Endre søk
Begrens søket
12345 51 - 100 of 244
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 51.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Asfyksi - kvaelning2004Inngår i: Nordisk Laerebog i Retsmedicin / [ed] Jørgen L. Thomsen, Copenhagen: FADL , 2004, 1, s. 125-144Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 52.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Asfyksi - kvaelning2013Inngår i: Retsmedicin / [ed] Thomsen JL, FADL's Forlag a/s, 2013, 3, s. 120-135Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 53.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Asfyksi - kvaelning2008Inngår i: Retsmedicin: nordisk laerebog / [ed] Jørgen Lange Thomsen, Köbenhavn: Foreningen af Danske Laegestuderendes Forlag Aktieselskab , 2008, 2, s. 131-147Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 54.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Den svenska identifieringsverksamheten - ett exempel från Thailand 20052006Inngår i: Rättsmedicin / [ed] Thomsen Jørgen, Liber , 2006, s. 65-67Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 55.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Intermediate-sized (skeletin) filaments of heart Purkinje fibres: an investigation into their morphology, composition and function1979Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 56.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Specialist training strategies, assessment and evaluation2012Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 18, s. 20-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 57.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Vad är handledning? Kan en bofink se ut hur som helst?2012Inngår i: Moderna läkare, ISSN 1403-5502, Vol. 72, nr 2, s. 14-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 58.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Druid, Henrik
    Giebe, Birkhild
    Krantz, Peter
    Thiblin, Ingemar
    Vetenskapligt arbete under ST: en integrerad del - inte en udda fågel2013Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 110, nr 32-33, s. 1415-1416Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 59.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Ekman, Jonn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Deaths in custody in Sweden2015Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 1-1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 60.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Georén, Bengt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Öström, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Work-place homicide by bow and arrow.2000Inngår i: Journal of forensic sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, Vol. 45, nr 4, s. 911-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Arrow wounds represent an unusual class of wounds rarely seen by most forensic pathologists. In this paper we present a case of homicide by bow and arrow and the characteristics of such injuries. The essential characteristics of the lesions obtained from conically-tapered field points and from hunting broadhead tips are described and discussed in relation to injuries caused by firearm bullets. In the present case, three arrows struck the victim, and the order in which the injuries were sustained are analyzed. We also discuss the possibilities of localizing the shooter relative to the victim by analysis of the trajectories.

  • 61.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Gustafsson, T
    Hultcrantz, M
    Höistad, M
    Jacobson, S
    Persson, A
    Postmortem imaging: a systematic review2015Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 47-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 62.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Loisel, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Thid, Michael
    Rättsmedicin2012Inngår i: Jourhandboken / [ed] Andersson S, Hovelius B, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, s. 928-941Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 63.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Sprogoe-Jakobsen, Susan
    The identification of tsunami victims - A Swedish experience2005Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Medicine, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 51-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 64.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Thid, Micael
    Saukko, Petter
    Rognum, T
    Rättsmedicin i Sverige: Organisering av rettsmedisin i de nordiske land2010Inngår i: Lærebok i rettsmedisin, Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk, 2010, s. 413-415Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 65.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Öström, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Traffic fatalities2009Inngår i: Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science, Chichester,: John Wiley & Sons Ltd , 2009Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This A to Z encyclopedia provides a comprehensive, definitive, and up-to-date reference of the main areas of specialist and expert knowledge and skills used by those involved in all aspects of the forensic process, including, but not limited to, forensic scientists, doctors, practicing and academic lawyers, paralegals, police, crime scene investigators, analytical chemists, behavioral scientists and toxicologists.

    This five-volume set covers all topics which, either as part of an established forensic discipline or as a potentially useful emerging discipline, are of interest to those involved in the forensic process. This includes both the scientific methodology and the admissibility of evidence. The encyclopedia also provides case studies of landmark cases in the definition and practice of forensic science.

    Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science presents all material on a level and in a style that makes it accessible to a wide range of readers. In particular, lawyers needing to better understand the key aspects of the science, and scientists who require a deeper insight into legal issues will find the encyclopedia an important resource, as will physical, biological and behavioral scientists who require background information on the most important aspects of each other’s areas of expertise.

     

  • 66.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Öström, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Spigset, Olav
    Thorson, Jan
    Fatal intoxications with selective serotonin reuptake inhibition: Do the different drugs differ in toxicity?1999Inngår i: 15th Triennial Meeting International Association of Forensic Sciences, 1999, s. 270-Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 67.
    Eriksson, Josefin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Utlämnande av patientuppgifter till rättsvårdande myndigheter: Om sekretessbrytande bestämmelser och undantag i sekretess och tystnadsplikt inom hälso- och sjukvård vid myndigheters brottspreventiva och brottsutredande verksamhet2014Student paper other, 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Utlämnande av uppgifter om patienters hälsotillstånd från hälso- och sjukvården kan vara av intresse för de rättsvårdande myndigheternas verksamhet. I den här uppsatsen ska främst domstolsverkets, åklagarmyndighetens samt polisens rätt att ta del av dessa uppgifter att undersökas och sättas i relation till patientens behov av integritet och förtroende för vårdinrättningen där patienten vårdas eller har vårdats. De rättsvårdande myndigheterna behöver normalt uppgifterna för att kunna förhindra och utreda brott. 

  • 68.
    Eriksson-Strand, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Öström, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Snowmobilie fatalities in Sweden, 1999-20062007Inngår i: Proceedings of the 6th International congress of the baltic medico-legal association: New technologies in forensic medicine, 2007, s. S13-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 69.
    Finnberg, A
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Junuzovic, M
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Homicidal poisoning2012Inngår i: Clinical Forensic Medicine, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 70. Finnberg, Amanda
    et al.
    Junuzovic, Mensura
    Dragovic, Ljubisa
    Ortiz-Reyes, Ruben
    Hamel, Marianne
    Davis, Joseph
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Homicide by Poisoning2013Inngår i: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, ISSN 0195-7910, E-ISSN 1533-404X, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 38-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By studying the number and method of homicidal poisoning in Miami-Dade County, Florida; New York City, NY; Oakland County, Michigan; and Sweden, we have confirmed that this is an infrequently established crime. Several difficulties come with the detection of homicidal poisonings. Presenting symptoms and signs are often misdiagnosed as natural disease, especially if the crime is committed in a hospital environment, suggesting that an unknown number of homicides go undetected. In the reported cases analyzed, the lethal agent of choice has changed over the years. In earlier years, traditional poisons such as arsenic, cyanide, and parathion were frequently used. Such poisonings are nowadays rare, and instead, narcotics are more commonly detected in victims of this crime.

  • 71.
    Franzén, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Inhämtande av rättsintyg2014Student paper other, 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Rättsintyg är definierade i lag (2005:29) om rättsintyg (nedan kallad rättsintygslagen) § 1 som ”medicinska utlåtanden av läkare som inhämtats av polismyndighet eller åklagarmyndighet i syfte att användas i en brottsutredning eller som bevis i en rättegång i anledning av brott”.

    Sedan 2006, då rättsintygslagen trädde i kraft, har Rättsmedicinalverket det huvudsakliga ansvaret för utfärdandet av sådana intyg.   

    Rättsintygslagen innebär i korthet att Rättsmedicinalverket är ansvarig myndighet för utfärdandet av rättsintyg, att rättsintyg utfärdas endast av vissa läkare, antingen rättsläkare eller så kallade kontraktsläkare och att rättsintygen är avgiftsbelagda.

    Även innan lagändringen användes rättsintyg i brottsutredningar,[1] men dessa kunde utföras av i princip vilken läkare som helst och ansvaret för rättsintygsverksamheten var således uppdelat på ett antal olika myndigheter.[2]

    Den nya lagen om rättsintyg syftade till att nå en kvalitetshöjning av utfärdade rättsintyg genom att Rättsmedicinalverket skulle utfärda fler rättsintyg, vilket i förlängningen skulle leda till ökad rättssäkerhet i brottmål.[3]

    Rättsintyget är ett verktyg av vikt för de rättsvårdande instanserna och dess betydelse i brottsutredningar är stor. Ändå förefaller användandet av rättsintyg vara litet,[4] varför det är intressant att dels fråga sig när ett rättsintyg ska inhämtas, dels fråga sig varför det sker förhållandevis sällan.

  • 72.
    Freeman, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    The role of forensic epidemiology in evidence-based forensic medical practice2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This thesis is based on 4 papers that were all written with the same intent, which was to describe and demonstrate how epidemiologic concepts and data can serve as a basis for improved validity of probabilistic conclusions in forensic medicine (FM). Conclusions based on probability are common in FM, and the validity of probabilistic conclusions is dependant on their foundation, which is often no more than personal experience. Forensic epidemiology (FE) describes the use and application of epidemiologic methods and data to questions encountered in the practice of FM, as a means of providing an evidence-based foundation, and thus increased validity, for certain types of opinions. The 4 papers comprising this thesis describe 4 unique applications of FE that have the common goal of assessing probabilities associated with evidence gathered during the course of the investigation of traumatic injury and death.

     

    Materials and Methods Paper I used a case study of a fatal traffic crash in which the seat position of the surviving occupant was uncertain as an example for describing a probabilistic approach to the investigation of occupant position in a fatal crash. The methods involved the matching of the occupants’ injuries to the vehicular and crash evidence in order to assess the probability that the surviving occupant was either the driver or passenger of the vehicle at the time of the crash.

    In the second and third papers, epidemiologic data pertaining to traffic crash-related injuries from the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) was used to assess the utility and strength of evidence, such as vehicle deformation and occupant injury of a particular severity and pattern, as a means of assessing the probability of an uncertain issue of interest. The issue of interest in Paper II was the seat position of the occupant at the time of a rollover crash (similar to Paper I), and the association that was investigated was the relationship between the degree of downward roof deformation and likelihood of a serious head and neck injury in the occupant. The analysis was directed at the circumstance in which a vehicle has sustained roof deformation on one side but not the other, and only one of the occupants has sustained a serious head or neck injury. In Paper III the issue of interest was whether an occupant was using a seat belt prior to being ejected from a passenger vehicle, when there was evidence that the seat belt could have unlatched during a crash, and thus it was uncertain whether the occupant was restrained and then ejected after the seat belt unlatched, or unrestrained. Of particular interest was the relative frequency of injury to the upper extremity closest to the side window (the outboard upper extremity [OUE]), as several prior authors have postulated that during ejection when the seat belt has become unlatched the retracting seat belt would invariably cinch around the OUE and cause serious injury.

    In Paper IV the focus of the analysis was the predictability of the distribution of skull and cervical spine fractures associated with fatal falls as a function of the fall circumstances. Swedish autopsy data were used as the source material for this study.

    Results In Paper I the indifferent pre-crash probability that the survivor was the driver (0.5) was modified by the evidence to arrive at a post-test odds of 19 to 1 that he was driving.

    In Paper II NASS-CDS data for 960 (unweighted) occupants of rollover crashes were included in the analysis. The association between downward roof deformation and head and neck injury severity (as represented by a composite numerical value [HNISS] ranging from 1 to 75) was as follows: for each unit increase of the HNISS there were increased odds of 4% that the occupant was exposed to >8 cm of roof crush versus <8 cm; 6% for >15 cm compared to <8 cm, and 11% for >30 cm of roof crush compared to <8 cm.

    In Paper III NASS-CDS data for 232,931 (weighted) ejected occupants were included in the analysis, with 497 coded as seat belt failures, and 232,434 coded as unbelted. Of the 7 injury types included in the analysis, only OUE and serious head injury were found to have a significant adjusted association with seat belt failure, (OR=3.87, [95% CI 1.2, 13.0] and 3.1, [95% CI 1.0, 9.7], respectively). The results were used to construct a table of post-test probabilities that combined the derived sensitivity and (1 - specificity) rates with a range of pre-crash seat belt use rates so that the results could be used in an investigation of a suspected case of belt latch failure.

    In Paper IV, the circumstances of 1,008 fatal falls were grouped in 3 categories of increasing fall height; falls occurring at ground level, falls from a height of <3 meters or down stairs, and falls from ≥3 meters. Logistic regression modeling revealed significantly increased odds of skull base and lower cervical fracture in the middle (<3 m) and upper (≥3 m) fall height groups, relative to ground level falls, as follows: (lower cervical <3 m falls, OR = 2.55 [1.32, 4.92]; lower cervical ≥3 m falls, OR = 2.23 [0.98, 5.08]; skull base <3 m falls, OR = 1.82 [1.32, 2.50]; skull base ≥3 m falls, OR = 2.30 [1.55, 3.40]). Additionally, C0-C1 dislocations were strongly related to fall height, with an OR of 8.3 for the injury in a ≥3 m fall versus ground level.

    Conclusions In this thesis 4 applications of FE methodology were described. In all of the applications epidemiologic data resulting from prior FM investigations were analyzed in order to draw probabilistic conclusions that could be reliably applied to the circumstances of a specific investigation. It is hoped that this thesis will serve to demonstrate the utility of FE in enhancing evidence-based practice in FM.

     

  • 73.
    Freeman, Michael D
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Everson, Todd M
    Kohles, Sean S
    Forensic epidemiologic and biomechanical analysis of a pelvic cavity blowour injury associated with ejection from a personal watercraft (Jet-Ski)2013Inngår i: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 58, nr 1, s. 237-244Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Jet-propelled personal watercraft (PWC) or jet-skis have become increasingly popular. The means of propulsion of PWC, which is a jet of water forced out of small nozzle at the rear of the craft, combined with a high risk of falling off of the seat and into close proximity with the water jet stream, raise the potential for a unique type of injury mechanism. The most serious injuries associated with PWC falls are those that occur when the perineum passes in close proximity to the jet nozzle and the high-pressure water stream enters the vaginal or rectal orifice. We describe the forensic investigation into a case of an anovaginal "blowout" injury in a passenger who was ejected from the rear seat position of a PWC and subsequently suffered life-threatening injuries to the pelvic organs. The investigation included a biomechanical analysis of the injury mechanism, a summary of prior published reports of internal pelvic injuries resulting from PWC falls as well as other water sports and activities, and a comparison of the severity of the injuries resulting from differing mechanisms using the New Injury Severity Score (NISS). The mean (±standard deviation [SD]) NISS values for reported PWC injuries [not including the NISS of 38 in this case study] were 11.2 (±9.5), while the mean value for reported water-skiing falls was half that of the PWC group at 5.6 (±5.2). It was concluded that the analyzed injuries were unique to a PWC ejection versus other previously described non-PWC-associated water sport injuries. It is recommended that PWC manufacturers help consumers understand the potential risks to passengers with highly visible warnings and reduce injury risk with revised seat design, and/or passenger seat "deadman" switches.

  • 74.
    Freeman, Michael D
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Everson, Todd M
    Kohles, Sean S
    Forensic epidemiologic and biomechanical analysis of a pelvic cavity blowout injury associated with ejection from a personal watercraft (Jet-ski)2012Inngår i: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 58, nr 1, s. 237-244Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Jet-propelled personal watercraft (PWC) or jet-skis have become increasingly popular. The means of propulsion of PWC, which is a jet of water forced out of small nozzle at the rear of the craft, combined with a high risk of falling off of the seat and into close proximity with the water jet stream, raise the potential for a unique type of injury mechanism. The most serious injuries associated with PWC falls are those that occur when the perineum passes in close proximity to the jet nozzle and the high-pressure water stream enters the vaginal or rectal orifice. We describe the forensic investigation into a case of an anovaginal "blowout" injury in a passenger who was ejected from the rear seat position of a PWC and subsequently suffered life-threatening injuries to the pelvic organs. The investigation included a biomechanical analysis of the injury mechanism, a summary of prior published reports of internal pelvic injuries resulting from PWC falls as well as other water sports and activities, and a comparison of the severity of the injuries resulting from differing mechanisms using the New Injury Severity Score (NISS). The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) NISS values for reported PWC injuries [not including the NISS of 38 in this case study] were 11.2 (± 9.5), while the mean value for reported water-skiing falls was half that of the PWC group at 5.6 (± 5.2). It was concluded that the analyzed injuries were unique to a PWC ejection versus other previously described non-PWC-associated water sport injuries. It is recommended that PWC manufacturers help consumers understand the potential risks to passengers with highly visible warnings and reduce injury risk with revised seat design, and/or passenger seat "deadman" switches.

  • 75.
    Freeman, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Dobbertin, K
    Kohles, SS
    Uhrenholt, L
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Serious head and neck injury as a predictor of occupant position in fatal rollover crashes2012Inngår i: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 222, nr 1-3, s. 228-233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Serious head and neck injuries are a common finding in fatalities associated with rollover crashes. In some fatal rollover crashes, particularly when ejection occurs, the determination of which occupant was driving at the time of the crash may be uncertain. In the present investigation, we describe the analysis of rollover crash data from the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System for the years 1997 through 2007 in which we examined the relationship between a serious head and neck injury in an occupant and a specified degree of roof deformation at theoccupant's seating position. We found 960 occupants who qualified for the analysis, with 142 deaths among the subjects. Using a ranked compositehead and neck injury score (the HNISS) we found a strong relationship between HNISS and the degree of roof crush. As a result of the analysis, we arrived at a predictive model, in which each additional unit increase in HNISS equated to an increased odds of roof crush as follows: for ≥8cm of roof crush compared with <8cm by 4%, for ≥15cm of roof crush compared to <8cm by 6% and for ≥30cm of roof crush compared to <8cm by 11%. We describe two hypothetical scenarios in which the model could be applied to the real world investigation of occupant position in a rollover crash-related fatality.

  • 76.
    Freeman, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Leith, Wendy
    Head and neck injury patterns in fatal falls: epidemiologic and biomechanical considerations2014Inngår i: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, ISSN 1752-928X, E-ISSN 1878-7487, Vol. 21, s. 64-70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatal falls often involve a head impact, which are in turn associated with a fracture of the skull or cervical spine. Prior authors have noted that the degree of inversion of the victim at the time of impact is an important predictor of the distribution of skull fractures, with skull base fractures more common than skull vault fractures in falls with a high degree of inversion. The majority of fatal fall publications have focused on skull fractures, and no research has described the association between fall circumstances and the distribution of fractures in the skull and neck. In the present study, we accessed data regarding head and neck fractures resulting from fatal falls from a Swedish autopsy database for the years 1992–2010, for the purposes of examining the relationships between skull and cervical spine fracture distribution and the circumstances of the fatal fall.

    Out of 102,310 medico-legal autopsies performed there were 1008 cases of falls associated with skull or cervical spine fractures. The circumstances of the falls were grouped in 3 statistically homogenous categories; falls occurring at ground level, falls from a height of <3 m or down stairs, and falls from ≥3 m. Only head and neck injuries and fractures that were associated with the fatal CNS injuries were included for study, and categorized as skull vault and skull base fractures, upper cervical injuries (C0–C1 dislocation, C1 and C2 fractures), and lower cervical fractures. Logistic regression modeling revealed increased odds of skull base and lower cervical fracture in the middle and upper fall severity groups, relative to ground level falls (lower cervical <3 m falls, OR = 2.55 [1.32, 4.92]; lower cervical ≥3 m falls, OR = 2.23 [0.98, 5.08]; skull base <3 m falls, OR = 1.82 [1.32, 2.50]; skull base ≥3 m falls, OR = 2.30 [1.55, 3.40]). C0–C1 dislocations were strongly related to fall height, with an OR of 8.3 for ≥3 m falls versus ground level. The findings of increased odds of skull base and lower cervical spine fracture in falls from a height are consistent with prior observations that the risk of such injuries is related to the degree of victim inversion at impact. The finding that C0–C1 dislocations are most common in falls from more than 3 m is unique, an indication that the injuries likely result from high energy shear forces rather than pure tension, as previously thought.

  • 77.
    Freeman, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin. Department of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR; Department of Forensic Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Leith, Wendy
    Injury pattern as an indication of seat belt failure in ejected vehicle occupants2014Inngår i: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 59, nr 5, s. 1271-1274Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior authors have suggested that when occupant ejection occurs in association with a seat belt failure, entanglement of the outboard upper extremity (OUE) with the retracting shoulder belt will invariably occur, leaving injury pattern evidence of belt use. In the present investigation, the authors assessed this theory using data accessed from the NASS-CDS for ejected front seat occupants of passenger vehicles. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between seat belt failure status and injuries. Injury types associated with seat belt failure were significant OUE and head injuries (OR=3.87, [95% CI 1.2, 13.0] and 3.1, [95% CI 1.0, 9.7], respectively). The two injury types were found to be a predictor of seat belt use and subsequent failure only if combined with a high (0.8) precrash probability of belt use. The injury pattern associated with a seat belt failure-related ejection has limited use in the forensic investigation of crash-related ejections.

  • 78.
    Freeman, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Hand, ML
    Rossignol, AM
    Applied forensic epidemiology: a Bayesian evaluation of forensic evidence in a vehicular homicide investigation2009Inngår i: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, ISSN 1752-928X, E-ISSN 1878-7487, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 83-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The comparative weighting of evidence in a criminal case can be a complicated task when the relevance or meaning of the evidence is disputed. An example of this complexity in seen in vehicular homicide investigations in which the identity of the driver (and thus the guilty party) is not clear. The discipline of Forensic Epidemiology, including the appropriate application of Bayes' Theorem (Bayes' Law) provides a systematic framework to bring clarity to the evaluation of such matters. Bayes' is a useful tool for the conditioning and quantification of probabilities associated with evidence in a vehicular homicide investigation. The authors present a case study in the application of Bayes' Theorem to the facts in a vehicular homicide investigation. An initial analysis of the crash dynamics in comparison with the injury pattern and ejection status of the surviving occupant versus that of the decedent suggested that the survivor was the driver. The results of the analysis were used as tests for guilt, with estimated true and false positive rates, which then formed the basis for a Bayesian calculation of the posterior probability of the survivor's guilt given the evidence. As a result of the Bayesian analysis described herein, it was determined that the survivor was 19 times more likely to have been the driver, in comparison with the decedent. This ratio far exceeded the suggested threshold of 10:1 for establishing the guilt of the survivor beyond a reasonable doubt. When used properly, Bayes' Theorem can offer definitive insight in the investigation and prosecution of vehicular homicide cases.

  • 79.
    Gedeborg, Rolf
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Uppsala kliniska forskningscentrum (UCR).
    Svennblad, Bodil
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Uppsala kliniska forskningscentrum (UCR).
    Byberg, Liisa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi.
    Thiblin, Ingemar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Rättsmedicin.
    Prediction of mortality risk in victims of violent crimes2017Inngår i: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 281, s. 92-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To predict mortality risk in victims of violent crimes based on individual injury diagnoses and other information available in health care registries.

    METHODS: Data from the Swedish hospital discharge registry and the cause of death registry were combined to identify 15,000 hospitalisations or prehospital deaths related to violent crimes. The ability of patient characteristics, injury type and severity, and cause of injury to predict death was modelled using conventional, Lasso, or Bayesian logistic regression in a development dataset and evaluated in a validation dataset.

    RESULTS: Of 14,470 injury events severe enough to cause death or hospitalization 3.7% (556) died before hospital admission and 0.5% (71) during the hospital stay. The majority (76%) of hospital survivors had minor injury severity and most (67%) were discharged from hospital within 1day. A multivariable model with age, sex, the ICD-10 based injury severity score (ICISS), cause of injury, and major injury region provided predictions with very good discrimination (C-index=0.99) and calibration. Adding information on major injury interactions further improved model performance. Modeling individual injury diagnoses did not improve predictions over the combined ICISS score.

    CONCLUSIONS: Mortality risk after violent crimes can be accurately estimated using administrative data. The use of Bayesian regression models provides meaningful risk assessment with more straightforward interpretation of uncertainty of the prediction, potentially also on the individual level. This can aid estimation of incidence trends over time and comparisons of outcome of violent crimes for injury surveillance and in forensic medicine.

  • 80.
    Grandell, Ida
    et al.
    National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Artillerigatan 12, SE-58758 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Samara, Raed
    QIAGEN Science Inc, MD 21703 USA.
    Tillmar, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Artillerigatan 12, SE-58758 Linkoping, Sweden.
    A SNP panel for identity and kinship testing using massive parallel sequencing2016Inngår i: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 130, nr 4, s. 905-914Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Within forensic genetics, there is still a need for supplementary DNA marker typing in order to increase the power to solve cases for both identity testing and complex kinship issues. One major disadvantage with current capillary electrophoresis (CE) methods is the limitation in DNA marker multiplex capability. By utilizing massive parallel sequencing (MPS) technology, this capability can, however, be increased. We have designed a customized GeneRead DNASeq SNP panel (Qiagen) of 140 previously published autosomal forensically relevant identity SNPs for analysis using MPS. One single amplification step was followed by library preparation using the GeneRead Library Prep workflow (Qiagen). The sequencing was performed on a MiSeq System (Illumina), and the bioinformatic analyses were done using the software Biomedical Genomics Workbench (CLC Bio, Qiagen). Forty-nine individuals from a Swedish population were genotyped in order to establish genotype frequencies and to evaluate the performance of the assay. The analyses showed to have a balanced coverage among the included loci, and the heterozygous balance showed to have less than 0.5 % outliers. Analyses of dilution series of the 2800M Control DNA gave reproducible results down to 0.2 ng DNA input. In addition, typing of FTA samples and bone samples was performed with promising results. Further studies and optimizations are, however, required for a more detailed evaluation of the performance of degraded and PCR-inhibited forensic samples. In summary, the assay offers a straightforward sample-to-genotype workflow and could be useful to gain information in forensic casework, for both identity testing and in order to solve complex kinship issues.

  • 81. Gudmannsson, Petur
    et al.
    Berge, Johan
    Druid, Henrik
    Ericsson, Göran
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    A Unique Fatal Moose Attack Mimicking Homicide2018Inngår i: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 63, nr 2, s. 622-625Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatalities caused by animal attacks are rare, but have the potential to mimic homicide. We present a case in which a moose attacked and killed a woman who was walking her dog in a forest. Autopsy showed widespread blunt trauma with a large laceration on one leg in which blades of grass were embedded. Flail chest was the cause of death. The case was initially conceived as homicide by means of a riding lawn mower. A review of the case by moose experts and analyses of biological trace material that proved to originate from moose, established the true source of injury. The dog probably provoked a moose, which, in response, stomped and gored the victim to death. The injuries resembled those previously reported from attacks by cattle and water buffalo. Fatal moose attacks constitute an extremely rare threat in boreal areas, but can be considered in traumatic deaths of unknown cause.

  • 82.
    Guerrieri, Davide
    et al.
    National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, S-58758 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Rapp, Emma
    National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, S-58758 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Roman, Markus
    National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, S-58758 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Thelander, Gunilla
    National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, S-58758 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kronstrand, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, S-58758 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Acrylfentanyl: Another new psychoactive drug with fatal consequences2017Inngår i: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 277, s. E21-E29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Nordic Countries are the most exposed to opioid-related deaths. Between April and October 2016, a series of forty lethal intoxications occurred in Sweden, in which the presence of the synthetic opioid acrylfentanyl was determined to be the main - or a contributing - cause of death. In the reported cases, the blood concentration of acrylfentanyl - mostly detected in combination with other drugs - ranged from 0.01 ng/g to 5 ng/g; victims were predominantly males (34 males and 6 females), and their age varied between 18 and 53 years. We further describe five cases, representative of the different drug administration route (nasal spray, tablets) and intentions (accidental or voluntary intoxication). Moreover, we address nine cases of non-lethal intoxication, in single (8 cases) or polydrug scenario (1 case). We discuss the present characteristics of the Swedish drug market for fentanyl-analogs in general and acrylfentanyl in particular, reporting a structural difficulty to effectively counteracting the appearance of unscheduled substances due to the constant turnover of new molecules on the recreational drug market. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  • 83.
    Gustafsson, Torfinn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Fatal brown bear attacks2015Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 21, s. 80-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 84.
    Gustafsson, Torfinn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Fatal Eurasian brown bear attacks: two Swedish fatalities in modern times2015Inngår i: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 60, nr 6, s. 1658-1661Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatal bear attacks on humans are uncommon with only one reported case in Sweden since 1902. The bear population is, however, growing and the frequency of confrontations is likely to increase. Case I-A 40-year-old hunter and his dog were found dead near a bear's den. Autopsy showed that a large portion of the face, facial skeleton, and anterior portion of the brain was missing. Autopsy of the bear showed two nonfatal gunshot wounds. Case II-A 61-year-old man and his dog were found dead outside a hunting lodge. Autopsy revealed numerous wounds, including partial evisceration of the intestines. The victim's blood ethanol concentration was 0.27%. These cases confirm the presence of risk factors identified by the Scandinavian Brown Bear Research Project, that is, provocation by a dog, encountering an injured bear, and appearing close to its den. An additional possible factor in case II was ethanol intoxication.

  • 85.
    Gustafsson, Torfinn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Intervention related deaths2015Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 81-81Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 86.
    Gustafsson, Torfinn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Off-road vehicle fatalities: a comparison of all-terrain vehicle and snowmobile accidents in Sweden2013Inngår i: International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences (IATSS) Research, ISSN 0386-1112, Vol. 37, s. 12-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates accident fatalities involving two types of off-road vehicles: snowmobiles and all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). All snowmobile fatalities in Sweden from the 2006/2007 season through the 2011/2012 season, and all ATV fatalities from 2007 through 2012, were retrospectively examined. A total of 107 fatalities—57 snowmobile-related and 50 ATV-related—were found. Most deaths occurred on weekends (71% of the snowmobile-related and 72% of the ATV-related). A majority of the fatalities were males (91% and 94%), with the largest share in the age group 40–49 years (19% and 24%). The most common causes of death were blunt trauma (56% and 66%), drowning (30% vs 6%), and traumatic asphyxia (9% vs 14%). Among victims who were tested (95% vs 92%), a very high share was found to be inebriated (59% vs 61%), and mean blood alcohol concentration was also high (1.9 vs 1.7 g/l). Forty-seven percent of snowmobile-related fatalities and 48% of ATV-related fatalities had a blood alcohol concentration above 1.0 g/l. This means that there was a very strong association between off-road vehicle fatalities and drunken riding; steps to prevent riding while intoxicated seem to be the most important preventive measure. Automatic measures such as alcolocks are probably the most effective. The obvious at-risk group to target is middle-aged men with high alcohol consumption.

  • 87.
    Gustafsson, Torfinn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Wingren, C. J.
    Multivariate linear regression modelling of lung weight in 24,056 Swedish medico-legal autopsy cases2017Inngår i: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, ISSN 1752-928X, E-ISSN 1878-7487, Vol. 46, s. 20-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy combined lung weight at autopsy is a non-specific autopsy finding associated with certain causes of death such as intoxication. There is however no clear definition of what constitutes "heavy" lung weight. Different reference values have been suggested but previous studies have been limited by small select populations and only univariate regression has been attempted. The aim of this study was to create a model to estimate lung weight from decedent parameters. We identified all cases >18 years age autopsied at the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine from 2000 through 2013, excluding cases with a post-mortem interval >5 days as well as cases with extreme values, totalling 24,056 cases. We analysed body weight, body height, sex, age, BMI, BSA as well as untransformed and transformed lung weight. The analysis was stratified for sex. We evaluated the fit of the models and that the model assumptions were not violated. We set out to apply the model with the highest residual sum of squares to derive limits for heavy lungs. In univariate regression BSA and height showed best performance. The final model included height, weight and age group. After excluding large standardized residuals (>3, <-3) the final model achieved R-2 of 0.132 and 0.106 for women and men respectively. While we managed to create a multivariate model its performance was poor, possibly a fact reflective of the physiological nature of the lungs and in turn its variability in fluid content. Linear regression is a poor model for estimating lung weight in an unselected population.

  • 88.
    Haage, Pernilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Forensic Toxicological Aspects of Tramadol: Focus on Enantioselective Drug Disposition and Pharmacogenetics2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most difficult parts in forensic toxicology is to interpret obtained drug concentrations. Was it therapeutic, toxic or even lethal to the particular individual that the blood sample was drawn from? Concentrations of opioid drugs are especially difficult to interpret, because of large interindividual differences in innate and acquired tolerance.

    Tramadol is a complex drug. Not only is it an opioid, it is also a racemic drug with the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of the parent compound and metabolites showing different pharmacological effects. Further, it is metabolized by polymorphic enzymes, which may affect the amounts of metabolites formed and possibly the enantiomer ratios of the parent compound and its metabolites. It has been speculated that particularly the (+)/(-)-enantiomer ratio of O-desmethyltramadol is related to the risk of adverse effects, and it has been shown that the ratio is affected by CYP2D6 genotype.

    The overall aim of the thesis was to evaluate if forensic interpretations of tramadol, regarding toxicity and time since drug administration, may be improved by the use of genotyping and enantioselective concentration determination of tramadol and its three main metabolites.

    To simultaneously quantify the enantiomer concentrations of tramadol, Odesmethyltramadol, N-desmethyltramadol and N,O-didesmethyltramadol in whole blood, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) method was developed and validated. Genetic variation in CYP2D6, CYP2B6, CYP3A4 (encoding the tramadol metabolizing enzymes), ABCB1 (encoding a transport protein) and OPRM1 (encoding the μ-opioid receptor) was investigated, using pyrosequencing, xTAG, and TaqMan analysis. The methods were applied to the blood samples of two study populations; 19 healthy volunteers administered a therapeutic, single tramadol dose, and 159 tramadol positive autopsy cases.

    The most important finding was the positive correlations between all four enantiomer ratios and time since tramadol administration in the healthy volunteers. All enantiomer ratios except the one of tramadol was also affected by the CYP2D6 genotype, which was apparent among the autopsy cases as well. Genetic variation in CYP2D6 and possibly CYP2B6 was shown to have an impact on tramadol pharmacokinetics, although no association to neither drug related symptoms nor tramadol related causes of death was found. Tramadol intoxications were predominantly characterized by low age (median 26 years) and male sex, often with a history of substance abuse and with other drugs (at fairly low concentrations) detected in blood.

    In conclusion, enantiomer concentration determination combined with genotyping seems promising regarding estimations of time since drug administration, although is of low value concerning interpretations of toxicity in autopsy cases.

  • 89.
    Hagardson, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Rättsentomologi: Insekter som bevismaterial2009Student paper other, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det grekiska ordet entomon betyder - något som är inskuret eller uppdelat. Latinets insectum har samma innebörd. Benämningarna syftar på djur, som har en uppdelad kropp, hos insekterna bestående av huvud, mellankropp och bakkropp. Entomologi betyder alltså - Läran om insekterna [1].

    Kunskaper om insekter och deras livscykel kan vara behjälpliga i många sammanhang, så även inom rättsmedicinen. Rättsentomologi eller forensisk entomologi utnyttjar just denna kunskap. Rättsentomologi är alltså läran om insekter tillämpad på olika rättsfall.

    I Sverige är detta ett relativt nytt område men i Canada och USA är det i många stater ett accepterat och etablerat område. Framför allt används insektsdata som ett komplement till den mer klassiska rättsmedicinen för att fastställa hur länge en människa varit död, så kallad dödstidsbestämning eller fastställande av Post-mortem interval (PMI).

     

    Rättsentomologi baseras på att insekter koloniserar en död kropp efter en viss bestämd tidtabell. De olika arterna föredrar olika nedbrytningsstadier, och anländer därför till kroppen vid olika tidpunkter samt att det tar en bestämd tid för en viss insektsart att utvecklas från ägg till vuxen [35]. Man kan med hjälp av denna kunskap beräkna den ungefärliga tiden som har förflutit sedan den döda kroppen koloniserades. Ofta antar man att dödsfallet inträffade i samband med att kroppen blev tillgänglig för insekter men undantag finns.

    Det är framför allt utredningar rörande dödsfall som är 72 timmar eller äldre som är av intresse. Efter 3 dagar är oftast insekter den bästa och ibland enda metoden för att uppskatta dödstidpunkten.   

     

    Den insekt som har studerats mest är spyflugan. Calliphora är ett släkte inom familjen Calliphoridae, som är det som kallas spyflugor. Det finns ungefär 50 arter i Sverige. Dessa koloniserar kroppen snabbt efter döden och är bland de vanligaste insekterna som kan påträffas på en död kropp.

    I Sverige angrips döda kroppar av framför allt flugor under det varma halvåret.

    Det första tecknet på flugangrepp är små, gula till blekt gulröda korn framför allt i ögonvrår samt i mun - och näsöppning. Är klimatet varmt kan sådana ses redan några timmar efter döden. De är flugägg som redan efter några dagar utvecklas till små vitgula larver, som i dagligt tal lite felaktigt kallas ”likmaskar”. Fluglarverna är mycket rörliga och borrar sig djupt in i kroppens mjukvävnad och livnär sig på denna. Efter några veckor förpuppas de och efter förpuppningsstadiet uppträder en ny generation av flugor. I gynnsamma miljöer kan de på bara några veckor helt ödelägga en kropp.

  • 90.
    Hamnström, Georg
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Investigation of factors that may indicate suicidal intent among cases of undetermined manner of death2014Student paper other, 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    : Ett flertal studier har visat att dödsfall som är klassade som oklara omfattar en viss proportion suicid, samt att det är vanligt i suicidforskning att inkludera dessa oklara dödsfall.  Syfte: Identifiera faktorer som indikerar på suicid i gruppen oklara dödsfall för att kunna estimera proportionen suicid i den här gruppen. Material och metoder: Detta är en register fall-kontrollstudie av dödsfall som klassificerats som självmord (n=100), naturliga (n=50), olycksfall (n=70) samt dödsfall klassificerade som oklara (n=150) i Sverige mellan år 2008-2012. Studien jämförde dödsfall, som klassificerats som självmord, naturliga och olycksfall, med dödsfall som klassificerats som oklara med avseende på bakgrundsvariablerna kön, ålder, civilstånd, tidigare självförvållade skador, alkohol- och drogmissbruk, psykiatrisk slutenvård, våldsam död, självmordskommunikation, somatisk sjukdom, problem i viktiga relationer, höga nivåer av ångest och användning av psykofarmaka. Resultaten analyserades sedan med en multivariatanalys med logistisk regression för att estimera proportionen suicid i den oklara dödsfallsgruppen. Resultat: Utifrån förekomsten av dessa riskfaktorer kan man uppskatta andelen sannolika suicid i den oklara dödsfallsgruppen till 10-22% (CI 95%, p<.001). Emellertid har inte upplägget av studien tillåtit någon utvärdering av andelen sannolika olycksfall. Slutsats: I genomsnitt finns troligen 55-75 suicid bland de oklara dödsfallen per år, men majoriteten av de oklara dödsfallen kvarstår som oklara med avseende på dödsklass även när analys av kända och potentiella riskfaktorer för suicid analyseras. Detta talar för att studier av riskfaktorer för suicid, liksom analyser av trender i suicidstatistik, bör fokusera på säkra suicid och inte inkludera dödsfall med oklart dödssätt.

  • 91.
    Hildingh, Cathrine
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Luepker, Russell V.
    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA .
    Baigi, Amir
    Research and Development (R and D), Primary Health Care, Halland, Sweden.
    Lidell, Evy
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Stress, health complaints and self-confidence: a comparison between young adult women in Sweden and USA2006Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 202-208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition to adulthood is a period in life when women encounter conflicts, ambiguities and rapidly expanding roles that may be stressful and difficult to manage. The aim of this study was to compare stress in daily life, health complaints and self-confidence in 26-year old women in two different cultures. A health survey study was performed among Swedish women (n = 386) and American women (n = 201) living in urban areas at the West coast of Sweden and in Minnesota. Both Swedish and American women reported stress in their everyday life, with higher figures for the Americans. Overall health was rated lower by the Swedish women and they reported more health complaints such as headache, general tiredness, irritability, depression and sleeping disorders. There was a difference between groups in self-confidence with higher figures for excellent self-confidence among American women. However, low self-confidence was reported by more American than Swedish women. A good work situation predicted self-confidence in Swedish women and financial confidence in American women. Physical fitness was associated with self-confidence in both groups. Young women in both cultures experienced high level of stress but health related complaints were more common among Swedish women. High stress and health complaints must be taken seriously and interventions to support young women in the midst of transition to adulthood should contain stress reduction as well as empowerment performed in a more effective way than today in different health care settings and at place of work.

  • 92.
    Holmgren, Jimmy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Försvunnen=död?: En undersöning av gällande rätt vid dödförklaring av försvunna människor2013Student paper other, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 93.
    Håkansson, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Barnmisshandel: Liten och misshandlad2009Student paper other, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2003 anmäldes 1 196 fall av misshandelsbrott mot barn i åldern 0-6 år.[1] Våldsbrott mot barn är annorlunda än våldsbrott mot vuxna – i nästan 90 % av fallen är förövaren bekant med barnet, och de flesta brotten är familjerelaterade.[2] Denna uppsats handlar om våld mot de allra minsta, mest försvarslösa individerna i vårt samhälle – det handlar om vårdnadshavares våld mot sina barn.

     

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att se vad barnmisshandel är, dess orsaker och konsekvenser, vilka straff som utdöms och hur det kan förebyggas.

     

    Jag har undersökt lagar, förarbeten, rättsfall och doktrin. Statistiken är främst hämtad från BRÅ. Jag har, förutom juridisk doktrin, även använt mig av litteratur för psykologer, lärare och socionomer.

     

    Jag kommer i detta arbete att skriva om ”barn”, med vilket jag avser personer som ännu inte har fyllt 15 år. Kriminalstatistiken skiljer mellan yngre barn (0-6 år) och äldre barn (7-14 år), och jag kommer främst att inrikta mig på yngre barn, då dessa är särskilt utsatta. Jag kommer uteslutande att ta upp fall då barn blivit misshandlade av en eller flera föräldrar eller vårdnadshavare. Uppsatsen kommer inte att beröra sexuella övergrepp – det är ett område som överlappar med barnmisshandel, men det skulle göra denna uppsats alltför lång. Av samma anledning kommer uppsatsen inte att täcka den andel barn som bevittnat våld, men inte själva blivit utsatta. Vad gäller definitionen för misshandel kommer jag främst att fokusera på misshandel, enligt definitionen i brottsbalkens 3 kap.

    [1] BRÅ 2004:3, Brottsutvecklingen i Sverige 2001-2003, s 69-70.

    [2] BRÅ 2008:23, Brottsutvecklingen i Sverige fram till år 2007, s 92.

  • 94.
    Höglund, Liz
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Shaken baby syndrome. Samspelet mellan det medicinska och rättsliga2016Student paper other, 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Barnaga blev förbjudet 1979 vilket stadgas genom 6:1 FB (Föräldrabalken). Stadgandet leder till att slag mot barn eller annan form av fysiskt våld mot barn faller in under brott i enlighet med BrB (Brottsbalken) [1], t.ex. 3:5, 3:6 eller 3:8.

     

    ”Kombinationen av subdurala blödningar, hjärnskador och ögonbottenblödningar talar mycket starkt för att barnet har misshandlats. Den medicinska diagnosen misshandel är bekräftad. I praktiken finns inga andra alternativ än att barnet misshandlats genom att det skakats om trafikolycka eller fall från hög höjd kan uteslutas.”[2]

     

    I Sverige antas ca 30 barn utsattas för skakvåld varje år, då inte alla fall kommer till känna finns det mörkertal.[3] Ur ett juridiskt perspektiv faller denna typ av våld in under brottet misshandel, men för att döma en person behövs bevisning. Bevisning kan dock läggas fram på olika sätt, bl.a. genom sakkunnigutlåtanden. Hur viktigt blir då läkarens utlåtanden vid en rättegång?

     

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS), skakvåld, är en diagnos inom medicinsk litteratur och den påvisas genom avsaknaden av yttre skador samt triaden i form av subduralblödningar, retinala blödningar och hjärnödem.[4] Dock är denna diagnos dagens sanning och har idag fått utstå mycket kritik och diagnosen ses därför över. Hur berörs det rättsliga av denna kritik?

     

    Är SBS att ses som en säker diagnos vilken påvisar misshandel och hur fungerar samspelet i rätten mellan det medicinska och det rättsliga?

  • 95.
    Iserell, Vladmimir
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Sexuella brott mot barn: Rättsintyg och rättsundersökning som beviskrav och bevisvärdering i mål om sexualbrott2014Student paper other, 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Barn och ungdomar hör till en av de särskilt sårbara grupper när det gäller sexualbrott. Sexuella övergrepp mot barn är djuptintegritetskränkande brott som kan ge långtgående fysiska och psykiska men. Ångest, depression, inlärningsproblem, missbruk, kriminalitet, självskade- och självmordsbeteende samt relationssvårigheter och sexuella problem är bara några av utsatthetens negativa konsekvenser[1].

     

    Samhället ser väldigt allvarligt på sexuella övergrepp mot barn. Och med anledning av detta är utvärderingen av övergreppets beskaffenhet och säkerställandet av biologiskt material väldigt viktiga både ur rättsmedicinskt- och rättssäkerhets perspektiv. Rättsintyg som utfärdas efter genomförd kroppsbesiktning är ett viktigt bevis i mål om sexualbrott som kan leda till fällande dom. Samtidigt kritiserades det svenska rättsväsendet för stor försiktighet och restriktivitet som präglar arbete på sexuallbrottsområdet[2]. Kritiken mot rättsväsendet beror bl.a. på tolkning av fysiska fynd gjorda vid kroppsbesiktning. B. S. Astrup, P. Ravn, J. Lauritsen, och J.L. Thomsen, påpekar att förekomsten av fysiska tecken på trauma (inklusive genitala skador) upptäckta hos påstådda våldtäktsoffer är fråga för diskussion i många länder[3]. I Amnesty International rapport ”Case closed, Rape and human rights in the Nordic countries” påpekas bl.a. att ärenden avslutas ”även om det finns objektiva medicinska bevis” d.v.s. offren har fysiska spår av våldet. Men vad kan anses som ”objektiva medicinska bevis”? Tolkning av fynd gjorda vid kroppsbesiktning är inte enkelt och hänsyn till aktuella forskningar måste tagas vid bedömning av upptäckta skador.

     

    I framställningen nedan skall vi betrakta frågan om rättsintyg och rättsundersökning som beviskrav och bevisvärdering i mål om sexualbrott mot barn.

  • 96.
    Jackowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Center for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Medicinsk radiologi.
    Thali, Michael J.
    Center for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Whole body postmortem angiography with a high viscosity contrast agent solution using poly ethylene glycol as contrast agent dissolver2008Inngår i: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 53, nr 2, s. 465-468Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Postmortem minimal invasive angiography has already been implemented to support virtual autopsy examinations. An experimental approach in a porcine model to overcome an initially described artificial tissue edema artifact by using a poly ethylene glycol (PEG) containing contrast agent solution showed promising results. The present publication describes the first application of PEG in a whole corpse angiographic CT examination. A minimal invasive postmortem CT angiography was performed in a human corpse utilizing the high viscosity contrast agent solution containing 65% of PEG. Injection was carried out via the femoral artery into the aortic root in simulated cardiac output conditions. Subsequent CT scanning delivered the 3D volume data of the whole corpse. Visualization of the human arterial anatomy was excellent and the contrast agent distribution was generally limited to the arterial system as intended. As exceptions an enhancement of the brain, the left ventricular myocardium and the renal cortex became obvious. This most likely represented the stage of centralization of the blood circulation at the time of death with dilatation of the precapillary arterioles within these tissues. Especially for the brain this resulted in a distinctively improved visualization of the intracerebral structures by CT. However, the general tissue edema artifact of postmortem minimal invasive angiography examinations could be distinctively reduced. © 2008 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  • 97.
    Jansson, Emelie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Rättsentomologi2014Student paper other, 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    En av de första och kanske mest intressanta frågorna när en människa påträffas död är när hände det? Hur länge har personen varit död? Inte minst om man misstänker brott. Det är även en av de svåraste frågorna att besvara. Påträffas en avliden kropp relativt tidigt kan man med hjälp av kroppstemperaturen och till exempel likstelhetens utbredning göra en uppskattning om hur länge en person varit död. Om det däremot har gått några dagar, månader eller kanske till och med år behöver man andra metoder för att eventuellt kunna fastslå en dödstidpunkt. Det är där insekter som livnär sig av döda kroppar kommer in i bilden. Genom deras utvecklings- och livscykler kan man beräkna och uppskatta hur länge de har koloniserat en viss kropp och således dra slutsatser om hur länge personen i fråga minst måste ha varit död.

  • 98.
    Jansson, Emmilie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Barnmisshandel i historien och i medicinen2014Student paper other, 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Barnmmisshandel är inte ett nytt fenomen i samhället, utan något som existerat i evig tid. Förbättringar har skett i form av bl a lagstiftning för att skydda barn från att fara illa. Det medicinska arbetet har fått större roll i utredningen av dessa fall, då bl a sjukvården enligt lag är skyldig att anmäla till socialtjänsten då man misstänker att ett barn far illa. Sjukvårdspersonal kan idag även diagnostisera misshandel på ett bättre sätt än förr. Längre tillbaka i tiden trodde man sig ha sjukdomsförklaringar till varför en skada har uppstått, och ännu längre tillbaka hade religionen inverkan på synen på barnmisshandel. Det finns dock en del av barnmisshandel som aldrig kommer till varken sjukvårdens eller socialnämndens kännedom. 

  • 99. Jinhede, A
    et al.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Sturup, J
    Crime scene investigations in child homicides: A population based study 1998-20122014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    There has been a decrease in the number of child homicides in Sweden and internationally (Sturup & Granath, in press). Even so, the death of a child is one of the most tragic events and due to the vulnerability of children, these events are of special interest for the criminal justice system. If conjunction with the autopsy findings, a carefully examined crime scene is necessary for the reconstruction of the event (Randall, 2014). This study was set up to examine the crime scene reports in child homicides.

    Method and material

    Data from an ongoing population based studies on child homicides 1990-2012 has been collected but since all police files in solved cases before 1998 were discarded, only cases from 1998 through 2012 were examined in this sub-study of crime scene investigations.

    Procedure

    All crime scene reports were extracted from the police files and autopsy reports from the National Board of Forensic Medicine were collected (n=73). A crime scene investigator (AJ) collected data according to a systematic protocol.

    Results

    The study is ongoing and detailed results will be presented at the conference. Preliminary analyses reveal that 23% of the children were killed by sharp force violence, 21% by asphyxiation, 12% by gunshot wound, 8% by blunt trauma, 7% by drowning, and 19% by other methods (arson, poisoning, vehicle, etc).

  • 100.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lindstedt, Daniel
    National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Roman, Markus
    National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Thelander, Gunilla
    National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Elisabet I.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lennborn, Ulrica
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sandler, Hakan
    National Board Forens Med, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rubertsson, Sten
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ahlner, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kronstrand, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kugelberg, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    A non-fatal intoxication and seven deaths involving the dissociative drug 3-MeO-PCP2017Inngår i: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 275, s. 76-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: 3-methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) appeared on the illicit drug market in 2011 and is an analogue of phencyclidine, which exhibits anesthetic, analgesic and hallucinogenic properties. In this paper, we report data from a non-fatal intoxication and seven deaths involving 3-MeO-PCP in Sweden during the period March 2014 until June 2016. Case descriptions: The non-fatal intoxication case, a 19-year-old male with drug problems and a medical history of depression, was found awake but tachycardic, hypertensive, tachypnoeic and catatonic at home. After being hospitalized, his condition worsened as he developed a fever and lactic acidosis concomitant with psychomotor agitation and hallucinations. After 22 h of intensive care, the patient had made a complete recovery. During his hospitalization, a total of four blood samples were collected at different time points. The seven autopsy cases, six males and one female, were all in their twenties to thirties with psychiatric problems and/or an ongoing drug abuse. Methods: 3-MeO-PCP was identified with liquid chromatography (LC)/time-of-flight technology and quantified using LC-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: In the clinical case, the concentration of 3-MeO-PCP was 0.14 mu g/g at admission, 0.08 mu g/g 2.5 h after admission, 0.06 mu g/g 5 h after admission and 0.04 mu g/g 17 h after admission. The half-life of 3-MeO-PCP was estimated to 11 h. In the autopsy cases, femoral blood concentrations ranged from 0.05 mu g/g to 0.38 mu g/g. 3-MeO-PCP was the sole finding in the case with the highest concentration and the cause of death was established as intoxication with 3-MeO-PCP. In the remaining six autopsy cases, other medications and drugs of abuse were present as well. Conclusion: Despite being scheduled in January 2015, 3-MeO-PCP continues to be abused in Sweden. Exposure to 3-MeO-PCP may cause severe adverse events and even death, especially if the user does not receive life-supporting treatment. (C) 2017 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

12345 51 - 100 of 244
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf