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  • 51. Andersson, Lena
    et al.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Ohlson, Carl-Göran
    Nayström, Peter
    Lilja, Bengt-Gunnar
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Quartz and dust exposure in Swedish iron foundries2009Inngår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, ISSN 1545-9624, E-ISSN 1545-9632, Vol. 6, nr 1, 9-18 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to respirable quartz continues to be a major concern in the Swedish iron foundry industry. Recommendations for reducing the European occupational exposure limit (EU-OEL) to 0.05 mg/m3 and the corresponding ACGIH® threshold limit value (ACGIH-TLV) to 0.025 mg/m3 prompted this exposure survey. Occupational exposure to respirable dust and respirable quartz were determined in 11 Swedish iron foundries, representing different sizes of industrial operation and different manufacturing techniques. In total, 436 respirable dust and 435 respirable quartz exposure measurements associated with all job titles were carried out and are presented as time-weighted averages. Our sampling strategy enabled us to evaluate the use of respirators in certain jobs, thus determining actual exposure. In addition, measurements using real-time dust monitors were made for high exposure jobs. For respirable quartz, 23% of all the measurements exceeded the EU-OEL, and 56% exceeded the ACGIH-TLV. The overall geometric mean (GM) for the quartz levels was 0.028 mg/m3, ranging from 0.003 to 2.1 mg/m3. Fettler and furnace and ladle repair operatives were exposed to the highest levels of both respirable dust (GM = 0.69 and 1.2 mg/m3; range 0.076-31 and 0.25-9.3 mg/m3 and respirable quartz (GM = 0.041 and 0.052 mg/m3; range 0.004-2.1 and 0.0098-0.83 mg/m3. Fettlers often used respirators and their actual quartz exposure was lower (range 0.003-0.21 mg/m3, but in some cases it still exceeded the Swedish OEL (0.1 mg/m3. For furnace and ladle repair operatives, the actual quartz exposure did not exceed the OEL (range 0.003-0.08 mg/m3, but most respirators provided insufficient protection, i.e., factors less than 200. In summary, measurements in Swedish iron foundries revealed high exposures to respirable quartz, in particular for fettlers and furnace and ladle repair workers. The suggested EU-OEL and the ACGIH-TLV were exceeded in, respectively, 23% and 56% of all measurements regardless of the type of foundry. Further work on elimination techniques to reduce quartz concentrations, along with control of personal protection equipment, is essential.

  • 52.
    Andersson, Lena
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Burdorf, Alex
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Estimating trends in quartz exposure in Swedish iron foundries: predicting past and present exposures2012Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 56, nr 3, 362-372 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Swedish foundries have a long tradition of legally required surveys in the work place that, from the late 1960s onwards, included measurements of quartz. The availability of exposure data spanning almost 40 years presents a unique opportunity to study trends over that time and to evaluate the validity of exposure models based on data from shorter time spans. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate long term trends in quartz exposure over time, (ii) using routinely collected quartz exposure measurements to develop a mathematical model that could predict both historical and current exposure patterns, and (iii) to validate this exposure model with up-to-date measurements from a targeted survey of the industry.

    Methods: Eleven foundries, representative of the Swedish iron foundry industry, were divided into three groups based on the size of the companies, i.e. the number of employees. A database containing 2333 quartz exposure measurements for 11 different job descriptionswas used to create three models that covered time periods which reflected different work conditions and production processes: a historical model (1968– 1989), a development model (1990–2004), and a validation model (2005–2006). A linear mixed model for repeated measurements was used to investigate trends over time. In all mixed models, time period, company size, and job title were included as fixed (categorical) determinants of exposure. The within- and between-worker variances were considered to be random effects. A linear regression analysis was erformed to investigate agreement between the models. The average exposure was estimated for each combination of job title and company size.

    Results: A large reduction in exposure (51%) was seen between 1968 and 1974 and between 1975 and 1979 (28%). In later periods, quartz exposure was reduced by 8% per 5 years at best. In the first period, employees at smaller companies experienced ~50%higher exposure levels than those at large companies, but these differences became much smaller in later years. The furnace and ladle repair job were associated with the highest exposure, with 3.9–8.0 times the average exposure compared to the lowest exposed group. Without adjusting for this autonomous trend over time, predicting early historical exposures using our development model resulted in a statistically significant regression coefficient of 2.42 (R2 5 0.81), indicating an underestimation of historical exposure levels. Similar patterns were seen for other historical time periods. Comparing our development model with our validation model resulted in a statistically significant regression coefficient of 0.31, indicating an overestimation of current exposure levels.

    Conclusion: To investigate long-term trends in quartz exposure over time, overall linear trends can be determined by using mixed model analysis. To create individual exposure measures to predict historical exposures, it is necessary to consider factors such as the time period, type of job, type of company, and company size. The mixed model analysis showed systematic changes in concentration levels, implying that extrapolation of exposure estimates outside the range of years covered by measurements may result in underestimation or overestimation of exposure.

  • 53.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Gentofte, Denmark; Department of Systems Biology, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Lind, Nina
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Chemosensory perception, symptoms and autonomic responses during chemical exposure in multiple chemical sensitivity2016Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 89, nr 1, 79-88 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a prevalent medically unexplained symptom characterized by symptom reactions to everyday chemical exposure below hygienic thresholds. The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of hyper-reactivity in MCS during whole-body exposure to low concentrations of the odorant n-butanol.

    METHODS: We exposed 18 participants with MCS and 18 non-ill controls to a low concentration of the odorant n-butanol using an exposure chamber. The first 10 min constituted blank exposure, after which the n-butanol concentration increased and reached a plateau at 11.5 mg/m(3).

    RESULTS: MCS participants, compared with controls, reported greater perceived odor intensities, more unpleasantness to the exposure and increasing symptoms over time. MCS participants also expressed higher pulse rate and lower pulse rate variability than controls did. No group differences were found for breathing rate or tonic electrodermal activity responses.

    CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that MCS sufferers differ from healthy controls in terms of autonomic responses, symptoms and chemosensory perception during chemical exposure.

  • 54.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Highlighting the large variation in perceived properties of odors over time2017Inngår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, nr 2, E26- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals differ considerably when rating the perceived properties of odors, especially over time. A second glance at previously published data-sets from our laboratory revealed that the same invariant exposure often produced both floor and roof effects. An odor that at the end of the exposure ses-sion was regarded as non-existent by one participant, could border the “absoulte maximum” rating category in another. We provide re-analyses from four exposure studies where we illustrate the perceptual variability over time, and outcomes associated with such ratings. We note that high, compared with low ratings of odor intensity over time is associated with ratings of unpleasantness and symptoms, but also with everyday distress, cognitive performance, autonomous nerv-ous system activity and deviating responses in the so-called pain or saliency matrix of the brain. We bring an open ques-tion to ECRO regarding how this considerable variability should be interpreted, and what the consequenced are for research and for setting exposure limits.

  • 55.
    Andersson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Oudin Åström, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Pettersson-Strömbäck, Anita
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Med värme ihågkommen2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta projekt har varit att med hjälp av en intervjustudie och kunskapsgenomgång redovisahur utomhusmiljö, gemensamhetslokaler och bostäder kan utformas för att minska risken för att äldreoch personer med nedsatt funktionsförmåga blir medtagna eller dör i förtid under värmeböljor. Måletär att öka medvetenheten och intresset för anpassning av miljö och byggnader hos personer ansvarigaför samhällsplanering, bostadsbestånd, trygghets-, vård- och omsorgsboenden.

    Städer är normalt varmare och mindre blåsiga än det omgivande landskapet. Städernas ”varmareklimat” beror främst på den större värmelagring som kan ske i byggnader, gator, trottoarer mm,begränsat med vegetation som kan skugga och avge fukt samt aktiviteter som trafik och eldning vilketgenererar värme. Under värmeböljor ökar dödligheten mer i städer. Att leva ensam, vara sängbundenoch bo på översta våningen har visats vara riskfaktorer.

    Åtgärderna för att minska stadens värmeö och värmeböljornas effekter på människor brukar iblanddelas in i ”mjuka åtgärder” (information, varningssystem för värmeböljor, insatser för känsligagrupper), ”gröna åtgärder” (göra staden till en grönare miljö) och ”tekniska åtgärder” (skuggandekonstruktioner, modifiering av väggar, kylning/luftkonditionering inomhus etc.), vilka kompletterarvarandra. I vissa länder, bl. a. England, ska äldreboenden ha ett samlingsrum som kan hållas svaltäven under värmeböljor, men det är oklart vilken juridisk status som bestämmelserna har.

    Intervjustudien syftade till att belysa hur problemen uppfattas av personal inom äldreomsorgen iSverige. Som datainsamlingsmetod genomfördes 20 semistrukturerade intervjuer medomvårdnadspersonal i Botkyrka kommun under oktober 2011. Urvalet baserades påtillgänglighetsprincipen. Innehållsanalyser gjordes på transkriberad intervjudata och kategorier ochunderkategorier skapades utifrån återkommande teman som återfanns i texten. Slutsatserna frånstudien pekar på att de utbildnings- och informationsinsatser angående värmeböljors effekter påkänsliga grupper som riktas till personal inom äldreomsorgen borde intensifieras, samt attpersonalens kunskap om verksamheten och vårdtagarnas behov borde tas tillvara redan iplaneringsstadiet för äldreboenden.

  • 56. Andersson, M.
    et al.
    Johansson, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Minarik, D.
    Mattsson, S.
    Leide-Svegborn, S.
    An internal radiation dosimetry computer program, IDAC 2.0, for estimation of patient doses from radiopharmaceuticals2014Inngår i: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 162, nr 3, 299-305 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The internal dosimetry computer program internal dose assessment by computer (IDAC) for calculations of absorbed doses to organs and tissues as well as effective doses to patients from examinations with radiopharmaceuticals has been developed. The new version, IDAC2.0, incorporates the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP)/ICRU computational adult male and female voxel phantoms and decay data from the ICRP publication 107. Instead of only 25 source and target regions, calculation can now be made with 63 source regions to 73 target regions. The major advantage of having the new phantom is that the calculations of the effective doses can be made with the latest tissue weighting factors of ICRP publication 103. IDAC2.0 uses the ICRP human alimentary tract (HAT) model for orally administrated activity and for excretion through the gastrointestinal tract and effective doses have been recalculated for radiopharmaceuticals that are orally administered. The results of the program are consistent with published data using the same specific absorption fractions and also compared with published data from the same computational phantoms but with segmentation of organs leading to another set of specific absorption fractions. The effective dose is recalculated for all the 34 radiopharmaceuticals that are administered orally and has been published by the ICRP. Using the new HAT model, new tissue weighting factors and the new adult computational voxel phantoms lead to an average effective dose of half of its earlier estimated value. The reduction mainly depends on electron transport simulations to walled organs and the transition from the stylised phantom with unrealistic interorgan distances to more realistic voxel phantoms.

  • 57.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hedman, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Heavy vehicle traffic is related to wheeze among schoolchildren: a population-based study in an area with low traffic flows2011Inngår i: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 10, nr 91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An association between traffic air pollution and respiratory symptoms among children has been reported. However, the effects of traffic air pollution on asthma and wheeze have been very sparsely studied in areas with low traffic intensity in cold climate with poor dispersion. We evaluated the impact of vehicle traffic on childhood asthma and wheeze by objective exposure assessment.

    Methods: As a part of the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies, a questionnaire was sent to the families of all children attending first or second grade in Luleå (72,000 inhabitants) in Northern Sweden in 2006. The age of the children was 7-8 years and the participation rate was 98% (n = 1357). Skin prick tests were performed in 1224 (89%) children. The home addresses were given geographical coordinates and traffic counts were obtained from the local traffic authorities. A proximity model of average daily traffic and average daily heavy vehicle traffic within 200 meters from each participant's home address was used. The associations between traffic exposure and asthma and wheeze, respectively, were analysed in an adjusted multiple logistic regression model.

    Results: Exposure to high traffic flows was uncommon in the study area; only 15% of the children lived within 200 meters from a road with a traffic flow of ≥8000 vehicles per day. Living closer than 200 meters from a road with ≥500 heavy vehicles daily was associated with current wheeze, odds ratio 1.7 (confidence interval 1.0-2.7). A dose-response relation was indicated. An increased risk of asthma was also seen, however not significant, odds ratio 1.5 (confidence interval 0.8-2.9). Stratified analyses revealed that the effect of traffic exposure was restricted to the non-sensitized phenotype of asthma and wheeze. The agreement between self-reported traffic exposure and objective measurements of exposure was moderate.

    Conclusions: This study showed that already at low levels of exposure, vehicle traffic is related to an increased risk of wheeze among children. Thus, the global burden of traffic air pollution may be underestimated.

  • 58.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Selin, F
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Asbestos exposure and the risk of sinonasal cancer2016Inngår i: Occupational Medicine, ISSN 0962-7480, E-ISSN 1471-8405, Vol. 66, nr 4, 326-331 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: While the increased risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma is well established, the relationship between exposure to asbestos dust and sinonasal cancer is less clear.

    AIMS: To study the risk of sinonasal cancer in relation to asbestos dust exposure.

    METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of construction workers, linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry. Participants were classified into four exposure groups; heavy, medium, low or very low exposure to asbestos, according to the incidence of pleural mesothelioma in their occupational group. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and relative risks (RRs) were analysed, adjusted for age and smoking habits. The risks of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were investigated separately.

    RESULTS: Among the 280222 subjects, there was no increased risk of sinonasal cancer compared to the general population [SIR 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.03], or any dose-response relationship with exposure to asbestos. The highest RR was found in the low exposure group (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69-2.28) and the lowest RR was found in the group with the highest exposure to asbestos (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.33-1.53). No significantly increased risk or dose-response association could be found for adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma when analysed separately.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study did not find an increased risk of developing sinonasal cancer after asbestos exposure.

  • 59.
    Andersson, N.
    et al.
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandström, Monica
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Umeå, Sweden.
    Berglund, André
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Umeå, Sweden.
    Amplitude modulation of light from various sources1994Inngår i: Lighting Research and Technology, ISSN 1477-1535, E-ISSN 1477-0938, Vol. 26, nr 3, 157-160 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work was done to obtain basic knowledge about various light sources and specially about light modulation, or flicker. The study showed that the modulation of light varied a lot between different ordinary light sources. In general the 100 Hz component in the flickering light dominated. For incandescent lights the modulation increased with decreasing power and was in the range 10-22%. Light from the tungsten-halogen lamps had 2-6% modulation. The most common light sources (single-colour fluorescent light) had a modulation of about 20%. Fluorescent tubes with better colour rendering (full-colour fluorescent and full-colour special fluorescent tubes) had a higher modulation, 30-40%, while light from high-frequency (HF) fluorescent tubes had a modulation of 0.9%. Light from conventional compact fluorescent tubes had a modulation degree of about 44%, and for HF compact fluorescent tubes it was 2-7%. Modulation of light from HF compact fluorescent tubes had a tendency to decrease with increasing tube size. The modulation of light from discharge lamps was in the range of 52% up to 100% and the curve form of the light from low pressure sodium vapour lamp (100% modulation) contained several high frequency components.

  • 60.
    Andersson, T
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, Stockholm University, Sweden and Swedish Institute for National Food Agency (SLV), Sweden and Communicable Disease Control (SMI), Solna, Sweden.
    Bjelkmar, P
    Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control (SMI), Solna, Sweden, and Inera AB, Sweden.
    Hulth, A
    Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control (SMI), Solna, Sweden.
    Lindh, J
    Department of Microbiology, Tumour and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden and Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control (SMI), Solna, Sweden.
    Stenmark, Stephan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar. County Medical Officer, Västerbotten, Sweden.
    Widerström, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Syndromic surveillance for local outbreak detection and awareness: evaluating outbreak signals of acute gastroenteritis in telephone triage, web-based queries and over-the-counter pharmacy sales2014Inngår i: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 142, nr 2, 303-313 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For the purpose of developing a national system for outbreak surveillance, local outbreak signals were compared in three sources of syndromic data - telephone triage of acute gastroenteritis, web queries about symptoms of gastrointestinal illness, and over-the-counter (OTC) pharmacy sales of antidiarrhoeal medication. The data sources were compared against nine known waterborne and foodborne outbreaks in Sweden in 2007-2011. Outbreak signals were identified for the four largest outbreaks in the telephone triage data and the two largest outbreaks in the data on OTC sales of antidiarrhoeal medication. No signals could be identified in the data on web queries. The signal magnitude for the fourth largest outbreak indicated a tenfold larger outbreak than officially reported, supporting the use of telephone triage data for situational awareness. For the two largest outbreaks, telephone triage data on adult diarrhoea provided outbreak signals at an early stage, weeks and months in advance, respectively, potentially serving the purpose of early event detection. In conclusion, telephone triage data provided the most promising source for surveillance of point-source outbreaks.

  • 61.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Strömberg, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Predictors of Well-being at work2016Inngår i: Scientific Programme: Wellbeing at Work 2016, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity. Conditions in today’s working life make new approaches necessary in order to limit negative health effects of work and to enhance wellbeing and health at work. About 24 % of the working population in Sweden report to have had work-related disorders during the last twelve months. In order to achieve a sustainable working life it is likely that strategies and actions from different and new angles are needed.ObjectivesThe present study is a part of a larger study (the GodA –study; a Swedish acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) and aims to investigate how work environment factors, work ability, work motivation, work and life balance predict well-being at work.

    Methods

    The GodA study is a 2-year follow up study in Sweden with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers. One of the companies serves as “intervention-company”, the other two as controls. A baseline questionnaire was sent out 2013 and the results from the survey were reported back to the companies, which have been processing their results. In spring 2015 a follow up survey has been administered. Data have been analysed with univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses.

    Results

    A baseline multivariate linear regression model, which included background factors, perceived psychosocial work climate and work environmental factors (motivation, leadership, employee responsibilities, efficacy, work ability and management committed to employee health) and work life balance, showed that psychosocial work climate (B= .48, 95% CI=.27 – .69) leadership, (B= .27, 95% CI=.05– .49), work ability (B= -.12, 95% CI= .03 – .21), motivation (B= -33, 95% CI= .14 – .51) and work life balance (B= -.34, 95% CI=-.57– -.12), were signifi-cantly associated with well-being at work and explained 40% of the variance (Adjusted R2=.40, p<.001).

    Conclusions

    Results showed that not only work environment factors are important predictors. To maintain a healthy work place a promotion of balance between work and private life is needed.

  • 62.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Strömberg, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Predictors of well-being at work2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The concept of healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity. Conditions in today’s working life make new approaches necessary in order to limit negative health effects of work and to enhance wellbeing and health at work. About 24 % of the working population in Sweden report to have had work-related disorders during the last twelve months. In order to achieve a sustainable working life it is likely that strategies and actions from different and new angles are needed.

    The present study is a part of a larger study (the GodA –study; a Swedish acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) and aims to investigate how work environment factors, work ability, work motivation, work and life balance predict well-being at work.

    Methods

    The GodA study is a 2-year follow up study in Sweden with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers. One of the companies serves as “intervention-company”, the other two as controls. A baseline questionnaire was sent out 2013 and the results from the survey were reported back to the companies, which have been processing their results. In spring 2015 a follow up survey has been administered. Data from the baseline measurements have been analysed with univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses.

    Results

    A baseline multivariate linear regression model, which included background factors, perceived psychosocial work climate and work environmental factors (motivation, leadership, employee responsibilities, efficacy, work ability and management committed to employee health) and work life balance, showed that psychosocial work climate (B= .48, 95% CI=.27 – .69) leadership, (B= .27, 95% CI=.05– .49), work ability  (B= -.12, 95% CI= .03 – .21), motivation (B= -33, 95% CI= .14 – .51) and work life balance (B= -.34, 95% CI=-.57– -.12), were significantly associated with well-being at work and explained 40% of the variance  (Adjusted R2=.40, p<.001). Results from the two-year follow up will be presented at the conference.

    Conclusions

    Results showed that not only work environment factors are important predictors. To maintain ahealthy work place apromotion ofbalancebetween workand private life is needed.

  • 63.
    Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin. Region Örebro län. Centre for Health Care Sciences.
    Lundholm, Ulla Persson
    Nora Health Care Centre, Örebro County Council, Nora, Sweden.
    Kohn, Monica
    Nora Health Care Centre, Örebro County Council, Nora, Sweden.
    Westerdahl, Elisabeth
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin. Region Örebro län. Centre for Health Care Sciences.
    Medical yoga: another way of being in the world-A phenomenological study from the perspective of persons suffering from stress-related symptoms2014Inngår i: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 9, 23033Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of stress-related illness has grown in recent years. Many of these patients seek help in primary health care. Yoga can reduce stress and thus complements pharmacological therapy in medical practice. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated patients' experiences of yoga treatment in a primary health care setting or, specifically, the experiences of yoga when suffering from stress-related illness. Thus, the aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of participating in medical yoga as a complementary treatment for stress-related symptoms and diagnosis in a primary health care setting. This study has a descriptive phenomenological design and took place at a primary health care centre in Sweden during 2011. Five women and one man (43-51 years) participated. They were recruited from the intervention group (n = 18) in a randomized control trial, in which they had participated in a medical yoga group in addition to standard care for 12 weeks. Data were collected by means of qualitative interviews, and a phenomenological data analysis was conducted. The essential meaning of the medical yoga experience was that the medical yoga was not an endpoint of recovery but the start of a process towards an increased sense of wholeness. It was described as a way of alleviating suffering, and it provided the participants with a tool for dealing with their stress and current situation on a practical level. It led to greater self-awareness and self-esteem, which in turn had an implicit impact on their lifeworld. In phenomenological terms, this can be summarized as Another way of being in the world, encompassing a perception of deepened identity. From a philosophical perspective, due to using the body in a new way (yoga), the participants had learnt to see things differently, which enriched and recast their perception of themselves and their lives.

  • 64.
    Annerbäck, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD). Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin.
    Sahlqvist, Lotta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD).
    Wingren, Gun
    A cross-sectional study of victimisation of bullying among schoolchildren in Sweden: background factors and self-reported health complaints2014Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, nr 3, 270-277 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To examine background factors for bullying and associations between bullying victimisation and health problems. Methods: A cross-sectional study on all pupils in grades 7 and 9 in a Swedish county was conducted in 2011 (n=5248). Data have been analysed with bi- and multivariate models. Results: 14% of the children reported that they had been bullied during the past 2 months. Background factors for bullying were: gender (girls more often); age (younger students more often); disability/disease; high body mass index, and having parents born abroad. There were strong associations between being bullied and poor health and self-harm. Associations with poor general health for boys and girls and mental health problems for girls showed stronger associations with higher frequency of bullying than with lower. For boys, physical bullying had stronger correlations with poor general health than written-verbal bullying. Conclusions: Bullying is a serious public health problem among young people and healthcare professionals have an important task in identifying exposed children. Children who are "different" are more exposed to bullying, which implies that school personnel, parents, and other adults in these children's social networks can play an important role in paying attention to and preventing the risk of bullying.

  • 65. Annesi-Maesano, Isabella
    et al.
    Norback, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Zielinski, Jan
    Bernard, Alfred
    Gratziou, Cristina
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Sestini, Piersante
    Viegi, Giovanni
    Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing homes (GERIE study) profile: objectives, study protocol and descriptive data.2013Inngår i: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 1828-695X, Vol. 8, nr 1, 71- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Indoor air pollution (IAP) constitutes a major global public health problem requiring increasing efforts in research and policymaking that may have special significance for elderly that are likely to spend most of their day indoors and appear to be particularly susceptible to adverse effects of chemical pollutants and bio-contaminants. Yet, evidence existing on the effects of IAP in elderly is scanty. The Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing homes (GERIE) study aimed to assess health effects of major indoor air pollutants and thermal conditions in elderly (> 70 years) living stably in nursing homes (NH) across Europe. Respiratory effects were particularly considered as airways and lung constitute the first target of air pollutants.

    OBJECTIVES: We describe here the rationale and the methods of the GERIE Study.

    METHODS: 8 nursing homes were randomly selected in 7 European countries. Twenty individuals were randomly selected in each nursing home. Major indoor and outdoor air chemical pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, PM0.1, formaldehyde, NO2; O3, VOC, CO2) and bio-contaminants (moulds, allergens) were assessed objectively with standardized procedures. Major health status indicators were assessed through a standardized questionnaire, non-invasive clinical tests and blood and urine biomarkers as well as saliva for ADN.

    RESULTS: The GERIE study has given the opportunity to publish two reviews on respiratory health effects of indoor and outdoor air pollution in elderly. In addition it has provided the inventory of air quality and thermal conditions in 50 nursing homes across Europe and data on respiratory health status in 600 elderly aged 82 years in mean. Major future results will include the relationships between NH environment and health in elderly.

    CONCLUSIONS: The main long-term purpose of the GERIE study is to improve the health of elderly who permanently reside in nursing homes or of those who are exposed to indoor air pollution because of reduced mobility.

  • 66.
    Anticona, Cynthia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundh, Thomas
    Alegre, Yuri
    Sebastian, Miguel San
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Lead exposure in indigenous communities of the Amazon basin, Peru2011Inngår i: International journal of hygiene and environmental health (Print), ISSN 1438-4639, E-ISSN 1618-131X, Vol. 215, nr 1, 59-63 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2006, three studies have reported elevated levels of lead (Pb) among the indigenous population of the Corrientes river, in the Amazon basin of Peru. Due to the large evidence of environmental pollution related to oil exploitation in the area, this activity has been suggested as the source of exposure. This study aimed to evaluate Pb levels in the population and environment of two communities exposed and one community non-exposed to the oil exploitation activity. Blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by the instrument Leadcare. A comparison with the graphite furnace atomic absorption technique was performed in order to validate the Leadcare results. Environmental samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Among 361 capillary samples, the mean BLL was 9.4μg/dl. Mean BLL of the communities exposed (n=171, x¯=9.5μg/dl) and non-exposed (n=190, x¯=9.2μg/dl) to the oil activity were not significantly different. Pb levels in environmental samples were below the maximum permissible levels. The sources of exposure could not be identified. Elevated levels of Pb in the oil-non-exposed community pointed out at other sources not yet clarified.

  • 67.
    Anticona, Cynthia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Anemia and malnutrition in indigenous children and adolescents of the Peruvian Amazon in a context of lead exposure: a cross-sectional study2014Inngår i: Global health action, ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Indigenous children and adolescents of the Peruvian Amazon live in precarious conditions that could increase the risk of malnutrition. A particular problem in the Corrientes river communities is the high exposure to lead among children and adolescents. Objective: This study aimed to determine the nutritional status of children and adolescents in indigenous communities in the Corrientes river basin and examine risk factors for anemia, stunting, underweight, and wasting. Design: This was a cross-sectional assessment in children and adolescents aged 0-17 years from six communities (n = 330). Data collection included measurement of hemoglobin levels, anthropometrics, blood lead levels (BLLs); a parental questionnaire including demographic and dwelling information; parents' occupation; and the child's duration of breastfeeding and food consumption. Analysis included univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression. Results: Overall, anemia prevalence was 51.0%, stunting (proxy for chronic malnutrition) 50.0%, and underweight 20.0%. Bivariate analysis showed that anemia and underweight prevalence was higher in the 0-4 years group (p<0.05). No association was found between anemia, stunting, or underweight with gender, community exposure to oil activity, or consumption of river water. Stunting prevalence was higher in the group whose BLLs were >5 mu g/dL (p<0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, no variable was associated with anemia or underweight. The group 5-11 years and >12 years had 1.9 and 3.1 times higher risk of stunting than the group under five years, respectively. Children and adolescents with BLLs >5 mu g/dL had twice the risk of stunting compared to those with lower BLLs. Conclusions: Half of the study population was found with anemia and stunting. Anemia was more prevalent in the 0- to 5-year age group and stunting in the 12- to 17-year group. The association between stunting and BLLs might be attributed to a direct effect of lead on human growth. Also, poor nutrition and other socioeconomic-related factors may contribute to the simultaneous existence of stunting and elevated BLLs.

  • 68.
    Antonsson, Ann-Beth
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi (Stängd 20130701).
    Christensson, Bengt
    KTH. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Berge, Johan
    Rättsmedicinalverket.
    Sjögren, Bengt
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Fatal Carbon Monoxide Intoxication After AcetyleneGas Welding of Pipes2013Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 57, nr 5, 662-666 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented.

  • 69.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    A systems analysis of a target group of enterprises: A new way forward for the dissemination of research results and sustainable technologies2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 70.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    An interactive Internet tool supporting risk management in SMEs: The Chemical Guide (KemiGuiden)2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 71.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Företagshälsovård2014Inngår i: Människan i arbetslivet: Teori och praktik / [ed] Eva Holmström, Kerstina Olsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB , 2014, 2:1, 199-223 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 72.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Improving work environment in small enterprises: The need for a holistic perspective and adaptation to small enterprise reality2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 73.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Interviews with employees reporting work-related injuries as the basis for intervention2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 74.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Kapitel 1.: Varför företagshälsovård?2011Inngår i: Framgångsrik företagshälsovård: Möjligheter och metoder, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2011Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Företagshälsovård, fhv, är en viktig aktör i välfärdssamhället. Den ska bidra både till att förebygga ohälsa och främja hälsa samt till att ska pagoda och säkra arbetsplatser där de anställda inte riskerar att skadas eller bli sjuka. Omvärldens förväntningar är höga. För att uppfylla dem krävs att fhv har en bred kompetens och att arbetet bygger på samarbete både mellan olika kompetenser inom den egna verksamheten och med de företag och organisationer som fhv arbetar för.

  • 75.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Kapitel 4: Att förstå kunden2011Inngår i: Framgångsrik företagshälsovård: Möjligheter och metoder, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2011Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Verksamhet, ekonomiska förutsättningar, drivkrafter och värderingar varierar för FHV:s kunder. För att lyckas i arbetet med att stödja kunden, behöver FHV förstå hur dessa faktorer påverkar arbetsmiljöarbetet och hur insatser bäst anpassas till varje kund.

  • 76.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Kapitel 9: Företagshälsovård och småföretag2011Inngår i: Framgångsrik företagshälsovård: Möjligheter och metoder, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2011Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Många företag med mindre än 50 anställda har någon form av avtal med FHV och de flesta är nöjda. Deras anställda står dock bara för en liten andel av alla arbetstagare som har tillgång till fhv. En stor del av småföretagen utnyttjar inte FHV:s breda kompetens utan anlitar dem främst för hälsoundersökningar. Det betyder att det finns en stor utvecklingspotential om man kan få de mindre företagen att efterfråga fler tjänster.

  • 77.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Procurement demands: a management strategy for sustainability2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 78.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Miljöskydd och arbetsvetenskap.
    Relation to other tools for the working environment2004Inngår i: Working environment in life-cycle assessment / [ed] Poulsen, Pia Brunn; Jensen, Allan Astrup, Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), 2004, 3-8 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 79.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Risk assessment tools for small enterprises: evaluation of uptake and effect2009Inngår i: USE 2009: Programme and abstract book, 2009, 118-118 s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Risk assessment is a core component in the management of the working environment. Risk assessment helps identify and prioritize risks and reduce risks through implementation of control measures. Aim: To evaluate how tools for risk assessment are used by small enterprises and what the result is from using the tools. Method: Randomly selected small enterprises in printing and electroplating industry were contacted and asked to participate in an evaluation of tools for chemical risk assessment developed to suit small enterprises. An initial interview was made with the enterprises accepting to participate in the testing, aiming at surveying how they use to assess chemical risks. The enterprises were provided with one out of six tools. Ten enterprises in each sector were asked to test each tool, adding up to 20 enterprises testing each tool. After three and six months the enterprise was contacted. If they had tested the tool, a new interview was made, exploring their opinion on the tool and their experiences from using it. Enterprises not having tested the tools were also interviewed about the reasons why they did not use the tool they were provided. In enterprises having used the tools, an expert risk assessment was made and compared to the risk assessment of the enterprise in order to evaluate the quality of the risk assessment tool and the enterprise's use of it. Result: More than 60 % of the enterprises accepted to test the tools, reflecting an interest and concern for chemical risks in their work environment. The follow-up interviews are currently conducted and will be finished during April 2009. The results show how risk assessment works in practice in small enterprises. The study has revealed several problems with different tools and some unexpected results. One example is that several enterprises have concluded that they are content with their old method for risk assessment, which was using safety data sheets, reflecting a profound lack of understanding of what risk assessment is about. Results from the evaluation will be presented, showing how small enterprises perceive the different kinds of tools tested and what the outcomes in terms of quality are of the tested tools. The results will be discussed in relation to the enterprises and their previous experience of and knowledge about risk assessment.

  • 80.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Risk management in small enterprises: A system analysis of what works and what doesn´t2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 81. Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    Risk management in small enterprises: A system analysis of what works and what doesn´t2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 82.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Miljöskydd och arbetsvetenskap.
    Riskhantering och tillsyn i Strategier för bättre arbetsmiljö i små företag2004Inngår i: Framtidens arbetsmiljö- och tillsynsarbete / [ed] Johansson, Bo; Frick, Kaj; Johansson, Jan, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2004Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 83.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strategies for Success? Managing Chemical Risks in Small Enterprises: Review of European Practice – a CEFIC project2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project commissioned by Cefic was to identify: strategic approaches of managing chemicals-related risks in SMEs; the factors supporting the application of those strategies; and the factors determining their effectiveness.

    The outcomes of the project are an overview of approaches and tools to manage chemical risks in SMEs, as well as some evidence of the size of the problem. In Sweden, inspectors found rather poor risk management in SMEs, most of them lacking even the very basic instruments such as substance registers and product lists. Reasons for that are seen in a lack of resources and time. The support that inspectors and other OSH institutions could provide is apparently not called upon/used. Furthermore, the regulatory pressure to carry out a risk assessment is too low (too few inspections of SMEs). Whether the tools provided are too complex and not appropriate for SMEs cannot be fully judged, due to the lack of evaluation studies. It is apparent, however, that the acceptance of the tools by SMEs is rather poor.

    It was found that communicating well the context of risk management work to SMEs is crucial to convey the importance - and complexity - of proper risk management. Even more so, it is of utmost importance that the right intermediaries disseminate risk assessment strategies and tools and demonstrate their use in SMES for the success of their implementation. However, due to very limited information on the use of risk management materials and tools by SMEs and a lack of evaluation studies thereof, the tools themselves as well as their effects can hardly be described or measured.

  • 84.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Studiehandledning2011Inngår i: Framgångsrik företagshälsovård: Möjligheter och metoder, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2011Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 85.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    What strategies can be used to improve SMEs working environment2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 86.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Holmefalk, C
    Hägg, GM
    Kumar, R
    Scmidt, L
    Hur förbättra städares arbetsförhållanden?2007Inngår i: NES2007 / [ed] Cecilia Berlin, Lars-Ola Bligård, 2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 87.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Schmidt, L
    Swedish Occupational Health Services and Small Enterprises: How does it work?2005Inngår i: OHS2005 Conference Proceedings: SJWEH Supplements 2005; no 1, 2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 88.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Verschoor, Atie H
    Ild care foundation, Maastricht.
    General Purpose of WE-LCA2004Inngår i: Working Environment in Life-Cycle Assessment / [ed] Poulsen, Jensen, Antonsson, Bengtsson, Karling, Schmidt, Brekke, Becker, Verschoor, Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), 2004Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 89. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Fors, Carina
    Hallvig, David
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Observer rated sleepiness and real road driving: an explorative study2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 5, e64782Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore if observer rated sleepiness (ORS) is a feasible method for quantification of driver sleepiness in field studies. Two measures of ORS were used: (1) one for behavioural signs based on facial expression, body gestures and body movements labelled B-ORS, and (2) one based on driving performance e.g. if swerving and other indicators of impaired driving occurs, labelled D-ORS. A limited number of observers sitting in the back of an experimental vehicle on a motorway about 2 hours repeatedly 3 times per day (before lunch, after lunch, at night) observed 24 participant's sleepiness level with help of the two observer scales. At the same time the participant reported subjective sleepiness (KSS), EOG was recorded (for calculation of blink duration) and several driving measure were taken and synchronized with the reporting. Based on mixed model Anova and correlation analysis the result showed that observer ratings of sleepiness based on drivers' impaired performance and behavioural signs are sensitive to extend the general pattern of time awake, circadian phase and time of driving. The detailed analysis of the subjective sleepiness and ORS showed weak correspondence on an individual level. Only 16% of the changes in KSS were predicted by the observer. The correlation between the observer ratings based on performance (D-ORS) and behavioural signs (B-ORS) are high (r = .588), and the B-ORS shows a moderately strong association (r = .360) with blink duration. Both ORS measures show an association (r>0.45) with KSS, whereas the association with driving performance is weak. The results show that the ORS-method detects the expected general variations in sleepy driving in field studies, however, sudden changes in driver sleepiness on a detailed level as 5 minutes is usually not detected; this holds true both when taking into account driving behaviour or driver behavioural signs.

  • 90. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Fors, Carina
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Filtness, Ashleigh
    Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers2016Inngår i: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 54, nr 4, 337-346 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality. The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2-3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2-4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes.

  • 91.
    Arlinger, Stig
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hörsel och hörselskador i arbetslivet: Kunskapssammanställning2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten baserar sig på sammanställning av publicerade artiklar i vetenskapliga tidskrifter med tyngdpunkt på perioden från år 2000. Vissa äldre publikationer har också inkluderats när de har haft innehåll av betydelse för rapporten. Sökning har främst skett i databaserna PubMed och Google Scholar samt i referenslistor från identifierade relevanta arbeten. Söktermer har varit noise, hearing, noise-induced hearing loss, TTS, PTS, tinnitus, impulse noise, solvent, vibration i olika kombinationer.

    Fokus avseende hörselskador har traditionellt varit inriktat på hörselnedsättning, den försämrade känslighet som ofta men inte alltid är den uppenbara konsekvensen av en skada på hörselorganet. Men senare års forskning har visat att skador kan uppstå utan påtaglig påverkan på hörtrösklarna men i form av tinnitus, överkänslighet för starka ljud, förvrängd ljudupplevelse av olika slag, försämrad förmåga att uppfatta tal i svåra lyssningsmiljöer etc. Det har därför varit angeläget att lyfta fram dessa vidare aspekter på hörselskada.

    Många arbetsmiljöer domineras av en relativt kontinuerlig ljudnivå, men ibland förekommer också impulsbuller, d.v.s. ljudtoppar med kortvariga mycket höga ljudnivåer. Nya metoder som föreslagits för att mäta och säkrare värdera hörselskaderiskerna vid exponering för impulsbuller beskrivs också i rapporten.

    Följderna av bullerexponering på en individs hörsel beror inte alltid enbart på bullerexponeringen utan kan påverkas av andra faktorer. Dessa kan vara relaterade till arbetsmiljön men också till egenskaper hos den exponerade individen och kan därför behöva beaktas i skaderiskbedömningar.

    Djurförsök ha påvisat möjligheten att med farmakologiska medel minimera bullerskada efter en exponering och också att åtminstone delvis återskapa hörselfunktionen efter en bullerskada. Strävan är naturligtvis att kunna överföra denna kunskap och metodik till människa, men ännu återstår mycket arbete innan sådan behandling är tillgänglig.

  • 92. Arlinger, Stig
    et al.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Kähäri, Kim
    Hagerman, Björn
    Poulsen, Torben
    Bengtsson, Johanna
    Musik, musiker och hörsel: en kunskapssammanställning om höga ljudnivåer och hörselskaderisker i musik- och underhållningssektorn2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 93. Arnetz, Judith E.
    et al.
    Hamblin, Lydia
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Ager, Joel
    Aranyos, Deanna
    Essenmacher, Lynnette
    Upfal, Mark J.
    Luborsky, Mark
    Using database reports to reduce workplace violence: Perceptions of hospital stakeholders2015Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 51, nr 1, 51-59 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Documented incidents of violence provide the foundation for any workplace violence prevention program. However, no published research to date has examined stakeholders' preferences for workplace violence data reports in healthcare settings. If relevant data are not readily available and effectively summarized and presented, the likelihood is low that they will be utilized by stakeholders in targeted efforts to reduce violence. OBJECTIVE: To discover and describe hospital system stakeholders' perceptions of database-generated workplace violence data reports. PARTICIPANTS: Eight hospital system stakeholders representing Human Resources, Security, Occupational Health Services, Quality and Safety, and Labor in a large, metropolitan hospital system. METHODS: The hospital system utilizes a central database for reporting adverse workplace events, including incidents of violence. A focus group was conducted to identify stakeholders' preferences and specifications for standardized, computerized reports of workplace violence data to be generated by the central database. The discussion was audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, processed as text, and analyzed using stepwise content analysis. RESULTS: Five distinct themes emerged from participant responses: Concerns, Etiology, Customization, Use, and Outcomes. In general, stakeholders wanted data reports to provide "the big picture," i.e., rates of occurrence; reasons for and details regarding incident occurrence; consequences for the individual employee and/or the workplace; and organizational efforts that were employed to deal with the incident. CONCLUSIONS: Exploring stakeholder views regarding workplace violence summary reports provided concrete information on the preferred content, format, and use of workplace violence data. Participants desired both epidemiological and incident-specific data in order to better understand and work to prevent the workplace violence occurring in their hospital system.

  • 94.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    University of Stockholm, Sweden.
    Theorell, Tores
    University of Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Grape, Tom
    Health Care Centre, Sweden.
    Hammarstrom, Anne
    University of Umeå, Sweden.
    Högstedt, Christer
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Skoog, Ingmar
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Traskman-Bendz, Lil
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hall, Charlotte
    Swedish Council Health Technology Assessment, Sweden.
    A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and burnout symptoms2017Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, 264Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Practitioners and decision makers in the medical and insurance systems need knowledge on the relationship between work exposures and burnout. Many burnout studies -original as well as reviews-restricted their analyses to emotional exhaustion or did not report results on cynicism, personal accomplishment or global burnout. To meet this need we carried out this review and meta-analyses with the aim to provide systematically graded evidence for associations between working conditions and near-future development of burnout symptoms. Methods: A wide range of work exposure factors was screened. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Study performed in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand 1990-2013. 2) Prospective or comparable case control design. 3) Assessments of exposure (work) and outcome at baseline and at least once again during follow up 1-5 years later. Twenty-five articles met the predefined relevance and quality criteria. The GRADE-system with its 4-grade evidence scale was used. Results: Most of the 25 studies focused emotional exhaustion, fewer cynicism and still fewer personal accomplishment. Moderately strong evidence (grade 3) was concluded for the association between job control and reduced emotional exhaustion and between low workplace support and increased emotional exhaustion. Limited evidence (grade 2) was found for the associations between workplace justice, demands, high work load, low reward, low supervisor support, low co-worker support, job insecurity and change in emotional exhaustion. Cynicism was associated with most of these work factors. Reduced personal accomplishment was only associated with low reward. There were few prospective studies with sufficient quality on adverse chemical, biological and physical factors and burnout. Conclusion: While high levels of job support and workplace justice were protective for emotional exhaustion, high demands, low job control, high work load, low reward and job insecurity increased the risk for developing exhaustion. Our approach with a wide range of work exposure factors analysed in relation to the separate dimensions of burnout expanded the knowledge of associations, evidence as well as research needs. The potential of organizational interventions is illustrated by the findings that burnout symptoms are strongly influenced by structural factors such as job demands, support and the possibility to exert control.

  • 95. Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Theorell, Tores
    Grape, Tom
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Hogstedt, Christer
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Skoog, Ingmar
    Traskman-Bendz, Lil
    Hall, Charlotte
    A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and burnout symptoms2017Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, 264Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Practitioners and decision makers in the medical and insurance systems need knowledge on the relationship between work exposures and burnout. Many burnout studies – original as well as reviews - restricted their analyses to emotional exhaustion or did not report results on cynicism, personal accomplishment or global burnout. To meet this need we carried out this review and meta-analyses with the aim to provide systematically graded evidence for associations between working conditions and near-future development of burnout symptoms.

    Methods: A wide range of work exposure factors was screened. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Study performed in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand 1990–2013. 2) Prospective or comparable case control design. 3) Assessments of exposure (work) and outcome at baseline and at least once again during follow up 1–5 years later. Twenty-five articles met the predefined relevance and quality criteria. The GRADE-system with its 4-grade evidence scale was used.

    Results: Most of the 25 studies focused emotional exhaustion, fewer cynicism and still fewer personal accomplishment. Moderately strong evidence (grade 3) was concluded for the association between job control and reduced emotional exhaustion and between low workplace support and increased emotional exhaustion. Limited evidence (grade 2) was found for the associations between workplace justice, demands, high work load, low reward, low supervisor support, low co-worker support, job insecurity and change in emotional exhaustion. Cynicism was associated with most of these work factors. Reduced personal accomplishment was only associated with low reward. There were few prospective studies with sufficient quality on adverse chemical, biological and physical factors and burnout.

    Conclusion: While high levels of job support and workplace justice were protective for emotional exhaustion, high demands, low job control, high work load, low reward and job insecurity increased the risk for developing exhaustion. Our approach with a wide range of work exposure factors analysed in relation to the separate dimensions of burnout expanded the knowledge of associations, evidence as well as research needs. The potential of organizational interventions is illustrated by the findings that burnout symptoms are strongly influenced by structural factors such as job demands, support and the possibility to exert control.

  • 96.
    Aronsson, K
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Teär Fahnehjelm, K
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nylén, P
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Synergonomi och ögonbesvär hos personal på ögonsjukhus.2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ögonläkare, ögonsjuksköterskor, optiker och annan personal på ögonsjukhus arbetar ofta med synkrävande arbetsuppgifter i dämpad belysning eller helt utan allmänbelysning. Inför den planerade byggnationen av ett nytt ögonsjukhus i Stockholm ca år 2018 gjordes en enkätstudie för att kartlägga ögonbesvär och trötthet hos personalen på S:t Eriks Ögonsjukhus. Studien som är ett multidisciplinärt samarbetsprojekt mellan S:t Erik, Karolinska Institutet och Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, syftar till att optimera belysning, dagsljusinsläpp och ljusmiljö vid det nya ögonsjukhuset.

    Totalt 265 anställda på S:t Eriks Ögonsjukhus samt 60 röntgenläkare och 45 barnläkare, varav de senare två  utgjorde jämförelsegrupper, inviterades till  studien.  Enkäten som distribuerades baserades på synergonomienkäter av Knave och Hemphälä och bestod av 31 validerade frågor om subjektiva ögonbesvär, nuvarande belysning, tillgång till dagsljus och välbefinnande. Ögonbesvären räknades om till ett gruppmedelvärde (ögonbesvärsindex) med avseende på svårighetsgrad och frekvens. Studien är godkänd av Etikprövningsnämnden. 

    Nittiosex av 265 (33%) anställda på S:t Eriks Ögonsjukhus hade t o m juni 2012 besvarat enkäten tillsammans med 23 röntgenläkare (38%) och 14 barnläkare (31%). Ögonbesvär som torrhets- och gruskänsla var vanligt förekommande hos alla yrkesgrupper på ögonsjukhuset och generellt vanligare hos kvinnor. Då samtliga grupper jämfördes med avseende på ögonbesvärsindex var skillnaden mellan män och kvinnor statistiskt säkerställd (p<0,05). Röntgenläkarna rapporterade högst ögonbesvärsindex och barnläkarna lägst, skillnaden mellan dessa yrkesgrupper var signifikant (p<0,05). Ögonpersonal och röntgenläkare som rapporterade att de ofta arbetade i mörker, associerade detta med  ökad trötthet i högre grad än  med barnläkarna (p<0,05).

    Ögonbesvär var vanliga hos ögonpersonalen inkluderade i studien. Den grupp som arbetade mest i mörker hade mer ögonbesvär än den grupp som arbetade minst i mörker. Kvinnor hade mer ögonbesvär än män. Arbete i mörker ökade den subjektiva känslan av trötthet . Optimala ljusförhållanden och bra synergonomi bör ges hög prioritet vid planering av ett nytt ögonsjukhus.

  • 97.
    Aronsson, K
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Teär Fahnhjelm, K
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nylén, P
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Visual ergonomics and eye strain in eye careprofessionals2012Inngår i: NES2012 Proceedings: Ergonomics for sustainability and growth / [ed] Ann-Beth Antonsson, Göran M Hägg, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye care professionals spend many hours a day in darkness performing visually demanding tasks. A new eye hospital will be built in Stockholm 2018. The current lighting, logistics, and working conditions are analysed in a multidisciplinary project aiming to optimise settings in the new hospital. The main purpose of the present project was to study visual ergonomics and current eye strain in employees at an eye hospital. Ninety-six employees answered a validated questionnaire regarding their experiences of light, visual ergonomics and eye strain problems. Twenty-three radiologists and 14 paediatricians at a university hospital were used as comparison groups. Eye strain was common in all departments at the hospital but was significantly more common only among radiologists compared to paediatricians. Overall, women experienced significantly more eye strain than men.

  • 98. Arsalani, Narges
    et al.
    Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud
    Josephson, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Lagerstrom, Monica
    Musculoskeletal Disorders and Working Conditions Among Iranian Nursing Personnel2014Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, Vol. 20, nr 4, 671-680 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and associations with organizational, physical and psychosocial working conditions among 520 nursing personnel in Tehran, Iran. The results of the cross-sectional study on aids and different educational levels of nurses showed that the participants experienced 88% of MSDs in at least one body region during the past 12 months. The 3 most prevalent body regions were the low back (65.3%), knee (56.2%) and neck (49.8%). The participants reported inflexible work schedule, poor quality of devices for transferring patients, overexertion and job dissatisfaction. Physical and psychosocial exposure revealed an elevated odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of MSDs. The results showed a combination of high physical and psychosocial work demands along with low control over the work which increased work-related stress and enhanced the risk of MSDs. This study findings could help to understand work-related MSDs among nursing personnel in a developing country where the work situation and sociocultural context differ from other countries.

  • 99.
    Arvidsson, Inger
    et al.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Gert-Ake
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Neck postures in air traffic controllers with and without neck/shoulder disorders2008Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 39, nr 2, 255-260 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Prolonged computer work with an extended neck is commonly believed to be associated with an increased risk of neck-shoulder disorders. The aim of this study was to compare neck postures during computer work between female cases with neck-shoulder disorders, and healthy referents. Based on physical examinations, 13 cases and 11 referents were selected among 70 female air traffic controllers with the same computer-based work tasks and identical work stations. Postures and movements were measured by inclinometers, placed on the forehead and upper back (C7/Th1) during authentic air traffic control. A recently developed method was applied to assess flexion/extension in the neck, calculated as the difference between head and upper back flexion/extension. Results: Cases and referents did not differ significantly in neck posture (median neck flexion/extension: -10° vs. -9°; p=0.9). Hence, the belief that neck extension posture is associated with neck-shoulder disorders in computer work is not supported by the present data

  • 100.
    Arvidsson, Inger
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Gert-Åke
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Changes in physical workload with implementation of mouse-based information technology in air traffic control2006Inngår i: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 36, nr 7, 613-622 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects on physical workload were quantified when introducing new information technology in air traffic control. Seven female and seven male air traffic controllers were studied in an old control system, and during simulated - but similar - work in a new, mouse-based system. Postures, movements and muscular load were recorded (inclinometry for head, neck, back and upper arms; goniometry for wrists; electromyography for the trapezius and forearm extensor muscles). The new system was associated with lower movement velocities than the old one (examples; [50th percentiles] head flexion: 2 vs. 5 o/s, P<0.01; right arm elevation: 3 vs. 6 o/s; P<0.01; [90th percentile] wrist flexion: 19 vs. 50 o/s, P<0.01), less varying postures (head: 95th-5th percentile range 17° vs. 34o; P<0.01), and less muscular rest in the right forearm extensors (3.5 vs. 9% of time; P<0.05). The old/new system differences were amplified at high work intensities. The new air traffic control system caused a major change of physical exposures, probably associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal disorders in arms and hands.

    Relevance to industry

    While this study concerned the specific changes in the introduction of a new air traffic control system, we believe that the findings are applicable to similar technological developments in other settings.

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