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  • 6951.
    Abrahamsson, Sara
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Reduktion av organiskt material med MIEX®2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The lake Mälaren is the main source of drinking water in Stockholm and Uppsala. The concentration of organic carbon varies from year to year in Mälaren and may affect, during the water purification, the drinking water resulting undesirable smell, taste and color. Another part of the problem is formation of disinfection byproducts (DPB) and transportation of toxic substances. The concentration of organic carbon in Mälaren will probably increase due to issues such as global warming. Increasing concentration of organic carbon results in harder difficulties for purification in water treatment facilities. Therefore accurate water treatment processes have to be developed considered the higher future treatment demand. A promising alternative is the anion exchange process called MIEX® (Magnetic Ion Exchange resin process) which is a process for water containing dissolved organic materials.

     

    The purpose of the project was to investigate MIEX® treatment for removal of dissolved organic matter (DOC). The aim was to find an optimal contact time and the right number of bed volumes for treatments in a water treatment facility. The aim also involved an evaluation of selectivity for fluorescence and UV-absorbing (254 nm) groups of DOC.  

     

    The main conclusions of the project are that a contact time of 15 minutes and 400-1000 bed volumes should be treated in a water treatment facility. MIEX® seems to be selective for terrestrial and humified material of DOC as well as aromatic groups of DOC.

  • 6952.
    Abrahamsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Andersson, Camilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Läsglädje med skönlitteratur: En studie av ett arbetssätt som utvecklar läsglädje och läsförståelse2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka om eleverna, genom arbetssättet Läsglädje, har utvecklat sin läsförståelse, läsglädje och kunskap om hur man använder biblioteket. Genom intervjuer med ett antal lärare och en bibliotekarie, samt genom iakttagelser, har vi fått svar på studiens frågor. Resultatet visar att eleverna har utvecklats med arbetssättet Läsglädje. Bland annat har boksamtalen lett till att de förbättrat sin läsförståelse, läsning av ett varierat utbud av skönlitteratur har ökat elevernas läsglädje och arbetet i biblioteket har utvecklat deras bibliotekskunskap. Vidare visar resultatet hur elevernas kunskaper, inom de nämnda områdena, kommit till uttryck i följande årskurser.

  • 6953.
    Abrahamsson, Sara
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Palmberg, Hampus
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Perceived Participation in Everyday Life Activities: A descriptive study conducted in Addis Abeba, Ethiopia2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Children with intellectual disabilities living in developing countries are vulnerable to participation restrictions. Few studies have been made regarding their own perspectives. Aim: To describe how children in a low income country aged 13-17 with an intellectual disability perceive their participation in everyday life activities. Method: This bachelor thesis was conducted as a descriptive study and had a quantitative approach. Participants were collected through a non-probability, goal-oriented consecutive sampling. Data were collected by using “Picture my Participation”, an instrument designed as a structured interview with quantitative questions. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 21. Tables and diagrams were made in Microsoft Excel 2013. Result: The activity that the children participated in most frequently was “Daily routines at home for personal care (dressing, choosing clothing, hair care, brushing teeth)”. The activity that most children prioritized as most important, and they were most involved in was “Organised leisure activities”. “Services and policies” and “Social environment” were the factors seen as “Facilitators” to participation, whereas “Family attitudes” was seen as a “Barrier” to participation. Conclusion: The children perceived their participation in the prioritized activities as high and experienced few barriers in the context of participation.

  • 6954.
    Abrahamsson, Sebastian
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Neuroplasticity induced by exercise2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As opposed to earlier beliefs, the brain is altering itself throughout an individual’s life. The process of functional or structural alterations is referred to as plasticity, and can be induced by several factors such as experience or physical exercise. In this thesis, the research area of experience-dependent plasticity, with focus on exercise-induced plasticity is examined critically. Evidence from a vast array of studies are reviewed and compared in order to find whether physical exercise can induce neural plasticity in the human brain, how it may be beneficial, and what some of the plausible mediators of exercise-induced plasticity are. The findings demonstrated in this thesis suggest that although there are knowledge gaps and limitations in the literature, physical exercise can indeed result in exhibited plasticity as well as being beneficial for the human brain in several ways.

  • 6955.
    Abrahamsson, Sebastian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Råbe, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    An FPGA implementation of a modulator for digital terrestrial television according to the DTMB standard2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing data rates in digital television networks increase the demands on data capacity of the current transmission channels. Through new standards, the capacity of exisiting channels is increased with new methods of error correction coding and modulation.

    This thesis presents the design and implementation of a modulator for transmission of digital terrestrial television according to the Chinese DTMB standard.

    The system is written in VHDL and is intended for implementation on an FPGA.

  • 6956.
    Abrahamsson, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Ny lösning för uppvärmning av Nordanås provbana2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    BAE Systems Hägglunds testbana är belägen i Nordanås nordväst om Örnsköldsvik. Detta projekt hade till avsikt att på BAE Systems förfrågan inventera testanläggningens nuvarande oljebaserade värmesystem för att finna ett mer ekonomiskt och miljövänligt alternativ. Utifrån en omfattande litteraturstudie samt kontakt med flera olika leverantörer, undersöktes vilka eventuella värmesystem som skulle kunna vara intressanta utifrån de krav som fanns i Nordanås.

    De alternativa värmesystemen som ansågs vara tekniskt hållbara var följande; bergvärme med lätt biooljepanna, tung biooljepanna eller pelletspanna; pelletspanna, lätt biooljepanna och tung biooljepanna. Dessa alternativ är de som undersökts noggrant i studien och därefter jämförts med det nuvarande värmesystemet i form av ekonomi och miljöpåverkan.

    I en ekonomisk kalkyl jämfördes de olika alternativens kapitalvärde och återbetalningstid. För att jämföra deras miljöpåverkan skapades en kalkyl som utifrån framtagna värden på olika bränslens utsläpp beräknade varje alternativs förväntade årliga utsläpp i form av koldioxidekvivalenter.

    Slutligen konstaterades att om BAE Systems Hägglunds ska byta ut nuvarande systemet bör man antingen investera i ett bergvärmesystem med en lätt biooljepanna som spetspanna eller en konvertering till lätt biooljepanna. Med priser från den tid då rapporten skrevs skulle alternativet med bergvärme ha en beräknad återbetalningstid på ca 6,4 år och kapitalvärdet 1,0 Mkr. Motsvarande värden för alternativet med enbart en lätt biooljepanna uppgick till 1,0 års återbetalningstid samt 0,8 Mkr i kapitalvärde. Den stora skillnaden i återbetalningstid berodde på bergvärmesystemets höga investeringskostnad. Att investera i ett bergvärmesystem ansågs trots detta som ett bra alternativ på grund av den förväntade prisökningen av eldningsolja.

  • 6957.
    Abrahamsson, Simon
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nilsson, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Patienter som söker hälsoinformation på internet – en del av distriktssköterskors arbete.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: District nurses work has changed over time. Today patients are more informed of their health and aware of how to influence their health. In today's society, the internet is a regular source for health information, and internet has become increasingly accessible. It is important that patients feel involved in their own care. Health care providers has a responsibility to lead the patient to reliable sources of information. Aim: The aim of this study was to shed light on district nurses' experiences of patients seeking health information on the internet and how it affects their work. Method: A qualitative approach was used. Eight interviews with district nurses were conducted. Results: From the analysis of the data, three main themes emerged which were termed; The importance of knowing and understanding, The meaning of the meeting for patients, District nurses experience and new knowledge. These themes are described by nine different sub-themes. Conclusion: The results of this study may contribute to awareness that patients seek health information on internet and that it may affect district nurses work. District nurses need to relate to patient's knowledge that varies. Patients´ knowledge demands district nurses to adapt the care and the patients visit based on their knowledge and to guide patients’ right.

  • 6958.
    Abrahamsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Emond, Carolin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Faktorer som påverkar sjuksköterskan att följa den yrkesetiska koden2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]
    Den etiska koden och de etiska principerna är till för att bland annat stödja sjuksköterskan i hennes strävan mot ett yrkesetiskt förhållningssätt. För att möjliggöra detta måste koden och principerna vara kända, kunna införlivas och tillämpas i sjuksköterskans arbete. Syftet med studien var att belysa faktorer som kan påverka sjuksköterskans möjlighet att utöva omvårdnad enligt den etiska koden och de etiska principerna. Studien genomfördes som en litteraturstudie. De huvudfaktorer som framkom i resultatet utgick från organisationen, yrkesrelationerna samt från sjuksköterskan som person. Sjuksköterskan hade ett behov av utbildning, stöd och möjlighet till reflektion, vilket omvårdnadshandledning gav henne. Etiska svårigheter kunde leda till moralisk stress och därmed till ohälsa för sjuksköterskan. Sjuksköterskan borde få ut-ökade möjligheter till omvårdnadshandledning. Forskning efterlyses kring hur sjuksköterskan kan minska känslan av maktlöshet och etisk stress.
  • 6959.
    Abrahamsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Berglund, Catarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Att möjliggöra delaktighet i behandlingen för personer med ätstörningsproblematik: En kvalitativ studie utifrån arbetsterapeuters erfarenheter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Personer med ätstörningsproblematik kan ha en bristande insikt och ett kontrollbehov gentemot sin ätstörning. De kan även stundtals vara omotiverade till behandling och kan känna svårigheter i att förändra sitt beteende för att kunna bli fri från sin ätstörning. Detta kan försvåra för arbetsterapeuten att få dessa personer delaktiga i behandlingen, och därför blir syftet med studien att belysa arbetsterapeuters erfarenheter av vad som kan möjliggöra eller hindra delaktighet i behandlingen för personer med ätstörningsproblematik. Fem arbetsterapeuter intervjuades för att kunna besvara syftet och innehållet analyserades utifrån kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultatet presenterades i fyra kategorier; samarbete med patienten, klientcentrerad behandling, att medvetet använda sig själv och motivationens betydelse. Studiens slutsats är att om arbetsterapeuten lyckas skapa ett förtroende hos patienten, kan detta möjliggöra att patienten blir mer motiverad till att vilja bli fri från sin ätstörning. Detta kan uppnås genom att arbetsterapeuten bemöter patienten som en unik och kompetent person och tillsammans med denne reflekterar över personens livssituation och sätter upp mål i behandlingen, vilket leder till en ökad delaktighet i behandlingen. 

  • 6960.
    Abrahamsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Communication, Media and it.
    Eriksson, Emelie
    Södertörn University College, School of Communication, Media and it.
    En utvärdering av synthesizern OP-1 utifrån ett användbarhetsperspektiv2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is based on results given from usability testing of the synthesizer OP-1 developed by the company Teenage Engineering. The study has involved potential end users during the development process and aims only to look at the first experience the user gets from the interaction with the synthesizer. The meaning of the usability tests is to find out how the user can understand how to use OP-1, how intuitive the different modes are and how this affects the initial user experience.

    Nine people, out of a total amount of fourteen asked, participated in these usability tests. The selection of participants is based on their previous knowledge and experience of synthesizers. The theoretical frame of reference includes Jonas Löwgren and Erik Stoltermans theories of use qualities and are combined with chosen parts of Donald Normans ” Seven Stages of Actions as Design Aids”.

    The shown results indicate that the users quickly understand how to use the basic modes and features of the synthesizer. All of the participated users think OP-1 is entertaining, finds the design of OP-1 attractive and appriciates its portability, in which they see potential for both travelling and live performances. The users do not always fully understand the graphical elements but reckon that it is not always necessary to, neither in the display, nor on the buttons, since this clearifies after further usage. The users show some difficulties interacting with functions such as the pattern sequencer and some editing in tape mode. The users also sometimes show difficulties determining which mode the synthesizer is in.

    All of the usability tests were performed on a pre beta version of the OP-1. The final version of the synthesizer has been updated with changes influenced by the results of this report.

     

  • 6961.
    Abrahamsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Gullberg Husberg, Deseré
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    "Hon är min" ... fast egentligen inte: En komparativ genusanalys av fyra karaktärer i Sookie Stackhouse Series2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a comparative analysis between two books from the Sookie Stackhouse series by Charlaine Harris. We chose to work with book 1 - Dead Until Dark and book 10 - Dead in the Family. Our analysis is based on a gender perspective, using the litterature we present in previous research and theory. The aim for the thesis was to examine how gender and sexuality is portrayed in the books. In addition, we have looked at how the books represent gender norms in society through their characters and if named characters change throughout the series. We have applied comparative analysis and Nikolajeva's scheme on stereotypical males and females in litterature. We chose to analyse the four main characters - Sookie, Bill, Eric and Sam. In our analysis we discuss how the balance of power between the characters is portrayed as well as their gender and sexuality in relation to each other.

    Our analysis indicate that the characters are mainly portrayed with stereotypical gender norms and the comparison between the two books shows us no or very little development of named norms. Moreover, we observed that Sookies female gender is portrayed in relation to the three male characters, Bill, Eric and Sam. In addition, the male characters gender is also described in relation to the female character. Our analysis through Nikolajeva´s scheme depicts the characters in all categories of stereotypical gender roles. Sookie could often be categorized as a normative female whilst Bill and Eric in majority were categorized as normative males. Sams character was the only one to portray both female and male characteristics. This was depicted in both books. Further more, the male genders were portrayed similar in both books although the characters were mentioned more regularly in book 1 compared to book 10. Conclusively, we discussed how the books can be used in class to teach about gender, sexuality and norms. Lastly, we stressed what the positive and negative outcomes for teachers may be and what we think is important in class not to emulate stereotypical gender roles.

  • 6962.
    Abrahamsson, Sophie
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Afrikanska Unionen som säkerhetsaktör- en (o)möjlighet?: en undersökning av Afrikanska Unionens strukturella och institutionella förutsättningar för att agera som säkerhetsaktör.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ”African Solutions to African Problems” är en av Afrikanska Unionens nya ledord. Denna vilja om att ta mer ansvar för den afrikanska kontinenten och kunna agera som en säkerhetsaktör har resulterat i en ny säkerhetsdoktrin. För att kunna agera som aktör på den internationella arenan krävs att vissa förutsättningar existerar enligt en modell framtagen av Gunnar Sjöstedt. Dessa strukturella och institutionella förutsättningar kommer i denna studie att undersökas för att analysera huruvida AU kan agera som säkerhetsaktör. För att se hur AU de facto har agerat som säkerhetsaktör kommer organisationens agerande i Somalia år 2007-2010 samt i Libyen år 2011 att undersökas.  Den teoretiska anknytning som antas i studien är regimteori vilken fokuserar på att studera och förklara uppkomst och fortlevnad av samarbete inom internationella institutioner.

    Den empiriska analysen visar att AU saknar vissa strukturella och institutionella förutsättningar som anses nödvändiga för aktörskapaciteten. Den visar även att de målsättningar som har legat till grund för skapandet av dessa institutioner inte har förverkligats samt att regler och principer inte efterlevs.Vidare demonstrerar AU:s agerande i Somalia och Libyen att begreppet ”African Solutions to African Problems” är långt ifrån operationaliserat då AU inte kunnat enas om en respons samt agera samstämmigt i de kriser som undersöks. 

  • 6963.
    Abrahamsson, Stefan
    University West, Department of Nursing.
    Omvårdnadsbehov och omvårdnadsåtgärder vid feber med utgångspunkt från Hendersons faktorer2003Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 6964.
    Abrahamsson, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Positionering av last hos gantrykranar via direktverkan på last1988Report (Other academic)
  • 6965.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    University Services for regional Development: Ideas on Stakeholder Based Quality Management in a Region2011In: Proceedings : 14th QMOD Conference on Quality and Service Sciences: From LearnAbility and InnovAbility to SustainAbility / [ed] Carmen Jaca,Ricardo Mateo,Elizabeth Viles, Javier Santos, Pamplona: Servicios de Publicaciones Universidad de Navarra , 2011, p. 36-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Regional Development is a permanent activity of change including long range visions and goals. This work includes both continuous and breakthrough change. Quality management practises are used for organisational improvement and could be seen as one way of supporting effective change management. Provided we can view a region as an organisation we could also view it as a process. Dealing with the region as a system of processes might make it possible to use quality management practices to support more effective regional development. Based on an analysis of the presentation of the current state and the visionary state it should be possible to analyse proposed change strategies from a process perspective.

    Purpose

    The general purpose of the study is to see how universities could contribute to regional development. Specific research questions in this study are:

    For a region how can the present state, the visionary state and the chosen change strategies, be described with Quality Management values and methodologies with focus on the process view

    How do the regional university mission, vision and goals align with defined regional objectives?

    Methodology

    A literature survey for how Quality Management has been used for regional development is carried out to create a structure for the data collection. The region of Gotland is chosen as an example for a region. The reason for this is that Gotland is a small region consisting of an island providing clear boundaries. There is only one university, which makes it easier to study the links between university and region. Available regional visions are studied as well as main presentation of regional performance with focus on the region of Gotland. The main organizational stakeholders are identified and studied. Data is gathered from web sites and from interviews. The categorisation of information is based on a process perspective using process based system models adapted to the initial literature survey. The current change process is also portrayed. In order to see how the local university performance and plans align with the regional plans the Gotland University web-site is studied for relevant documents.

    Main results

    Regional performance can seemingly be described using process based system models. The stakeholder approach can in a meaningful way be used to describe main regional requirements.

  • 6966.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Högskolan Väst.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Integrated Management Systems: testing a model for integration2011In: 14th Toulon-Verona Conference: Organizational Excellence in Service, 1-3 September, 2011, Alicante, Spain / [ed] Jacques Martin and Claudio Baccarani, University of Alicante and University of Oviedo, Spain , 2011, p. 22-35Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Management systems are widely used for creating order, minimising risks and for assuring performance. Management systems are in many occasions integrated since this has been found to be beneficial. In this paper a model for a fully integrated management system (IMS) based on the three axes of level, extent and scope of integration is tested for relevance. The studied system permits the integration of all relevant process dimensions. The research is only in a pilot stage, but the initial results are promising and indicate that there are advantages in using the process view as a base for identifying critical aspects to be managed. A review of the current situation for system integration is studied and the model is subjected to some tests using Sweden as a case. The background study shows that system integration still is limited, especially when comparing with a fully integrated IMS. The feedback from the organisations interviewed is positive and supports continued work with development of the model.

  • 6967.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Adding requirements on customers to current quality models toimprove quality: development of a customer ‐ vendor interaction2010In: 13th QMOD conference on Quality and Service Sciences ICQSS 2010 / [ed] Jens J. Dahlgaard, Linköping University, Sweden, Visby: Gotland University , 2010, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most descriptions of business development and models for Corporate Governance, contacts between supplier and customer are for the most part focused on the supplier’s responsibility to identify and document customer requirements in order to enable the organization to meet customer requirements (stated and unstated). In the actual contact between customer and supplier it has been observed in several cases that there are aspects of the interaction not described in traditional theoretical quality models. What seems to be missing is a more explicit requirement for customers and for customers' actions. The logic is that a qualified customer performing based on supplier instructions will result in a better performing product. The apparent lack of theoretical models describing this aspect indicates that this is an interesting area for research and development.

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight a seemingly "forgotten" area within quality management, which is the lack of requirements put on customers in quality models.  The first objective is to review existing quality models to explore the extent of requirement on customers included. The second objective is to propose additions to current models that include requirements placed on customers.

    A limited review of the award criteria and the most common models for quality and improvement techniques shows that there is no explicit and documented way to set requirements for customers. Our interpretation is that EFQM is the model closest to our description of “demands on customer” due to their clauses connected to “partnership”.

    The ISO/DIS 26000 is moving the requirements further against the customer for the social responsibility than the quality standards are doing.

    Further research could focus on how requirements on customer will affect the performance of the entire supply chain both from a quality and social point of view.

  • 6968.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Implementing Lean: Discussing Standardization Versus Customization with Focus on National Cultural Dimensions2012In: Management and Production Engineering Review, ISSN 2082-1344, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 4-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean or Toyota Production System (TPS) has more or less successfully been implemented in the Western world’s businesses and organizations for the past 20 years. Several authors have discussed what it is that creates a successful implementation, and several studies have been presented where strategies for implementations have been studied. Culture’s impact and possible mitigation for Western companies have been studied and described by for example Womak & Jones. Proponents of the concept of Lean argue that culture is not a constraint for implementation of Lean. Lean Management is called a philosophy but it is often used as a change strategy in the sense that it is implemented with the view of improving performance. A change strategy could be seen as a product that might have to be customized with the view of improving the effectiveness of the implementation. On the other hand abandoning a standardized approach comes with the risk of severely altering the change strategy, possibly to its detriment. Implementing Lean will have an effect on the company culture. Does it make any sense customizing the implementation to culture if the issue is changing the culture? The purpose of this paper is to highlight and discuss the balance between a customized implementation and a standardized implementation. Which are the main arguments for standardization and customization and how could these be reconciled? A literature study of Lean implementation has been carried out and compared with Lean principles and theories from change management with focus on change drivers and change barriers. Main drivers of Hofstede’s national cultural dimensions are compared with Lean principles to identify possible drivers and barriers in different cultures. The theory synthesis on drivers and barriers is subjected to a first test in a case study on Lean implementation according to a standardized approach. The implementation is made in a small Swedish factory belonging to a worldwide industrial company. Results from the literature review and the case study indicate that both customization and standardization are needed.

  • 6969.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hansson, Jonas
    University West.
    Integrated Management Systems: advantages, problems and possibilities2010In: 13th Toulon-Verona Conference: Organizational Excellence in Service / [ed] Jacques Martin, Toulon University, 2010, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective management in the globalized world requires an effective, efficient and flexible management system. Effective could be interpreted as addressing all relevant stakeholder concerns in a context of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Efficient would mean that it does the job with low resource use. Flexibility requires that changed conditions and new requirements easily can be included. Many organizations are already working with Integrated Management Systems (IMS). Interesting questions are to what extent current integration covers the above mentioned needs and if not what changes are needed. This conceptual paper looks at the advantages and problems of integration. Possibilities for development of fully integrated management systems are studied from the perspective of managing stakeholder needs, with the forthcoming ISO 26000 – “Guidance on social responsibility”, as inspiration. Results show that there are advantages in integration, but that the scope and level of integration often is limited. A conceptual model for integrating all stakeholder needs in value networks is presented.

  • 6970.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University.
    Tosteby, Jonas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Process and Product Development.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University.
    Integrated Management Systems: testing a model for integration2011In: 14th Toulon-Verona Conference: Organizational Excellence in Service. Conference Proceedings / [ed] Jacques Martin & Claudio Baccarani., Alicante: University of Alicante , 2011, p. 22-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management systems are widely used for creating order, minimising risks and for assuring performance. Management systems are in many occasions integrated since this has been found to be beneficial. In this paper a model for a fully integrated management system (IMS) based on the three axes of level, extent and scope of integration is tested for relevance. The studied system permits the integration of all relevant process dimensions. The research is only in a pilot stage, but the initial results are promising and indicate that there are advantages in using the process view as a base for identifying critical aspects to be managed. A review of the current situation for system integration is studied and the model is subjected to some tests using Sweden as a case. The background study shows that system integration still is limited, especially when comparing with a fully integrated IMS. The feedback from the organisations interviewed is positive and supports continued work with development of the model.

  • 6971.
    Abrahamsson, Stephanie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hermansson, Matilda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vilka faktorer upplevs som begränsande för unga kvinnors sexualitet utifrån ett genuspsykologiskt perspektiv?: En studie med tio intervjuer av kvinnor i åldrarna 25-30 år2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka om och i sådana fall vilka faktorer som unga heterosexuella kvinnor upplevde som begränsande för sin sexualitet. Med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer undersöktes i denna kvalitativa studie hur dessa deltagare upplevde sin sexualitet utifrån tre huvudområden; sociala strukturer, normer samt psykisk hälsa. Teorin “sexual scripting theory” applicerades på de tre huvudområdena, då paralleller drogs mellan dessa och teorins tre huvudbegrepp “cultural scripts”, “interpersonal scripts” och “intrapsychic scripts”. Resultatet av denna studie visade att patriarkala strukturer, samhällsideal, jämförelser med andra, förväntningar och föreställningar om kvinnans utseende samt beteende var hämmande för deltagarnas sexualitet. Resultatet visade även att det fanns tydliga samband mellan sexualiteten och den psykiska hälsan. Negativa sexuella erfarenheter upplevdes påverka deltagarnas psykiska hälsa och blev hämmande för framtida sexuella upplevelser. Många begränsande faktorer identifierades utifrån resultatet i denna studie och en inblick i deltagarnas förhållande till sin sexualitet utforskades. 

  • 6972.
    Abrahamsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Johansson, Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Attityder till överviktiga patienter2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Övervikt och fetma är ett växande problem och betraktas som en global epidemi. Också i Sverige har detta ökat avsevärt. Ett för stort energiintag i förhållande till förbrukning är den största orsaken, men också ärftliga faktorer kan leda till övervikt. Detta medför ofta komplikationer för den enskilde personen i form av ökade hälsorisker och sämre livskvalitet. Större kunskaper om orsaker och prevention är viktigt, samt att ha ett korrekt och professionellt bemötande är av stor vikt hos vårdpersonalen som behandlar dessa patienter. Syftet med litteraturstudien var att belysa vårdpersonals attityder till överviktiga patienter. Metoden var en litteraturstudie som var grundad på åtta vetenskapliga artiklar. Resultatet kunde indelas i två kategorier, positiva attityder och negativa attityder. Vårdpersonal som huvudsakligen arbetade med överviktiga patienter hade mer positiva attityder och ett bättre förhållningssätt gentemot de aktuella patienterna. Gruppen med negativa attityder, dominerade i resultatet, de visade fördomsfullhet och negativism och att överviktiga patienter ofta särbehandlas. Överviktiga ansågs som lata och själva skyldiga till sin övervikt. Vårdpersonalen uttryckte ofta att de helst skulle vilja slippa vårda överviktiga patienter. En ökad medvetenhet om egna attityder och större kunskap om denna sjukdom vore önskvärt för framtiden för att uppnå den bästa omvårdnaden för dessa patienter.

  • 6973.
    Abrahamsson Söderberg, Sofie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Rällfors, Axel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Upplysningskrav vid värdering till verkligt värde: En studie om hur företag har anpassat sig till upplysningskraven kring verkligt värde och revisorns roll vid granskningen av dess efterlevnad2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste åren har värderingsmetoden värdering till verkligt värde blivit mycket kritiserad. Bland annat anses värderingsmetoden ge allt för stort utrymme för en företagsledning att manipulera de finansiella rapporterna. Uppsatsen behandlar därför hur väl företag följer upplysningskraven som de ska följa när de värderar tillgångar och skulder till verkligt värde enligt den internationella redovisningsstandarden IFRS 13 (International Financial Reporting Standard) samt revisorns uttalande i revisionsberättelsen gällande företagens efterlevnad av upplysningskraven. Detta görs för att studera om upplysningskraven efterföljs och i de fall då företagen inte följer upplysningskraven huruvida revisorn gör ett modifierat uttalande i revisionsberättelsen. Urvalet för studien är samtliga företag noterade på Stockholmsbörsen, Nasdaq OMX Stockholm, inom skogs-, fastighets- och banksektorn år 2012 och år 2013. Data har insamlats genom bearbetning och analyser av respektive företags årsredovisning. Av studien följer att företagen inte efterlever upplysningskraven fullt ut och att respektive företags revisor inte väljer att göra ett modifierat uttalande trots att ISA (International Standards on Auditing) uppmanar till det. Fastighetsbolagen visar högst efterlevnad av upplysningar, därefter kommer skogsbolagen och sist bankerna.

  • 6974.
    Abrahamsson Söderberg, Sofie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Tunstig, Sanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    En studie av storbankers finansiella ställning: I finanskrisens spår2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Finansiella institutioner har en stor samhällspåverkan, något som inte minst tydliggjordes genom den senaste finanskrisen då bankers finansiella ställning ifrågasattes. Studien syftar därför till att skapa en överblick hur bankers finansiella ställning sett ut i samband med finanskrisen år 2008. Undersökningen har genomförts genom att använda en övergripande modell baserad på nyckeltal som anses mäta bankers finansiella ställning, samt en kompletterande information i form av icke-numerisk data. Utifrån resultatet kunde det observeras att den genomsnittliga finansiella ställningen under perioden år 2007-2012 varit svag, samt att den var något svagare år 2012 än år 2007. Slutsatsen som kunde dras var att de europeiska bankerna haft en svag finansiell ställning och att tillgångskvaliteten ofta haft en betydelse för den finansiella ställningen. Studien fann dock några fall då banker haft en låg tillgångskvalitet men hög kapitaltäckning och/eller likviditet.

  • 6975. Abrahamsson, T.
    Sjangeli.1978In: Fjällklubbsnytt, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6976.
    Abrahamsson, T. R.
    et al.
    Dept Clin & Expt Med, Div Pediat, Linköping Univ, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, H. E.
    Dept Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, A. F.
    Sch Biotechnol, Div Gene Technol, Sci Life Lab, Royal Inst Technol (KTH ), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Engstrand, L.
    Dept Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; Div Gene Technol, Sci Life Lab, KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jenmalm, M. C.
    Dept Clin & Expt Med, Div Pediat, Linköping Univ, Linköping, Sweden; Dept Clin & Expt Med, Div Clin Immunol, Unit Autoimmun & Immune Regulat, Linköping Univ, Linköping, Sweden.
    Low gut microbiota diversity in early infancy precedes asthma at school age2014In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 842-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Low total diversity of the gut microbiota during the first year of life is associated with allergic diseases in infancy, but little is known how early microbial diversity is related to allergic disease later in school age. Objective To assess microbial diversity and characterize the dominant bacteria in stool during the first year of life in relation to the prevalence of different allergic diseases in school age, such as asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) and eczema. Methods The microbial diversity and composition was analysed with barcoded 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing in stool samples at 1week, 1month and 12months of age in 47 infants which were subsequently assessed for allergic disease and skin prick test reactivity at 7years of age (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01285830). Results Children developing asthma (n=8) had a lower diversity of the total microbiota than non-asthmatic children at 1week (P=0.04) and 1month (P=0.003) of age, whereas allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (n=13), eczema (n=12) and positive skin prick reactivity (n=14) at 7years of age did not associate with the gut microbiota diversity. Neither was asthma associated with the microbiota composition later in infancy (at 12months). Children having IgE-associated eczema in infancy and subsequently developing asthma had lower microbial diversity than those that did not. There were no significant differences, however, in relative abundance of bacterial phyla and genera between children with or without allergic disease. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance Low total diversity of the gut microbiota during the first month of life was associated with asthma but not ARC in children at 7years of age. Measures affecting microbial colonization of the infant during the first month of life may impact asthma development in childhood.

  • 6977. Abrahamsson, T. R.
    et al.
    Jakobsson, H. E.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Björkstén, B.
    Engstrand, Lars
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Jenmalm, M. C.
    Low gut microbiota diversity in early infancy precedes asthma at school age2014In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 842-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Low total diversity of the gut microbiota during the first year of life is associated with allergic diseases in infancy, but little is known how early microbial diversity is related to allergic disease later in school age. Objective To assess microbial diversity and characterize the dominant bacteria in stool during the first year of life in relation to the prevalence of different allergic diseases in school age, such as asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) and eczema. Methods The microbial diversity and composition was analysed with barcoded 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing in stool samples at 1week, 1month and 12months of age in 47 infants which were subsequently assessed for allergic disease and skin prick test reactivity at 7years of age (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01285830). Results Children developing asthma (n=8) had a lower diversity of the total microbiota than non-asthmatic children at 1week (P=0.04) and 1month (P=0.003) of age, whereas allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (n=13), eczema (n=12) and positive skin prick reactivity (n=14) at 7years of age did not associate with the gut microbiota diversity. Neither was asthma associated with the microbiota composition later in infancy (at 12months). Children having IgE-associated eczema in infancy and subsequently developing asthma had lower microbial diversity than those that did not. There were no significant differences, however, in relative abundance of bacterial phyla and genera between children with or without allergic disease. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance Low total diversity of the gut microbiota during the first month of life was associated with asthma but not ARC in children at 7years of age. Measures affecting microbial colonization of the infant during the first month of life may impact asthma development in childhood.

  • 6978.
    Abrahamsson, Terese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Specialpedagogiska insatser för förskolebarn som behöver extra stöd i sin sociala kompetens: En kvalitativ studie av pedagogers uppfattningar om barns socialakompetens och betydelsen av anknytning och lek2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe and analyse nine pedagogues understandings and experiences of preschools work with early childhood interventions and special education for children in need of extra support in their social skills, from a special educational approach. Data was collected by qualitative interviews and the collected material was analysed with the phenomenological approach.The result was analysed through systems theory and three perspectives on special education. The major result showed that attachment is a concept that all respondents seemed to think were important in preschool and the foundation of every child's development. Attachment should permeate the entire preschool environment. The definition of social skills in children was for example requirements of various abilities where components such as turn-taking, consideration,communication and empathy where important. Interaction and collaboration was also important.The play of the children was a good activity and a good opportunity to train social skills, as playsituations clearly demonstrates the abilities required and the unique needs of each child. It was important that educators were present and even participating, in play by introducing, guiding,explaining and interpreting rules in playsituations. Special education is about a systematic approach by including time for teachers to reflect and adapting communication, relationships and indoorenvironments in preschools.

  • 6979. Abrahamsson, Terese
    et al.
    Taavo, Therese
    Manliga och kvinnliga förskollärares uppfattningar om sitt arbete: ur ett genusperspektiv2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6980.
    Abrahamsson, Therese
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Gyllin, Elisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Cuamba Municipality, the capital of water?: A case study of the inclusion of female interests in water governance in Cuamba municipality, Mozambique.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this research is to examine if female interests have been included in different levels of water governance in Cuamba municipality, Mozambique in order to understand if gender equality and women empowerment is being addressed at the grassroots level. In Sub-Saharan Africa women generally have the responsibility of fetching water and are therefore directly affected by the quality and accessibility of water and sanitation services. Though gender mainstreaming and policies addressing gender equality has been adopted in Mozambique, the actual difference that these measures have made to the lives of women in Mozambique is questionable.  A qualitative single case study has been conducted, by interviewing government institutions, the private sector and civil society actors at district and municipality level in Cuamba. The findings reveal that it is the municipality government, FIPAG and the traditional leaders that are the main actors with the power over the distribution of water in Cuamba and through a joint effort the water situation has improved a lot in recent years. The interest in water among women was mainly focused to having a water source while the main interests among men was to have a shorter distance as well as shorter queues to the water source. An abductive method of the analytical framework consisting of four dimensions of water governance and rethinking em(power)ment, gender and development has been used to guide the analysis of the findings in a more comprehensive manner thus investigating the power structures in each dimension of water governance with a focus on women empowerment. The result indicates that women living in the urban areas were more empowered in all notions of power due to better access to information and education thus giving them more time and individual knowledge to collectively and individually demand power over the distribution of water. Due to lack of empowerment among women living in the rural areas, these women demanded less regarding the distribution of water and had less individual understanding of water governance. Furthermore the interests among women living in the rural areas were mostly included in the decision-making processes as it generally concerned having access to a clean water source. As the women in the urban areas demanded more and had more interests in water governance it became clear that the female interests in the urban areas were not included in decision-making. By including more women in decision-making bodies in water governance and putting more emphasis on education for women these issues could be addressed.

  • 6981.
    Abrahamsson, Therese
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hedström, Johanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Självkänsla hos unga i relation till riskbeteenden vid alkoholkonsumtion2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Svenska ungdomar i årskurs ett på gymnasiet som har konsumerat alkohol uppgår till 90 % (Ahlström & Österberg, 2003). Alkoholkonsumtionen ökar medan självkänslan minskar (Scheier, Botvin, Griffin och Diaz, 2000) men tidigare studier går isär gällande sambandet mellan alkoholkonsumtion och själv­känsla. Studiens syfte har varit att undersöka sambanden mellan självkänsla och riskbeteende vid alkoholförtäring, hos ungdomar i årskurs ett på gymna­siet.  En enkät som mäter Johnsons bassjälvkänsla (1996), Rosenbergs glo­bala självkänsla (1965), AUDIT´s (1994) frekvens och mängd samt risk­beteende, delades ut till 166 elever, 99 var män. Bassjälvkänslan visade ett signifikant samband med alkoholkonsumtion. Låg självkänsla visade mer problem med föräldrar samt försämrade prestationer i skolan/arbetet, medan en hög självkänsla visade fler oskyddade samlag. Högre alkoholkonsumtion visar på högre riskbeteende. Könsskillnader kunde avläsas vid problem med föräldrar och oskyddat samlag samt visar unga män en högre självkänsla. Resultatet stödjer delvis tidigare studier om signifikanta samband mellan självkänsla och riskbeteende vid alkoholkonsumtion.

  • 6982.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics MH.
    Can Lactobacillus Reuteri Prevent Allergic Disease in Early Childhood?2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An altered microbial exposure may be partly responsible for the increase of allergic diseases in populations with a western lifestyle. Activation of the immune system by microbes early in life is probably required for an accurate maturation of the immune system. Probiotics, live bacteria which are considered to confer health when ingested, have been suggested to prevent eczema and sensitisation infants.

    Aim: The general aim of this thesis was to assess the effect of oral supplementation with the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) in infancy on the development of allergic disease and sensitisation during the first 2 years of life and to examine mechanisms possibly underlying eventual effects on allergic manifestations.

    Subjects: The thesis is based on results obtained from a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter trial, comprising 232 families with allergic disease, of whom 188 completed the study.

    Methods: The families were recruited at the antenatal clinic, and the mothers received L. reuteri ATCC 55730 (1 x 108 colony forming units) or placebo daily from gestational week 36 until delivery. Their babies then continued with the same study product from birth until 12 months of age and were followed up for another year. The primary outcomes were allergic disease, with or without positive skin prick test or circulating IgE to food allergens. Bacterial counts and prevalence were assessed in maternal breast milk and faeces and infant faeces, employing conventional cultivation methods. Cytokines and IgA antibodies were analysed in colostrum and mature milk from the mothers with ELISA, and Na/K- ratio in breast milk with ion selective electrodes. Circulating Th1/Th2-associated chemokines were analysed in cord and peripheral blood in the infants with Luminex or ELISA technique.

    Results: The incidence of eczema was similar, 36% in the treated versus 34% in the placebo group. The L. reuteri group had a lower cumulative incidence of IgE-associated allergic disease, 20% versus 35% (p=0.04), and less IgE-associated eczema during the second year, 8% versus 20% (p=0.02). The prevalence of L. reuteri was higher during the first year of life in stool samples from infants, as well as in colostrum, in the active as compared to the placebo treated group. Colostrum from L. reuteri supplemented mothers had lower levels of TGF-β2, and low levels of this cytokine were associated with less sensitisation. Low Th1- and high Th2-associated chemokine levels preceded allergic disease. The presence of L. reuteri in stool was associated with lower levels of the Th2-associated chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 and higher levels of the Th1-associated CXCL11.

    Conclusion: Although a preventive effect of probiotics on infant eczema was not confirmed, the L. reuteri treated infants had lower incidence of IgE-associated allergic disease at two years of age, and therefore possibly run a reduced risk to develop later respiratory allergic disease. The mechanisms underlying this effect require further elucidation.

  • 6983.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Editorial Material: Not all probiotic strains prevent necrotising enterocolitis in premature infants in LANCET, vol 387, issue 10019, pp 624-6252016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 387, no 10019, p. 624-625Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 6984.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Using probiotics to prevent necrotising enterocolitis2017In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 106, no 11, p. 1718-1719Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 6985.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Saab Military Aircraft, Sweden.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    McKelvey, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Finite Element Model Updating Formulation Using Frequency Responses and Eigenfrequencies1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel frequency and modal domain formulation of the model updating problem is presented. Deviations in discrete frequency responses and eigenfrequencies, between the model to be updated and a reference model, constitute the criterion function. A successful updating thus results in a model with the reference's input-output relations at selected fre- quencies. The formulation is demonstrated to produce a criterion function with a global minimum having a large domain of attraction with respect to stiffness and mass variations. The method relies on mode grouping and uses a new extended modal assurance criterion number (eMAC) for identifying related modes. A quadratic objective with inexpensive evaluation of approximate Hessians give a rapid convergence to a minimum by the use of a regularized Gauss-Newton method. Physical bounds on parameters and complementary data, such as structural weight, are treated by imposing set constraints and linear equality constraints. Efficient function computation is obtained by model reduction using a moderately sized base of modes which is recomputed during the minimization. Statistical properties of updated parameters are discussed. A verification example show the performance of the method.

  • 6986.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Jakobsson, H.E.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, A.F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björksten, B.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Örebro University, Sweden .
    Engstrand, L.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Low gut microbiota diversity in early infancy precedes asthma at school age2014In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 842-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Low total diversity of the gut microbiota during the first year of life is associated with allergic diseases in infancy, but little is known how early microbial diversity is related to allergic disease later in school age.

    OBJECTIVE:

    To assess microbial diversity and characterize the dominant bacteria in stool during the first year of life in relation to the prevalence of different allergic diseases in school age, such as asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) and eczema.

    METHODS:

    The microbial diversity and composition was analysed with barcoded 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing in stool samples at 1 week, 1 month and 12 months of age in 47 infants which were subsequently assessed for allergic disease and skin prick test reactivity at 7 years of age (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01285830).

    RESULTS:

    Children developing asthma (n = 8) had a lower diversity of the total microbiota than non-asthmatic children at 1 week (P = 0.04) and 1 month (P = 0.003) of age, whereas allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (n = 13), eczema (n = 12) and positive skin prick reactivity (n = 14) at 7 years of age did not associate with the gut microbiota diversity. Neither was asthma associated with the microbiota composition later in infancy (at 12 months). Children having IgE-associated eczema in infancy and subsequently developing asthma had lower microbial diversity than those that did not. There were no significant differences, however, in relative abundance of bacterial phyla and genera between children with or without allergic disease.

    CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE:

    Low total diversity of the gut microbiota during the first month of life was associated with asthma but not ARC in children at 7 years of age. Measures affecting microbial colonization of the infant during the first month of life may impact asthma development in childhood.

  • 6987.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Jakobsson, Hedvig E.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden .
    Bjorksten, Bengt
    University of Örebro, Sweden .
    Engstrand, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden .
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Reply: Gut microbiota diversity and atopic disease: Does breast-feeding play a role?2013In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 131, no 1, p. 248-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 6988.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Jakobsson, Hedvig E
    Department of Preparedness, Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
    Andersson, Anders F
    Science for Life Laboratory, School of Biotechnology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björksten, Bengt
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, and the School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Engstrand, Lars
    Department of Preparedness, Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Low diversity of the gut microbiota in infants with atopic eczema2012In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 129, no 2, p. 434-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    It is debated whether a low total diversity of the gut microbiota in early childhood is more important than an altered prevalence of particular bacterial species for the increasing incidence of allergic disease. The advent of powerful, cultivation-free molecular methods makes it possible to characterize the total microbiome down to the genus level in large cohorts.

    Objective

    We sought to assess microbial diversity and characterize the dominant bacteria in stool during the first year of life in relation to atopic eczema development.

    Methods

    Microbial diversity and composition were analyzed with barcoded 16S rDNA 454-pyrosequencing in stool samples at 1 week, 1 month, and 12 months of age in 20 infants with IgE-associated eczema and 20 infants without any allergic manifestation until 2 years of age (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01285830).

    Results

    Infants with IgE-associated eczema had a lower diversity of the total microbiota at 1 month (P = .004) and a lower diversity of the bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes and the genus Bacteroides at 1 month (P = .02 and P = .01) and the phylum Proteobacteria at 12 months of age (P = .02). The microbiota was less uniform at 1 month than at 12 months of age, with a high interindividual variability. At 12 months, when the microbiota had stabilized, Proteobacteria, comprising gram-negative organisms, were more abundant in infants without allergic manifestation (Empirical Analysis of Digital Gene Expression in R [edgeR] test: P = .008, q = 0.02).

    Conclusion

    Low intestinal microbial diversity during the first month of life was associated with subsequent atopic eczema.

  • 6989.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Jakobsson, Ted
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björksten, Bengt
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Oldaeus, Göran
    County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    No effect of probiotics on respiratory allergies: a seven-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial in infancy2013In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 556-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri reduced the incidence of IgE-associated allergic disease in infancy. This treatment might therefore also reduce the risk of asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in school age.

    Objective

    To evaluate whether perinatal and infant supplementation with L. reuteri reduced the prevalence of respiratory allergic disease in school age and to explore whether this supplementation was associated with any long-term side effects.

    Methods

    A randomized, placebo-controlled trial with oral supplementation with Lreuteri ATCC 55730 (1 × 108 CFU) during the last month of gestation and through the first year of life comprising 232 families with allergic disease, of whom 184 completed a 7-yr follow-up. The primary outcomes at 7 yr of age were allergic disease and skin prick test reactivity (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01285830).

    Results

    The prevalence of asthma (15% in the probiotic vs. 16% in placebo group), allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (27% vs. 20%), eczema (21% vs. 19%) and skin prick test reactivity (29% vs. 26%) was similar in the probiotic and placebo group. Growth indices and gastrointestinal symptoms were similar in the two groups. No severe adverse events were reported.

    Conclusion

    The effect of L. reuteri on sensitization and IgE-associated eczema in infancy did not lead to a lower prevalence of respiratory allergic disease in school age. Thus, the effect of L. reuteri on the immune system seems to be transient. Administration of L. reuteri during the last weeks of gestation and in infancy was not associated with any long-term side effects.

  • 6990. Abrahamsson, Thomas R.
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Hedvig E.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Björksten, Bengt
    Engstrand, Lars
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Jenmalm, Maria C.
    Gut microbiota diversity and atopic disease: Does breast-feeding play a role? Reply2013In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 131, no 1, p. 248-249Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6991.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas R.
    et al.
    Dept Clin & Expt Med, Div Pediat, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Hedvig E.
    Dept Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    Sch Biotechnol, Sci Life Lab, KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björksten, Bengt
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Inst Environm Med, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engstrand, Lars
    Sch Biotechnol, Sci Life Lab, KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jenmalm, Maria C.
    Dept Clin & Expt Med, Div Pediat, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.; Unit Autoimmun & Immune Regulat, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Div Clin Immunol, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gut microbiota diversity and atopic disease: Does breast-feeding play a role? Reply2013In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 131, no 1, p. 248-249Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6992.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas R.
    et al.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Pediatrics, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Hedvig E.
    Department of Preparedness, Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, Solna, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    Science for Life Laboratory, School of Biotechnology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; .
    Engstrand, Lars
    Department of Preparedness, Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, Solna, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jenmalm, Maria C.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Pediatrics, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Unit of Autoimmunity and Immune Regulation, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Low diversity of the gut microbiota in infants with atopic eczema2012In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 129, no 2, p. 434-440.e2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is debated whether a low total diversity of the gut microbiota in early childhood is more important than an altered prevalence of particular bacterial species for the increasing incidence of allergic disease. The advent of powerful, cultivation-free molecular methods makes it possible to characterize the total microbiome down to the genus level in large cohorts.

    Objective: We sought to assess microbial diversity and characterize the dominant bacteria in stool during the first year of life in relation to atopic eczema development.

    Methods: Microbial diversity and composition were analyzed with barcoded 16S rDNA 454-pyrosequencing in stool samples at 1 week, 1 month, and 12 months of age in 20 infants with IgE-associated eczema and 20 infants without any allergic manifestation until 2 years of age (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01285830).

    Results: Infants with IgE-associated eczema had a lower diversity of the total microbiota at 1 month (P = .004) and a lower diversity of the bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes and the genus Bacteroides at 1 month (P = .02 and P = .01) and the phylum Proteobacteria at 12 months of age (P = .02). The microbiota was less uniform at 1 month than at 12 months of age, with a high interindividual variability. At 12 months, when the microbiota had stabilized, Proteobacteria, comprising gram-negative organisms, were more abundant in infants without allergic manifestation (Empirical Analysis of Digital Gene Expression in R [edgeR] test: P = .008, q = 0.02).

    Conclusion: Low intestinal microbial diversity during the first month of life was associated with subsequent atopic eczema.

  • 6993. Abrahamsson, Thomas R.
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Hedvig E.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Engstrand, Lars
    Jenmalm, Maria C.
    Low diversity of the gut microbiota in infants with atopic eczema2012In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 129, no 2, p. 434-U244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: It is debated whether a low total diversity of the gut microbiota in early childhood is more important than an altered prevalence of particular bacterial species for the increasing incidence of allergic disease. The advent of powerful, cultivation-free molecular methods makes it possible to characterize the total microbiome down to the genus level in large cohorts. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess microbial diversity and characterize the dominant bacteria in stool during the first year of life in relation to atopic eczema development. METHODS: Microbial diversity and composition were analyzed with barcoded 16S rDNA 454-pyrosequencing in stool samples at 1 week, 1 month, and 12 months of age in 20 infants with IgE-associated eczema and 20 infants without any allergic manifestation until 2 years of age (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01285830). RESULTS: Infants with IgE-associated eczema had a lower diversity of the total microbiota at 1 month (P= .004) and a lower diversity of the bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes and the genus Bacteroides at 1 month (P= .02 and P= .01) and the phylum Proteobacteria at 12 months of age (P= .02). The microbiota was less uniform at 1 month than at 12 months of age, with a high interindividual variability. At 12 months, when the microbiota had stabilized, Proteobacteria, comprising gram-negative organisms, were more abundant in infants without allergic manifestation (Empirical Analysis of Digital Gene Expression in R edgeR test: P= .008, q= 0.02). CONCLUSION: Low intestinal microbial diversity during the first month of life was associated with subsequent atopic eczema.

  • 6994. Abrahamsson, Thomas R.
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Ted
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Oldaeus, Göran
    Jenmalm, Maria C.
    No effect of probiotics on respiratory allergies: a seven-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial in infancy2013In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 556-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Supplementation with the probioticLactobacillus reuteri reduced the incidence of IgE-associated allergic disease in infancy. This treatment might therefore also reduce the risk of asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in school age.

    Objective: To evaluate whether perinatal and infant supplementation withL.reuteri reduced the prevalence of respiratory allergic disease in school age and to explore whether this supplementation was associated with any long-term side effects.

    Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial with oral supplementation withL.reuteriATCC 55730 (1x10(8)CFU) during the last month of gestation and through the first year of life comprising 232 families with allergic disease, of whom 184 completed a 7-yr follow-up. The primary outcomes at 7yr of age were allergic disease and skin prick test reactivity (ClinicalTrials.govID NCT01285830).

    Results: The prevalence of asthma (15% in the probiotic vs. 16% in placebo group), allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (27% vs. 20%), eczema (21% vs. 19%) and skin prick test reactivity (29% vs. 26%) was similar in the probiotic and placebo group. Growth indices and gastrointestinal symptoms were similar in the two groups. No severe adverse events were reported.

    Conclusion: The effect ofL.reuteri on sensitization andIgE-associated eczema in infancy did not lead to a lower prevalence of respiratory allergic disease in school age. Thus, the effect ofL.reuteri on the immune system seems to be transient. Administration ofL.reuteri during the last weeks of gestation and in infancy was not associated with any long-term side effects.

  • 6995.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas R
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics MH.
    Jakobsson, Ted
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics MH.
    Böttcher, Malin Fagerås
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jenmalm, Maria C
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics MH.
    Oldaeus, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Probiotics in prevention of IgE-associated eczema: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial2007In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 119, no 5, p. 1174-1180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: An altered microbial exposure may underlie the increase of allergic diseases in affluent societies. Probiotics may alleviate and even prevent eczema in infants.

    OBJECTIVE: To prevent eczema and sensitization in infants with a family history of allergic disease by oral supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri.

    METHODS: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, which comprised 232 families with allergic disease, of whom 188 completed the study. The mothers received L reuteri ATCC 55730 (1 x 10(8) colony forming units) daily from gestational week 36 until delivery. Their babies then continued with the same product from birth until 12 months of age and were followed up for another year. Primary outcome was allergic disease, with or without positive skin prick test or circulating IgE to food allergens.

    RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of eczema was similar, 36% in the treated versus 34% in the placebo group. The L reuteri group had less IgE-associated eczema during the second year, 8% versus 20% (P = .02), however. Skin prick test reactivity was also less common in the treated than in the placebo group, significantly so for infants with mothers with allergies, 14% versus 31% (P = .02). Wheeze and other potentially allergic diseases were not affected.

    CONCLUSION: Although a preventive effect of probiotics on infant eczema was not confirmed, the treated infants had less IgE-associated eczema at 2 years of age and therefore possibly run a reduced risk to develop later respiratory allergic disease. CLINICAL IMPLICATION: Probiotics may reduce the incidence of IgE-associated eczema in infancy.

  • 6996.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas R
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics MH.
    Sinkiewicz, Gabriela
    Department of Biomedical Lab Science, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Ted
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics MH.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics MH.
    Probiotic lactobacilli in breast milk and infant stool in relation to oral intake during the first year of life2009In: Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition, ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 349-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: This is to identify factors affecting the prevalence of Lactobacillus reuteri in maternal faeces and breast milk and infant faeces after oral supplementation with L reuteri and to assess the influence on microbial ecology, particularly Clostridium difficile and Bifidobacterium colonization.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this double-blind trial, 232 mothers with a family history of atopic disease were randomized to a daily intake of either L reuteri American-type culture collection (ATCC) 55730 (1 x 10 colony-forming units [CFU]) or placebo for the last 4 weeks of pregnancy. Their babies then continued with the same study product daily from birth until 12 months of age. Bacterial counts and prevalence were assessed in maternal breast milk and faeces and infant faeces, using conventional cultivation methods.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of L reuteri was higher during the first year of life in the stool samples from infants in the active as compared with the placebo-treated group. The highest prevalence was recorded at 5 to 6 days of age (82% in the treated vs 20% in the placebo group, P < 0.001). Lactobacillus reuteri was isolated from 12% and 2%, respectively, in the colostrum samples (P < 0.05). Breast-feeding seemed to reduce faecal L reuteri counts, although antibiotics did not influence the levels of L reuteri. The administration of L reuteri did not affect bifidobacteria or C difficile colonization.

    CONCLUSION: Lactobacillus reuteri may be detected in breast milk after oral supplementation to the mother and in almost all infants after oral supplementation during the first year of life, as well as occasionally in many untreated infants.

  • 6997.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Rautava, Samuli
    University of Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Moore, Aideen M.
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Neu, Josef
    University of Florida, FL USA.
    Sherman, Philip M.
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Editorial Material: The Time for a Confirmative Necrotizing Enterocolitis Probiotics Prevention Trial in the Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant in North America Is Now! in JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS, vol 165, issue 2, pp 389-3942014In: Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0022-3476, E-ISSN 1097-6833, Vol. 165, no 2, p. 389-394Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 6998.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Sandberg, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forsberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Bjorksten, B
    Karolinska Institute.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Th1/Th2-associated chemokine imbalance during infancy in children developing eczema, wheeze and sensitization2011In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 41, no 12, p. 1729-1739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Analyses of circulating chemokines offer novel tools to investigate the T helper (Th)1/Th2 imbalance in allergic disease in vivo. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanObjective To relate circulating Th1- and Th2-associated chemokines in infancy to allergic disease, sensitization and probiotic supplementation. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods Circulating levels of Th1-associated CXC-chemokine ligand (CXCL) 9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 and Th2-associated CC-chemokine ligand (CCL)17 and CCL22 were assessed with Luminex and CCL18 with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at birth (n = 109), 6 (n = 104), 12 (n = 116) and 24 months (n = 123) in 161 infants completing a double-blind placebo-controlled allergy prevention trial with Lactobacillus reuteri during the last month of gestation and through the first year of life. The infants were followed regarding the development of allergic disease and sensitization until 2 years of age. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults The Th2-associated chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 were the highest at birth and then decreased, whereas CCL18 and the Th1-associated chemokines increased with age. High Th2-associated chemokine levels were observed in children developing allergic disease. Sensitization was preceded by elevated levels of the Th2-associated CCL22 and reduced levels of the Th1-associated CXCL11 already at birth. The Th2-associated CCL17 was also elevated at birth in infants developing recurrent wheeze. A high Th2/Th1 ratio (CCL22/CXCL10) at birth associated with both sensitization and eczema development. The presence of L. reuteri in stool in the first week of life was associated with low CCL17 and CCL22 and high CXCL11 levels at 6 months of age. High Th1-associated chemokine levels were associated with day-care. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion and Clinical Relevance Allergic disease and sensitization in infancy was associated with low circulating Th1- and high Th2-associated chemokine levels already from birth. Circulating chemokines are useful for investigating the Th1/Th2 imbalance in allergic disease in vivo. Elucidation of the role of chemokines in allergic diseases may lead to future treatments.

  • 6999.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Sandberg, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forsberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bjorksten, B
    Karolinska Institute.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Th1/Th2-associated chemokine imbalance preceding allergic disease is influenced by birth size, breastfeeding, daycare and probiotics2009In: in Allergy, vol 64, 2009, Vol. 64, p. 56-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Analyses of circulating chemokines offer novel tools to investigate the Th1/Th2 imbalance in allergic disease in vivo and explore the influence of pre- and postnatal factors in infancy.

    Objective: To relate circulating Th1- and Th2-associated chemokines to the development of allergic disease, pre- and postnatal factors and probiotic supplementation in infancy.

    Methods: Circulating levels of Th1-associated CXC-chemokine ligand (CXCL)9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 and Th2-associated CC-chemokine ligand (CCL)17, CCL18 and CCL22 were assessed with Luminex and ELISA at birth (n=109), 6 (n=104), 12 (n=116) and 24 months (n=123) in 179 infants completing a double-blind placebo-controlled allergy prevention trial with Lactobacillus reuteri during the last month of gestation and through the first year of life. The infants were followed regarding development of allergic disease and sensitization until two years of age.

    Results: The Th2-associated chemokines were as highest at birth and then decreased, whereas the Th1-associated chemokines increased with age. Low Th1- and high Th2-associated chemokine levels were observed in children developing allergic disease. Sensitization was preceded by elevated CCL22 and reduced CXCL11 levels. High Th2-associated chemokine46 levels were associated with increased birth length and weight and long duration of breastfeeding, and high Th1-associated chemokine levels with day-care attendance. Presence of L. reuteri in stool the first week of life was associated with low CCL17 and CCL22 and high CXCL11 levels at 6 months.

    Conclusion: Allergic disease in infancy was associated with low circulating Th1- and high Th2-associated chemokine levels during the first year of life. The chemokine levels were affected by both pre and –postnatal factors.

  • 7000.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Sherman, Philip M.
    University of Toronto, Canada .
    Editorial Material: Multifaceted Effects of Human Milk Oligosaccharides2014In: Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0022-1899, E-ISSN 1537-6613, Vol. 209, no 3, p. 323-324Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

137138139140141142143 6951 - 7000 of 1192756
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