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  • 74501.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Frankelius, Per
    Ekonomi och lönsamhet2015In: Marknadsföring: vetenskap och praktik, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 545-574Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 74502.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Leeds university Business School, The university of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Graham, Gary
    Leeds university Business School, The university of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    How smart cities will change supply chain management: a technical viewpoint2016In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 529-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart city initiatives could be expected to radically change the ways businesses are organised. This paper is a first step to understand the role of smart cities in supply chain management, with a specific focus on supplier networks. In this paper, the following question is posed: How will smart cities change supply chain management? Further, a conceptual framework for understanding the important factors that appear to affect the integration of smart city initiatives in the supply chain is developed. Additionally, examples are collected that illustrate the interplay of smart city initiatives with supply chain management. Ultimately, the objective is to identify the key elements driving integration and their influence on supply chain management, as well as provide insights on productive methods for developing, introducing and managing smart city innovation.

  • 74503.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Graham, Gary
    Business School, Leeds University, Leeds, UK.
    Hennelly, Patrick
    Leeds University, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Smart cities: A literature review and business network approach discussion on the management of organisations2017In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 468-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The smart city idea refers to new ways of organising city functions and urban life, which are believed to move production and consumption from global to local, manufacturing from competitive to collaborative, and business from a shareholder to a multiple-stakeholder point of view. Most previous research has focused on the societal level of smart cities, while less seems to be known about the management of business as part of smart cities. This paper presents a literature review on the state of the art of management research on smart cities. The following research question is addressed: How has previous research captured the management of organisations in smart cities?

    Design/methodology/approach: A literature review using the search term “smart city/cities” in research on business, management and operational management was conducted for the purpose of capturing previous research. Findings were coded based on main ideas, central concepts and theories, thematic content of the articles related to the main ideas underpinning smart cities (digitalization, urbanization, and sustainability as antecedents, and local, collaborative and multiple-stakeholder manufacturing as indicators), and units of analysis.

    Findings: The paper points to how most studies on the management of organisations as part of smart cities focus on sustainability and how digitalisation enables new businesses. Collaborative efforts are emphasised and the theoretical framing is fragmented. Issues related to the organising of business is also not problematised and the business network approach could, as discussed in the paper, provide valuable insights related to the collaborative efforts of organisations and the multiple-stakeholder perspective.

    Originality/value: The paper is the first to capture and present an overview of previous research on the management of business as part of smart cities. Research on smart cities has focused on the policy and societal levels, and so far there is a lack of problematisation on how organisations may act, and potentially change their way of acting, should smart cities become a reality.

  • 74504.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Graham, Gary
    Leeds university Business School, The university of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Hennelly, Patrick
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Smart cities: a literature review and network approach discussion2016In: IMP Symposium, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74505.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Challenges and opportunities in innovative firms’ network development2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74506.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Challenges and opportunities in innovative firms' network development2009In: International Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1363-9196, E-ISSN 1757-5877, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 593-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss challenges and opportunities related to the development of innovative firms' networks. The paper utilises four case studies based on interviews with representatives of young innovative firms and their present and previous network partners. The findings show that while early network partners often play several roles simultaneously, the roles of both the innovative firm and its network partners become increasingly distinct as the innovative firm develops. Such clarification of roles highlights competition between parties. For the innovative firm, the early phases are marked by innovativeness and problems related to growth and financial issues; later phases may include challenges of dependence, competition, exclusion of actors, decreased innovativeness and less innovative freedom.

  • 74507.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Commercialisation through acquisition?: A literature review2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74508.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; University of Exeter, Exter, UK.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Using relationship distance to maintain innovation capability for university spin-offs2013In: ISPIM Conference – Innovating in Global Markets: Challenges for Sustainable Growth, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    University spin-offs are often treated as key to establishing new high-tech ventures. The importance of relationships for such ventures has been extensively emphasised, particularly concerning innovation co-creation commercialisation. But do such establishments really produce value to the spin-off and foster its further development of innovations? This paper argues that distance in relationship is important for the continuous innovativeness of the spin-off, and discusses how such distance impacts the innovation capabilities and co-creation of a university spin-off. The paper presents a longitudinal case study of a Swedish university high-tech spin-off. It points to how horizontal proximity in the supply chain facilitates the development of the core technology but that relationship distance, in the form of geographic and vertical supply-chain distance, positively impacts the innovation capabilities of the spin-off. Supply-chain distance results in knowledge distance (or fit) which facilitates this freedom, yet moderates the co-creative capability between various parties.

  • 74509.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lunds universitet/University of Exeter.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using relationship distance to maintain innovation capability for university spin-offs2013In: The XXIV ISPIM Conference - Innovating in Global Markets: Challenges for Sustainable Growth, Lappeenranta, Finland: Lappeenranta University of Technology Press , 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    University spin-offs are often treated as key to establishing new high-tech ventures. The importance of relationships for such ventures has been extensively emphasised, particularly concerning innovation co-creation commercialisation. But do such establishments really produce value to the spin-off and foster its further development of innovations? This paper argues that distance in relationship is important for the continuous innovativeness of the spin-off, and discusses how such distance impacts the innovation capabilities and co-creation of a university spin-off. The paper presents a longitudinal case study of a Swedish university high-tech spin-off. It points to how horizontal proximity in the supply chain facilitates the development of the core technology but that relationship distance, in the form of geographic and vertical supply-chain distance, positively impacts the innovation capabilities of the spin-off. Supply-chain distance results in knowledge distance (or fit) which facilitates this freedom, yet moderates the co-creative capability between various parties.

  • 74510.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jönsson, Petter
    Inflight Service AB.
    Acquisition and network identity change2011In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123, Vol. 45, no 9/10, p. 1470-1500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of the paper is to discuss whether or not an acquisition changes the network identity of an acquired firm and, if so, how. This study aims to bring new insights to the corporate marketing field, as it examines corporate identity in the context of how a company is perceived because of its relationships with other firms. The focus of this research is acquired innovative firms. Design/methodology/approach - This paper adopts a multiple case study approach. Data on four acquisitions of innovative firms were collected using 41 interviews, which were supplemented with secondary data. Findings - Based on the case studies, it can be concluded that the network identity of the acquired firms does change following an acquisition. The acquired firms inherited the acquirers identity, regardless of whether or not the companies were integrated. Previous, present and potential business partners regarded the innovative firms as being more solvent, but distanced themselves. In addition, some of them regarded the innovative firms as competitors. Practical implications - Changes in the way a firm is perceived by its business partners, following an acquisition, will influence the future business operations of the firm. Expected changes to business relationships should ideally be considered part of due diligence. Acquirers need to consider how they can minimise the risks associated with business partners changed perceptions of acquired firms. Originality/value - This paper contributes to the research on identity, through discussion of the consequences of an acquisition for the identity and relationships of a firm. It also contributes to the existing corporate marketing literature, through consideration of perceptions at a network level. Furthermore, this paper contributes to merger and acquisition literature, by highlighting the influence of ownership on relationships with external parties.

  • 74511.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping , Sweden.
    Jönsson, Petter
    Inflight Service AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Acquisitions and network identity change2011In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123, Vol. 45, no 9/10, p. 1470-1500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to discuss whether or not an acquisition changes the network identity of an acquired firm and, if so, how. This study aims to bring new insights to the corporate marketing field, as it examines corporate identity in the context of how a company is perceived because of its relationships with other firms. The focus of this research is acquired innovative firms.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper adopts a multiple case study approach. Data on four acquisitions of innovative firms were collected using 41 interviews, which were supplemented with secondary data.

    Findings: Based on the case studies, it can be concluded that the network identity of the acquired firms does change following an acquisition. The acquired firms inherited the acquirers' identity, regardless of whether or not the companies were integrated. Previous, present and potential business partners regarded the innovative firms as being more solvent, but distanced themselves. In addition, some of them regarded the innovative firms as competitors.

    Practical implications: Changes in the way a firm is perceived by its business partners, following an acquisition, will influence the future business operations of the firm. Expected changes to business relationships should ideally be considered part of due diligence. Acquirers need to consider how they can minimise the risks associated with business partners' changed perceptions of acquired firms.

    Originality/value: This paper contributes to the research on identity, through discussion of the consequences of an acquisition for the identity and relationships of a firm. It also contributes to the existing corporate marketing literature, through consideration of perceptions at a network level. Furthermore, this paper contributes to merger and acquisition literature, by highlighting the influence of ownership on relationships with external parties.

  • 74512.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Petter
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Acquisitions of innovative firms and their impact on customer access2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, the literature depicts acquisitions of technology or innovative firms as a means for theacquirer to obtain resources or knowledge. This paper challenges the traditional view. We take theperspective of an innovative firm to ask the question: In what ways does the acquirer affect thecustomer access for the target company? This question is addressed where the acquirer is a companywithin a mature industry, the target is an innovative firm, and when the target’s customers at the sametime are competitors to the acquirer. The discussion takes its point of departure in a literature reviewand a case study. The case study highlights issues of customer access in dimensions of ownershipand integration; issues that are found to be missing in the reviewed literature. As this paper considersthe situation from the target’s perspective it contributes to the literature on acquisitions of innovativefirms. Furthermore, it contributes to the innovation literature through highlighting the influence ofownership on an innovative company in the process of getting customer access.

  • 74513.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rosenfall, Thomas
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    The role of identity for open-source software innovations2012In: Proceedings of The XXIII ISPIM Conference 2012 Barcelona, ISPIM/ Lappeenranta University of Technology Press , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and discusses the role of identity in open source software (OSS) innovations. It illustrates identities through four case studies that include the perspectives of OSS communities, OSS companies, and users. The paper concludes that the community may either have its primary function to provide an OSS aura to the OSS company, or it may have its focus on attracting developers and thereby contributing to innovativeness of the OSS community. OSS community identitie sare mainly self-reflective on its contributors, but also help to create rules of the community. Since it is the OSS company that communicates identities to external parties, the coherence and closeness between the OSS company and the community are important.

  • 74514.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosenfall, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The role of identity for open-source software innovations2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and discusses the role of identity in open source software (OSS) innovations. It illustrates identities through four case studies that include the perspectives of OSS communities, OSS companies, and users. The paper concludes that the community may either have its primary function to provide an OSS aura to the OSS company, or it may have its focus on attracting developers and thereby contributing to innovativeness of the OSS community. OSS community identitie sare mainly self-reflective on its contributors, but also help to create rules of the community. Since it is the OSS company that communicates identities to external parties, the coherence and closeness between the OSS company and the community are important.

  • 74515.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Henneberg, Stephan C.
    Manchester Business School, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    Lancaster University, Management School, UK.
    Changing network pictures: evidence from mergers and acquisitions2007In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 926-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A merger or acquisition may cause dramatic changes in a business network, which in turn affect managerial cognition as well as managerial activities. We use the concepts of ‘network pictures’ and ‘networking’ to illustrate and analyse changes in managerial sense-making and networking activities following a merger or acquisition. The paper focuses on acquiring, acquired or merging parties and those companies with which they have direct customer relationships. Based on three case studies comprising seven acquisitions and one merger, we show that following a merger or acquisition managers may need to adapt their previous network pictures in a radical way; these adaptations are, however, not always realized as shifts in network pictures and adjustments in networking activities by all the managers involved. Whereas the merging parties' network pictures and networking activities are largely driven by their perception of customers' needs and developments, it is not certain that the merger or acquisition is enacted accordingly. The paper contributes to a clearer view on the conceptual interdependence of the constructs of network pictures and networking in multi-actor situations and thus it develops a network perspective on mergers and acquisitions.

  • 74516.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Henneberg, Stephan C.
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Organisational manifestation of network pictures: Concepts and case evidence2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is concerned with how views and perceptions of individual managers manifest themselves in organisational artefacts, such as information systems, processes, operating and strategic plans, or organisational structures. Specifically, we are interested in the inscriptions of the embedding relationships within an inter-organisational network. The concept of ‘organisational network pictures’ is derived from the network marketing literature. Furthermore, a two-dimensional operationalisation is proposed and applied to an in-depth longitudinal case study. Implications and further research are discussed.

  • 74517.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. .
    Henneberg, Stephan C.
    University of Manchester, UK. .
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    Lancaster University, UK. .
    Organisational manifestation of network pictures: Concepts and case evidence2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74518.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Henneberg, Stephan C.
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Organizational Inscriptions of Network Pictures: A Meso-Level Analysis2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with manifestations of managerial cognition, thus elaborating on a neglected area in business networks and management. While previous studies have concentrated on business networks from entire companies' or individual persons' perspective, this paper operates on a focal company level (meso-level) and is concerned with how interactive sense-making is represented in organizational artifacts, which in turn aim to guide organizational activities. The paper develops and tests a dimensional model of tangible traces of organizational network pictures, which thereby becomes a means to capture managers' interactive sense-making of a company's network. We found manifestation of managerial cognition in the following areas: systems, processes, budgets, strategy, and organization, which in turn influenced the inclusion/exclusion of interaction partners, the interaction mode, and resource allocation.

  • 74519.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Henneberg, Stephan C.
    Manchester IMP Research Group, Manchester Business School, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    Management School, Lancaster University, UK.
    Organizational inscriptions of network pictures: A meso-level analysis2012In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1270-1283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with organizational inscriptions of managerial cognitions elaborating on the emerging concept of network pictures. While previous studies on network pictures have concentrated on individual managers' cognitive views of business networks, this study operates on a focal company level (meso-level) and is concerned with how managerial cognitions are manifested in organizational artifacts, which in turn guide business activities. The paper presents a typological model of traces of such inscriptions, which, thereby, becomes a means to capture managers' interactive sense-making of a company's network. We identify organizational inscriptions of managerial cognitions in the areas of strategy, organization, systems, processes, and budgets. Using a comparative-static case study involving mergers and acquisitions of a focal company over time, we exemplify the different organizational inscriptions.

  • 74520.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Henneberg, Stephan
    School of Management, University of Bath, UK.
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    School of Management, University of Bath, UK.
    Changing network pictures: The evidence from mergers and acquisitions2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) may cause dramatic changes ina business network whichin turn affect managerial cognition aswell as managerial activities. We use the concepts of ‘network pictures’ and ‘networking’ to illustrate and analyse changes in managerialsense-makingand networkingactivities following an M&A. The paper focuses on the merging parties and those companieswith which they have direct customerrelationships. Based on three case studies comprising eight M&As, we show that managers may need to adapt theirprevious network pictures in a radical way following an M&A, but that these adaptations are not always realised as shifts in network pictures and adjustments in networking activities byall managers involved. Furthermore, whereas the merging parties’ network pictures and networking activities are largely driven by their perception of customers’ needs anddevelopments, it is not certain that the M&As are enacted accordingly. The paper contributes to the understanding of M&As from a network perspective and to the conceptual interdependence of the constructs of network pictures and networking in a multi-actor situation.

  • 74521.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Henneberg, Stephan
    School of Management, University of Bath, UK.
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    School of Management, University of Bath, UK.
    Changing network pictures: The evidence from mergers and acquisitions2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) may cause dramatic changes ina business network whichin turn affect managerial cognition aswell as managerial activities. We use the concepts of ‘network pictures’ and ‘networking’ to illustrate and analyse changes in managerialsense-makingand networkingactivities following an M&A. The paper focuses on the merging parties and those companieswith which they have direct customerrelationships. Based on three case studies comprising eight M&As, we show that managers may need to adapt theirprevious network pictures in a radical way following an M&A, but that these adaptations are not always realised as shifts in network pictures and adjustments in networking activities byall managers involved. Furthermore, whereas the merging parties’ network pictures and networking activities are largely driven by their perception of customers’ needs anddevelopments, it is not certain that the M&As are enacted accordingly. The paper contributes to the understanding of M&As from a network perspective and to the conceptual interdependence of the constructs of network pictures and networking in a multi-actor situation.

  • 74522.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Holtström, Johan
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Are mergers and acquisitions contagious?2006In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 59, no 12, p. 1267-1275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In traditional literature on mergers and acquisitions (M&As), the reasons to merge or acquire are largely described as strategies of the merging or acquiring parties. This article suggests that M&As are contextually driven. Based on six case studies, the article pinpoints how M&As among customers lead to M&As among suppliers, and vice versa. The article launches the concept of parallel M&As to describe this phenomenon, and asks the following question: in what ways are M&As among customers and suppliers a driving force for M&As by the other party? Matching, dependence and keeping a power balance are found as key explanations for parallel M&As.

  • 74523.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Holtström, Johan
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Are mergers and acquisitions contagious?: Conceptualising Parallel M&As2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping the number of completed mergers and acquisitions (M&As) over the past few decades wouldproduce a line roughly following the fluctuations of the business cycle. The most recent peak wasmarked by the numerous M&As occurring in the late 1990s and in early 2000 (Bengtsson and Skärvad2001; Weston and Weaver 2001), followed by the recession starting in late 2000 (Sevenius 2003;Lundell 2002; KPMG Corporate Finance 2003; Förvärv & fusioner 2004). Weston and Weaver (2001)describe this development as M&A waves, and refer to the most recent peak of mergers andacquisitions as the fifth M&A wave. Different peaks in the history of M&A have had different foci. In the1960s and 1970s, diversification and the creation of conglomerates were common reasons formerging with or acquiring other companies (Shleifer & Vishny, in Rumelt, Schendel and Teece 1994;Weston and Weaver 2001). In the age of economic globalisation, the M&As of the late 1990s andearly 2000 were more international in scope, involving companies from more than one country; theywere also more focused on bringing intra-industry companies together (Bengtsson and Skärvad 2001;Sevenius 2003). The intra-industry focus on M&As could stand as a description for the concentrationin e.g. the automotive industry and the IT-sector in the late 1990s. But is this all we see?This paper focuses on M&As as a driving force for other M&As. More specifically, our focus is on howM&As among customers lead to M&As among suppliers, and reverse, in a network perspective. Welaunch the concept of parallel M&As to describe this phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is todiscuss parallel M&As, asking: In what ways are M&As among customers and suppliers a driving forcefor M&As? In contrast to the argument in e.g. Halinen, Salmi and Havila (1999) and Havila and Salmi(2000), we argue that M&As are not only a trigger to change, but also a response to change, andfurther, that these changes need not be directly dyadically connected (cf. Hertz 1998; Havila andSalmi 2000), but appear parallel to each other. Contrary to the motives presented in most traditionalM&A literature, this further means challenging M&As as only being the result of strategies within theacquiring company. Instead we point at M&As as contextually driven. Built on the six case studies,matching, dependence and keeping a “power balance” between customers and suppliers are referredto as key explanations for parallel M&As.

  • 74524.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Allocating environmental effects: a company vis-à-vis a network perspective2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental effects have attracted increased interest in the past years. In this paper, we discuss how a company vis-à-vis a network perspective on allocation of environmental effects may lead to quite different decisions by firms. Empirical examples based on four case studies describe logistic solutions and what effects are seen from a single company and a network perspective. It is concluded that if only considering environmental effects from an individual company's perspective, certain aspects are left out. This in turn has consequences for the environment. For society it becomes vital to find the appropriate analysis level for environmental effects, and also to reconsider allocations of environmental effects on company levels as this may actually counteract environmental-friendly intentions.

  • 74525.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Applying a network level in environmental impact assessment2012In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 247-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers and society devote increasing interest to environmental impact assessments. The study here discusses and questions current assessment models by relating them to inter-organizational network analyses, and demonstrates that single entities as the basis for environmental impact assessments may not be in the best interests of society. Three case studies focusing on logistical solutions illustrate environmental effects on a single-entity and a network level. The paper concludes that considering environmental impacts on a single-entity level disregards indirect effects, which in turn has consequences for the environment. The paper points to the importance of identifying the appropriate level for analysis of environmental impacts since the single entity as the basis for assessments may undermine environmentally friendly intentions.

  • 74526.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    The extended organisation: A network approach2009In: Creating Business out of Industrial Offerings: Findings from Market-Leading B2B Companies, Stockholm: Foundation Marketing Technology Center (MTC) , 2009, p. 13-19Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 74527.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kollberg, Beata
    Tekniska verken i Linköping AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Extending the ambidexterity discussion in high-technology small firms2016In: High Technology Small Firms Conference, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74528.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leminen, Seppo
    Laurea University of Applied Sciences, Espoo, Finland; Department of Marketing, Aalto University School of Business, Helsinki, Finland.
    Gap analysis for innovative firm acquisition - acquirer and acquired party perspectives2017In: Journal of Organizational Change Management, ISSN 0953-4814, E-ISSN 1758-7816, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 380-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Companies often aspire to create advantages for their businesses through acquisitions. Their participation has increasingly been documented to include different motives for acquirers, while focusing less on the ambitions of acquired parties with the acquisitions. The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss gaps and the handling of gaps between acquirers and acquired parties in acquisitions of innovative firms.

    Design/methodology/approach: In the paper, the authors specifically focus on acquisitions of innovative firms. Four case studies illustrate gaps between the acquirers and the acquired parties.

    Findings: The authors conclude that gaps may be present from the start as latent gaps, and become activated in integration or as the consequence of non-integration decisions. Gaps between the acquirer and the acquired party may be further manifested in external parties' reactions to the integration. The handling of gaps emphasizes a transition time and communication about expectations between the acquirer and the acquired party.

    Originality/value: The paper contributes to previous research on mergers and acquisitions in general, and acquisitions of innovative firms in particular. Prior literature on acquisitions is scarce on descriptions of gaps or the handling of gaps. Gaps complement ideas on differences in culture between acquirers and acquired parties. It also highlights how acquired parties have as much intention with an acquisition as acquirers.

  • 74529.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Leminen, Seppo
    Gap analysis for innovative firm acquisition: Acquirer and target company perspectives2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74530.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, Cambridge Massachusetts, USA.
    Shams, Tawfiq
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    On the verge of disruption: rethinking position and role - the case of additive manufacturing2019In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 1093-1105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: With the overarching idea of disruptive technology and its effects on business, this paper focuses on how companies strategically consider meeting the challenge of a disruptive technology such as additive manufacturing. The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss changes in positions and roles related to the implementation of a disruptive technology.

    Design/methodology/approach: Additive manufacturing could be expected to have different consequences for parties based on their current supply chain positions. The paper therefore investigates companies' strategies related to various supply chain positions and does so by departing from a position and role point of view. Three business cases related to metal 3D printing - illustrating sub-suppliers, manufacturers and logistics firms - describe as many strategies. Data for the cases were collected through meetings, interviews, seminars and secondary data focusing on both current business activities related to additive manufacturing and scenarios for the future.

    Findings: The companies attempted to defend their current positions, leading to new roles for them. This disconnects the change of roles from that of positions. The changed roles indicate that all parties, regardless of supply chain positions, would move into competing producing roles, thereby indicating how a disruptive technology may disrupt network structures based on companies' attempts to defend their positions.

    Originality/value: The paper contributes to previous research by reporting a disconnect between positions and roles among firms when disruption takes place. The paper further denotes how the investigated firms largely disregarded network consequences at the disruptive stage, caused by the introduction of additive manufacturing. The paper also contributes to research on additive manufacturing by including a business dimension and linking this to positions and roles.

  • 74531.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Shams, Tawfiq
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Asnafi, Nader
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Additive Manufacturing and Business Models: Current Knowledge and Missing Perspectives2018In: Technology Innovation Management Review, ISSN 1927-0321, E-ISSN 1927-0321, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 15-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing, that is 3D printing technology, may change the way companies operate their businesses. This article adopts a business model perspective to create an understanding of what we know about these changes. It summarizes current knowledge on additive manufacturing within management and business research, and it discusses future research directions in relation to business models for additive manufacturing. Using the scientific database Web of Science, 116 journal articles were identified. The literature review reveals that most research concerns manufacturing optimization. A more holistic view of the changes that additive manufacturing may bring about for firms is needed, as is more research on changed value propositions, and customer/sales-related issues. The article contributes to previous research by systematically summarizing additive manufacturing research in the business and management literature, and by highlighting areas for further investigation related to the business models of individual firms.

  • 74532.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Shams, Tawfiq
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Asnafi, Nader
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Additive manufacturing: Current knowledge and missing perspectives2017In: 18th International CINet Conference: Digitalization and innovation: designing the organization of the future, Continous Innovation Network (CIBet) , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74533.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Shih, Tommy Tsung Ying
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Diverging network logics: barriers for commercialisation of innovations2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74534.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Department of Business Administration, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Shih, Tommy Tsung-Ying
    Department of Business Administration, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Strategy in an ambiguous innovation environment: the case of a Taiwanese biopharmaceutical firm2015In: Journal of Strategy and Management., ISSN 1755-425X, E-ISSN 1755-4268, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 326-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: An ambiguous environment indicates how rules and interests may not be outspoken or clear. In an emerging industry sector, such ambiguity may follow from different sets of rules to adapt to, changes to these rules, and how various parties surrounding a firm act based on these rules and individual interests, interaction goals, and priorities. The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss how a company balances its relationships with others to achieve strategic intentions in an ambiguous environment. Specifically, the paper focusses on innovation in the biopharmaceutical sector in Taiwan.

    Design/methodology/approach: The empirical part of the paper is based on a single case study portraying multiple parties surrounding an innovative Taiwanese biopharmaceutical firm.

    Findings: The paper points to how partner selection and interaction are highly affected by the ambiguous environment. Ambiguity leads to transactional exchanges on the domestic level, while the focal firm engages in collaborative, relational interactionwith international parties to accomplish innovations.

    Originality/value: The paper contributes to literature on company strategies in emerging sectors with its specific focus on innovation strategies, and how a company balances ways of interacting based on an ambiguous environment. To Asian management research, contributions include an in-depth description of company-level strategizing in Taiwan

  • 74535.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Department of Business Administration, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Shih, Tommy Tsung-Ying
    Department of Business Administration, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Chou, Hsin-Hui
    Department of Business Administration, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Network strategies and effects in an interactive context2016In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 52, p. 117-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper adoptsthe industrial marketing approach to investigate how companies strategize in networks, and to link network strategies to different effects. Based on a case study from the optical recording media industry, the paper finds five types of strategies: complementary, shared, copying, company-rooted, and challenging. Effects indicate how the focal company's strategies triggered reactions of various magnitudes and characteristics. Specifically, effects diverge from intentions among parties not considered in the strategy, and increasingly so the more confronting the strategy is. This implies that the kind of strategy matters for the effects. This paper contributes to the growing interest for strategizing in business networks through introducing a typology of network strategies and effects.

  • 74536.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Tarba, Shlomo Y.
    Department of Economics and Management, Open University, Raanana, Israel.
    Knowledge transfer following horizontal international acquisitions2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74537.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Tarba, Shlomo Yedidia
    What do we know about post-merger integration following international acquisitions?2013In: Advances in International Management, Volume 26 - Philosophy of Science and Meta-Knowledge in International Business and Management / [ed] Timothy M. Devinney, Torben Pedersen, Laszlo Tihanyi, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013, Vol. 26, p. 469-492Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents a review of the state of the art on the topic of knowledge transfer following post-merger integration (PMI) in international mergers and acquisitions (M&A) and identifies points of agreement and disagreement, recognizes underexplored areas and provides suggestions on how they could be explored in future studies. The chapter points to the limited amount of literature that describes knowledge transfer following international acquisitions, while highlighting it as an emerging field of research. The knowledge transfer literature mainly refers to innovation and innovation capabilities, while areas such as marketing and customer knowledge are vitally absent in the literature. In any international acquisition, such knowledge transfer would be of fundamental importance, given the acquisition motive to reach new markets or customers. Two case studies on the transfer of knowledge about customers following international acquisitions are provided. The case illustrations point to a focus on knowledge transfer on strategic levels in the post-merger integration following international acquisitions, while the operational sales forces’ transfer of knowledge is largely disregarded in practice. Since much of the tacit knowledge about customers is handled on that level, it needs to be recognized and developed. The chapter indicates that raising the awareness of the transfer of knowledge about customers following international acquisitions is important from a practitioner’s as well as a research point of view.

  • 74538.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Tsung Ying Shih, Tommy
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Getting into the established network: Logic barriers for young innovative firms2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the difficulties for young, innovative firms to establish relationships with other companies based on differences in logics among firms. Logics refer prioritizations and interests that underpin interaction decisions. In the paper we make a distinction in logics between orientation to technology advancements and to present structures, and in terms of timeframes. The empirical part of the paper consists of two case studies. Differences in logics inhibit the establishment of relationships, and four parameters have consequences for the young, innovative firm and the possibility to establish business relationships: (i) its lack of present or inherited network ties: (ii) its logic towards technology rather than marketing: (iii) the structure of established firms, and (iv) the difference in logics between established and young, innovative firms. We conclude that divergences in orientation to technology advancements or present structures hinder the establishment of relationships. Such orientations may however shift during the course of their present interactions. Differences in timeframes do not hinder the establishment of relationships, but continue to be a conflicting issue once the relationship is established. The paper contributes to research on innovations in networks through highlighting issues of differences in firms’ logics and their effects on the likelihood for establishing relationships among them. It further indicates that similarities in logics is not only a consequence of interaction, but is also widely decisive for the choice of interaction partners.

  • 74539.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; University of Exeter Business School, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Tsung-Ying Shih, Tommy
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Divergent and convergent logic of firms: Barriers and enablers for development and commercialization of innovations2014In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 419-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and discusses similarities and differences in the priorities, interests, and interactional goals of companies involved in the development and commercialization of innovation. We refer to such priorities, interests, and interactional goals as the logic of firms, and point to how differences among companies in these regards may enable or inhibit the development and commercialization of innovation. A case study in drug development, from a Taiwanese biopharmaceutical, illustrates two types of innovations: generic and novel drug development. Findings suggest how logic places focus on how certain actors may be more motivated toward innovation, but also on how the logic portrayed by actors can promote certain types of innovations (in this case generic ones), while inhibiting others (novel innovations). The paper concludes that companies need to have convergent logic (i.e. have the same priorities and similar or complementary interests and interaction goals) if an innovation process is to be successful. The focus on priorities, interests, and interactional goals of companies in innovation processes complements previous research that has primarily focused on the actual interaction, not what motivates it. The construct of shared logic nets as a means of analyzing convergent logic and gaps between different types of logic help to understand enablers and barriers to innovation.

  • 74540.
    Öberg, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    On Money and Consumption2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Price Level Determination When Tax Payments Are Required in Money. We formalize the idea that the price level can be determined by a requirement that taxes be paid in money. We show that if households have to pay a money tax of a fixed real value and the money supply is constant, there is a unique stationary price level, and a continuum of non-stationary deflationary equilibria. The non-stationary equilibria can be excluded if we introduce an arbitrarily lax borrowing constraint. Thus, in the basic model, tax requirements can uniquely determine the price level. When money has liquidity value, tax requirements can exclude self-fulfilling hyperinflations.

    The New Keynesian Transmission Mechanism: A Heterogeneous-Agent Perspective. We argue that a two-agent version of the standard New Keynesian model - where a "worker'' receives only labor income and a "capitalist'' only profit income - offers insights about how income inequality affects the monetary transmission mechanism. Under rigid prices, monetary policy has no effect on output as workers choose not to change their hours worked in response to wage movements. In the corresponding representative-agent model, in contrast, hours do rise after a monetary policy loosening due to a wealth effect on labor supply: profits fall, thus reducing the representative worker's income. If wages are rigid too, however, the monetary transmission mechanism is active and resembles that in the corresponding representative-agent model.

    Consumption Dynamics under Time-varying Unemployment Risk. We argue that adjustment frictions for durable goods generate a powerful amplification channel from fluctuations in unemployment risk to aggregate consumption demand. First, we use survey data to document that durable expenditures react strongly to increased unemployment risk, while the effect on nondurable expenditures is indistinguishable from zero. Second, we propose and calibrate a buffer-stock savings model that includes adjustment frictions for durable goods. Although not targeted in the calibration, we find that the model reproduces the semi-elasticities of expenditures to unemployment risk estimated in the data. Using the model, we find that the inclusion of adjustment frictions raises the aggregate demand response of durable goods to fluctuations in perceived unemployment risk by approximately 200 percent. Moreover, upon experiencing an adverse risk shock, the responsiveness of aggregate demand for durable goods to the interest rate and transitory income shocks is dampened.

    Consumption Dynamics under Time-varying Unemployment Risk: Evidence from Time Series Data. We investigate the relationship between consumption expenditures and unemployment risk using aggregate time series data for the US and ten EU countries. As a proxy for perceived unemployment risk, we use data on households' subjective expectations over the future unemployment rate. First, we employ a single-equation framework to test whether subjective unemployment expectations predict aggregate consumption growth when controlling for predicted aggregate income growth. Second, we exploit the timing of the survey interviews in relation to the publication of official statistics to isolate exogenous innovations to unemployment expectations in a small-scale vector autoregression. For the US, both methods suggest that there is a large effect of unemployment risk on aggregate consumption. For the ten EU countries, the evidence is mixed.

  • 74541.
    Öberg, Fernando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Affärsmodellsinnovation i fastighetsbranschen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Business model innovation is used parallel with technical development to create competitive advantage within certain line of businesses. Many business have although not yet fully embraced business model innovation as a competitive foundation and still rely on technical development of products and services. The actual concept of business models and business model innovation has many different definitions and is perceived as ambiguous. The real estate business is a traditional line of business that often rely on technical development, location of the property and rent levels primarily as the competitive factors. As other line of businesses work more with business model innovation, as the IT-business, the interest for business model innovation grows in the real estate business.The purpose with this essay is to describe and analyze business model innovation within different types of real estate companies. Furthermore it’s investigated how companies within the real estate business today defines and uses business models.The study is based on a qualitative method whereof interview studies have been performed on different types of real estate companies. Primary data consists of interviews with 11 representatives from ten different real estate businesses. The result from the interviews have passed a thematic analysis to showcase eventual patterns in the answers from the interviewees.The definition of business models amongst the real estate companies was varying but all of them approached a definition that describes how a company works or creates profitability. None of the interviewees used business model innovation in a structured manner via for example a framework. The real estate companies on firsthand used technological development when innovating and not business model innovation.

  • 74542.
    Öberg, Fernando
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Ordningsföreskrifter i lokalhyresavtal2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I hyresavtal existerar det en speciell form av avtalsvillkor som berör motpartens handlande inom hyresförhållandet. Det rör sig om hyresvärdens förväntningar på hyresgästen om hur denne skall bete sig, vilken vårdnadsplikt som det är fråga om och att hyresgästen förväntas beakta ordning, sundhet och gott skick inom fastigheten. Denna speciella typ av avtalsvillkor inom hyresrätten kan benämnas ordningsföreskrifter eller ordningsregler och hanteras på ett speciellt sätt i jämförelse med andra avtalsvillkor. Den lagmässiga regleringen av denna typ av villkor är tämligen generellt utformad och tar framförallt form i 24 och 25 §§ i Jordabalkens 12 kapitel. Paragraferna ålägger hyresgästen en vårdnadsplikt och en skyldighet att iaktta allt som fordras för att bevara sundhet, ordning och gott skick inom fastigheten.

    Med hänsyn till att lagstadgandet i dessa två paragrafer är relativt generellt utformat uppstår en del komplikationer och problem. En del av problemen utgörs av att det är svårt för hyresvärdar, och även hyresgäster, att veta vilka ordningsföreskrifter som egentligen är att anse som lagenliga. Hyresvärden utformar oftast ordningsföreskrifterna i förväg då det är hen som tillhandahåller hyresavtalet. Det finns då en risk att hyresvärdar utformar ordningsföreskrifterna alltför strängt och riskerar skadestånd vid en ev. framtida tvist. Å andra sidan måste även hyresgästen kunna bedöma om ordningsföreskrifterna som hyresvärden stipulerat är lagmässiga samt vilken påföljd ett avtalsbrott mot dem skulle få som konsekvens.

    Författaren till uppsatsen kommer fram till att det finns problem i framförallt två avseenden. Det första området berör ordningsföreskrifternas otydlighet med avseende på deras definition. Det definieras ej klart och tydligt i lagtext vad som avses och det skapar därmed problem. Det andra området rör den osäkra bedömningen av påföljder vid kontraktsbrott. Dessa problem föranleder ett behov av ett tydligare lagrum för ordningsföreskrifter i hyresavtal.

  • 74543.
    Öberg, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Relationer i Sociala Medier: En studie om hur företag lyssnar på sina kunder i sociala medier2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 74544.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Skadade fotgängare: kostnad för fotgängarskador jämfört med vinterväghållningskostnader2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project’s aim was to analyse the importance of the authority or the association responsible for winter maintenance. Did it make a difference in the number of injury cases if it was the road authority or a property association who managed the winter maintenance? What was the pedestrian injury cost in relation to the cost of winter maintenance?

    Injured pedestrian data from STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) healthcare client, from the period 2003/07/01 to 2010/06/30, provided a basis for the analysis. Often, it was only the Kalmar, Skåne, Värmland, Västmanland, Västernorrland and Jämtland regions that were included in the analysis. This was because hospitals from these regions had registered injured pedestrian data in STRADA during the whole analysis period. All injured persons do not necessarily seek hospital treatment. Treatment may have been obtained from other health care providers. The greater the distance to the hospital, the more likely it is to seek other health care treatment. This means that there will be an underestimate of the number of injured.

    Winter maintenance costs were obtained for the years 2005 and 2007. The costs related to road the authorities’ total winter maintenance costs. Property associations’ maintenance costs for footway surfaces are not included in road authority costs so the costs are for road maintenance. Where the road authority is also responsible for footway surfaces, the cost of maintaining these surfaces is included in the total cost. This means that road authority costs are overestimated. Pedestrian injury costs are much higher than winter maintenance costs.

  • 74545.
    Öberg, Irina
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Smirnova, Ekaterina
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Etableringsmöjligheter på den ryska livsmedelsmarknaden2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Traditionellt isolerad från internationella marknader har Ryssland under de senaste femton åren genomgått stora förändringar, vilket ledde till landets ökade deltagande i världsekonomi och som resultat till större intresse från utländska aktörer. Detaljhandelsbranschen är en av de mest attraktiva sfärer för utländska investeringar och då inte minst när det gäller livsmedelsförsäljningen. Innan företag bestämmer sig att gå in på en marknad måste de genomföra en utförlig marknadsanalys för att se om det finns potential för ytterligare etableringar inom branschen. Syftet med detta arbete är därför att undersöka om det finns etableringsmöjligheter för utländska etablerare på den ryska livsmedelsmarknaden. Fokus läggs främst på att genomföra en branschanalys genom att titta på branschutvecklingen, konkurrenssituationen samt eventuella inträdeshinder. Undersökningen begränsas till Sankt Petersburgsregionen.

    Undersökningen har visat att det råder goda ekonomiska samt branschförutsättningar på den ryska livsmedelsmarknaden. Befolkningens välståndsökning, starkare köpkraft och minskad inflation tyder på ökad ekonomisk stabilitet. Branschen befinner sig fortfarande i tillväxtstadium. För detta talar det faktum att konkurrenssituationen inte är väldigt intensiv då det finns ett fåtal ledande aktörer som är ganska differentierade sinsemellan samt ökande efterfrågan på konsumtionsvaror. Därför kan man konstatera att det finns utrymme för fler etableringar inom denna bransch. Dock bör man uppmärksamma att inom snar framtid kommer konkurrenssituationen att intensifieras vilket kan försvåra en framgångsrik etablering.

    Ett visst antal svårigheter vid utlandsetableringen har likaså uppmärksammats under undersökningsgång. Det största är att de inhemska företag har funnits på marknaden i flera år och har redan en väletablerad verksamhet när det gäller marknadskunskap, etablerade relationer med kunder och leverantörer samt tillgång till gynnsamma lokaler. För att övervinna dessa etableringshinder krävs det lång tid och omfattande investeringar. Dessa etableringshinder kan dock övervinnas under förutsättning att potentiella utländska etablerare innehar speciella fördelar i form av t.ex. differentierad produkt eller service, erfarenheter av internationellt företagande samt stora kapitalresurser.

  • 74546.
    Öberg, Jacob
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Björmsjö, Lars
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Koll på SOX: En fallstudie av implementeringen av SAP GRC Version 10  inom delar av ABB-koncernen2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Master Thesis in Business Administration within the Civilekonomprogram at Jönköping International Business School

    Title                                   Keeping track of SOX – A case study of the implementation of SAP GRC Version 10 in parts of the ABB Group

    Authors                              Lars Björmsjö, Jacob Öberg

    Tutor                                                        Gunnar Rimmel

    Subject terms            GRC, internal control, SAP, Sarbanes-Oxley Act

    Abstract

    Background (and problem): In the reflections of the accountings scandals that occurred in the beginning of this millennium, legislations have tightened to prevent this kind of event to reoccur. Legislations like SOX provide clear directives on how companies should strengthen their internal controls. Compliance with SOX is a costly affair when, they place heavy demands on internal controls and systems to manage the increased controls. Problem discussion to this thesis is based on the requirements to comply with SOX and how an international company can use a tool like SAP GRC to meet the stricter requirements 

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to conduct a case study on how the process behind the implementation of SAP GRC version 10 looks in a multi-national company such as ABB and the role played by SOX in the implementation process.

    Delimitations: The authors have chosen to delimitate thesis merely to look at the implementation of SAP GRC, and do not look at other players at the market, nor their GRC solutions. Furthermore, the authors have chosen to only look at the implementation of SAP GRC at ABB in the United Kingdom.

    Method: The study has only a qualitative approach. The study is a case study which means that personal contact in the form of telephone interviews has been the only method to gather data for empirical choose of the authors.

    Results and Conclusions: The authors' conclusion of the study acknowledges that SOX has a very important role in the implementation of SAP GRC, and is the main reason for the implementation. Furthermore, it has emerged that the implementation is a very comprehensive work, which is very costly in both monetary and time measures. However the authors have concluded that implementing SAP GRC is the most efficient and cost effective way to comply with SOX from an ABB perspective.

    Discussion: According to the authors opinion there are a few areas for improvement in the use of GRC at ABB, in order to get the most out of the tool and to streamline the management of risks. Due to the lack of current research within the field, the authors would find it very interesting if a scientifically based definition of GRC would be investigated.

     

  • 74547.
    Öberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Gahnström, Karin
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Why has a ‘little Sweden’ emerged in Brazil?: A study of Swedish direct investments in Brazil2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Not long ago, Brazil was a country with an unstable economic system; inflation and interest rates were high and the political system was corrupt and complex. Still Brazil has for a long time been a successful market for Swedish companies. In São Paulo, the financial center of Brazil, a “little Sweden” has emerged which is considered to be the largest center for Swedish industry outside of Sweden.

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine why a ‘little Sweden’ has emerged in Brazil as well as examining what importance different economical factors have had for Swedish foreign direct investments in Brazil. Theories regarding foreign direct investments as well as other business theories have been used in the research. To get a deep understanding of the subject, four interviews have been made with organizations involved in helping Swedish companies in Brazil.

    The research has shown that the most important factors in the creation of the ‘little Sweden’ has been; access to production factors such as natural resources, the competitiveness of the home market together with the size of Brazil’s market, the financial capacity of the Swedish companies, the fact that Swedish companies could offer products and services that suited the demands of Brazil, as well as the fact that the Swedish entrepreneurs had a long term thinking and a great optimistic visions for the future.

  • 74548.
    Öberg, Joachim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Zammit, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Att utveckla en säljstyrka: En undersökning angående Securitas Aroundios säljutbildning och coachning2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate Securitas Aroundio’s sales training and coaching

    from the view of the firm’s employees. It is of great importance for Securitas Aroundio to

    receive an honest opinion about their sales training and coaching. No previous evaluation has

    been made by external researchers. By continuous evaluation of a firms sales training and

    coaching, the firm can get an awareness of matters that need to be changed or fixed.

    This thesis is based on a qualitative approach where the employees at Securitas Aroundio in

    Linköping were interviewed. All interviews took place at Aroundio’s headquarters in

    Linköping on the 5th of May 2008. All of the respondents gave consent for the recording of

    the interviews. Also notes were taken during the interviews. The questions asked during the

    interviews were based on a semi structured interview format, dealing with the two areas of the

    investigation, Aroundio’s sales training and coaching.

    The result indicates the sales training and coaching provided by Securitas Aroundio is

    adequate. This statement is based on the overall satisfaction of the employees concerning the

    sales training and coaching provided by the firm. The overall indication is that the salespeople

    are provided with the tools and support they need to work autonomously. In conclusion,

    Securitas Aroundio’s goals with the sales training and coaching are being met.

  • 74549.
    Öberg, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Gloudemans, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Ehnar, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Skuldsättningsgrader - En jämförelse mellan O-listans IT-bolag och A-listan2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats går i huvudsak ut på att undersöka kapitalstrukturen bland IT-bolag på O-listan samt jämföra dessa med A-listans genomsnitt.

  • 74550.
    Öberg, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Skiftet i Enåker vid mitten av 1800-talet: En undersökning om laga skiftets påverkan på äng och åker2018Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to examine the changes in the agricultural sector during the mid-nineteenth century. It was during this period "laga skiftet" was enacted, which was a law aimed at improving the efficiency of farms by changing the land structure within the collective of farms called "sock". The principal method proposed by "laga skiftet" was to change land from the pasture grounds to the field crop areas. Through meticulous study of original documents of the period, statistics were compiled and presented to show the effects on Enåker’s land structure. The result is conclusive and as intended by the law change, but minor anomalies exist. This is due to the unexplainable relation between the growth in field crop areas and the shrinking of pasture grounds during certain periods, leaving, in some cases, a large amount of hectare’s origins unexplained. Efforts are made to analyse and address this mystery, citing factors such as the use of forest areas and the marsh areas as previously untapped land. Other explanations are given for this disparity including macro-economic, technological and demand side factors. The conclusion finds the law change successful in achieving its goals but recognises other factors also contributed to the changing agricultural landscape during this time. With greater further research into this topic, building upon the groundwork in this text, answers to these anomalies may be unearthed and a wider understanding of the effects and merits of "laga skiftet” will become clear.

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