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  • 51.
    Ajaxon, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
    Öhman, Caroline
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
    Compressive Fatigue Properties of Acidic Calcium Phosphate Cement2014Ingår i: Proceedings of 7th World Congress of Biomechanics, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 52.
    Ajaxon, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
    Öhman, Caroline
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
    Long-term in vitro degradation of a high-strength brushite cement in water, PBS, and serum solution2015Ingår i: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, artikel-id 575079Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone loss and fractures may call for the use of bone substituting materials, such as calcium phosphate cements (CPCs). CPCs can be degradable, and, to determine their limitations in terms of applications, their mechanical as well as chemical properties need to be evaluated over longer periods of time, under physiological conditions. However, there is lack of data on how the in vitro degradation affects high-strength brushite CPCs over longer periods of time, that is, longer than it takes for a bone fracture to heal. This study aimed at evaluating the long-term in vitro degradation properties of a high-strength brushite CPC in three different solutions: water, phosphate buffered saline, and a serum solution. Microcomputed tomography was used to evaluate the degradation nondestructively, complemented with gravimetric analysis. The compressive strength, chemical composition, and microstructure were also evaluated. Major changes from 10 weeks onwards were seen, in terms of formation of a porous outer layer of octacalcium phosphate on the specimens with a concomitant change in phase composition, increased porosity, decrease in object volume, and mechanical properties. This study illustrates the importance of long-term evaluation of similar cement compositions to be able to predict the material’s physical changes over a relevant time frame. 

  • 53.
    Akan, Pelin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Genteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Alexeyenko, Andrey
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Genteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Costea, Paul Igor
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Genteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hedberg, Lilia
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Genteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Werne Solnestam, Beata
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Genteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lundin, Sverker
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Genteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hallman, Jimmie
    Lundberg, Emma
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Genteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik (stängd 20130101). KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lundeberg, Joakim
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Genteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Comprehensive analysis of the genome transcriptome and proteome landscapes of three tumor cell lines2012Ingår i: Genome Medicine, ISSN 1756-994X, E-ISSN 1756-994X, Vol. 4, s. 86-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We here present a comparative genome, transcriptome and functional network analysis of three human cancer cell lines (A431, U251MG and U2OS), and investigate their relation to protein expression. Gene copy numbers significantly influenced corresponding transcript levels; their effect on protein levels was less pronounced. We focused on genes with altered mRNA and/or protein levels to identify those active in tumor maintenance. We provide comprehensive information for the three genomes and demonstrate the advantage of integrative analysis for identifying tumor-related genes amidst numerous background mutations by relating genomic variation to expression/protein abundance data and use gene networks to reveal implicated pathways.

  • 54.
    Akan, Pelin
    et al.
    KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Stranneheim, Henrik
    KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Lexow, Preben
    LingVitae, Oslo.
    Lundeberg, Joakim
    KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Design and assessment of binary DNA for nanopore sequencing2010Ingår i: Genome biology, ISSN 1474-760X, Vol. 11, s. P4-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 55. Akbari, H.
    et al.
    Karimi, K
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Lundin, M
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Optimization of baker's yeast drying in industrial continuous fluidized-bed dryer2012Ingår i: Food and Bioproducts Processing, ISSN 0960-3085, E-ISSN 1744-3571, Vol. 90, nr 1, s. 52-57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Instant active dry baker's yeast is a well-known product widely used for leavening of bread, produced by fermentation, and usually dried by hot air to 94–96% dry matter content. Multi-stage fluidized bed drying process is a commercial effective method for yeast drying. In this work, optimum operating parameters of an industrial continuous fluidized bed dryer for the production of instant active dry yeast were investigated. The dryer contained four zones separated with moving weirs. The operating conditions such as temperature, loading rate of compressed yeast granules, and hot air humidity had direct effects on both yeast activity and viability. The most important factors that affected the quality of the product were loading rate and the operational temperature in each zone on the bed. Optimization was performed for three loading rates of the feed to the dryer, using response surface methodology for the experimental design. The most significant factor was shown to be the loading rate with mean fermentation activity values of 620, 652, and 646 cm3 CO2/h for 300, 350, and 400 kg/h loading rates, respectively. The data analysis resulted in an optimal operating point at a loading rate of 350 kg/h and temperatures of zones 1, 2, 3, and 4 controlled at 33, 31, 31, and 29 °C, respectively. The best activity value was predicted as 668 ± 18 cm3 CO2/h, and confirmation experiments resulted in 660 ± 10 cm3 CO2/h. At the same operating point, the average viability of the cells was predicted as 74.8 ± 3.7% and confirmed as 76.4 ± 0.6%. Compared with the normal operating conditions at the plant, the optimization resulted in more than 12% and 27% improvement in the yeast activity and viability, respectively.

  • 56.
    Akinbomi, Julius
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Brandberg, Tomas
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Sanni, Sikiru A.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Development and Dissemination Strategies for Accelerating Biogas Production in Nigeria2014Ingår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 9, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the worsening energy crisis of unreliable electricity and unaffordable petroleum products coupled with the increase number of poverty-stricken people in Nigeria, the populace is desperately in need of cheap alternative energy supplies that will replace or complement the existing energy sources. Previous efforts by the government in tackling the challenge by citizenship sensitization of the need for introduction of biofuel into the country’s energy mix have not yielded the expected results because of a lack of sustained government effort. In light of the shortcomings, this study assesses the current potential of available biomass feedstock for biogas production in Nigeria, and further proposes appropriate biogas plants, depending on feedstock type and quantity, for the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. Besides, the study proposes government-driven biogas development systems that could be effectively used to harness, using biogas technology, the estimated 270 TWh of potential electrical energy from 181 million tonnes of available biomass, in the advancement of electricity generation and consequent improvement of welfare in Nigeria.

  • 57.
    Akinbomi, Julius
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Evaluation of Fermentative Hydrogen Production from Single and Mixed Fruit Wastes2015Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 4253-4272Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The economic viability of employing dark fermentative hydrogen from wholefruit wastes as a green alternative to fossil fuels is limited by low hydrogen yield due to theinhibitory effect of some metabolites in the fermentation medium. In exploring means ofincreasing hydrogen production from fruit wastes, including orange, apple, banana, grapeand melon, the present study assessed the hydrogen production potential of singly-fermentedfruits as compared to the fermentation of mixed fruits. The fruit feedstock was subjected tovarying hydraulic retention times (HRTs) in a continuous fermentation process at 55 °C for47 days. The weight distributions of the first, second and third fruit mixtures were 70%,50% and 20% orange share, respectively, while the residual weight was shared equally bythe other fruits. The results indicated that there was an improvement in cumulativehydrogen yield from all of the feedstock when the HRT was five days. Based on the resultsobtained, apple as a single fruit and a fruit mixture with 20% orange share have the mostimproved cumulative hydrogen yields of 504 (29.5% of theoretical yield) and 513 mL/gvolatile solid (VS) (30% of theoretical yield ), respectively, when compared to other fruits.

  • 58.
    Akinbomi, Julius
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Wikandari, Rachman
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Enhanced Fermentative Hydrogen and Methane Production from an Inhibitory Fruit-Flavored Medium with Membrane-Encapsulated Cells.2015Ingår i: Membranes, ISSN 2077-0375, E-ISSN 2077-0375, Vol. 5, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on the possibility of improving fermentative hydrogen and methane production from an inhibitory fruit-flavored medium using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane-encapsulated cells. Hexanal, myrcene, and octanol, which are naturally produced in fruits such as apple, grape, mango, orange, strawberry, and plum, were investigated. Batch and semi-continuous fermentation processes at 55 °C were carried out. Presence of 5 g/L of myrcene, octanol, and hexanal resulted in no methane formation by fermenting bacteria, while encapsulated cells in the membranes resulted in successful fermentation with 182, 111, and 150 mL/g COD of methane, respectively. The flavor inhibitions were not serious on hydrogen-producing bacteria. With free cells in the presence of 5 g/L (final concentration) of hexanal-, myrcene-, and octanol-flavored media, average daily yields of 68, 133, and 88 mL/g COD of hydrogen, respectively, were obtained. However, cell encapsulation further improved these hydrogen yields to 189, 179, and 198 mL/g COD. The results from this study indicate that the yields of fermentative hydrogen and methane productions from an inhibitory medium could be improved using encapsulated cells.

  • 59.
    Aldaron, Mattias
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, fysik och matematik.
    Anaerob rening vid StoraEnso Skoghalls Bruk2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of a specific application of anaerobic wastewater treatment at a pulp and board mill, Stora Enso Skoghall, was carried out. A literature study was done and effluent wastewater from CTMP pulp production was analyzed. The analysis consisted of a broad constituent analysis and an anaerobic treatment trial. Results from these test where used to calculate the treatment effectiveness and resulting energy potential at the mill.

    The literature study and constituent analysis showed that toxicity of the water to be treated, due to wood extractives and sulphur content, was of concern. Detoxification chemicals targeting these constituents where used in the anaerobic treatment trial. The trial consisted of a two chamber upflow reactor and aerobic post treatment. The result of the trial is that the water of concern has about 50% anaerobically degradable content. A full scale implementation of anaerobic wastewater treatment would result in a methane production of 3,76 to 7,76 GWh/yr. An application of anaerobic wastewater treatment will also result in electricity savings, in aerated pond, and increase the capacity margin on current sludge handling techniques.

  • 60.
    Aldén, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Optimization of the Liquefaction Process in Bioethanol Production & Development of Method for Quantification of Nonsolubilized Starch in Mash2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Etanolproduktionen på Lantmännen Agroetanol AB i Norrköping började i December 2000. Målet med examensarbetet är att hitta och optimera faktorer som påverkar utbytet av likvifieringen i etanolproduktionen. För att studera utfallet av likvifieringen är det önskvärt att mäta hur mycket stärkelse som inte har löst sig, och därför måste en metod för att mäta olöst stärkelse i mäsk utvecklas.

    Stärkelse utgör en kolreserv i växter. Stärkelsegranuler är polymerer av amylos och amylopektin, vilka i sin tur är polysackarider av glukos. När en stärkelse/vatten-blandning värms upp börjar stärkelsegranulerna att absorbera vatten och svälla, en process som kallas gelatinisering. Svällningen gör granulerna känsliga mot hydrolys av till exempel enzymet alfa-amylas, vilket kallas för likvifiering. Efter tillräckligt mycket gelatinisering och likvifiering förstörs hela den granulära strukturen och stärkelsen övergår till löst form. Löst stärkelse kan försockras till glukos med enzymet glukoamylas. I produktionen av bioetanol blandas malet spannmål med vatten och enzymer. Slurryn värms upp och gelatinisering och likvifiering sker. Försockring sker simultant med fermenteringen. Etanol renas fram från den fermenterade mäsken i nedströmsprocessen.

    Stärkelse i granulform kan inte kvantifieras. Den valda metoden för mätning av olöst stärkelse i likvifierad mäsk innebär att den lösta stärkelsen tvättas bort, sedan hydrolyseras den olösta stärkelsen kvantitativt till glukos, vilken kan kvantifieras.

    Flerfaktorförsök gjordes för att hitta och optimera faktorer signifikanta för utbytet av likvifiering. Åtta olika faktorer studerades. pH, temperatur i mixtank och temperatur i likvifieringstank 1 visade sig vara de tre mest signifikanta faktorerna. Temperaturen i likvifieringstank 1 ska bibehålla samma temperatur som idag, 74°C. En liten höjning av pH borde förkorta medellängden av dextrinerna, vilket är fördelaktigt. En ökning av pH från 5,2 till 5,4 är föreslås därför. Temperaturen i mixtanken ska ökas några få grader. Utbytet av processen måste noggrant utvärderas under modifieringarna.

  • 61. Aleman, Dionne M.
    et al.
    Glaser, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.), Optimeringslära och systemteori.
    Romeijn, H. Edwin
    Dempsey, James F.
    Interior point algorithms: guaranteed optimality for fluence map optimization in IMRT2010Ingår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0031-9155, E-ISSN 1361-6560, Vol. 55, nr 18, s. 5467-5482Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most widely studied problems of the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning problem is the fluence map optimization (FMO) problem, the problem of determining the amount of radiation intensity, or fluence, of each beamlet in each beam. For a given set of beams, the fluences of the beamlets can drastically affect the quality of the treatment plan, and thus it is critical to obtain good fluence maps for radiation delivery. Although several approaches have been shown to yield good solutions to the FMO problem, these solutions are not guaranteed to be optimal. This shortcoming can be attributed to either optimization model complexity or properties of the algorithms used to solve the optimization model. We present a convex FMO formulation and an interior point algorithm that yields an optimal treatment plan in seconds, making it a viable option for clinical applications.

  • 62.
    Alemandar, Ayse
    et al.
    University of Toronto.
    Sain, Mohini
    University of Toronto.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    The effect of decreased fiber size in wheat straw / polyvinyl alchol composites2009Ingår i: Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, ISSN 1556-6560, E-ISSN 1556-6579, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 75-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The reinforcing potential of micro and nano-size fibers from wheat straw in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was studied. The microfibers were obtained by alkali treatment and disintegration process of wheat straw while nanofibers were obtained after applying further mechanical treatment of this alkali treated wheat straw. The results showed that the alkali treatment increased the α-cellulose content of the fibers from 38% to 73% due to hydrolysis of the hemicelluloses and lignin from the straw walls. The morphology and thermal properties of the micro and nano-size fibers were determined to show their potential as reinforcements. The transmission electron microscopy study showed that the size of the wheat straw fibers was decreased from micro to nano-size by the defibrillation process. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated the alkali treatment dramatically increased the thermal properties of the wheat straw fibers. The morphologies and thermal properties of the prepared composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal stability of the nanofiber-reinforced composites increased with respect to the neat PVA. The mechanical properties of the composites increased significantly with the addition of microfibers and further increment was obtained with nanofibers. The tensile modulus increased from 2.1 GPa of pure PVA to 3 GPa with the addition of micro sized fibers and further to 3.8 GPa with the decreased fiber size to nano scale. The composites strength showed similar trend.

  • 63.
    Alemdar, Ayse
    et al.
    University of Toronto.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Sain, Mohini
    University of Toronto.
    Reinforcement capability of wheat straw fibers from micro to nano size2007Ingår i: 9th International Conference on Wood & Biofiber Plastic Composites: held in Madison, Wisconsin, May 21 -23, 2007, Madison, Wis: Forest Products Society, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study was to explore the reinforcement capability of micro and nano-size fibers from wheat straw. Microfibers were obtained by alkali treatment and disintegration processes of the wheat straw while nanofibers were obtained after applying further mechanical treatment of this alkali treated wheat straw. The morphology and thermal properties of both fiber types were determined to show their suitability as reinforcements. TEM images showed that the diameters of the wheat straw fibers were decreased from micro to nano-size by the defibrillation process. Thermogravimetric analysis showed the alkali treatment dramatically increased the thermal properties of the wheat straw fibers. The composites were produced using, respectively, the microfibers and nanofibers as reinforcement, with both polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) as the matrix. The morphology and thermal properties of the composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The mechanical properties of the composites were compared with those of neat polymer matrix and found to be considerably improved.

  • 64.
    Alinejad, M.
    et al.
    Department of Forestry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Henry, C.
    Department of Forestry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Nikafshar, S.
    Department of Forestry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Gondaliya, A.
    Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Bagheri, B.
    Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Chen, N.
    Eastern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, Wyndmoor, United States.
    Singh, S.K.
    Chemical and Biological Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, United States.
    Hodge, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Nejad, M.
    Department of Forestry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States. Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States..
    Lignin-based polyurethanes: Opportunities for bio-based foams, elastomers, coatings and adhesives2019Ingår i: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, nr 7, artikel-id 1202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyurethane chemistry can yield diverse sets of polymeric materials exhibiting a widerange of properties for various applications and market segments. Utilizing lignin as a polyol presentsan opportunity to incorporate a currently underutilized renewable aromatic polymer into theseproducts. In this work, we will review the current state of technology for utilizing lignin as a polyolreplacement in different polyurethane products. This will include a discussion of lignin structure,diversity, and modification during chemical pulping and cellulosic biofuels processes, approachesfor lignin extraction, recovery, fractionation, and modification/functionalization. We will discussthe potential of incorporation of lignins into polyurethane products that include rigid and flexiblefoams, adhesives, coatings, and elastomers. Finally, we will discuss challenges in incorporating ligninin polyurethane formulations, potential solutions and approaches that have been taken to resolvethose issues.

  • 65. Alinezhad, S.
    et al.
    Mirabdollah, A.
    Forgács, Gergely
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Feuk-Lagerstedt, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Expression of keratinase gene in Bacillus megaterium using an expression vector of pHIS1525.SPlipA and utilization of the resulting recombinant strain for chicken feather degradation prior to biogas production2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing quantity of chickens is being utilized annually in the poultry industry, producing a huge volume of chicken feather waste which presents a high quality supply of keratin. Keratinases possessing high level of keratinolytic activity on insoluble keratin play a crucial role in hydrolyzing chicken feathers. Ever since the discovery of proteolytic ability as well as water solubility of keratinase, many industrial processes regarding keratinase application have been developed. A recently invented application to handle poultry waste is to utilize feathers for biogas production. Obviously, large amount of keratinase is required to break down the keratin prior to further conversion to biogas. Previously, several researches have shown that certain bacteria are able to produce keratinase but it is still a challenge to find out which bacteria is the most reliable source for the production with high efficiency. These challenges gave rise to the molecular biologists to bring the focus on gene cloning to develop recombinant strains resulting in overproduction of keratinase. Over the course of various cloning and expression experiments of similar proteins, it was found that Bacillus megaterium could be a susceptible host cell for keratinase production. In our study, the keratinase gene from the chromosomal DNA of Bacillus licheniformis ATCC®53757 was PCR amplified and subsequently cloned into Bacillus megaterium expression vector, pHIS1525.SPlipA. Bacillus megaterium ATCC®14945 strain was transformed with the recombinant plasmid, pKERHIS1525.SPlipA. The KER gene was expressed under xylose inducible promoter, and the product was then purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. After 18 h of incubation an extracellular keratinase activity of 29U ml-1 was achieved (one unit of activity was determined as the amount of enzyme required to an increase of 0.01 in A420 after 30 min of incubation at 37°C). The recombinant strain was further examined for feather degradation using intact chicken feather waste as carbon source. The chopped chicken feathers were partially degraded by the recombinant strain after three days of incubation and the total macroscopic digestion was ultimately observed after seven days resulting in a yellowish peptide rich fermentation broth. The biogas potential of the hydrolysate will be compared with that of untreated feathers by performing anaerobic batch digestion experiments.

  • 66. Allas, Ular
    et al.
    Toom, Lauri
    Selyutina, Anastasia
    Maeorg, Uno
    Medina, Ricardo
    Merits, Andres
    Rinken, Ago
    Hauryliuk, Vasili
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Nooruse 1, Tartu 50411, Estonia.
    Kaldalu, Niilo
    Tenson, Tanel
    Antibacterial activity of the nitrovinylfuran G1 (Furvina) and its conversion products2016Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, artikel-id 36844Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    2-Bromo-5-(2-bromo-2-nitrovinyl) furan (G1 or Furvina) is an antimicrobial with a direct reactivity against thiol groups. It is active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi. By reacting with thiol groups it causes direct damage to proteins but, as a result, is very short-living and interconverts into an array of reaction products. Our aim was to characterize thiol reactivity of G1 and its conversion products and establish how much of antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects are due to the primary activity of G1 and how much can be attributed to its reaction products. Stability of G1 in growth media as well as its conversion in the presence of thiols was characterized. The structures of G1 decomposition products were determined using NMR and mass-spectroscopy. Concentration-and time-dependent killing curves showed that G1 is bacteriostatic for Escherichia coli at the concentration of 16 mu g/ml and bactericidal at 32 mu g/ml. However, G1 is inefficient against non-growing E. coli. Addition of cysteine to medium reduces the antimicrobial potency of G1. Nevertheless, the reaction products of G1 and cysteine enabled prolonged antimicrobial action of the drug. Therefore, the activity of 2-bromo-5-(2-bromo-2-nitrovinyl) furan is a sum of its immediate reactivity and the antibacterial effects of the conversion products.

  • 67.
    Alm, Tove
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik.
    Interaction engineered three-helix bundle domains for protein recovery and detection2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    HTML clipboard The great advances in DNA technology, e.g. sequencing and recombinant DNA techniques, have given us the genetic information and the tools needed to effectively produce recombinant proteins. Recombinant proteins are valuable means in biotechnological applications and are also emerging as alternatives in therapeutic applications. Traditionally, monoclonal antibodies have been the natural choice for biotechnological and therapeutic applications due to their ability to bind a huge range of different molecules and their natural good affinity. However, the large size of antibodies (150 kDa) limits tissue penetration and the recombinant expression is complicated. Therefore, alternative binders with smaller sizes have been derived from antibodies and alternative scaffolds.

    In this thesis, two structurally similar domains, Zbasic and ABDz1, have been used as purification tags in different contexts. They are both three-helical bundles and derived from bacterial surface domains, but share no sequence homology. Furthermore, by redesign of the scaffold used for ABDz1, a molecule intended for drug targeting with extended in-vivo half-life has been engineered. In Papers I and II, the poly-cationic tag Zbasic is explored and evaluated. Paper I describes the successful investigation of Zbasic as a purification handle under denaturating conditions. Moreover, Zbasic is evaluated as an interaction domain in matrixassisted refolding. Two different proteins were successfully refolded using the same setup without individual optimization. In Paper II, Zbasic is further explored as a purification handle under non-native conditions in a multi-parallel setup. In total, 22 proteins with varying characteristics are successfully purified using a multi-parallel protein purification protocol and a robotic system. Without modifications, the system can purify up to 60 proteins without manual handling. Paper I and II clearly demonstrate that Zbasic can be used as an interaction domain in matrix-assisted refolding and that it offers a good alternative to the commonly used His6-tag under denaturating conditions. In paper III, the small bifunctional ABDz1 is selected from a phage display library. Endowed with two different binding interfaces, ABDz1 is capable of binding both the HSA-sepharose and the protein A-derived MabSelect SuRe-matrix. The bifunctionality of the domain is exploited in an orthogonal affinity setup. Three target proteins are successfully purified using the HSA-matrix and the MabSelect SuRe-matrix. Furthermore, the purity of the target proteins is effectively improved by combining the two chromatographic steps. Thus, paper III shows that the small ABDz1 can be used as an effective purification handle and dual affinity tag without target specific optimization. Paper IV describes the selection and affinity maturation of small bispecific drug-targeting molecules. First generation binders against tumor necrosis factor-α are selected using phage display. Thereafter on-cell surface display and flow cytometry is used to select second-generation binders. The binding to tumor necrosis factor-α is improved up to 30 times as compared to the best first generation binder, and a 6-fold improvement of the binding strength was possible with retained HSA affinity. Paper III and IV clearly demonstrate that dual interaction surfaces can successfully be grafted on a small proteinaceous domain, and that the strategy in paper IV can be used for dual selection of bifunctional binders.

  • 68.
    Almlöf, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi.
    Kristensen, Emma M. E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Fysiska institutionen.
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Fysiska institutionen.
    Åqvist, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi.
    Molecular dynamics study of heparin based coatings2008Ingår i: Biomaterials, ISSN 0142-9612, E-ISSN 1878-5905, Vol. 29, nr 33, s. 4463-4469Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Heparin based surface coatings can be used to improve the biocompatibility of metallic surfaces such as vascular stents. Here, we report molecular dynamics simulations of a macromolecular conjugate of heparin used to prepare such surfaces. The structural properties of the heparin conjugate are investigated for different degrees of hydration, to allow comparison with spectroscopic results. The simulations show that the polymer becomes more compact with an increasing degree of inter-chain interactions as the hydration increases. This is also accompanied by changes in the interaction patterns among the heparin chains, where counter ions become looser associated with the disaccharide units and their strong interactions can be partly replaced by water molecules and heparin hydroxyl groups. The structural information that can be obtained from computer simulations of this type of coatings can be very valuable for understanding and further development of functional interfaces, since very little is known experimentally regarding their detailed structural properties. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 69.
    Almquist, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Electrochemical synthesis of electroactive polymers for drugrelease for bio scaffolds.2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Stem cell based therapy has the potential to treat several severe diseases; Parkinson’s

    disease is one well- known example. Transplantation of stem cell derived cells into

    animal models is unfortunately often associated with tumour formation or- uncontrolled

    growth of the transplanted cells. One strategy to suppress this tumour formation might be

    to induce differentiation of these cells, which in turn would prevent them from dividing.

     

    Neuroblastoma tumors are known to demonstrate the complete transition from an

    undifferentiated state to a completely harmful, differentiated appearance and derived cells

    can be used as a model for cell differentiation and tumor suppression.

     

    In this Master Thesis’s the conducting polymers PEDOT and PPy, that upon formation

    can be doped with biologically active compounds which in- turn can be released in a

    controlled manner through electrical stimulation, were formed together with various

    drugs (e.g. Methotrexate and Mycophenolic Acid), here shown to have effect on

    Neuroblastoma cells. Neuroblastoma- derived cell line SH- SY5Y was used as a model

    system for neuronal differentiation and tumour inhibition. Release profiles of

    neuroblastoma active drugs following electrical stimulation were evaluated and the

    effects from electrochemical processes on simultaneously growing SH- SY5Y cells were

    investigated.

     

    The methods to deposit and release the drugs were based on electropolymerization and

    electrochemically controlled release, respectively. Controlled release of various drugs

    and compounds was monitored using Vis- and UV- spectroscopy and on some occasions

    using HPLC.

     

    The electrochemically controlled release of a biologically inactive compound that can be

    used as a negative control for electrochemical release in future experiments was shown

    and that resulting electrochemical processes have negative effects on neuroblastoma cell

    growth.

  • 70.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysikalisk kemi, oorganisk kemi och strukturkemi.
    Structural modeling of membrane transporter proteins2008Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental process of all living organisms - the transport of molecules across cellular membranes through membrane transport proteins - is investigated.

    After a brief review of general properties of biological membranes follows a recollection of the major methods of membrane transport that Nature utilizes (Chapter 1). This is followed by a description of important experimental (Chapter 2) and theoretical methods (Chapter 3) for structural studies of membrane proteins. The findings on membrane protein transport in papers I-IV are then summarized (Chapter 4) and important findings are discussed. The remaining text is a discussion on relevant theoretical and experimental methods.

  • 71. Al-Naamani, Laila
    et al.
    Dobretsov, Sergey
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Chitosan-zinc oxide nanoparticle composite coating for active food packaging applications2016Ingår i: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 38, s. 231-237Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study antimicrobial properties of chitosan and chitosan-zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomposite coatings on PE films were studied. Oxygen plasma pretreatment of PE films led to increased adhesion by 2% of chitosan and the nanocomposite coating solutions to the packaging films. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed uniform coatings on PE surfaces. Incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles into the chitosan matrix resulted in 42% increase in solubility; swelling decreased by 80% while the water contact angle (WCA) increased from 60 to 95 compared to chitosan coating. PE coated with chitosan-ZnO nanocomposite films completely inactivated and prevented the growth of food pathogens, while chitosan-coated films showed only 10-fold decline in the viable cell counts of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus after 24-h incubation compared to the control. Industrial relevance: One of the greatest challenges of food industry is microbial contamination. The present study suggests that PE coating with chitosan-ZnO nanocomposite is a promising technique to enhance antimicrobial properties of the films. Chitosan-ZnO nanocomposite coatings improved antibacterial properties of PE by inactivating about 99.9% of viable pathogenic bacteria. Hence, our results show the effectiveness of the nanocomposite coating in the development of active food packaging in order to prolong the shelf life of food products.

  • 72.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    University de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Fierrez, J.
    Universidad Autonoma de Madrid.
    Ortega-Garcia, J.
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
    Fronthaler, Hartwig
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Kollreider, Klaus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Bigun, Josef
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    A Comparative Study of Fingerprint Image-Quality Estimation Methods2007Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, ISSN 1556-6013, E-ISSN 1556-6021, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 734-743Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the open issues in fingerprint verification is the lack of robustness against image-quality degradation. Poor-quality images result in spurious and missing features, thus degrading the performance of the overall system. Therefore, it is important for a fingerprint recognition system to estimate the quality and validity of the captured fingerprint images. In this work, we review existing approaches for fingerprint image-quality estimation, including the rationale behind the published measures and visual examples showing their behavior under different quality conditions. We have also tested a selection of fingerprint image-quality estimation algorithms. For the experiments, we employ the BioSec multimodal baseline corpus, which includes 19 200 fingerprint images from 200 individuals acquired in two sessions with three different sensors. The behavior of the selected quality measures is compared, showing high correlation between them in most cases. The effect of low-quality samples in the verification performance is also studied for a widely available minutiae-based fingerprint matching system.

  • 73.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    ATVS, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Campus de Cantoblanco, Avda. Francisco Tomas y Valiente 11, 28049 Madrid, Spain.
    Fierrez-Aguilar, Julian
    ATVS, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Campus de Cantoblanco, Avda. Francisco Tomas y Valiente 11, 28049 Madrid, Spain.
    Fronthaler, Hartwig
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Kollreider, Klaus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Ortega-Garcia, Javier
    ATVS, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Campus de Cantoblanco, Avda. Francisco Tomas y Valiente 11, 28049 Madrid, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Joaquin
    ATVS, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Campus de Cantoblanco, Avda. Francisco Tomas y Valiente 11, 28049 Madrid, Spain.
    Bigun, Josef
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Combining multiple matchers for fingerprint verification: A case study in biosecure network of excellence2007Ingår i: Annales des télécommunications, ISSN 0003-4347, E-ISSN 1958-9395, Vol. 62, nr 1-2, s. 62-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on experiments for the fingerprint modality conducted during the First BioSecure Residential Workshop. Two reference systems for fingerprint verification have been tested together with two additional non-reference systems. These systems follow different approaches of fingerprint processing and are discussed in detail. Fusion experiments involving different combinations of the available systems are presented. The experimental results show that the best recognition strategy involves both minutiae-based and correlation-based measurements. Regarding the fusion experiments, the best relative improvement is obtained when fusing systems that are based on heterogeneous strategies for feature extraction and/or matching. The best combinations of two/three/four systems always include the best individual systems whereas the best verification performance is obtained when combining all the available systems.

  • 74. Altai, M.
    et al.
    Tsourma, M.
    Mitran, B.
    Honarvar, H.
    Perols, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteinteknologi.
    Robillard, M.
    Rossin, R.
    ten Hoeve, W.
    Sandstrom, M.
    Orlova, A.
    Karlström, Amelie Eriksson
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteinteknologi.
    Tolmachev, V.
    Affibody-based bioorthogonal chemistry-mediated radionuclide pretargeting: proof-of-principle.2015Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, ISSN 1619-7070, E-ISSN 1619-7089, Vol. 42, s. S246-S246Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 75.
    Altgärde, Noomi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Local release of lithium from sol-gel coated orthopaedic screws: an in vitro and in vivo study2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid behandling av benbrott stabiliseras vanligtvis frakturen internt med metallskruvar och

    metallstavar. Detta görs för att hålla brottbitarna på plats under den relativt långsamma läkprocessen. Det är möjligt att minska tiden för frakturläkning genom att lokalt eller systemiskt behandla med olika läkemedel som främjar bentillväxt. På senare år har det presenterats bevis för att litium, som annars används som psykofarmaka, fungerar som ett sådant läkemedel.

     

    Syftet med detta examensarbete var att hitta en metod för att fästa litium på benimplantat. Litium skulle fästas på ett sådant sätt att frisläppning till omgivande vävnad blev möjlig.

     

    Litiumklorid inkorporerades i en titanat-solgel och lager av detta lades på kiselytor och rostfria skruvar genom s.k. ”dip-coating”. Kiselytorna användes för initiala in vitro-studier av hur litium ändrade beläggningens egenskaper. Litium sitter antagligen fast på ytan av det tredimensionella nätverk som utgör solgelen, istället för att sitta inbundet i nätverket. Lagerstrukturen ändras ju mer litium som inkorporeras och vid stora mängder skapas inte de nanopartiklar som vanligtvis finns i en solgel-baserad beläggning. En följd av detta är reducerad bioaktivitet för beläggningen, dvs. en minskad förmåga för kalciumfosfatkristaller att bildas på ytan. Litium frisläpps från beläggningen, dock sker denna frisläppning snabbt. Genom att belägga ytan med flera lager av solgel kan frisläppningskinetiken delvis ändras. Solgelen kunde också med god vidhäftning appliceras på skruvar och frisläppningskinetiken från en skruv är liknande den från en kiselyta.

    Slutligen användes en skruvmodell i råtta för att undersöka vilken effekt lokal respektive systemisk litiumbehandling har på frakturläkning. I modellen efterliknas ett benbrott genom att en skruv sätts in i skenbenet.  När benvävnaden runt skruven har läkt görs ett utdragstest på skruven vilket ger information om benets styrka. Ingen signifikant skillnad i skruvens utdragskraft kunde ses mellan de båda försöksgrupperna och kontrollgruppen. Däremot hade gruppen som fick systemisk litiumbehandling fått starkare ben totalt, vilket indikerar att litium har effekt på intakt ben. På grund av dessa resultat finns det fortfarande skäl att tro att litium har en positiv påverkan på ben, varför dess effekt på frakturläkning bör undersökas ytterligare. 

  • 76.
    Alvfors, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Arnell, Jenny
    IVL.
    Berglin, Niklas
    Innventia.
    Björnsson, Lovisa
    LU.
    Börjesson, Pål
    LU.
    Grahn, Maria
    Chalmers/SP.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    Innventia.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL.
    Jelse, Kristian
    IVL.
    Klintbom, Patrik
    Kusar, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Kemisk teknologi.
    Lidén, Gunnar
    LU.
    Magnusson, Mimmi
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL.
    Sjöström, Krister
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik.
    Stålbrand, Henrik
    LU.
    Wallberg, Ola
    LU.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    LiU.
    Zacchi, Guido
    LU.
    Öhrman, Olof
    ETC Piteå.
    Research and development challenges for Swedish biofuel actors – three illustrative examples: Improvement potential discussed in the context of Well-to-Tank analyses2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently biofuels have strong political support, both in the EU and Sweden. The EU has, for example, set a target for the use of renewable fuels in the transportation sector stating that all EU member states should use 10% renewable fuels for transport by 2020. Fulfilling this ambition will lead to an enormous market for biofuels during the coming decade. To avoid increasing production of biofuels based on agriculture crops that require considerable use of arable area, focus is now to move towards more advanced second generation (2G) biofuels that can be produced from biomass feedstocks associated with a more efficient land use. Climate benefits and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances are aspects often discussed in conjunction with sustainability and biofuels. The total GHG emissions associated with production and usage of biofuels depend on the entire fuel production chain, mainly the agriculture or forestry feedstock systems and the manufacturing process. To compare different biofuel production pathways it is essential to conduct an environmental assessment using the well-to-tank (WTT) analysis methodology. In Sweden the conditions for biomass production are favourable and we have promising second generation biofuels technologies that are currently in the demonstration phase. In this study we have chosen to focus on cellulose based ethanol, methane from gasification of solid wood as well as DME from gasification of black liquor, with the purpose of identifying research and development potentials that may result in improvements in the WTT emission values. The main objective of this study is thus to identify research and development challenges for Swedish biofuel actors based on literature studies as well as discussions with the the researchers themselves. We have also discussed improvement potentials for the agriculture and forestry part of the WTT chain. The aim of this study is to, in the context of WTT analyses, (i) increase knowledge about the complexity of biofuel production, (ii) identify and discuss improvement potentials, regarding energy efficiency and GHG emissions, for three biofuel production cases, as well as (iii) identify and discuss improvement potentials regarding biomass supply, including agriculture/forestry. The scope of the study is limited to discussing the technologies, system aspects and climate impacts associated with the production stage. Aspects such as the influence on biodiversity and other environmental and social parameters fall beyond the scope of this study. We find that improvement potentials for emissions reductions within the agriculture/forestry part of the WTT chain include changing the use of diesel to low-CO2-emitting fuels, changing to more fuel-efficient tractors, more efficient cultivation and manufacture of fertilizers (commercial nitrogen fertilizer can be produced in plants which have nitrous oxide gas cleaning) as well as improved fertilization strategies (more precise nitrogen application during the cropping season). Furthermore, the cultivation of annual feedstock crops could be avoided on land rich in carbon, such as peat soils and new agriculture systems could be introduced that lower the demand for ploughing and harrowing. Other options for improving the WTT emission values includes introducing new types of crops, such as wheat with higher content of starch or willow with a higher content of cellulose. From the case study on lignocellulosic ethanol we find that 2G ethanol, with co-production of biogas, electricity, heat and/or wood pellet, has a promising role to play in the development of sustainable biofuel production systems. Depending on available raw materials, heat sinks, demand for biogas as vehicle fuel and existing 1G ethanol plants suitable for integration, 2G ethanol production systems may be designed differently to optimize the economic conditions and maximize profitability. However, the complexity connected to the development of the most optimal production systems require improved knowledge and involvement of several actors from different competence areas, such as chemical and biochemical engineering, process design and integration and energy and environmental systems analysis, which may be a potential barrier.

  • 77.
    Ananías, Rubén A.
    et al.
    Department of Wood Engineering, University of Bío-Bío, Concepción.
    Sepúlveda-Villarroel, Victor
    Departamento de Ingenieria en Maderas, Universidad del Bio Bio, Avenida Collao 1202, Casilla 5-C-CP: 4081112, Concepción.
    Perez-Peña, Natalia
    Departamento de Ingenieria en Maderas, Universidad del Bio Bio, Avenida Collao 1202, Casilla 5-C-CP: 4081112, Concepción.
    Leandro-Zuñiga, Laura
    Instituto Costarricense de la Madera, San Pedro, San José.
    Salvo-Sepúlveda, Linette
    Departamento de Ingenieria en Maderas, Universidad del Bio Bio, Avenida Collao 1202, Casilla 5-C-CP: 4081112, Concepción.
    Salinas-Lira, Carlos
    Departamento de Ingenieria en Maderas, Universidad del Bio Bio, Avenida Collao 1202, Casilla 5-C-CP: 4081112, Concepción.
    Cloutier, Alain
    Society of Wood Science & Technology Member, Centre de Recherche sur le Bois, Université Laval, Québec.
    Elustondo, Diego
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Collapse of Eucalyptus nitens Wood after Drying Depending on the Radial Location Within the Stem2014Ingår i: Drying Technology, ISSN 0737-3937, E-ISSN 1532-2300, Vol. 32, nr 14, s. 1699-1705Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Collapse is almost certain to occur in the industrial drying of Eucalyptus nitens, and as such this prevents the lumber manufacturing industry in Chile from producing commercial solid wood products from this species. This problem is still unsolved, and different studies to reduce collapse are currently underway. In this exploratory study, shrinkage and collapse after drying of Eucalyptus nitens was measured for boards cut from different radial locations within the stem (core, transition and outer wood from pith to bark) and having different annual ring orientation (flat-sawn and quarter-sawn). Even though exploratory, the results appear to confirm that pieces that were cut from the center of the trees were less susceptible to collapse than the pieces cut from the transition zone between the center and the periphery. On average, collapse in transition wood was approximately 50% higher than the collapse observed in wood cut from the central zone of the trees.

  • 78.
    Ananías, Rubén A.
    et al.
    Department of Wood Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Bío-Bío, Concepcion.
    Ulloa, J.
    Aserraderos Arauco S.A., Arauco.
    Elustondo, Diego
    FPInnovations—Forintek Division, Vancouver BC.
    Salinas, Carlos T S
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Bío-Bío, Concepción, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Bío-Bío, Concepción, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bío-Bío, Concepción.
    Rebolledo, Pamela
    Department of Wood Engineering, University of Bío-Bío, Concepción.
    Fuentes, C.
    Aserraderos Arauco S.A., Arauco.
    Energy consumption in industrial drying of radiata pine2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 7th Asia-Pacific Drying Conference: Tianjin, China, September 18-20 2011, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 79. Anasontzis, George
    et al.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Challenges in ethanol production with Fusarium oxysporum through consolidated bioprocessing2014Ingår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 5, nr 6, s. 393-395Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Fusarium oxysporum has been reported as being able to both produce the enzymes necessary to degrade lignocellulosic biomass to sugars and also ferment the monosaccharides to ethanol under anaerobic or microaerobic conditions. However, in order to become an economically feasible alternative to other ethanol-producing microorganisms, a better understanding of its physiology, metabolic pathways, and bottlenecks is required, together with an improvement in its efficiency and robustness. In this report, we describe the challenges for the future and give additional justification for our recent publication.

  • 80.
    Anasontzis, George E.
    et al.
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Microbial Biotechnology Unit, Sector of Botany, Department of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Zografou.
    Kourtoglou, Elisavet
    National Technical University of Athens, BIOtechMASS Unit, Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Villas-Boâs, Silas G
    Centre for Microbial Innovation, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Technical University of Denmark.
    Hatzinikolaou, Dimitris G.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Metabolic Engineering of Fusarium oxysporum to Improve Its Ethanol-Producing Capability2016Ingår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 7, artikel-id 632Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fusarium oxysporum is one of the few filamentous fungi capable of fermenting ethanol directly from plant cell wall biomass. It has the enzymatic toolbox necessary to break down biomass to its monosaccharides and, under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions, ferments them to ethanol. Although these traits could enable its use in consolidated processes and thus bypass some of the bottlenecks encountered in ethanol production from lignocellulosic material when Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used-namely its inability to degrade lignocellulose and to consume pentoses-two major disadvantages of F. oxysporum compared to the yeast-its low growth rate and low ethanol productivity-hinder the further development of this process. We had previously identified phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase, two major enzymes of glucose catabolism and the pentose phosphate pathway, as possible bottlenecks in the metabolism of the fungus and we had reported the effect of their constitutive production on the growth characteristics of the fungus. In this study, we investigated the effect of their constitutive production on ethanol productivity under anaerobic conditions. We report an increase in ethanol yield and a concomitant decrease in acetic acid production. Metabolomics analysis revealed that the genetic modifications applied did not simply accelerate the metabolic rate of the microorganism; they also affected the relative concentrations of the various metabolites suggesting an increased channeling toward the chorismate pathway, an activation of the γ-aminobutyric acid shunt, and an excess in NADPH regeneration

  • 81.
    Anasontzis, George
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering.
    Kourtoglou, Elisavet
    BIOtechMASS Unit, Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Mamma, Diomi
    BIOtechMASS Unit, Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Villas-Boâs, Silas G
    Centre for Microbial Innovation, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland.
    Hatzinikolaou, Dimitris
    Microbial Biotechnology Unit, Sector of Botany, Department of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Constitutive homologous expression of phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase increases the metabolic flux of Fusarium oxysporum2014Ingår i: Microbial Cell Factories, ISSN 1475-2859, E-ISSN 1475-2859, Vol. 13, artikel-id 43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Fusarium oxysporum is among the few filamentous fungi that have been reported of being able to directly ferment biomass to ethanol in a consolidated bioprocess. Understanding its metabolic pathways and their limitations can provide some insights on the genetic modifications required to enhance its growth and subsequent fermentation capability. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis reported previously that phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase are metabolic bottlenecks in the glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway of the F. oxysporum metabolism.RESULTS: Both enzymes were homologously overexpressed in F. oxysporum F3 using the gpdA promoter of Aspergillus nidulans for constitutive expression. Transformants were screened for their phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase genes expression levels with northern blot. The selected transformant exhibited high mRNA levels for both genes, as well as higher specific activities of the corresponding enzymes, compared to the wild type. It also displayed more than 20 and 15% higher specific growth rate upon aerobic growth on glucose and xylose, respectively, as carbon sources and 30% higher xylose to biomass yield. The determination of the relative intracellular amino and non-amino organic acid concentrations at the end of growth revealed higher abundance of most determined metabolites between 1.5- and 3-times in the recombinant strain compared to the wild type. Lower abundance of the determined metabolites of the Krebs cycle and an 68-fold more glutamate were observed at the end of the cultivation, when xylose was used as carbon source.CONCLUSIONS: Homologous overexpression of phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase in F. oxysporum was shown to enhance the growth characteristics of the strain in both xylose and glucose in aerobic conditions. The intracellular metabolites profile indicated how the changes in the metabolome could have resulted in the observed growth characteristics.

  • 82.
    Anbalagan, Anbarasan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    A passage to wastewater nutrient recovery units: Microalgal-Bacterial bioreactors2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the microalgal–bacterial process has been considered to be a very attractive engineering solution for wastewater treatment. However, it has not been widely studied in the context of conventional wastewater treatment design under Swedish conditions. The technology holds several advantages: as a CO2 sink, ability to withstand cold conditions, ability to grow under low light, fast settling without chemical precipitation, and reducing the loss of valuable nutrients (CO2, N2, N2O, PO4). The process also provides the option to be operated either as mainstream (treatment of municipal wastewater) or side stream (treatment of centrate from anaerobic digesters) to reduce the nutrient load of the wastewater. Furthermore, the application is not only limited to wastewater treatment; the biomass can be used to synthesise platform chemicals or biofuels and can be followed by recovery of ammonium and phosphate for use in agriculture.

    In the present study, the feasibility of applying the process in Swedish temperature and light conditions was investigated by implementing microalgae within the activated sludge process. In this context, the supporting operational and performance indicators (hydraulic retention time (HRT), sludge retention time (SRT) and nutrients removal) were evaluated to support naturally occurring consortia in photo-sequencing and continuous bioreactor configuration. Furthermore, CO2 uptake and light spectrum-mediated nutrient removal were investigated to reduce the impact on climate and the technical challenges associated with this type of system.

    The results identified effective retention times of 6 and 4 days (HRT = SRT) under limited lighting to reduce the electrical consumption. From the perspective of nitrogen removal, the process demands effective CO2 input either in the mainstream or side stream treatment. The incorporation of a vertical absorption column demonstrated effective CO2 mass transfer to support efficient nitrogen and phosphorus removal as a side stream treatment. However, the investigation of a continuous single-stage process as the mainstream showed a requirement for a lower SRT in comparison to semi-continuous operation due to faster settlability, regardless of inorganic carbon. Furthermore, the process showed an effective reduction of influent phosphorus and organic compounds (i.e. COD/TOC) load in the wastewater as a result of photosynthetic aeration. Most importantly, the operation was stable at the temperature equivalent of wastewater (12 and 13 ˚C), under different lighting (white, and red-blue wavelengths) and retention times (6 and 1.5 d HRT) with complete nitrification. Additionally, the biomass production was stable with faster settling properties without any physiochemical separation.

    The outcomes of this thesis on microalgal–bacterial nutrient removal demonstrates that (1) photosynthesis-based aeration at existing wastewater conditions under photo-sequential and continuous photobioreactor setup, (2) flocs with rapid settling characteristics at all studied retention times, (3) the possibility of increasing carbon supplementation to achieve higher carbon to nitrogen balance in the photobioreactor, and (4) most importantly, nitrification-based microalgal biomass uptake occurred at all spectral distributions, lower photosynthetic active radiation and existing wastewater conditions.

  • 83.
    Andersen, Malin
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Genteknologi.
    Computational and experimental approaches to regulatory genetic variation2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic variation is a strong risk factor for many human diseases, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, depression, autoimmunity and asthma. Most of the disease genes identified so far alter the amino acid sequences of encoded proteins. However, a significant number of genetic variants affecting complex diseases may alter the regulation of gene transcription. The map of the regulatory elements in the human genome is still to a large extent unknown, and it remains a challenge to separate the functional regulatory genetic variations from linked neutral variations.

    The objective of this thesis was to develop methods for the identification of genetic variation with a potential to affect the transcriptional regulation of human genes, and to analyze potential regulatory polymorphisms in the CD36 glycoprotein, a candidate gene for cardiovascular disease.

    An in silico tool for the prediction of regulatory polymorphisms in human genes was implemented and is available at www.cisreg.ca/RAVEN. The tool was evaluated using experimentally verified regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) collected from the scientific literature, and tested in combination with experimental detection of allele specific expression of target genes (allelic imbalance). Regulatory SNPs were shown to be located in evolutionary conserved regions more often than background SNPs, but predicted transcription factor binding sites were unable to enrich for regulatory SNPs unless additional information linking transcription factors with the target genes were available.

    The in silico tool was applied to the CD36 glycoprotein, a candidate gene for cardiovascular disease. Potential regulatory SNPs in the alternative promoters of this gene were identified and evaluated in vitro and in vivo using a clinical study for coronary artery disease. We observed association to the plasma concentrations of inflammation markers (serum amyloid A protein and C-reactive protein) in myocardial infarction patients, which highlights the need for further analyses of potential regulatory polymorphisms in this gene.

    Taken together, this thesis describes an in silico approach to identify putative regulatory polymorphisms which can be useful for directing limited laboratory resources to the polymorphisms most likely to have a phenotypic effect.

  • 84.
    Anderson, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Development of Electroacoustic Sensors for Biomolecular Interaction Analysis2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomolecular interaction analysis to determine the kinetics and affinity between interacting partners is important for the fundamental understanding of biology, as well as for the development of new pharmaceutical substances. A quartz crystal microbalance instrument suitable for kinetics and affinity analyses of interaction events was developed. The functionality of the sensor system was demonstrated by development of an assay for relative affinity determination of lectin-carbohydrate interactions.

    Sensor surfaces allowing for effective immobilization of one interacting partner is a key functionality of a biosensor. Here, three different surfaces and immobilization methods were studied. First, optimized preparation conditions for sensor surfaces based on carboxyl-terminated self assembled monolayers were developed and were demonstrated to provide highly functional biosensor surfaces with low non-specific binding. Second, a method allowing for immobilization of very acidic biomolecules based on the use of an electric field was developed and evaluated. The electric field made it possible to immobilize the highly acidic C-peptide on a carboxylated surface. Third, a method for antibody immobilization on a carboxyl surface was optimized and the influence of immobilization pH on the immobilization level and antigen binding capacity was thoroughly assessed. The method showed high reproducibility for a set of antibodies and allowed for antibody immobilization also at low pH.

    Three broadly different strategies to increase the sensitivity of electroacoustic sensors were explored. A QCM sensor with small resonator electrodes and reduced flow cell dimensions was demonstrated to improve the mass transport rate to the sensor surface. The use of polymers on QCM sensor surfaces to enhance the sensor response was shown to increase the response of an antibody-antigen model system more than ten-fold. Moreover, the application of high frequency thin film bulk acoustic resonators for biosensing was evaluated with respect to sensing range from the surface. The linear detection range of the thin film resonator was determined to be more than sufficient for biosensor applications involving, for instance, antibody-antigen interactions. Finally, a setup for combined frequency and resistance measurements was developed and was found to provide time resolved data suitable for kinetics determination.

  • 85.
    Anderson, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Wingqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Weissbach, Thomas
    Attana AB, Stockholm.
    Wallinder, Daniel
    Attana AB, Stockholm.
    Katardjiev, Ilia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Ingemarsson, Björn
    Attana AB, Stockholm.
    Systematic investigation of biomolecular interactions using combined frequency and motional resistance measurements2011Ingår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 153, nr 1, s. 135-144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The resonance frequency of acoustic biosensors is today used as a label-free technique for detecting mass changes on sensor surfaces. In combination with an appropriate continuous flow system it has earlier been used for affinity and kinetic rate determination. Here, we assess the potential of a modified acoustic biosensor, monitoring also the real-time dissipation through the resistance of the sensor, to obtain additional kinetic information related to the structure and conformation of the molecules on the surface. Actual interaction studies, including an attempt to determine avidity, are presented along with thorough verification of the experimental setup utilizing true viscous load exposure together with protein and DNA immobilizations. True viscous loads show a linear relationship between resistance and frequency as expected. However, in the interaction studies between antibodies and proteins, as well as in the immobilization of DNA and proteins, higher surface concentrations of interacting molecules led to a decrease (i.e. deviation from the linear trend) in the differential resistance to frequency ratio. This is interpreted as increased surface rigidity at higher surface concentrations of immobilized molecules. Consequently, studies that aim at obtaining biological binding information, such as avidity, from real-time resistance and dissipation data should be conducted at low surface concentrations. In addition, the differential resistance to frequency relationship was found to be highly dependent on the rigidity of the preceding layer(s) of immobilized molecules. This dependence can be utilized to obtain a higher signal-to-noise ratio for resistance measurement by using low surface densities of immobilized interaction partners.

  • 86.
    Anderson, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Afewerki, Samson
    Berglund, Per
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Cõrdova, Armando
    Total Synthesis of Capsaicin Analogues from Lignin-Derived Compounds by Combined Heterogeneous Metal, Organocatalytic and Enzymatic Cascades in One Pot2014Ingår i: Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis, ISSN 1615-4150, E-ISSN 1615-4169, Vol. 356, nr 9, s. 2113-2118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The total synthesis of capsaicin analogues was performed in one pot, starting from compounds that can be derived from lignin. Heterogeneous palladium nanoparticles were used to oxidise alcohols to aldehydes, which were further converted to amines by an enzyme cascade system, including an amine transaminase. It was shown that the palladium catalyst and the enzyme cascade system could be successfully combined in the same pot for conversion of alcohols to amines without any purification of intermediates. The intermediate vanillyl-amine, prepared with the enzyme cascade system, could be further converted to capsaicin analogues without any purification using either fatty acids and a lipase, or Schotten-Baumann conditions, in the same pot. An aldol compound (a simple lignin model) could also be used as starting material for the synthesis of capsaicin analogues. Using l-alanine as organocatalyst, vanillin could be obtained by a retro-aldol reaction. This could be combined with the enzyme cascade system to convert the aldol compound to vanillylamine in a one-step one-pot reaction.

  • 87.
    Andersson, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Microarray-based investigation of genome and transcriptome organisation in the archaeon sulfolobus2005Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 88.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Bernander, R.
    Department of Molecular Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University.
    Nilsson, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Dual-genome primer design for construction of DNA microarrays2005Ingår i: Bioinformatics, ISSN 1367-4803, E-ISSN 1367-4811, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 325-332Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation: Microarray experiments using probes covering a whole transcriptome are expensive to initiate, and a major part of the costs derives from synthesizing gene-specific PCR primers or hybridization probes. The high costs may force researchers to limit their studies to a single organism, although comparing gene expression in different species would yield valuable information. Results: We have developed a method, implemented in the software DualPrime, that reduces the number of primers required to amplify the genes of two different genomes. The software identifies regions of high sequence similarity, and from these regions selects PCR primers shared between the genomes, such that either one or, preferentially, both primers in a given PCR can be used for amplification from both genomes. To assure high microarray probe specificity, the software selects primer pairs that generate products of low sequence similarity to other genes within the same genome. We used the software to design PCR primers for 2182 and 1960 genes from the hyperthermophilic archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, respectively. Primer pairs were shared among 705 pairs of genes, and single primers were shared among 1184 pairs of genes, resulting in a saving of 31% compared to using only unique primers. We also present an alternative primer design method, in which each gene shares primers with two different genes of the other genome, enabling further savings.

  • 89.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO).
    Eriksson, S.
    Nilsson, P.
    Bernander, R.
    Early replicating ridge-like domains in archaeal chromosomesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 90.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    Keskitalo, J.
    Sjödin, A.
    Bhalerao, Rupali
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    Sterky, Fredrik
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    Wissel, K.
    Tandre, K.
    Aspeborg, Henrik
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    Moyle, R.
    Ohmiya, Y.
    Brunner, A.
    Gustafsson, P.
    Karlsson, J.
    Lundeberg, Joakim
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    Nilsson, O.
    Sandberg, G.
    Strauss, S.
    Sundberg, B.
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    Jansson, S.
    Nilsson, Peter
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Bioteknologi.
    A transcriptional timetable of autumn senescence2004Ingår i: Genome Biology, ISSN 1465-6906, E-ISSN 1474-760X, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. R24-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: We have developed genomic tools to allow the genus Populus ( aspens and cottonwoods) to be exploited as a full-featured model for investigating fundamental aspects of tree biology. We have undertaken large-scale expressed sequence tag ( EST) sequencing programs and created Populus microarrays with significant gene coverage. One of the important aspects of plant biology that cannot be studied in annual plants is the gene activity involved in the induction of autumn leaf senescence. Results: On the basis of 36,354 Populus ESTs, obtained from seven cDNA libraries, we have created a DNA microarray consisting of 13,490 clones, spotted in duplicate. Of these clones, 12,376 (92%) were confirmed by resequencing and all sequences were annotated and functionally classified. Here we have used the microarray to study transcript abundance in leaves of a free-growing aspen tree ( Populus tremula) in northern Sweden during natural autumn senescence. Of the 13,490 spotted clones, 3,792 represented genes with significant expression in all leaf samples from the seven studied dates. Conclusions: We observed a major shift in gene expression, coinciding with massive chlorophyll degradation, that reflected a shift from photosynthetic competence to energy generation by mitochondrial respiration, oxidation of fatty acids and nutrient mobilization. Autumn senescence had much in common with senescence in annual plants; for example many proteases were induced. We also found evidence for increased transcriptional activity before the appearance of visible signs of senescence, presumably preparing the leaf for degradation of its components.

  • 91.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Genteknologi.
    Lundgren, Magnus
    Department of Molecular Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Department of Molecular Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University.
    Rosenlund, Magnus
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.).
    Bernander, Rolf
    Department of Molecular Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University.
    Nilsson, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Genteknologi.
    Global analysis of mRNA stability in the archaeon Sulfolobus2006Ingår i: Genome Biology, ISSN 1465-6906, E-ISSN 1474-760X, Vol. 7, nr 10, s. R99-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Transcript half-lives differ between organisms, and between groups of genes within the same organism. The mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear, nor are the biochemical properties that determine the stability of a transcript. To address these issues, genome-wide mRNA decay studies have been conducted in eukaryotes and bacteria. In contrast, relatively little is known about RNA stability in the third domain of life, Archaea. Here, we present a microarray-based analysis of mRNA half-lives in the hyperthermophilic crenarchaea Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, constituting the first genome-wide study of RNA decay in archaea. Results: The two transcriptomes displayed similar half-life distributions, with medians of about five minutes. Growth-related genes, such as those involved in transcription, translation and energy production, were over-represented among unstable transcripts, whereas uncharacterized genes were over-represented among the most stable. Half-life was negatively correlated with transcript abundance and, unlike the situation in other organisms, also negatively correlated with transcript length. Conclusion: The mRNA half-life distribution of Sulfolobus species is similar to those of much faster growing bacteria, contrasting with the earlier observation that median mRNA half-life is proportional to the minimal length of the cell cycle. Instead, short half-lives may be a general feature of prokaryotic transcriptomes, possibly related to the absence of a nucleus and/or more limited post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. The pattern of growth-related transcripts being among the least stable in Sulfolobus may also indicate that the short half-lives reflect a necessity to rapidly reprogram gene expression upon sudden changes in environmental conditions.

  • 92.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Genteknologi.
    Pelve, Erik A.
    Lindeberg, Stefan
    Lundgren, Magnus
    Nilsson, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik (stängd 20130101).
    Bernander, Rolf
    Replication-biased genome organisation in the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus2010Ingår i: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 11, s. 454-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Species of the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus harbour three replication origins in their single circular chromosome that are synchronously initiated during replication. Results: We demonstrate that global gene expression in two Sulfolobus species is highly biased, such that early replicating genome regions are more highly expressed at all three origins. The bias by far exceeds what would be anticipated by gene dosage effects alone. In addition, early replicating regions are denser in archaeal core genes (enriched in essential functions), display lower intergenic distances, and are devoid of mobile genetic elements. Conclusion: The strong replication-biased structuring of the Sulfolobus chromosome implies that the multiple replication origins serve purposes other than simply shortening the time required for replication. The higher-level chromosomal organisation could be of importance for minimizing the impact of DNA damage, and may also be linked to transcriptional regulation.

  • 93.
    Andersson, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Biobased production of succinic acid by Escherichia coli fermentation2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The prospects of peak oil, climate change and the dependency of fossil carbon have urged research and development of production methods for the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources (biomass). The present thesis illustrates different aspects of biobased succinic acid production by a metabolically engineered E. coli strain. The main areas of the thesis are sugar utilisation and feedstock flexibility, and fermentation inhibition, both due to toxic compound derived from the raw material and the fermentation products themselves.The first part of this thesis aimed to investigate the fermentation characteristics of AFP184 in a medium consisting of corn steep liquor, inorganic salts and different sugar sources without supplementation with high-cost nutrients such as yeast extract and peptone. The effects of different sugars, sucrose, glucose, fructose, xylose, equal mixtures of glucose-fructose and glucose-xylose, on succinic acid production kinetics and yields in an industrially relevant medium were investigated. AFP184 was able to utilise all sugars and sugar combinations except sucrose for biomass generation and succinate production. Using glucose resulted in the highest yield, 0.83 (g succinic acid per g sugar consumed anaerobically). Using a high initial sugar concentration resulted in volumetric productivities of almost 3 g L-1 h-1, which is above estimated values for economically feasible production. However, succinic acid production ceased at final concentrations greater than 40 g L-1. To further increase succinic acid concentrations, fermentations using NH4OH, NaOH, KOH, K2CO3, and Na2CO3 as neutralising agents were performed and compared. It was shown that substantial improvements could be made by using alkali bases to neutralise the fermentations. The highest concentrations and productivities were achieved when Na2CO3 was used, 77 g L-1 and 3 g L-1 h-1 respectively. A gradual decrease in succinate productivity was observed during the fermentations, which was shown to be due to succinate accumulation in the broth and not as a result of the addition of neutralising agent or the subsequent increase in osmolarity.To maintain high succinate productivity by keeping a low extracellular succinic acid concentration fermentations were interrupted and cells recovered and resuspended in fresh media. By removing the succinate it was possible to maintain high succinic acid productivity for a prolonged time. Cells subjected to high concentrations of succinate were also able to regain high productivity once transferred into a succinate-free medium.In the last part of the thesis succinic acid production from softwood dilute acid hydrolysates was demonstrated. This study involved establishing the degree of detoxification necessary for growth and fermentation using industrial hydrolysates. Detoxification by treatment with lime and/or activated carbon was investigated and the results show that it was possible to produce succinate from softwood hydrolysates in yields comparable to those for synthetic sugars.The work done in this thesis increases the understanding of succinic acid production with AFP184, illustrate its limitations, and suggests improvements in the current technology with the long term aim of increasing the economical feasibility of biochemical succinic acid production.

  • 94. Andersson, Christian
    Succinic acid production using metabolically engineered Escherichia coli2007Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The prospects of peak oil, climate change and the dependency of fossil carbon have urged research and development of production methods for the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources (biomass). To date, the primary emphasis has been placed on the replacement of oil for transportation fuels. A highly significant subset of petroleum usage is the production of chemicals, which represents 10-15% of the petroleum usage. White biotechnology, also called industrial biotechnology, is a fast evolving technology with a large potential to have a substantial impact on the industrial production of fuels and chemicals from biomass. This work addresses the issue of chemical production by investigating the production of bio-based succinic acid, which can be used in a wide range of applications to replace petroleum based chemicals. Succinic acid can be produced by fermentation of sugar by a number of organisms; one is Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is known that E. coli under anaerobic conditions produces a mixture of organic acids. In order to obtain a cost-effective production it is necessary to metabolically engineer the organism to produce succinic acid in greater yield than the other acids. In the current work, E. coli mutant AFP184 was used. AFP184 originates from a near wild type strain, the C600 (ATCC 23724), which can ferment both five and six carbon sugars and has mutations in the glucose specific phosphotransferase system (ptsG), the pyruvate formate lyase system (pfl) and in the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase system (ldh). The previous studies using different organisms have all used cultivation mediums supplemented to some degree with different nutrients like biotin, thiamine and yeast extract. In order to apply the technology to large scale, production must be cost-effective and it is important to minimise the use of additional supplements. The first part of this work aimed to investigate the fermentation characteristics of AFP184 in a medium consisting of corn steep liquor, inorganic salts and different sugar sources without supplementation of other additional nutrients. It addresses questions regarding the effect of different sugars on succinic acid kinetics and yields in an industrially relevant medium. In order to gain a sustainable production of succinic acid from biomass feedstocks (sugar from biomass) it is important to investigate how well the organism can utilise different sugars in the biomass. The sugars studied were sucrose, glucose, fructose, xylose and equal mixtures of glucose-fructose and glucose-xylose at a total initial sugar concentration of 100 g L-1. AFP184 was able to utilise all sugars and sugar combinations except sucrose for biomass generation and succinate production. Using glucose resulted in the highest yield, 0.83 (g succinic acid per g sugar consumed anaerobically). Fructose resulted in a yield of 0.66 and xylose of 0.5. Using a high initial sugar concentration made it possible to obtain volumetric productivities of almost 3 g L-1h-1, which is above estimated values for feasible economic production. Succinic acid production ceased at final concentrations greater than 40 g L-1. In order to further increase succinic acid concentrations, this inhibitory effect was studied in the second part of the present work. The inhibitory effects can be two-fold including pH-based inhibition and an anion specific effect on metabolism. It has been reported that high concentrations of ammonia inhibit E. coli growth and damage cell membranes. In order to limit toxic and inhibitory effects different neutralising agents were tested. First the use of NH4OH was optimised with respect to fermentation pH and it was found that the best results were obtained at pH 6.5-6.7. Optimal pH was then used with NaOH, KOH, and Na2CO3 as neutralising agents and it was shown that NaOH, KOH, and Na2CO3 neutralised fermentations could reach succinic acid concentrations of 69 and 61 and 78 g L-1 respectively without any significant decrease in succinic acid productivity. It was observed that cells lost viability during the cause anaerobic phase. It resulted in decreasing succinic acid productivities. It is believed that the viability decrease is a combined effect of organic acids concentration and the osmolarity of the medium. The work done in this thesis is aimed towards increasing the economical feasibility of a biochemical succinic acid production.

  • 95. Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    Helmerius, Jonas
    Berglund, Kris
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Effects of neutralising agent, organic acids, and osmolarity on succinic acid production by Escherichia coli AFP1842008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a low-cost medium Escherichia coli AFP184 has previously been reported to produce succinic acid with volumetric productivities close to 3 g L-1 h-1. At a total organic acid concentration of 30 g L-1 the productivity decreased drastically resulting in final succinate concentrations of 40 g L-1. The economical viability of biochemical succinic acid production would benefit from higher final succinic acid concentrations and volumetric productivities maintained at >2.5 g L-1 h-1 for an extended period of time. In the present work the effects of osmolarity and neutralising agent (NH4OH, KOH, NaOH, K2CO3, and Na2CO3) on succinic acid production by AFP184 were investigated. Highest concentration of succinic acid was obtained with Na2CO3, 75 g L-1. It was also found that the osmolarity resulting from succinate production and subsequent base addition, only marginally affected the productivity per viable cell. Organic acid inhibition due to the produced succinic acid on the other hand significantly reduced succinic acid productivity per viable cell. When using NH4OH productivity completely ceased at approximately 40 g L-1. Volumetric productivities remained at 2.5 g L-1 h-1 for 5 to 10 hours longer when using K- or Na-bases than when using NH4OH. However, loss of cell viability occurred, and together with the acid inhibition decreased the volumetric productivities. In this study it was demonstrated that by altering the neutralising agent it was possible to increase the period of high volumetric productivity in the anaerobic phase and improve the final succinic acid concentration by almost 100 %

  • 96. Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    Helmerius, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Hodge, David
    Berglund, Kris
    Rova, Ulrika
    Inhibition of succinic acid production in metabolically engineered Escherichia Coli by neutralizing agent, organic acids, and osmolarity2009Ingår i: Biotechnology progress (Print), ISSN 8756-7938, E-ISSN 1520-6033, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 116-123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The economical viability of biochemical succinic acid production is a result of many processing parameters including final succinic acid concentration, recovery of succinate, and the volumetric productivity. Maintaining volumetric productivities >2.5 g L-1 h(-1) is important if production of succinic acid from. renewable resources should be competitive. In this work, the effects of organic acids, osmolarity, and neutralizing agent (NH4OH, KOH, NaOH, K2CO3, and Na2CO3) on the fermentative succinic acid production by Escherichia coli AFP184 were investigated. The highest concentration of succinic acid, 77 g L-1. was obtained with Na2O3. In general, irrespective of the base used, succinic acid productivity per viable cell was significantly reduced as the concentration of the produced acid increased. Increased osmolarity resulting from base addition during succinate production only marginally affected the productivity per viable cell. Addition of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine to cultures resulted in an increased aerobic growth rate and anaerobic glucose consumption rate, but decreased succinic acid yield. When using NH4OH productivity completely ceased at a succinic acid concentration of similar to 40 g L-1. Volumetric productivities remained at 2.5 g L-1 h(-1) for tip to 10 h longer when K- or Na-bases where used instead of NH4OH. The decrease in cellular succinic acid productivity observed during the anaerobic phase was found to be due to increased organic acid concentrations rather than medium osmolarity.

  • 97. Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    Hodge, David
    Berglund, Kris
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Effect of different carbon sources on the production of succinic acid using metabolically engineered Escherichia coli2007Ingår i: Biotechnology progress (Print), ISSN 8756-7938, E-ISSN 1520-6033, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 381-388Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Succinic acid (SA) is an important platform molecule in the synthesis of a number of commodity and specialty chemicals. In the present work, dual-phase batch fermentations with the E. coli strain AFP184 were performed using a medium suited for large-scale industrial production of SA. The ability of the strain to ferment different sugars was investigated. The sugars studied were sucrose, glucose, fructose, xylose, and equal mixtures of glucose and fructose and glucose and xylose at a total initial sugar concentration of 100 g L-1. AFP184 was able to utilize all sugars and sugar combinations except sucrose for biomass generation and succinate production. For sucrose as a substrate no succinic acid was produced and none of the sucrose was metabolized. The succinic acid yield from glucose (0.83 g succinic acid per gram glucose consumed anaerobically) was higher than the yield from fructose (0.66 g g-1). When using xylose as a carbon source, a yield of 0.50 g g-1 was obtained. In the mixed-sugar fermentations no catabolite repression was detected. Mixtures of glucose and xylose resulted in higher yields (0.60 g g-1) than use of xylose alone. Fermenting glucose mixed with fructose gave a lower yield (0.58 g g-1) than fructose used as the sole carbon source. The reason is an increased pyruvate production. The pyruvate concentration decreased later in the fermentation. Final succinic acid concentrations were in the range of 25-40 g L-1. Acetic and pyruvic acid were the only other products detected and accumulated to concentrations of 2.7-6.7 and 0-2.7 g L-1. Production of succinic acid decreased when organic acid concentrations reached approximately 30 g L-1. This study demonstrates that E. coli strain AFP184 is able to produce succinic acid in a low cost medium from a variety of sugars with only small amounts of byproducts formed.

  • 98. Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Distribution of snow cover accumulation: airborne ground penetrating radar surveys2002Ingår i: Proceedings of the XXII Nordic Hydrological Conference / [ed] Å. Killingtveit, 2002, s. 517-526Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 99. Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    Petrova, Ekaterina
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Berglund, Kris
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Maintaining high anaerobic succinic acid productivity by product removal2010Ingår i: Bioprocess and biosystems engineering (Print), ISSN 1615-7591, E-ISSN 1615-7605, Vol. 33, nr 6, s. 711-718Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During dual-phase fermentations using Escherichia coli engineered for succinic acid production, the productivity and viable cell concentration decrease as the concentration of succinic acid increases. The effects of succinic acid on the fermentation kinetics, yield, and cell viability were investigated by resuspending cells in fresh media after selected fermentation times. The cellular succinic acid productivity could be restored, but cell viability continuously decreased throughout the fermentations by up to 80% and subsequently the volumetric productivity was reduced. Omitting complex nutrients in the resuspension media had no significant effect on cellular succinate productivity and yield, although the viable cell concentration and thus the volumetric productivity was reduced by approximately 20%. By resuspending the cells, the amount of succinate produced during a 100-h fermentation was increased by more than 60%. The results demonstrate that by product removal succinic acid productivity can be maintained at high levels for extended periods of time.

  • 100.
    Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Berglund, Kris
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Process for producing succinic acid from sucrosePatent (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    A process for hydrolyzing sucrose to glucose and fructose using succinic acid is described. The hydrolysate can be used to produce purified glucose and/or fructose or can be used as a carbon source for fermentations to produce various chemicals including succinic acid.

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