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  • 74451.
    Zhang, Liqing
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Shi, Yingwan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Multinational Spillovers on Chinese Exports at Regional Level2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 74452.
    Zhang, Pingying
    et al.
    Department of Management, Coggin College of Business, University of North Florida, FL, USA.
    Voordeckers, Wim
    KIZOK Research Center, Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    CIRCLE, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Huse, Morten
    eDepartment of Innovation and Economic Organisation, Norwegian School of Management BI, Norway.
    From boards as value assemblers to value creators: Integrating static and dynamic perspectives on board information2009In: Contemporary Issues in International Corporate Governance / [ed] Suzanne Young, Prahran, Vic.: Tilde University Press , 2009, p. 43-57Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 74453.
    Zhang, Qiongyan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    The Consumption Function of Luxury Goods2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this thesis will be to formulate an economic model that exposes the relationship between consumption of luxury goods and selected factors which includes advertising, disposable income, interest rate, price index and stock premium.

    By building the Multiple Linear Regressions model to formulate the consumption function and using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) as the method, it becomes apparent that advertising, disposable income and the previous quarter´s disposable income are the major variables to affect luxury good consumption, of all the factors. Furthermore, the previous quarter´s disposable income has a slightly higher effect than the current one on luxury consumption. Similar studies, which focus on luxury items, have proposed models that test a single or a few variables at a time, and others that concentrate on durable goods have a wide range of variables to examine. I attempt to combine both in my model to test luxury consumption with a wide range of variables.

  • 74454.
    Zhang, Shanshan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Energy efficiency in Swedish Industry: A firm-level data envelopment analysis2016In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 55, p. 42-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses energy efficiency in Swedish industry. Using unique firm-level panel data covering the years 2001–2008, the efficiency estimates are obtained for firms in 14 industrial sectors by using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The analysis accounts for multi-output technologies where undesirable outputs are produced alongside with the desirable output. The results show that there was potential to improve energy efficiency in all the sectors and relatively large energy inefficiencies existed in small energy-use industries in the sample period. Also, we assess how the EU ETS, the carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and the energy tax affect energy efficiency by conducting a second-stage regression analysis. To obtain consistent estimates for the regression model, we apply a modified, input-oriented version of the double bootstrap procedure of Simar and Wilson (2007). The results of the regression analysis reveal that the EU ETS and the CO2 tax did not have significant influences on energy efficiency in the sample period. However, the energy tax had a positive relation with the energy efficiency.

  • 74455.
    Zhang, Xiaofang
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Customer engagement in tourism and hospitality company’s social media channels / marketing2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to provide empirical evidence of customer participation within tourism company's social media channels/marketing. It has explored what can be done to motivate their engagement intention and engagement behavior. Another purpose of the research is to find out factors which influence customer engagement behavior. Using a qualitative method and subsequent with the semi-structured interview, data were collected from 12 people who are social media user tourist in past year. Findings employ attitude and perceived behavior control from TPB model, self-centered motivation and altruism as the guide to understand motives and its influence factors leading to examine what drives customer engagement behavior. Empirical data shows that customer satisfaction with company and customer trust towards content from company social media channels/marketing is influence their attitude. Both self-centered motivation and altruism motivation are motives behind travel customer engagement when they engage with company social media in tourism & hospitality industry. Future researchers, they may can from a management point of view to investigate how to drive customer engagement with their social media channels/marketing.

  • 74456.
    Zhang, Xiaofang
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Fares, Kajin
    Customers’ attitude towards certified food service: The influence of green attributes, green skepticism and the comparison of LOHAS2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Consumers have become more eco-friendly conscious than before, and therefore the demand for organic and environmentally-friendly products has increased during the past decade. Companies are committing to various green practices to improve company's image. Meanwhile, consumers usually have a positive attitude towards the companies who are practicing green concepts into their business operation.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify which factors are influential towards customers’ attitude towards the certified food service and the moderating role of green skepticism influences the relationship between green attributes and consumers’ attitude. In this study, it is also considered to research if LOHAS and non-LOHAS consumers’ attitudes towards certified food service differently influence their willingness to dine and willingness to pay the premium.

    Method: The data was collected with a structured and web-based survey. The valid study sample was 275. In order to answer the research questions and reach research purpose. The research model with 11 hypotheses was tested through hierarchy regression, linear regression, moderation regression and ANOVA analysis. The confirmatory analysis has been applied for testing construct validity. Besides, the descriptive statistics and construct variables correlation were demonstrated.

    Findings: In total, four hypotheses were rejected, and seven were supported. The result of data from the study showed that consumers’ attitudes towards certified food service were influenced by organic menu attribute, CSR attribute but not manifested on eco-friendly attributes. The study proved the positive relationship between consumers’ attitude and their willingness to dine and willingness to pay premium at certified food service. The study revealed that the LOHAS customer segment differs from the non-LOHAS consumer segment in the following ways: the attitude of LOHAS towards certified food service is more positive than the non-LOHAS and their willingness to dine and willingness to pay the premium is also much greater than the non-LOHAS. Whereas, there existed no significant relationship shifts between customer attitude and the green attributes regarding the certified food service when green skepticism was the moderator.  

    Implications: This paper assists researchers and practitioners by shedding light on the positive relationship between attitude and behavior intentions, the differences between LOHAS and non-LOHAS in regard to their more positive attitude and higher willingness to dine and willingness to pay premium in certified food service setting.

    Keywords: certified food service, LOHAS, consumers’ attitude, green skepticism, administrative CSR, green practices, organic menu

  • 74457.
    Zhang, Xiaole
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Gu, Peixin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    On the Relationship between CSR and Financial Performance: An empirical study of US firms2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporations  care  more  and  more  about  their social  responsible  performance,  and  this stands to reason. Conscience, business ethics and pressure of public opinion are playing important  roles. Furthermore,  some  evidence  shows that  better  CSR  performance  may bring the financial performance of a corporation to a higher stage. The purpose of this study  is  to  investigate  the  relationship  between  corporate  social  responsibility  (CSR) and corporate financial performance (CFP). Drawing on the triple bottom line principle and the stakeholder theory, we divided the stakeholders that corporations should take re-sponsibility  for  into  seven  categories: shareholders,  employees,  customers,  suppliers, creditors, community and environment (natural environment).  We  used  a quantitative  method  to  conduct the empirical  study. The  empirical  study  is based  on  samples  of 95 US  listed  firms.  We  have  used  seven CSR  indicators  as  inde-pendent variables and the CFP index as dependent variable. The independent variables concern CSR performance on shareholders, customers, suppliers, creditors, employees, community  and  environment.  SPSS  software  was  used  as  a  help for investigating  the correlation  between  the  dependent  variable  and  each  independent  variables.  We  run  a multi-index  regression  using  the  indexes  we  calculated  or  got  directly  from  databases. There is a significant positive short-term relationship between CSR for employees and CFP and a significant negative short-term relationship between CSR for community and CFP. Our  main  results  show  that the  seven  groups  of  stakeholders  (including  environ-ment) can be divided into three groups: fast responders, long term responders, and occa-sional supporter.

  • 74458.
    Zhang, Xiaomei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Sun Zis strategiska tänkande: Utveckling av managementsynsätt för att göra saker rätt2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 74459.
    Zhang, Xiaomei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Sun Zis strategiska tänkande: Utveckling av managementsynsätt för att göra saker rätt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 74460.
    Zhang, xiaotong
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Shan, kun
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Influential Factors on Purchase Intention Of Video Game Products2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 74461.
    Zhang, Xiaoyu
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Huang, Shuai
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The challenges of “cradle-to-cradle” strategy: A case study with Huawei Company2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The cradle to cradle (C2C) is a sustainable business strategy that mimics the natural recycling cycle and waste is reused, the question of when and how to apply the C2C concept successfully in business is still controversial. This thesis takes Huawei, the leading enterprise in the mobile communication industry, as an example, and to investigate the challenges for Chinese mobile communication companies in implementing an effective C2C strategy to achieve a sustainable development. This study used the semi-structured interviews in the qualitative data collection method to interview both Huawei and China Telecommunications’ managers. Data analysis shows that for the electronics industry with low recycling rate and high pollution, Huawei still faces many challenges in adopting the C2C strategy,which includes alloy recycling, recycling of electronic products in consumers' hands, disassembly problems, and recycling of electronic products by value, Another challenge is the mismatch between C2C evaluation mechanism and China's mobile communications industry. Only fully considered cradle to cradle, cradle to Grave, and Life cycle, the sustainable mode of the mobile communications industry would be reached.

  • 74462.
    Zhang, Xin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Patent development, R&D intensity and human capital: a study based on a panel data model2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, my purpose is to test whether the government education policy and R&D expenditure policy can lead to development of patents or not. I use an idea-based growth model as the framework while treating patents as outputs to analyze patent development. I use the data of R&D intensity, patent and human capital of 30 countries in OECD from 1997 to 2006 based on panel data model to analyze their relationships. Research shows that R&D intensity and human capital produce some effects on patent development. Finally, I give some advice for government policy about improving patents.

  • 74463.
    Zhang, Xinwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Kahin, Abdi
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The impact of financial crisis on Islamic banks and Conventional banks2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following thesis aims to uncover the effects of financial crisis of 2007-2008 on both Islamic banks and Conventional banks by looking at profitability, efficiency, liquidity, and capital adequacy. 28 Conventional banks and 19 Islamic banks across a sample of six countries Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and Malaysia have been considered. Two analysis methods, namely financial ratios analysis and panel data regression method for Z-score model have been used in order to have a comparative analysis for the impact of financial crisis on the performance of two type of banks during a four-year period 2007- 2010. The main findings of this thesis indicates that both of the Islamic bank and the Conventional bank have been affected by global financial crisis to some extent. The t-test suggests that the Islamic bank is more profitable during the post-crisis period compared to the Conventional bank and has higher liquidity. On the other hand, conventional banks are more leveraged than Islamic banks. Moreover, by using the Z-score to evaluate the stability of banks, the regression result shows that the Islamic bank performed better during the 2007-2008 financial crisis compared to the Conventional bank.

  • 74464.
    Zhang, Xuanyu
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Understanding the Economic Growth in China by a Simple Cointegration Analysis from 1978 to 20112014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 74465.
    Zhang, Ya
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Changes in Internationalization Process and Economic Resilience of Small Firms: Strategy Praxis and Resilience of Early Internationalized Small Firms2015In: Proceedings of The 23rd Nordic Academy of Management conference (biannual NFF conference, 2015): Business in Society, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74466.
    Zhang, Ya
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Contextualization of Evolving Patterns in the Internationalization of Small Firms2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The internationalization of SMEs has been recognized as one of the important paths to growth in SMEs. However, internationalization is also a resource and competence-demanding process. This is especially true for smaller-sized SMEs – the small and micro-sized firms – which have a large resource constraint, making internationalization even more challenging. Although this group of small firms counts for an average of over 98% of the total population of enterprises in EU countries, extant research on the internationalization of this group is still limited. Therefore, the main purpose of this dissertation is to contribute to a better understanding of evolving patterns of internationalization in the smaller-sized SMEs.

    The study uses emerging market entry along the internationalization of small firms as a context to probe the dynamics of perceived risk (uncertainty) and perceived opportunity in different foreign markets which influence the important decisions of small firms during their internationalization. The main study takes a longitudinal approach and uses mixed methods to investigate the features in both the initial period and the continued period of internationalization. It mainly builds on a multiple-case study of 12 Swedish firms, which have/had emerging market entry experience and/or involvement. This study illustrates influences from the environmental, organizational and individual levels on evolving patterns of internationalization in the investigated firms.

    This dissertation concludes that critical decisions and actions taken in the internationalization process depend on interactions among the influence and resources from the three levels. Such interactions form a conditional preference on perceived risk (uncertainty) and perceived opportunity during the internationalization of small firms. The study further proposes that the dynamics in the internationalization process are caused by a prospect-guided change mechanism.

    This dissertation contributes to the literature by: differentiating patterns of internationalization; enriching the study of “born global” in the continued period of internationalization; introducing a new perspective on the interpretation of dynamics in the internationalization; and increasing the understanding on the interactions of resources from three levels on the internationalization of small firms.

  • 74467.
    Zhang, Ya
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timing in smaller firms' internationalization process toward emerging markets (China focus)2013In: Proceedings of the 22nd Nordic Academy of Management conference (NFF 2013), 2013: On Practice and Knowledge Eruptions, Reykjavik, Iceland, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Study objective:To get a better understanding on how an interaction between small firms’ managerial intentions, competences, embedded networks and firms’ perceived opportunities from industrial and institutional environments formstheir internationalization pathway over the time.

    2. A brief statement of method:Four longitudinal in-depth case studies were selected from 293 respondents to a survey in 2010 on SwedishSMEs’ China business experience and interest.

    • Chosen cases are contrast in their previous interna-tional business experience and traits of product/ service offerings.

    • The study uses a mixed method to collect primary data and the data are collected several rounds along tar-get market entry process.

    3. A summary of results:In a case of small service firm without pre-international business, influences from domestic intermediate actors in professional networks play a big role in firm’s opportuni- ties discovery process.

    Other cases show that an iterative learning process in emerging market entry. However, the opportunities searching process is triggered by internal motivations such as growth.

    The study captures small firms changing managerial attentions under stimulations from external environment and internal motivations. The study shows that interac- tion between small firms’ internal means (resources) and attitude, and firms’ external environment plays a majorrole in forming a dynamic process of internationalization.

    4. The conclusionsThe pattern of smaller firms’ internationalization processis dynamic and non-linear.In an exploration phase of internationalization pro-cess, external stimulators might impact a direction interms of market selection and entry mode.

  • 74468.
    Zhang, Ya
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmström, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Small Firms’ Business with China – Perceived Challenges and Opportunities2011In: Proceedings of the 56th ICSB world conference: Back to the Future -- Changes in Persepectives of Global Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74469.
    Zhang, Yalan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Discussion on how to motive and retain employees in China by exploring the factors influencing employee enthusiasm at work -- applying two-factory theory in P&G employees2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research discusses how to motive and retain employees in China based on analyzing factors influencing employee enthusiasm and strategies to motivate employees under the framework of Herzberg’s two-factor theory. With the proposition that hygiene factors and motivators both influence the work enthusiasm, 15 interviews were arranged to collect the needed data for further analysis. According to the information obtained from the 15 interviewees from P&G, hygiene factors and motivators all exert influences over their work behaviors and the impact of the factors differs according to the different conditions of the employees. The findings of this research generally agree with the two-factor theory. Based on how the work enthusiasm of P&G’s employees are influenced by each of the factors, strategies are correspondingly formulated to motivate employees at work. Generally speaking, this research is significant for being conducted from a microscopic perspective to the macroscopic perspective. In other words, a specific organization is studied to figure out the answers to the research questions and the findings can be used for future studies as well for practical purposes.

    More specifically, when conducting this study, such factors as unsatisfying wages and benefits, heavy workload, task conflicts, ambiguous duties, interpersonal conflicts and ineffective management system, etc., all discourage the enthusiasm of employees. In response to that, a reasonable management system and sound motivational mechanism should be established to keep employees active at work or retain those who want to resign.

  • 74470.
    Zhang, Yanzhi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    A Study on the Impact of Virtual Community Characteristic on the Willingness of Chinese Gamers to Participate in Value Co-Creation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Value co-creation is a popular marketing research topic in recent years, and there were already some studies regarding raising consumers’ involvement in co-creation. However, virtual communities such as online games have seldom been addressed in this topic. This thesis aimed to shed light on mobile gamers’ co-creation from the perspective of the characteristics of the virtual community. Hence, this study applied the theory of value co-creation and the characteristics of virtual communities to propose a research model.

    After analyzing 167 valid online questionnaire respondents from game players, the results indicated that Incentive Mechanism, Members’ Communication, Norm of Reciprocity had significantly positive effects on players’ involvement in co-creation. In addition, the finding’s practical implication suggested that the game companies need to provide unique services so that consumers could voluntarily and actively participate in value co-creation activities. 

  • 74471.
    Zhang, Yaru
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Tian, Li
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Risk management in using VMI system: Comparative and explorative study of Chinese and Swedish household appliance companies2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Authors: Zhang Yaru & Tian Li

    Tutor: Petra Andersson

    Title: Risk management in using VMI system ----- Researching between Chinese and Swedish household appliance companies

    Background & problem discussion: Due to potential of supply chain management is enormous to improve productivity, customer service and cost reduction, Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) is one of the supply chain management strategies, by improving the effectively of supply chain to get the competitive advantage for companies. In the Swedish and Chinese household appliance companies have a common agreement about using VMI system in order to reduce operating costs. Some articles believe VMI system has strong potential to be extended to the upstream nodes of the supply chain. However, in using VMI process, there are some risks such as capacity shortages, quality problems, breakdowns, ect. This thesis will be identified the risk of using VMI system in upstream of household appliance company and mitigate their risk problems.

    Research question: What are the differences of risk managing in using VMI system between Chinese and Swedish household appliance companies?

    RQ1: Which are the risk factors in Chinese and Swedish household appliance companies when using VMI system?

    RQ2: How do Swedish and Chinese household appliance companies manage the risk in using VMI?

    Purpose: The goal of this paper is to find out the risks of using VMI system and analyze the risk managing approaches that are utilized in Chinese and Swedish household appliance companies. By illustrating theoretical data about VMI system and supply chain risk management and empirical data of three Chinese and one Swedish household appliance companies, author would like to develop an analysis model from four dimensions of VMI system and basically supply chain risk management model to identify risk factors in using VMI system and figure out the difference of risk managing method between Chinese and Swedish household appliance companies when they use VMI system.

    Method: This thesis adopted the positivism perspective and the qualitative research. The survey was used in this thesis and focused on based on empirical data such as interviews to answer an open-ended “How” issues. In addition, the analysis is based on primary data from interview Swedish company as well as secondary data from books, articles and internet such as the Chinese company's website.

    Conclusions: The results of the study show that risk management in using VMI system in three Chinese household appliance companies (Haier Logistics Co., Ltd, Hisense Electric Co. and Midea Air-conditioning) and one Swedish household appliance company (Electrolux Laundry System Sweden AB) as well as based on theoretical and empirical data to create an analysis model, which is the integration between four dimensions of VMI system and the basic supply chain risk management model, to assist the analysis of research questions. Through analysis, authors identify seven risk factors: 1. Uncertain production lead time; 2. Long delivery lead time; 3. Confidence crisis; 4. Forecasting level is not high; 5. Less control the decision making; 6. Low information technology system and cooperation; 7. Lack of safety stock. Authors also illustrate the method of managing risk in using VMI system from four dimensions in Chinese and Swedish household appliance case companies.

  • 74472.
    Zhang, Yi Ming
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Bjurström, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    One - to - one Marketing i nystartade mjukvaruföretag2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien riktar sig mot att udersöka hur de teorier som omfattas i begreppet One-to-One Marketing kan appliceras på ett nystartat mjukvaruföretag. Vi tycker att det är viktigt att analysera ett företags konkurrenssituation för att visa på styrkor och svagheter i företagets tillämpade strategi och därigenom se om One-to-One Marketing och dess teorier går att använda. Eftersom studieobjektet är ett mjukvaruföretag och kärnverksamheten är produktutveckling är det betydelsefullt att utreda hur kundanpassning påverkar produkten. Studien visar att företaget för en nära diskussion med sina kunder och därmed lär sig vad kundernas behov är och hur kundernas branscher fungerar. Vi ser dessutom att företaget kan förbättra sin konkurrensposition genom att ytterligare utöka samarbetet med kunden och skapa en lärande relation.

  • 74473.
    Zhang, Yi Ming
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Yang, Donghui
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    To adapt or not to adapt: A study of global marketing’s applicability in China2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The globalization of markets has been ongoing as an unbroken trend and tendency with the economic and technological developments. With more and more companies continue to expand their global reach, global marketing has become a topic of interest.

  • 74474.
    Zhang, Yichen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chikwaya, Tavonga
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Commerce & Friendship: A qualitative study of new value streams created by beauty vloggers through relationship building on social media2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social media platforms are evolving to be effective platforms in marketing but due to customers’ scepticism on how they are being approached there is need to be cautious on how best to build relationships towards value creation.

    Purpose: To explore within the field of social media influencer marketing to understand how new value streams could be created by beauty vloggers through building relationship with followers (audiences), or the potential customers on virtual market.

    Methodology: A qualitative research approach used where research tools as interviews, focus groups and observations have been used to gain an understanding on underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations of vloggers and followers.

    Findings: The empirical findings indicated that to have mutual connections and understanding between vloggers and followers there is need to build relationships which emanates from engagement, trust and commitment, interaction and communication.

  • 74475.
    Zhang, Ying
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Wu, Hailun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    A comparison of the prediction performances by the linear models and the ARIMA model: Take AUD/JPY as an example2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of the financial markets, the foreign exchange market has become more and more important for investors. The daily volume of business dealt with on the foreign exchange markets in 1998 was estimated to be over $2.5 trillion dollars (the daily volume on New York Stock Exchanges is about $20 billion). Today (2006) it may be about $5 trillion dollars. More and more people notice the foreign exchange market, and more and more sophisticated investors research such markets. The purpose of this thesis is to compare different methods to forecast the exchange rate of the money pair AUD/JPY. Firstly we studied the relationship between the AUD/JPY exchange rate and some economic fundamentals by using a regression model. Secondly, we tested whether the AUD/JPY exchange rate had any relationship with its historical records by using an ARIMA model. Finally, we compared the two model forecasting performance. A secondary purpose is to test whether the Market Efficiency Hypothesis works on the money pair AUD/JPY. In the study, data from January 1986 to June 2006 were chosen. To test which method produces better forecasts, we chose data from January 1986 to December 2002 to build up the prediction functions. Then we used the data from January 2003 to 2006 June to evaluate which predicting method was closer to the reality. In the comparison of the forecasting performances, two approaches dealing with the unknown future fundamentals were used. Firstly we assumed that we could do perfect predictions of these regressors, that was, our predictions of these regressors were the same as the actual future outcomes. So we put the real data for the fundamentals from January 2003 to June 2006 into the regression function. Secondly we assumed that we were in real life situation, and we had to predict the regressors first in order to get the predictions of the exchange rate. The results of the comparison were that the AUD/JPY exchange rate could to some extent be predictable, and that the predictions by the ARIMA model were more accurate.

  • 74476. Zhang, Yingchao
    et al.
    Fabel, Oliver
    Thomann, Christian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Pay inequity effects on back-office employees' job performances: the case of a large insurance firm2015In: Central European Journal of Operations Research, ISSN 1435-246X, E-ISSN 1613-9178, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 421-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using personnel data on back-office employees of an insurance company, we investigate the effect of pay inequity-as measurable and, hence, perceivable by an individual-on the particular individual's job performance. We calculate three measures of pay inequity, "inequality," "envy," and "altruism," for total pay as well as, separately, for three pay components, salary, commissions, and year-end bonuses. Job performance is measured by the value of commissions for new contracts that accrue to the sales agents who are serviced by the back-office employee. Quantile panel regressions show that inequity effects on performance distinctly differ over the performance distribution and across the different pay components. Further, results depend on the time structure of pay and, possibly also, on pay secrecy rules.

  • 74477.
    Zhang, Yongjin
    et al.
    College of Aerospace Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China; School of Mathematics and Physics, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, China.
    Sun, Youchao
    College of Aerospace Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China.
    Zhao, Ming
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    A combinatorial estimation approach for storage reliability with initial failures based on periodic testing data2017In: Communications in statistics. Simulation and computation, ISSN 0361-0918, E-ISSN 1532-4141, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 3319-3340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Storage reliability that measures the ability of products in a dormant state to keep their required functions is studied in this paper. Unlike the operational reliability, storage reliability for certain types of products may not be always 100% at the beginning of storage since there are existing possible initial failures that are normally neglected in the models of storage reliability. In this paper, a new combinatorial approach, the non-parametric measure for the estimates of the number of failed products and the current reliability at each testing time in storage, and the parametric measure for the estimates of the initial reliability and the failure rate based on the exponential reliability function, is proposed for estimating and predicting the storage reliability with possible initial failures. The proposed method has taken into consideration that, the initial failure and the reliability testing data before and during the storage process, are available for providing more accurate estimates of both initial failure probability and the probability of storage failures. When storage reliability prediction that is the main concern in this field should be made, the non-parametric estimates of failure numbers can be used into the parametric models for the failure process in storage. In the case of exponential models, the assessment and prediction method for storage reliability is provided in this paper. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the method. Furthermore, a detailed comparison between the proposed method and the traditional method, for examining the rationality of assessment and prediction on the storage reliability, is presented. The results should be useful for planning a storage environment, decision-making concerning the maximum length of storage, and identifying the production quality.

  • 74478.
    Zhang, Yu
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republi of China.
    Zhang, Jin-He
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republi of China.
    Tian, Qing
    Tongren Polytech Coll, Peoples Republi of China.
    Liu, Ze-Hua
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republi of China.
    Zhang, Hong-Lei
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republi of China.
    Virtual water trade of agricultural products: A new perspective to explore the Belt and Road2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 622, p. 988-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Belt and Road is an initiative of cooperation and development that was proposed by China. Moreover, most of the spanning countries faced water shortages and agriculture consumed a lot of water. Virtual water links water, food and trade and is an effective tool to ease water shortages. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the Belt and Road from the new perspective of virtual water trade of agricultural products. We considered agricultural products trade from 2001 to 2015. On the whole, the results indicated that China was in virtual water trade surplus with the countries along the Belt and Road. However, in terms of each country, >40 spanning countries were in virtual water trade surplus with China and eased water shortages. Russia had the largest net imported virtual water from China. Furthermore, the proportion of the grey water footprint that China exported to the spanning countries was much higher than that imported, no matter from the whole or different geographical regions. Moreover, more than half of the countries' virtual water trade with China conformed to the virtual water strategy, which helped to ease water crises. Furthermore, the products that they exported to China were mainly advantageous products that each spanning countries have. Virtual water trade is a new perspective to explore the Belt and Road. Agricultural products trade with China definitely benefits both the countries along the Belt and Road and China from the perspective of virtual water. The findings are beneficial for the water management of the countries along the Belt and Road and China, alleviating water shortages, encouraging the rational allocation of water resources in the various departments. They can provide references for optimizing trade structures as well. (c) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 74479.
    ZHANG, YUWEI
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Determining The Optimal CapitalStructure With The Contingent Claims Analysis2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Finding the optimal capital structure has been a relevant subject for many decades. Therehas for a long time been a discrepancy between observed leverage ratio and those proposedby theory, with many different theories suggested and developed throughout time. One ofthose theories is the Contingent Claims Analysis (CCA). Based initially on Black & Scholes’option-pricing theory and formulas, and pioneered by Merton, the CCA-methodology hasthroughout the years been developed further and moved from pricing liabilities todetermining capital structures. The research and development on CCA-models have for thepast years mostly been on a theoretical level and less about its practical applicability. Thosefew applications that have been made were based on the U.S. market and companies.Ju and Ou-Yang developed one of the most recent CCA-methodologies in 2006,abbreviated as the JOY-model in this study. What distinguishes this model is its ability toshow the non-monotone relation of debt maturity and debt face amount through the morecomplex tradeoffs between tax benefits, bankruptcy costs and transactions cost. With a fewchanges made to it, and with almost all data from the Swedish market and companies, theJOY-model yields higher leverage ratios than what the 5 analyzed companies have today.The optimal leverage ratio, defined as debt value/firm value ranges from 10 – 40% and theoptimal debt maturity period is at 4 – 6 years. Out of all the model parameters, the long-runmean of the stochastic risk-free interest rate has the biggest impact on the final results. TheJOY-model and CCA in general are complex and resource intense models that need certainimprovements. Nonetheless, its overall potential is still promising.

  • 74480.
    Zhang, Zhimei
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Zhang, Jinghuai
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Towards an understanding of different customer behaviors a comparative study: Based on the perspectives of Chinese staffs of Dragon Gate in Sweden2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 74481.
    Zhao, Annie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Riber, Claudia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The Effects of Internationalization on the Composition of Board of Directors: A Quantitative Study of Swedish Multinational Corporations2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of multinational corporations (MNCs) has increased tremendously since the 1990s,

    as companies have started to act in a more global environment. This has resulted in more

    integration between economies, where companies have to adjust to this changing environment. In

    this paper, we study the impact of internationalization on nationality diversity in boards of

    Swedish MNCs during the period 1994-2012. Our propositions suggest that board size, a

    company’s degree of internationalization and country of origin are contributing factors that affect

    how a board is composed. Our findings concluded that companies with a high degree of

    internationalization often are more nationality diverse and that Swedish companies have

    gradually increased the number of non-Swedes in their boards over time.

  • 74482.
    Zhao, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The Chinese Consumer Shopping Behavior on Taobao2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 74483.
    Zhao, Fan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Deng, Yu
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Qin, Xuan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Relationship and Network in Online B2B Business2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays a new businesses form, online business occurred, which helps companies to improve their working efficiency in managing risks and allocating resources. Relationship and network are essential for understanding online business, which can help firms to reduce costs by outsourcing, and to increase efficiency by sharing information with cooperators. That leads to the purpose of this study, is to investigate how do the relationship and network between firms influence the cooperation of product developing and server operating companies within online business. In order to study this topic, the concepts from IMP group of characteristics of relationship, relationship development stages and the model of managing in networks are applied. Furthermore qualitative research method was employed for interviewing five companies in two types: 1) product developing companies 2) server operating companies.  

     

    The relationship and network are perceived by interviewed companies are dynamic, fast changing and high technology focused. To cope with this phenomenon, most of companies choose to put their efforts on developing products and advancing technology rather than communicating with partners. In conclusion, the cooperation between firms in online business is influenced by fast changing and short-term relationships, high competition and the risk of plagiarism, which leads to competition focus in their business.

  • 74484. Zhao, Fuguo
    et al.
    Wu, Desheng
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Liang, Liang
    Dolgui, Alexandre
    Lateral inventory transshipment problem in online-to-offline supply chain2016In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 1951-1963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online-to-offline (OTO) is a new commercial model with enormous market potential. Online customer orders are forwarded to the offline brick-and-mortar store to fulfil, which is a combination of dual-channel supply chain. OTO overcomes many disadvantages of the traditional dual-channel supply chain, but still faces uncertain market demand. To reduce the inventory risk caused by demand uncertainty, lateral inventory transshipment is employed in this paper to pool inventory risk in OTO supply chain. We model centralised OTO and decentralised OTO with/without transshipment, and then analyse different scenarios. Our results demonstrate that there exists a unique Nash equilibrium of inventory order levels in dual channels and an optimal transshipment price to maximise the profit of the entire supply chain. Finally, we provide a numerical example of uniform demand distribution. Our analyses offer many managerial insights and show that transshipment always benefits the OTO supply chain.

  • 74485.
    Zhao, Guosheng
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    CSR and its Impact on Consumer Behavior: A Study of the Cosmetic Industry2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Problem: CSR appears frequently in various kinds of reports of different corporations. However, managers are confused about how to practice CSR strategically. Little is known about consumers’ awareness of CSR and how consumers react toward socially responsible corporations and their products. The cosmetic industry has been criticized a lot on CSR because of unethical and unsustainable business activities. Renowned companies in the cosmetic industry are working on different CSR initiatives, but no single study has been done on CSR and its impact on consumer behavior in the cosmetic industry. It is of critical importance to investigate consumers’ awareness of CSR, and to explore consumers’ attitudes and tendency of purchase behavior toward CSR in the cosmetic industry.

    Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is to investigate consumers’ awareness of CSR in the cosmetic industry and channels consumers get CSR information from. Furthermore, the aim is to investigate consumers’ attitudes on different CSR activities and how consumers’ purchasing behaviors are affected by these CSR activities.

    Theoretical perspective: The study combines stakeholder theory with theory on CSR’s impact on consumers’ attitudes and behavior. It refers to consumers as one important stakeholder group for a corporation.

    Method: A quantitative method is used in the study. Primary data of consumers’ awareness of CSR, consumers’ attitudes and tendency of purchasing behavior were collected through an online questionnaire. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed and interpreted.

    Conclusions: Consumers get CSR information of the cosmetic industry from different channels. Consumers’ CSR information about the cosmetic industry is between “poor” and “average”. They expect cosmetic companies to communicate more about CSR with the public. CSR is not an important factor that influences consumers’ purchase decision. However, consumers are willing to pay more for cosmetic products made in socially responsible ways. Consumers believe it is important that cosmetic companies fulfill their legal and ethical responsibilities, but they do not ask cosmetic companies to be philanthropically responsible.

  • 74486.
    Zhao, Haining
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Liu, Ruoyi
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    A Comparetive Study Between International hotel-Accor and Chinese Local Brand-Jin Jiang for Exploring Marketing Strategies for Chinese Hospitality Industry2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research explores the marketing strategies for Chinese local hotels after doing the comparative study and analyzing the operations of Accor and Jin Jiang based on the Marketing Mix theory. The improving strategies are varied, which includes the product, promotion, etc. Offering guidance for the whole Chinese local hotels are the ultimate objective of the research.

  • 74487.
    Zhao Jansson, Krystal Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Does Going Public Boost or Impede Firm Innovation?: Evidence from firms in Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the effects of going public on firm innovation by comparing the innovation activities of firms that go public with firms that choose to not undergo an initial public offering (IPO) and remain privately held. Going public here is a transformation of a privately held firm into a public firm, i.e. the first time for the firm to publicly trade in stock markets. The combination of a propensity score matching (PSM) and a difference-in-difference (DiD) methods are adopted to measure the innovation trends in terms of patent applications. Using the patent-based metric, firm innovation increases following IPOs. Comparing to the innovation activities of privately held peers, going public can boost the patent growth rate of firms and delay the downward trend of patent growth in the two years following IPOs.

  • 74488.
    Zhao, Jingjing
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    zheng, Wenbo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    The Trend of Emission Reduction is Inevitable:Is It an Opportunity or Challenge for Chinese Private Automotive Enterprises?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of economy, human concern more and more about environment protection and sustainability, especially the automotive industry, all the enterprises have been aware of that they will have no future if they cannot improve the technology of emission reduction or solve it by developing alternative energy. China has attracted lots of attention due to the rapid economy development. However, automotive industry in China, in particular, Chinese private enterprises only has short history. At present, China has been the first vehicles production country, but just for manufacture. Chinese private auto enterprises are also playing an important role in this process. What will they do after being a "Manufacture King"? In this thesis, we take BYD as a case study, use PEST, Five-forces, SWOT to analyse the factors those can affect the development of Chinese private automotive industry, besides, we also give some possible suggestions for them according to the analysis.

  • 74489.
    Zhao, Jingya
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Wang, Xuejiao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    What effect would a luxury sub-brand make on its mother brand in terms of customer-based brand equity?: A case study of the effect of Shang-Xia on Hermèsfrom customer-based brand equity perspective2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This explanatory study investigated what kind of effect or impact a luxury sub-brand would make on its mother brand in terms of customer-based brand equity. We studied empirically the effect of the sub-brand Shang-Xia on the parent brand Hermès from the perspective of customer-based brand equity, and especially the question of how the four dimensions under the customer-based brand equity (brand awareness, brand associations, brand loyalty and perceived quality) can be influenced. Interviews of both companies and customers were conducted for not only collecting implicit strategic information but also gathering the comparatively parallel information from both sides. Previous studies explain that the evaluating criteria of customers’ attitude (which is related to customer-based brand equity) towards a sub-brand are based on product feature similarity and brand concept consistency. Based on these interconnections between sub-brand and customer-based brand equity, we analyzed information from both companies and customers’ perspectives. The results indicate that Shang-Xia has positive effects on the brand associations of Hermès in terms of non-product related characteristics as well as brings a positive effect on the perceived quality of Hermès. On the contrary, Shang-Xia has made no difference in the brand awareness and brand loyalty of Hermès. The potential reasons for this are discussed in the analysis and

  • 74490.
    Zhao, Lei
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Chen, Meng
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    The Development of an Appropriate Strategy Map: An application of strategy map theory on China Mobile2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After several years practice and research, companies and researchers have agreed thatmanagement of a company can not only rely on financial performance measures, butnon-financial measures should be also included in the set of tools. One of the mostpopular approaches to solve this problem are BSC (Balanced Scorecard) combiningwith KPI (Key Performance Indicators).Balanced Scorecard has been introduced by Kaplan and Norton in 1992 whichconsists of a set of financial and non-financial measures which are categorized in fourperspectives “financial”, “customer”, “internal processes”, and “learning and growth”.Key performance indicators are financial and non-financial metrics used to help acompany define and measure progress toward goals and KPIs are typically tied to anorganization's strategy through Balanced Scorecard.In this thesis we limit our study to the Mobile Network Operator industry, use casestudy, as the research design, with a combination of quantitative and qualitativeresearch methods. We summarized the limitation of the initial Balanced Scorecard,discussed the demand and benefits of strategy map, researched on principles andcriteria of a suitable strategy map. Ultimately, we formulated the process of how todesign a strategy map.In practice, after several years of dramatic development, along with the saturation ofthe market and the fierce competitions, mobile network industry stepped into the ageof depression; the sudden huge profits have been over. While a new wirelesstechnology, 3G offers the mobile network operators (MNOs) a new chance toimprove their value added services with high speed bandwidth from 3G technology,and make more profit from it. European 3G markets is the most competitive anddeveloped now, while the Japan 3G was already in an advanced level. In the recentyears, China as the biggest developing country also wants to start the 3G market.With the defined KPIs, we benchmarked the performance of China Mobile to thethree world’s leading MNOs, Vodafone, “3”, and NTT; ascertained the situation ofChina Mobile, set goals and discovered the cause-effect linkage of the KPIs, andfinally formulate a strategy map for China Mobile according to the analysis. Thestrategy map is based on four perspectives, financial, customers, internal and learningand innovation perspectives, and in each perspective, practical solutions which arebased on their strengths and weaknesses are provided. With the help of this research,the company can trace their problems and find the solutions for them.

  • 74491.
    Zhao, Liting
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Policy suggestions to the rural migration in China: According to the Todaro model and current situation of China2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the rural-urban migration in China. The cause of the analysis was the increasing number of rural-urban migrants caused by the fast industrialization. It could lead some serious problems in urban areas, such as the shortage of urban resources like house, food, etc., the increasing of unemployment probabilities and so on. China is the most populous country in the world. And the rural population in China has been exceeded half of the total. Due to the special current situation of China is different from other developing countries, the factors impact the rural migration in China and how to perfect the policy institutions are what I want to research in the paper.

  • 74492.
    Zhao, Rui
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Dia, Uzezi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Digital Service through Sharing Economy to Sustainability: A car sharing case in Suzhou, China2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid increase in car ownership has caused rigorous issues for people living in the major cities in China, which is observe from traffic pressure, the inconvenience of city travelling, and air pollution. While the fast development of digital service platforms based on the Internet provides an alternative approach to touch the problems, leading a researchable phenomenon, online car-sharing service in China.

    This paper strives to explore the impact of car sharing on millennial sustainability attitudes by using the daily service on apps to ‘drive less, share more’. The paper is conducted using mixed research methods in Suzhou, China. Principally, the researchers interviewed ten car- sharing consumers during shared ride. To ensure the creditability and reliability, the paper collected 326 online survey responses from local car-sharing platforms as comparable data.

    The results show that most millennials agree car-sharing service makes their traffic modes more convenient, and taking shared ride more compared to self-driving has a significant influence on social and environmental issues in cities. Also, some respondents present willingness or already take actions on giving up car ownerships. However, the result also emphasises the fundamental reasons for millennials to participate in car-sharing service, which is personalised service and reasonable price. The paper closes with three outcomes, sharing economy as ‘Development’, digital service as ‘Innovation’, and sustainability as ‘The future’. They not only enrich the current literature research between Millennials and sharing economy, but also promote further strategies for car-sharing companies with empirical data. 

  • 74493.
    Zhao, Steven
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Harryzon, Lovisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Skattning av byteskostnader på den svenska marknaden för pensionsförsäkringar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 74494.
    Zhao, Xi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Guo, Meng
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    What is the impact of industrial environmental events on the quality of environmental disclosure in corporate annual reports?: A longitudinal study2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental accounting, as a newly developed cross-field subject, has been received increasing attentions in recent years. With public awareness of corporate social responsibility and sustainability, corporate environmental performance also has been aroused among social public, stakeholders, and internal management. Environmental disclosure, as an effective link between corporate management and social responsibility, is becoming a valuable research topic.

     

    One unsolved problem of the environmental disclosure is the corporate behavior of listed companies in terms of environmental reporting in the post environmental events period, from 2005 to 2009. Those corporation environmental events, exposed by media, include over pollution, over emissions and illegal environmental activities. According to legitimacy theory, negative social perception and “legitimacy gaps” of the community result from illegitimate corporate activities, like environmental events, and corporations are therefore been threatened in its existence. In this case, enhanced environmental disclosure in annual reports is supposed to be an appropriate way to eliminate threats for corporations and ameliorate negative social perceptions. It imply that corporations with lower level of environmental performance are required to have more environmental disclosure for sustainability.

     

    Some prior studies provided evidences that in the period from 1980 to 2002, after some incidents, corporations involved in these incidents indicate a higher level of environmental disclosure in the year when the environmental incidents happened, which align with legitimacy theory. Furthermore, there were incongruence previous results of the relationships between environmental disclosure and firm size and industry characters. We aim to find that whether the corporation environmental disclosure is in a relation with firm size and industry characters or not. And we are to revisit the association between corporate environmental performance and environmental disclosure.

     

    This study took the quantitative method statistical technology was used for analysis. In order to get the answer for the research question, four hypotheses were set in this research. Finally, firm size and industry characters have no significant relationship with the level of environmental disclosure. The results indicate that the level of environmental information disclosure in annual reports of 2008 is higher than those of 2005. However, environmental events could not be deemed as a determinant of environmental disclosure, and the results partially support the legitimacy theory. The quality of environmental disclosure of 21 sample companies did not improve significantly in the year when the environmental events happened, but only the environmental disclosure sample companies with environmental events which happened in the year of 2008 improved significantly, compared with the previous year.

  • 74495.
    Zhao, Xu
    et al.
    China University of Petroleum, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Dahl, Carol
    Mineral and Energy Economics Program, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, United States.
    Luo, Dongkun
    China University of Petroleum, Changping, Beijing, China.
    How OECD countries subsidize oil and natural gas producers and modeling the consequences: A review2019In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 104, p. 111-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since fossil fuel subsidies entail significant economic, fiscal, social and environmental costs, more and more attention is being paid to phasing out fossil fuel subsidies. The OECD has recently completed a report quantifying the amount of both producer and consumer subsidies for their member countries, and some work has been implemented on analyzing the effects of consumer subsidy removal. However, there is hardly any investigation of the consequences of producer subsidies. In this paper, we focus on oil and gas producer subsidies of OECD countries and their effects. First, we describe the transfer mechanisms indicated by the OECD report for producer subsidies. In order to recommend models to analyze the influence of removing producer subsidies, we review upstream oil and gas models and provide a taxonomy for them. From them we recommend the most appropriate models for each type of producer subsidy to model upstream decision making. Our contribution in this paper is to categorize the upstream models we have found, compare their main features, as well as recommending best in class models for analyzing the effects of each type of upstream producer subsidy.

  • 74496.
    Zhao, Xu
    et al.
    School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Luo, Dongkun
    School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Lu, Kun
    China-Russia Cooperation Department, CNPC, Dongcheng, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Xiaoyu
    Postal Savings Bank of China, Chaoyang, Beijing, China.
    Dahl, Carol
    Mineral and Energy Economics Program, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA.
    How the removal of producer subsidies influences oil and gas extraction: A case study in the Gulf of Mexico2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 166, p. 1000-1012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since producer subsides can entail significant economic, fiscal, social and environmental costs, governments have been increasingly interested in removing them. Although many studies have been done on reducing consumer subsidies, subsidies to fossil fuel production are rarely discussed by scholars. This paper seeks to fill this void by developing an economic optimization model for oil and gas extraction to analyze the effects of producer subsidy removal. We forecast field-specific costs for exploration, development and production through constructing functions for the number of wells drilled and producing wells, production and economic limits. Various scenarios of phasing out producer subsidies in U.S. federal and state regulation on optimal production using field data from the Gulf of Mexicoare simulated, including removing royalty relief, amortization of geological and geophysical costs, and percentage depletion. The results show that removal of producer subsidies reduces the optimal production rate and investors' net present value and increases government revenue, but the total effect is a cost of net social benefits. Changes in both the discount rate and oil price have positive effects on optimal production, but they exert opposite effects on producer benefits. Our research is helpful for policy-makers to regulate an efficient subsidy removal path.

  • 74497.
    Zhao, Yanan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Wahlström, Rikard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Are unsustainable dividend-payers punished by the market? Evidence from Swedish firms2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the phenomenon of firms that distribute dividends in excess of reported earnings, that is, 'unsustainable dividend-payers' in the Swedish market. Our hypothesis is that these firms will experience lower abnormal returns compared to their counterparts in both short and long term. With a dataset of 2061 observations from Nasdaq Stockholm and Nordic Growth Market during the period 1999-2017, we find that the abnormal returns are higher for unsustainable dividend-payers in the short term, while in the long run the result is on the opposite. Moreover, we find that the larger the difference between dividends paid and reported earnings, the higher the short-run abnormal returns but the lower the long-run abnormal returns to shareholders. Our results are robust to controlling for influences of other events on announcement dates and alternative measurement for model parameter, though not unambiguous. This study contributes to broadening the area of unsustainable dividends, which is perceived as a hot topic. It may be of interest to both individuals and institutions, who often have a longer-term perspective on their investments.

  • 74498.
    Zhao, Yue
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Individual Business Initiation Process and Business Dynamics2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many relationship-based studies focus on how businesses are maintained and developed. However, little attention focused on individuals as business initiators and the consequent processes. This study will bridge this gap. A theoretical model with two cases will answer two questions 

     

    -How individuals initiate business through personal network?

    -What is the consequent process?

     

    The studies demonstrate that individual do play a very important role when initiating a new business and they set in motion relationship-building processes that change the network structure.

     

    The contribution for research and management is clear. The netentrepruer is a new ‘actor’ and can be useful in future studies of business networks. Management can usefully become conscious of the possibilities they have in studying their network contacts before initiating new businesses. Managers should utilize managing individual’s networks as new competition strategies. This will modify the view of management strategy and also contribute to theory building.

  • 74499. Zhaoae, Fuguo
    et al.
    Wu, Desheng
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School. University of Toronto, Canada.
    Liang, Liang
    Dolgui, Alexandre
    Cash flow risk in dual-channel supply chain2015In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 53, no 12, p. 3678-3691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on multi-period cash flow risk which is measured by the SD in dual-channel supply chain. The manufacturer offers a consignment contract to the retailer, exposing cash flow risk due to the payment delay. We analyze cash inflows, outflows, and netflows of each member in dual-channel supply chain. We also examine different influencing factors on the preference of cash flows in dual-channel supply chain and then provide some managerial implications to deal with cash flow risk.

  • 74500.
    Zharovskikh, Diana
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Langmaack, Liv
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The Project-based View of Entrepreneurship: Exploring the Project-based View and its Implications for Start- ups2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the “project” in the entrepreneurial context, specifically the project- based view of start-ups. Start-ups are defined as entrepreneurial new ventures which have unstable business models, an open and simple organisational structure and which utilize innovative strategies for their development. The concept of temporary organisation is placed within the entrepreneurial context to define possible scenarios for the project-based view. The study is guided by the following research questions:

    How does a project-based view unfold in the start-up context? What is the impact of embracing a project-based view for a start-up?

    There is a limited number of studies elaborating on the link between project management and entrepreneurship. This study aims at contributing to an evolving body of knowledge integrating project management and entrepreneurship by building new theory regarding the application of the project metaphor by start-ups. Based on the existing research linking project management and entrepreneurship through the concept of the temporary organisation, this study explains the process of embracing a project- based view of start-ups as well as its implications on start-ups. These findings will be supported by the development of a visual model and propositions for further research.

    The study is using grounded theory as a research methodology which is considered to be appropriate given the nascent state of the previous research as well as the underlying research questions. In total eleven unstructured and semi-structured interviews were conducted with start-ups which comply with the synthesized start-up characteristics. The data analysis benefited from using open, axial and finally, selective coding as suggested by the grounded theory approach.

    Answering the first research question, the study’s findings are reflected in a model which explains how the project-based view unfolds. Overall, the process of a project- based view takes two directions: the external and the internal project-based view. The external project-based view - meaning that the whole start-up is seen as a temporary organisation - starts once the start-up team members decide to commit themselves to the project when the entrepreneurial opportunity is constructed. The start-up is then seen as being temporary due to external pressure and a bounded time period. However, although being temporary, the start-up still aims to transit to a permanent state. The internal project-based view suggests that the start-up’s strategy making process is followed by the strategy realization which is performed either by a sequence or by a multi-project approach, or a combination of both. Regarding the second research question, a project- based view enhances the start-ups’ operational and dynamic capabilities. 

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