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high general social trust. However, social capital at the contextual level showed very weak effects on alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions: Social capital may be an important factor in the future development of prevention programs concerning adolescent substance use. However, further replications of the results as well as identifications of direction of causality are needed.

  • 810.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Sjöberg, Rickard L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Shaming experiences and the association between adolescent depression and psychosocial risk factors2007In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 298-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective  To investigate whether psychosocial risk factors such as parental separation, parental unemployment and experiences of sexual abuse are associated with adolescent depression, and whether shaming experiences (defined as experiences of being degraded, or ridiculed by others) may account for such an association. Method  A total of 5048 Swedish adolescents answered the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2004 (SALVe—2004) during classhours. The survey included questions about depressive symptoms, parental separation, parental unemployment and experiences of sexual abuse. Results  The psychosocial risk factors studied were all associated with depression, but several of these associations became non-significant when a factor for shaming experiences was entered into the models. The explained variance for depression furthermore increased from approximately 4–7% to 17–20% when shame was included. Conclusion  Shaming experiences may mediate part of the association between psychosocial risk factors and depression. These findings may have important implications for the understanding of psychotherapeutic treatment of the effects of risk factors in depressed patients.

  • 811.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nordquist, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Maltreatment, MAOA, and delinquency: Sex differences in gene-environment interaction in a large population-based cohort of adolescents2011In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 262-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated a possible interaction between a functional polymorphism in the MAOA gene promoter (MAOA-VNTR) and childhood maltreatment in the prediction of adolescent male and female delinquency. A cohort of 1 825 high school students, 17-18 years old, completed an anonymous questionnaire during class hours which included questions on childhood maltreatment, sexual abuse, and delinquency. Saliva samples were collected for DNA isolation, and analyzed for the MAOA-VNTR polymorphism.

    Self-reported maltreatment was a strong risk factor for adolescent delinquent behavior. The MAOA genotype also showed a significant main effect when controlled for maltreatment. Boys with a short variant and girls with one or two long variants of the polymorphism showed a higher risk for delinquency when exposed to maltreatment. Our results confirm previous findings of an interaction between the MAOA-VNTR polymorphism and self-reported maltreatment. Results for boys and girls differ according to MAOA-VNTR genotype and direction of phenotypic expression.

  • 812.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Social status and shaming experiences related to adolescent overt aggression at school2009In: Aggressive Behavior, ISSN 0096-140X, E-ISSN 1098-2337, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feelings of rejection and humiliation in interpersonal interaction are strongly related to aggressive behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between social status, shaming experiences, gender and adolescent aggressive behavior by using a status-shaming model. A population-based sample of 5396 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 completed a questionnaire which asked questions regarding psychosocial background, shaming experiences, social status of family, peer group and school, and involvement in physical or verbal aggression at school.

    Shaming experiences, i.e. being ridiculed or humiliated by others, were strongly related to aggressive behavior. Social status and shaming were related in the prediction of aggressive behavior, suggesting that a person’s social status may influence the risk for taking aggressive action when subjected to shaming experiences. Medium social status seemed to have a protective function in the association between shaming experiences and aggression. The study confirms the importance of further evaluation of the role of perceived social status and shaming experiences in the understanding of aggressive behavior. Moreover, the results indicate the need for different kinds of status measures when investigating associations between status and behavior in adolescent populations. The results may have important implications for the prevention of bullying at school as well as other deviant aggressive behavior among adolescents.

  • 813.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Psychosomatic symptoms and low psychological well-being in relation to employment status: the influence of social capital in a large cross-sectional study in Sweden2014In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 13, p. 22-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Unemployment is associated with adverse effects on health. Social capital has been suggested as a promoter of health via several causal pathways that are associated with the known health risk factors of being unemployed. This cross-sectional study investigated possible additive-and interaction effects of unemployment and five different measures of social capital in relation to psychosomatic symptoms and low psychological well-being. Methods: A random population sample of 20,538 individuals aged 18-85 years from five counties in Sweden completed a postal survey questionnaire including questions of employment status, psychosomatic symptoms, psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12) and social capital. Results: Psychosomatic symptoms and reduced psychological well-being were more frequent among unemployed individuals compared with individuals who were employed. Moreover, low social capital and unemployment had additive effects on ill-health. Unemployed individuals with low social capital-specifically with low tangible social support-had increased ill-health compared with unemployed individuals with high social capital. Moreover, to have low social capital within several different areas magnified the negative effects on health. However, no significant interaction effects were found suggesting no moderating effect of social capital in this regard. Conclusions: Elements of social capital, particularly social support, might be important health-protective factors among individuals who are unemployed.

  • 814.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Social capital in relation to depression, musculoskeletal pain, and psychosomatic symptoms: a cross-sectional study of a large population-based cohort of Swedish adolescents2010In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 10, p. 715-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social capital has lately received much attention in health research. The present study investigated whether two measures of subjective social capital were related to psychosomatic symptoms, musculoskeletal pain, and depression in a large population of Swedish adolescents. Methods: A total of 7757 13-18 year old students anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2008 which included questions on sociodemographic background, neighbourhood social capital, general social trust, and ill health. Results: Low neighbourhood social capital and low general social trust were associated with higher rates of psychosomatic symptoms, musculoskeletal pain, and depression. Individuals with low general social trust had more than three times increased odds of being depressed, three times increased odds of having many psychosomatic symptoms, and double the odds of having many symptoms of musculoskeletal pain. Conclusions: The findings make an important contribution to the social capital health debate by demonstrating relations between social capital factors and self-reported ill health in a young population.

  • 815.
    Öhrvik, John
    Uppsala University, Interfaculty Units, Centre for Clinical Research.
    Bootstrapping threshold autoregressive models2002In: Proceedings in computational statistics, p. 207-212Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 816.
    Öhrvik, John
    Uppsala University, Interfaculty Units, Centre for Clinical Research.
    Nonparametic methods in the two-way layout2002In: Chiang Mai J Sci, p. 103-115Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 817. Öhrvik, John
    et al.
    Hedberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Jonason, Tommy
    Lönnberg, Ingemar
    Nilsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Factor Analysis of the Individual Components of the Metabolic Syndrome Among Elderly Identifies Two Factors With Different Survival Patterns-A Population-Based Study2009In: Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, ISSN 1540-4196, E-ISSN 1557-8518, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 171-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Factor analysis reduces a set of directly measured variables into a smaller set of underlying factors representing unique statistically independent domains termed "factors." In middle-aged people, previous factor analyses of the components of the metabolic syndrome have identified two to four factors. Many of these analyses report blood pressure as one of these factors. Methods: We performed a factor analysis of the individual continuous components of the metabolic syndrome among 198 men and 203 women comprising 65% of all 75 year olds from the city of Vasteras in Sweden. Results: The metabolic syndrome comprised two factors. Factor 1, the metabolic factor, consisted of waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose, whereas factor 2, the blood pressure factor, consisted of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. These two factors explained 58% (factor 1, 31%, and factor 2, 27%) of the total variation in men. The corresponding figures for women were 63% (factor 1, 36%, and factor 2, 27%). Factor 1 was significantly related to a decreased 10 years of survival for men, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.58, P = 0.008), and nearly significantly for women, with a HR of 1.27 (95% CI 0.98-1.64, P = 0.071). In a pooled analysis adjusting for sex, known cardiovascular disease, and hypertension, high blood pressure, and current smoking, the HR for factor 1 was 1.20 (95% CI 1.02-1.49, P = 0.026). Factor 2 was not significantly related to survival. Conclusions: Factor analysis of the basic variables of the metabolic syndrome among 75 year olds from a general population identified a metabolic factor and a blood pressure factor. The former factor was significantly related to 10-year survival and the relationship remained after adjusting for known cardiovascular disease and hypertension and current smoking.

  • 818.
    Öhrvik, John
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Interfaculty Units, Centre for Clinical Research.
    Schoier, G
    SETAR model selection - a bootstrap approach computational2005In: Statistics 20, Vol. 4, p. 559-73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 819. Örtendahl, Monica
    et al.
    Uttermalm, Alf
    Simonsson, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Näsman, Per
    Wallsten, Tuula
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Estimated Time for Occurrence of Smoking-Related Consequences among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women2009In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 1665-1675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To study time estimates by women smokers for when smokingrelated consequences will occur given continuing or quitting smoking. The relationship of these estimates to pregnancy and intent to quit smoking was also investigated. Methods: Over a two-week period, eighty women, selected to constitute four subgroups formed by pregnant vs. non-pregnant and trying vs. not trying to quit smoking, rated times at which they would expect smoking-related consequences to occur given continuing or quitting smoking. Results: Somatic health consequences were estimated to occur later than consequences related to mood and social relations. All consequences were estimated to occur later given quitting smoking. Pregnancy had an effect on the estimated time that consequences would occur, with pregnant women estimating earlier occurrence of consequences related to mood and social relations than non-pregnant women did. Conclusion: Health messages should stress consequences for somatic health in quitting smoking, since outcomes later in time might have too low a value to exert a positive effect on decisions to quit smoking.

  • 820.
    Östberg, Erland
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Pulmonary Atelectasis in General Anaesthesia: Clinical Studies on the Counteracting Effects of Positive End-Expiratory Pressure2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Partial lung collapse, i.e., pulmonary atelectasis, is common during general anaesthesia. The main causal mechanism is reduced lung volume with airway closure and subsequent gas absorption from preoxygenated alveoli. Atelectasis impairs oxygenation and forms the pathophysiological basis for postoperative pulmonary complications. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) counteracts the loss in lung volume, but its role in preventing atelectasis during anaesthesia is not clear.

    All studies included in this thesis were prospective randomized clinical trials. In the first study, oxygenation was used as a surrogate measure of atelectasis in obese patients undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass. The subsequent studies used single-slice computed tomography (CT) to evaluate atelectasis in healthy patients undergoing non-abdominal surgery.

    Paper I: We studied the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and PEEP during induction of anaesthesia and a reduced inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2) during emergence. Oxygenation was maintained in the group that received CPAP during induction, followed by a PEEP of 10 cmH2O. Postoperative oxygenation was impaired in the group that received a high FiO2 during emergence.

    Paper II: An early oxygen washout manoeuvre to quickly restore nitrogen levels and thus stabilize the alveoli, had no effect on atelectasis at the end of surgery. Both study groups exhibited small atelectasis after being ventilated with a moderate PEEP of 6-8 cmH2O during anaesthesia.

    Paper III: The effect of PEEP versus zero PEEP on atelectasis formation and oxygenation at the end of surgery was compared. The PEEP group maintained oxygenation better and exhibited less atelectasis than the zero-PEEP group, with atelectasis involving a median 1.8% of total lung area compared with 4.6% in the zero-PEEP group (P = 0.002).

    Paper IV: Postoperative atelectasis was compared between a group in which PEEP was maintained during emergence preoxygenation with FiO2 1.0 and a group in which PEEP was withdrawn just before the start of emergence preoxygenation with FiO2 1.0. The two groups had small atelectasis when fully awake at 30 min after extubation, with no statistically significant difference between them.  

    In conclusion, preserved end-expiratory lung volume is the key to avoiding atelectasis, in particular when an increased oxygen reserve is required during airway manipulation. PEEP is both necessary and sufficient to minimize atelectasis in healthy patients undergoing non-abdominal surgery.

  • 821. Östman, Margareta
    et al.
    Wallsten, Tuula
    Uppsala University, Interfaculty Units, Centre for Clinical Research.
    Kjellin, Lars
    Family burden and relatives' participation in psychiatric care: are the patient's diagnosis and the relation to the patient of importance?2005In: Int J Soc Psychiatry, ISSN 0020-7640, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 291-301Article in journal (Refereed)
14151617 801 - 821 of 821
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf