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  • 551.
    Wilhelmsson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Lindblom, Pontus
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Fryland, Linda
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Nyman, Dag
    Åland.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Ixodes ricinus ticks removed from humans in Northern Europe: seasonal pattern of infestation, attachment sites and duration of feeding2013In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 6, p. 362-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The common tick Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of the tick-borne encephalitis virus and of several species of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, which are the etiological agents of Lyme borreliosis. The risk to contract bites of I. ricinus is dependent on many factors including the behaviour of both ticks and people. The tick’s site of attachment on the human body and the duration of tick attachment may be of clinical importance. Data on I. ricinus ticks, which were found attached to the skin of people, were analysed regarding potentially stage-specific differences in location of attachment sites, duration of tick attachment (= feeding duration), seasonal and geographical distribution of tick infestation in relation to age and gender of the tick-infested hosts.

    Methods

    During 2008–2009, 1770 tick-bitten persons from Sweden and the Åland Islands removed 2110 I. ricinus ticks. Participants provided information about the date of tick detection and location on their body of each attached tick. Ticks were identified to species and developmental stage. The feeding duration of each nymph and adult female tick was microscopically estimated based on the scutal and the coxal index.

    Results

    In 2008, participants were tick-bitten from mid-May to mid-October and in 2009 from early April to early November. The infestation pattern of the nymphs was bimodal whereas that of the adult female ticks was unimodal with a peak in late summer. Tick attachment site on the human body was associated with stage of the tick and gender of the human host. Site of attachment seemed to influence the duration of tick feeding. Overall, 63% of nymphs and adult female ticks were detected and removed more than 24 hours after attachment. Older persons, compared to younger ones, and men, compared to women, removed “their” ticks after a longer period of tick attachment.

    Conclusions

    The infestation behaviour of the different tick stages concerning where on the host’s body the ticks generally will attach and when such ticks generally will be detected and removed in relation to host age and gender, should be of value for the development of prophylactic methods against tick infestation and to provide relevant advice to people on how to avoid or reduce the risk of tick infestation.

  • 552.
    Wright, Alison E.
    et al.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.
    Fumagalli, Matteo
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Life Sci, Silwood Pk Campus, London, England.
    Cooney, Christopher R.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.
    Bloch, Natasha, I
    UCL, Dept Genet Evolut & Environm, London, England.
    Vieira, Filipe G.
    Univ Copenhagen, Ctr GeoGenet, Nat Hist Museum Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Buechel, Severine D.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mank, Judith E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. UCL, Dept Genet Evolut & Environm, London, England.
    Male-biased gene expression resolves sexual conflict through the evolution of sex-specific genetic architecture2018In: EVOLUTION LETTERS, ISSN 2056-3744, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 52-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many genes are subject to contradictory selection pressures in males and females, and balancing selection resulting from sexual conflict has the potential to substantially increase standing genetic diversity in populations and thereby act as an important force in adaptation. However, the underlying causes of sexual conflict, and the potential for resolution, remains hotly debated. Using transcriptome-resequencing data from male and female guppies, we use a novel approach, combining patterns of genetic diversity and intersexual divergence in allele frequency, to distinguish the different scenarios that give rise to sexual conflict, and how this conflict may be resolved through regulatory evolution. We show that reproductive fitness is the main source of sexual conflict, and this is resolved via the evolution of male-biased expression. Furthermore, resolution of sexual conflict produces significant differences in genetic architecture between males and females, which in turn lead to specific alleles influencing sex-specific viability. Together, our findings suggest an important role for sexual conflict in shaping broad patterns of genome diversity, and show that regulatory evolution is a rapid and efficient route to the resolution of conflict.

  • 553.
    Wright, Alison E.
    et al.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.
    Rogers, Thea F.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.
    Fumagalli, Matteo
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Life Sci, London, England.
    Cooney, Christopher R.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.
    Mank, Judith E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. UCL, Dept Genet Evolut & Environm, London, England; Univ British Columbia, Dept Zool, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Phenotypic sexual dimorphism is associated with genomic signatures of resolved sexual conflict2019In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 2860-2871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intralocus sexual conflict, where an allele benefits one sex at the expense of the other, has an important role in shaping genetic diversity of populations through balancing selection. However, the potential for mating systems to exert balancing selection through sexual conflict on the genome remains unclear. Furthermore, the nature and potential for resolution of sexual conflict across the genome has been hotly debated. To address this, we analysed de novo transcriptomes from six avian species, chosen to reflect the full range of sexual dimorphism and mating systems. Our analyses combine expression and population genomic statistics across reproductive and somatic tissue, with measures of sperm competition and promiscuity. Our results reveal that balancing selection is weakest in the gonad, consistent with the resolution of sexual conflict and evolutionary theory that phenotypic sex differences are associated with lower levels of ongoing conflict. We also demonstrate a clear link between variation in sexual conflict and levels of genetic variation across phylogenetic space in a comparative framework. Our observations suggest that this conflict is short-lived, and is resolved via the decoupling of male and female gene expression patterns, with important implications for the role of sexual selection in adaptive potential and role of dimorphism in facilitating sex-specific fitness optima.

  • 554. Xiong, Jie
    et al.
    Feng, Lifang
    Yuan, Dongxia
    Fu, Chengjie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Miao, Wei
    Genome-wide identification and evolution of ATP-binding cassette transporters in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila: A case of functional divergence in a multigene family2010In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 330-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. In eukaryotes, ABC transporters that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to expel cellular substrates into the environment are responsible for most of the efflux from cells. Many members of the superfamily of ABC transporters have been linked with resistance to multiple drugs or toxins. Owing to their medical and toxicological importance, members of the ABC superfamily have been studied in several model organisms and warrant examination in newly sequenced genomes. Results. A total of 165 ABC transporter genes, constituting a highly expanded superfamily relative to its size in other eukaryotes, were identified in the macronuclear genome of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Based on ortholog comparisons, phylogenetic topologies and intron characterizations, each highly expanded ABC transporter family of T. thermophila was classified into several distinct groups, and hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships are presented. A comprehensive microarray analysis revealed divergent expression patterns among the members of the ABC transporter superfamily during different states of physiology and development. Many of the relatively recently formed duplicate pairs within individual ABC transporter families exhibit significantly different expression patterns. Further analysis showed that multiple mechanisms have led to functional divergence that is responsible for the preservation of duplicated genes. Conclusion. Gene duplications have resulted in an extensive expansion of the superfamily of ABC transporters in the Tetrahymena genome, making it the largest example of its kind reported in any organism to date. Multiple independent duplications and subsequent divergence contributed to the formation of different families of ABC transporter genes. Many of the members within a gene family exhibit different expression patterns. The combination of gene duplication followed by both sequence divergence and acquisition of new patterns of expression likely plays a role in the adaptation of Tetrahymen a to its environment.

  • 555.
    Younesi, Simin
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Mehregan, Iraj
    Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Assadi, Mostafa
    AREEO, Res Inst Forests & Rangelands, POB 13185-116, Tehran, Iran.
    Nejadsattari, Taher
    Islamic Azad Univ, Dept Biol, Sci & Res Branch, Tehran, Iran.
    Lidén, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Dionysia robusta (Primulaceae), a new species from W Iran2016In: Willdenowia, ISSN 0511-9618, E-ISSN 1868-6397, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new species from the W part of the Iranian Zagros Mountains in Ilam province, Dionysia robusta (Primulaceae), is described, illustrated and compared with similar and related species. It differs from these relatives in leaf shape, length and density of glandular hairs, and shape of the calyx. The DNA sequence of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region of D. robusta is most similar to that of D. gaubae.

  • 556.
    Yu, Sheng-Xiang
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, China.
    Janssens, Steven B.
    Botanic Garden Meise, Nieuwelaan 38, Meise, BE-1860, Belgium.
    Zhu, Xiang-Yun
    State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, China.
    Lidén, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Gao, Tian-Gang
    State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, China.
    Wang, Wei
    State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, China.
    Phylogeny of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae): integrating molecular and morphological evidence into a new classification2016In: Cladistics, ISSN 0748-3007, E-ISSN 1096-0031, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 179-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impatiens L. is one of the largest angiosperm genera, containing over 1000 species, and is notorious for its taxonomic difficulty. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus to date based on a total evidence approach. Forty-six morphological characters, mainly obtained from our own investigations, are combined with sequence data from three genetic regions, including nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid atpB-rbcL and trnL-F. We include 150 Impatiens species representing all clades recovered by previous phylogenetic analyses as well as three outgroups. Maximum-parsimony and Bayesian inference methods were used to infer phylogenetic relationships. Our analyses concur with previous studies, but in most cases provide stronger support. Impatiens splits into two major clades. For the first time, we report that species with three-colpate pollen and four carpels form a monophyletic group (clade I). Within clade II, seven well-supported subclades are recognized. Within this phylogenetic framework, character evolution is reconstructed, and diagnostic morphological characters for different clades and subclades are identified and discussed. Based on both morphological and molecular evidence, a new classification outline is presented, in which Impatiens is divided into two subgenera, subgen. Clavicarpa and subgen. Impatiens; the latter is further subdivided into seven sections.

  • 557. Yu, Sheng-Xiang
    et al.
    Lidén, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Han, Bao-Cai
    Zhang, Xiao-Xia
    Impatiens lixianensis, a new species of Balsaminaceae from Sichuan, China2013In: Phytotaxa, ISSN 1179-3155, E-ISSN 1179-3163, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 25-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impatiens lixianensis, a new species of Balsaminaceae from Zhegushan, Lixian, Sichuan province, China, is described and illustrated. This species is closely related to I. apsotis in having small white to greenish-white flowers, 2 lateral sepals, and 1-2-flowered short racemes, but differs by its non-crested dorsal petals, a short 2-lobed swollen spur, long-clawed lower petals, and small scale-shaped upper petals. Regarding palynological characters, the lumina of the reticulum in I. lixianensis are smaller and much more granulate than those in I. apsotis.

  • 558.
    Zhang, Zebin
    et al.
    China Agr Univ, Dept Anim Genet & Breeding, Coll Anim Sci & Technol, State Key Lab Anim Nutr,Natl Engn Lab Anim Breedi, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Jia, Yaxiong
    Chinese Acad Agr Sci, Inst Anim Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Almeida, Pedro
    UCL, Dept Genet Evolut & Environm, London, England.
    Mank, Judith E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. UCL, Dept Genet Evolut & Environm, London, England.
    van Tuinen, Marcel
    Univ Groningen, Marine Evolut & Conservat Grp, Ctr Evolutionary & Ecol Studies, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Wang, Qiong
    China Agr Univ, Dept Anim Genet & Breeding, Coll Anim Sci & Technol, State Key Lab Anim Nutr,Natl Engn Lab Anim Breedi, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Jiang, Zhihua
    Washington State Univ, Dept Anim Sci, Ctr Reprod Biol, Vet & Biomed Res Bldg, Pullman, WA 99164 USA.
    Chen, Yu
    Beijing Municipal Gen Stn Anim Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Zhan, Kai
    Anhui Acad Agr Sci, Inst Anim Husb & Vet Med, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China.
    Hou, Shuisheng
    Chinese Acad Agr Sci, Inst Anim Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Zhou, Zhengkui
    Chinese Acad Agr Sci, Inst Anim Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Li, Huifang
    Chinese Acad Agr Sci, Poultry Inst, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Fangxi
    Inst Pekin Duck, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    He, Yong
    Cherry Valley Farms Xianghe Co Ltd, Langfang, Peoples R China.
    Ning, Zhonghua
    China Agr Univ, Dept Anim Genet & Breeding, Coll Anim Sci & Technol, State Key Lab Anim Nutr,Natl Engn Lab Anim Breedi, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Ning
    China Agr Univ, Dept Anim Genet & Breeding, Coll Anim Sci & Technol, State Key Lab Anim Nutr,Natl Engn Lab Anim Breedi, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Qu, Lujiang
    China Agr Univ, Dept Anim Genet & Breeding, Coll Anim Sci & Technol, State Key Lab Anim Nutr,Natl Engn Lab Anim Breedi, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Whole-genome resequencing reveals signatures of selection and timing of duck domestication2018In: GigaScience, ISSN 2047-217X, E-ISSN 2047-217X, Vol. 7, no 4, article id giy027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The genetic basis of animal domestication remains poorly understood, and systems with substantial phenotypic differences between wild and domestic populations are useful for elucidating the genetic basis of adaptation to new environments as well as the genetic basis of rapid phenotypic change. Here, we sequenced the whole genome of 78 individual ducks, from two wild and seven domesticated populations, with an average sequencing depth of 6.42X per individual. Results: Our population and demographic analyses indicate a complex history of domestication, with early selection for separate meat and egg lineages. Genomic comparison of wild to domesticated populations suggests that genes that affect brain and neuronal development have undergone strong positive selection during domestication. Our F-ST analysis also indicates that the duck white plumage is the result of selection at the melanogenesis-associated transcription factor locus. Conclusions: Our results advance the understanding of animal domestication and selection for complex phenotypic traits.

  • 559.
    Zlatogursky, Vasily V.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. St Petersburg State Univ, Fac Biol, Dept Invertebrate Zool, Univ Skaja Nab 7-9, St Petersburg 199034, Russia.
    Drachko, Daria
    St Petersburg State Univ, Fac Biol, Dept Invertebrate Zool, Univ Skaja Nab 7-9, St Petersburg 199034, Russia.
    Klimov, Vladimir, I
    St Petersburg State Univ, Fac Biol, Dept Invertebrate Zool, Univ Skaja Nab 7-9, St Petersburg 199034, Russia.
    Shishkin, Yegor
    St Petersburg State Univ, Fac Biol, Dept Invertebrate Zool, Univ Skaja Nab 7-9, St Petersburg 199034, Russia.
    On the phylogenetic position of the genus Raphidocystis (Haptista: Centroplasthelida) with notes on the dimorphism in centrohelid life cycle2018In: European Journal of Protistology, ISSN 0932-4739, E-ISSN 1618-0429, Vol. 64, p. 82-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Centrohelid heliozoan Raphidocystis glabra was reisolated for the first time after initial description and put into a clonal culture. Its correct identification was confirmed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy of scales. The first light microscopy data from the living cells were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of its position using 18S rDNA sequences was also performed. This species branches inside of the Polyplacocystis Glade, being closely related to the strain HLO4. The latter was isolated from the same sample with R. glabra and has spicules, not siliceous scales, unlike all the other members of this Glade. Using another strain isolated from this sample the co-specificity of HLO4 and R. glabra was demonstrated, and the presence of spicule-bearing stages in the life cycle of Raphidocystis was shown. Polyplacocystis revealed to be paraphyletic with Raphidocystis embedded in it. Moreover, representatives of both genera share the similar monolayered plate scales with hollow inflected margin. Thus, a family-level name Raphidocystidae for the whole Glade was proposed and all the Polyplacocystis species were transferred to Raphidocystis which name has a priority. The evolution of centrohelid coverings in the light of new findings was discussed, as well as the possible wide distribution of dimorphism in centrohelid life cycles. (C) 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

9101112 551 - 559 of 559
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