Endre søk
Begrens søket
1234567 51 - 100 of 2317
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 51.
    Andersson, Helén
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Eriksson Bram, Lena
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Hjerdt, Niclas
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Löptien, Ulrike
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Strömqvist, Johan
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Översikt av beräkningsmodeller för bedömning av fiskodlingars näringsämnesbelastning på sjöar, vattendrag, magasin och kustvatten2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten är en kunskapssammanställning som utförts av SMHI på uppdrag av Havs- och Vattenmyndigheten. Den utgör inte något ställningstagande från Havs- och vattenmyndighetens sida. Rapporten försöker att sammanfatta den problematik som associeras med näringsämnesbelastningar från fiskodlingar i öppna kassar, vilka typer av beräkningar som kan behöva göras för att få en uppfattning om hur dessa kan påverka miljön samt några olika typer av modeller för detta ändamål.

    Fisk-, alg- och skaldjursodling är en växande industri runt om i världen som kan ge såväl näringsrik och hälsosam mat som arbetstillfällen. En nackdel med framförallt fiskodling i öppna kassar är att den kan innebära en påfrestning för vattenmiljön. De näringsämnen som ofta släpps ut från odlingen kan bidra till den övergödningsproblematik som redan finns i många sjöar och havsområden. Det är därför av största vikt att få en god uppskattning av den förväntade storleken på utsläppen förknippade med en öppen odling samt hur de kan tänkas förändra vattenkvaliteten på odlingsplatsen och dess närhet. Beräkningsmodeller kan vara till god hjälp vid bedömningen.

    Fiskar utsöndrar lösta näringsämnen och från odlingskassarna faller det också ut partikulärt organiskt material i form av fekalier och oätet foder. Storleken på näringsämneskällorna behöver beräknas och det finns modeller av olika komplexitet för att uppskatta detta. Storleken på det partikulära avfallet är viktigt dels för att det bidrarmed näringsämnen till vattnet och dels för att det kan ge upphov till ansamlingar av organiskt material på bottnen. När det organiska materialet bryts ner förbrukas syre och om ansamlingarna blir omfattande finns en risk för att det uppstår syrebrist vid bottnen. Om svavelväte bildas kan det orsaka skador på såväl den odlade fisken som det lokala ekosystemet. Odlingen kan också bidra till en försämrad vattenkvalitet i sin omgivning genom att tillgången av lösta näringsämnen blir större och därmed ge en ökad algproduktion. Den ökade algproduktionen skall i sin tur brytas ner och kan i förlängningen bidra till syrebristproblematiken.

    Det finns ett antal modeller som är specifikt utvecklade för fiskodlingar i öppna kassar och de tar i olika hög grad upp den beskrivna problematiken. Rapporten innehåller detaljerade genomgångar av några av modeller för att visa på styrkor och svagheter kring olika angreppsätt. Den innehåller också sammanfattningar av några vanligt förekommande modeller som använts internationellt vid bedömning av fiskodlingars miljöpåverkan. För att minska den negativa påverkan på vattenmiljön från har det också utvecklats recirkulerande system för odling. Rapporten tar inte upp belastning från den typen av fiskodlingar. Om utsläppen från ett sådant system är känt kan dock vattenkvalitetsmodeller användas för att se effekten av utsläpp från en punktkälla.

    Rapporten sammanfattar ett antal vattenkvalitetsmodeller för sjöar, vattendrag, kust och hav. En vattenkvalitetsmodell behöver inte nödvändigtvis vara utvecklad för att beskriva konsekvenser av fiskodlingar men bör kunna hantera frågeställningar som uppkommer vid bedömningar av övergödningsrisk vid utsläpp från en punktkälla. Den behöver därför kunna simulera parametrar såsom förändringen av näringsämneskoncentrationer, primärproduktion, siktdjup och syrgashalter på olika nivåer i vattenmassan. Modeller för den här typen av uppskattningar finns också i olika komplexitetsgrad och för olika skalor i tid och rum.

    Vid modellering är en god tillgång till observationer en förutsättning för pålitliga modellresultat och behövs såväl för att driva och kalibrera modellen som för validering av modellresultaten. Det är viktigt att tillgängliga data håller god kvalitet. En noggrann analys och beskrivning av den tillgängliga databasen hjälper därmed till att bedöma tillförlitligheten av modellsimuleringarna.

  • 52.
    Andersson, Jafet
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Ali, Abdou
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Gustafsson, David
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Minoungou, Bernard
    Providing peak river flow statistics and forecasting in the Niger River basin2017Inngår i: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, ISSN 1474-7065, E-ISSN 1873-5193, Vol. 100, s. 3-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 53.
    Andersson, Jafet
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Hjerdt, Niclas
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Combine and Share Essential Knowledge for Sustainable2016Inngår i: The Solutions Journal, ISSN 2154-0926, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 30-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 54.
    Andersson, Jafet
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Hjerdt, Niclas
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Combine and Share Essential Knowledge for Sustainable Water Management2016Inngår i: Solutions Journal, ISSN 2154-0896, E-ISSN 2154-0926, Vol. 7, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 55.
    Andersson, Jafet
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Traore, Farid
    Gustafsson, David
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Ali, Abdou
    Process refinements improve a hydrological model concept applied to the Niger River basin2017Inngår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 31, nr 25, s. 4540-4554Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 56.
    Andersson, Jafet
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Pechlivanidis, Ilias
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Gustafsson, David
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Key factors for improving large-scale hydrological model performance2015Inngår i: European Water, ISSN 1792-085X, Vol. 49, s. 77-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 57.
    Andersson, Jafet
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Zehnder, Alexander J. B.
    Wehrli, Bernhard
    Jewitt, Graham P. W.
    Abbaspour, Karim C.
    Yang, Hong
    Improving Crop Yield and Water Productivity by Ecological Sanitation and Water Harvesting in South Africa2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 9, s. 4341-4348Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study quantifies the potential effects of a set of technologies to address wafer and fertility constraints in rain. fed smallholder agriculture in South Africa, namely in situ water harvesting (WH), external WH, and ecological sanitation (Ecosan, fertilization with human urine); We Used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to model spatiotemporally differentiated effects on maize yield, river flow, evaporation, and transpiration. Ecosan Met some of the plant nitrogen demands, which significantly increased maize yields by 12% and transpiration by 2% on average across South Africa. In situ and external WH did not significantly affect the yield, transpiration or river flow on the South Africa scale. However, external WH. more than doubled the yields for specific seasons and locations. WH particularly increased the lowest yields. Significant, water and nutrient demands remained even with WH and Ecosan management. Additional fertility enhancements raised the yield levels but also the yield variability, whereas soil moisture enhancements improved the yield stability. Hence, coupled policies' addressing both constraints will likely be Most effective for improving food security.

  • 58.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Svenskt sjöregister. 2 delar: Svenskt Vattenarkiv1996Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 59.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Vattenföring i Sverige. Del 1. Vattendrag till Bottenviken: Svenskt Vattenarkiv1995Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En viktig uppgift för SMHI är att ge information om vattenföringen i Sveriges vattendrag. "Vattenföringen i Sveriges floder" utkom 1954. Den sammanställdes av Ragnar Melin och innehöll uppgifter tom är 1950. En ny utgåva, "Vattenföring i Sverige", publicerades 1979. Den innehåller minst 10 år långa mätserier för de vattenföringsstationer som var i drift 1975 samt för vissa tidigare nedlagda stationer.

    Denna utgåva innehåller vattenföringsuppgifter t o m 1990 för de vattenföringsstationer som var i drift 1990 och som har en mätserie på minst 10 år.

    SMHI publicerar denna gäng "Vattenföring i Sverige" i fyra delar. Indelningen av Sverige är densamma som i "Arealer för avrinningsområden", som samtidigt är under utgivning. De olika delarna omfattarDel 1 vattendrag som mynnar i BottenvikenDel 2 vattendrag som mynnar i BottenhavetDel 3 vattendrag som mynnar i Egentliga ÖstersjönDel 4 vattendrag som mynnar i Västerhavet ( Öresund, Kattegatt, Skagerrak).

  • 60.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Vattenföring i Sverige. Del 2. Vattendrag till Bottenhavet: Svenskt Vattenarkiv1995Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En viktig uppgift för SMHI är att ge information om vattenföringen i Sveriges vattendrag. "Vattenföringen i Sveriges floder" utkom 1954. Den sammanställdes av Ragnar Melin och innehöll uppgifter tom år 1950. En nyutgåva, "Vattenföring i Sverige", publicerades 1979. Den innehåller minst 10 år långa mätserier för de vattenföringsstationer som var i drift 1975 samt för vissa tidigare nedlagda stationer. Denna utgåva innehåller vattenföringsuppgifter t o m 1990 för de vattenföringsstationer som var i drift 1990 och som har en mätserie på minst 10 år.

    SMHI publicerar denna gång "Vattenföring i Sverige" i fyra delar. Indelningen av Sverige är densamma som i "Arealer för avrinningsområden", som samtidigt är under utgivning. De olika delarna omfattar

    Del 1 vattendrag som mynnar i BottenvikenDel 2 vattendrag som mynnar i BottenhavetDel 3 vattendrag som mynnar i Egentliga ÖstersjönDel 4 vattendrag som mynnar i Västerhavet ( Öresund, Kattegatt, Skagerrak).

  • 61.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Vattenföring i Sverige. Del 3. Vattendrag till Egentliga Östersjön: Svenskt Vattenarkiv1993Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En viktig uppgift för SMHI är att ge information om vattenföringen i Sveriges vattendrag. "Vattenföringen i Sveriges floder" utkom 1954. Den sammanställdes av Ragnar Melin och innehöll uppgifter tom är 1950. En ny utgåva, ''Vattenföring i Sverige", publicerades 1979. Den innehåller minst 10 år långa mätserier för de vattenföringsstationer som var i drift 1975 samt för vissa tidigare nedlagda stationer.

    Denna utgåva innehåller vattenföringsuppgifter t o m 1990 för de vattenföringsstationer som var i drift 1990 och som har en mätserie på minst 10 år.

    SMHI publicerar denna gång "Vattenföring i Sverige'' i fyra delar. Indelningen av Sverige är densamma som i "Arealer för avrinningsområden", som samtidigt är under utgivning. De olika delarna omfattar

    Del 1 vattendrag som mynnar i BottenvikenDel 2 vattendrag som mynnar i BottenhavetDel 3 vattendrag som mynnar i Egentliga ÖstersjönDel 4 vattendrag som mynnar i Västerhavet ( Öresund, Kattegatt, Skagerrak).

  • 62.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Vattenföring i Sverige. Del 4. Vattendrag till Västerhavet: Svenskt Vattenarkiv1994Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En viktig uppgift för SMH1 är att ge information om vattenföringen i Sveriges vattendrag. "Vattenföringen i Sveriges floder" utkom l954. Den sammanställdes av Ragnar Melin och innehöll uppgifter tom år 1950. En ny utgåva, "Vattenföring i Sverige", publicerades 1979. Den innehåller minst 10 är långa mätserier för de vattenföringsstationer som var i drift 1975 samt för vissa tidigare nedlagda stationer.Denna utgåva innehåller vattenföringsuppgifter tom 1990 för de vattenföringsstationer som var i drift 1990 och som har en rnätserie på minst 10 år.SMHI publicerar denna gäng ''Vattenföring i Sverige" i fyra delar. Indelningen av Sverige är densamma som i "Arealer för avrinningsområden'', som samtidigt är under utgivning.e olika delarna omfattarDel 1 vattendrag som mynnar i BottenvikenDel 2 vattendrag som mynnar i BottenhavetDel 3 vattendrag som mynnar i Egentliga ÖstersjönDel 4 vattendrag som mynnar i Västerhavet ( Öresund, Kattegatt, Skagerrak).

  • 63.
    Andersson, Lars
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Trends in nutrient and oxygen concentrations in the Skagerrak-Kattegat1996Inngår i: Journal of Sea Research, ISSN 1385-1101, E-ISSN 1873-1414, Vol. 35, nr 1-3, s. 63-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Skagerrak and Kattegat form a transition zone between the Baltic and the North Sea. Both areas are subject to increased nutrient loads. In this paper a non-parametric method is used to calculate the changes in nutrient and oxygen concentrations in the area. The period chosen was 1971 to 1990 and the parameters were dissolved inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, silicate, total nitrogen and total phosphorus together with oxygen and oxygen saturation. Data have been sorted after salinity and the analyses have been carried out for different water masses and subareas. The results demonstrate that both surface and deep water in the Kattegat show increasing trends during winter for all nutrients except silicate. During summer there is an increase in total nitrogen and total phosphorus while silicate shows a decrease. In the Skagerrak the picture is more variable; in the eastern part, however, there is a clear increase for all inorganic nutrients during winter in the coastal water. Oxygen shows a declining trend in most areas.

  • 64.
    Andersson, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Rahm, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    THERMALLY DRIVEN CIRCULATION WITHIN AN EXPERIMENTAL ENCLOSURE1990Inngår i: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 111-129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 65.
    Andersson, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    RYDBERG, L
    EXCHANGE OF WATER AND NUTRIENTS BETWEEN THE SKAGERRAK AND THE KATTEGAT1993Inngår i: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 159-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 66.
    Andersson, Lotta
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Experiences of the use of riverine nutrient models in stakeholder dialogues2004Inngår i: International Journal of Water Resources Development, ISSN 0790-0627, E-ISSN 1360-0648, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 399-413Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of models to assist in stakeholder dialogues is assessed regarding options for the reduction of riverine nitrogen loads in a 357-km(2) river basin in south central Sweden. Scenarios of remedies based on stakeholders' suggestions were used to stimulate discussions in a panel incorporating farmers, municipality staff, politicians and technical advisers. The farmers perceived the model-derived discussion material as valuable, although only average conditions at a generic farm were simulated. The panellists demonstrated caution when using regionalized information, but did not request quantitative uncertainty estimates. There was a desire to have phosphorus included in the model-derived discussion material and to include the impacts of other environmental goals than 'no eutrophication'. The inclusion of different stakeholder groups in the panel sessions was acknowledged as a way to establish a shared perception of the existing environmental status of the basin and to define the pros and cons of various remedies. This was seen by the panellists as a way to facilitate local implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Use of model-stimulated local stakeholder panels is also a way to ensure that involved stakeholders perceive local environmental goals as realistic and acceptable. However, to establish river-basin stakeholder dialogues as part of the nation-wide implementation of the WFD directive, it will be necessary to develop a model approach that can be used by local advisers. Perhaps the most critical factor is the moderators' ability to provide an atmosphere of mutual respect between all those involved in contrast to performing one-way lectures to the participants.

  • 67.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Consequences of changed wetness on riverine nitrogen - human impact on retention vs. natural climatic variability2001Inngår i: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 93-105Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The HBV-N model was used for a scenario analysis of changes in nitrogen retention and transport caused by alterations of wetness due to land drainage, lowering of lakes, building of dams and climatic variability in a river basin in south-central Sweden (1885-1994). In general, dams were situated in locations more favourable for retention, compared to the lowered lakes. Rather modest conversions of water bodies only changed nitrogen transport by about 3%. The 180-times-larger increase of (mainly) tile-drained agricultural land had, according to simulations, increased the nitrogen transport by 17%, due to reduced retention. However, compared to human-induced alteration of the landscape N retention, the choice of 10-year periods of climatological data had the overriding effect on the calculated nitrogen transport. Weather-induced variations resulted in a 13% difference in nitrogen retention between various 10-year periods. When the model was driven by climatological data from the driest 10-year period (1905-1914), the estimated average annual load was only half of that obtained with climatological data from the wettest 10-year period (1975-1984).

  • 68.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Modelling of human and climatic impact on nitrogen load in a Swedish river 1885-19942003Inngår i: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 497, nr 1-3, s. 63-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in environmental conditions within a river basin in South Central Sweden (1400 km(2)) and impacts on riverine nitrogen (N) transport were evaluated. A historical database was compiled and the process-based HBV-N model used to estimate flow normalised N loads in 1885, 1905, 1927, 1956, 1976, and 1994, using a standard climatological record (1985-1994). The study shows the value of process-based modelling in environmental impact assessment, by making it possible to assess and integrate the effect of a number of factors, both with regard to human impact and natural climatic variability. Factors taken into account include: the effects of land use, agricultural practices, atmospheric deposition, human dietary intake, use of flush toilets, lowering of lakes, building of dams, and climatic variability. For all years studied, agriculture was the overriding source of N, and changes in riverine N over time mainly reflected changes in land use and agricultural practices. In spite of decreasing N-leaching from agriculture, the net load remained fairly constant between 1885 and 1927, due to reduced N retention. Drainage of agricultural land had a dominating impact on reducing N retention, which increased the N loads, while the effects of the lowering of lake levels and dam building were less pronounced. Household N emission per capita was higher in 1994 than in 1927, as the increased consumption of meat and dairy products alone resulted in a higher increase of the emission than was compensated for with wastewater treatment improvement. In addition, introduction of flush toilets increased the emission from households. In total, the net load in 1976 was twofold higher than that in 1885, 1905 and 1927, due to increased leaching from agriculture, wastewater emission, and atmospheric deposition on lake surfaces. Finally, the impact of climatological variability was assessed, using a 110-yr climatological record. The choice of 10-yr period of climatological data was the factor that had the largest impact on calculated N load.

  • 69.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Bonell, M
    Moody, D W
    Special thematic issue: Hydrology for the environment. life and policy (Help) Programme - Foreword2004Inngår i: International Journal of Water Resources Development, ISSN 0790-0627, E-ISSN 1360-0648, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 267-274Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 70.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Hellström, Sara-Sofia
    SMHI.
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI.
    Losjö, Katarina
    SMHI.
    Rummukainen, Marku
    SMHI.
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    SMHI.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Modeling report: Climate change impacts on water resources in the Pungwe drainage basin2006Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 71.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Olsson, Johanna Alkan
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Use of participatory scenario modelling as platforms in stakeholder dialogues2008Inngår i: Water S.A., ISSN 0378-4738, E-ISSN 1816-7950, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 439-447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A participatory methodology, based on dialogues between stakeholders and experts has been developed and tested in the drainage area to Kaggebo Bay in the Baltic Sea. This study is focused on the EU Water Framework Directive, with emphasis on reduction of eutrophication. The drainage area is included in the WFD administrative area of the Motala Strom River basin. A similar approach is now applied in a recently initiated project in the Thukela River basin, with focus on impacts of climate change on water resources. The methodology is based on the idea that a catchment model serves as a platform for the establishment of a common view of present conditions and the causes behind these conditions. In the following steps, this is followed by model-assisted agreement on environmental goals (i.e. what do we want the future to look like?) and local agreement on a remedy or mitigation plans in order to reduce environmental impact (e. g. eutrophication); alternatively to adapt to conditions that cannot be determined by local actions (e. g. climate change). By involving stakeholder groups in this model-supported stepwise process, it is ensured that all stakeholder groups involved have a high degree of confidence in the presented model results, and thereby enable various actors involved to share a common view, regarding both present conditions, goals and the way to reach these goals. Although this is a process that is time-(and cost-) consuming, it is hypothesised that the use of this methodology is two-pronged: it increases the willingness to carry out remedies or necessary adaptations to a changing environment, and it increases the level of understanding between the various groups and therefore ameliorates the potential for future conflicts. Compared to traditional use of model results in environmental decision-making, the experts' role is transformed from a one-way communication of final results to assistance in the various steps of the participatory process.

  • 72.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Rosberg, Jörgen
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Pers, Charlotta
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Olsson, Jonas
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Estimating catchment nutrient flow with the HBV-NP model: Sensitivity to input data2005Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, nr 7, s. 521-532Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic catchment model HBV-N has been further developed by adding routines for phosphorus transport and is now called the HBV-NP model. The model was shown to satisfactorily simulate nutrient dynamics in the Ronnea catchment (1 900 km(2)). Its sensitivity to input data was tested, and results demonstrated the increased sensitivity to the selection of input data on a subcatchment scale when compared with the catchment scale. Selection of soil and land use databases was found to be critical in some subcatchments but did not have a significant impact on a catchment scale. Although acceptable on a catchment scale, using templates and generalization, with regards to emissions from point sources and rural households, significantly decreased model performance in certain subcatchments when compared with using more detailed local information. A division into 64 subcatchments resulted in similar model performance at the catchment outlet when compared with a lumped approach. Adjusting the imported matrixes of the regional leaching of nitrogen, from agricultural land, against mean subcatchment water percolation did not have a significant impact on the model performance.

  • 73.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Wilk, Julie
    Graham, Phil
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Warburton, Michele
    Design and test of a model-assisted participatory process for the formulation of a local climate adaptation plan2013Inngår i: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 217-228Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the design and testing of a model-assisted participatory process for the formulation of a local adaptation plan to climate change. The pilot study focused on small-scale and commercial agriculture, water supply, housing, wildlife, livestock and biodiversity in the Thukela River basin, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The methodology was based on stakeholders identifying and ranking the severity of climate-related challenges, and downscaled stakeholder-identified information provided by modellers, with the aim of addressing possible changes of exposure in the future. The methodology enables the integration of model-based information with experience and visions based on local realities. It includes stakeholders' own assessments of their vulnerability to prevailing climate variability and the severity, if specified, of climate-related problems that may occur more often in the future. The methodology made it possible to identify the main issues to focus on in the adaptation plan, including barriers to adaptation. We make recommendations for how to design a model-assisted participatory process, emphasizing the need for transparency, to recognize the interests of the stakeholders, good advance planning, local relevance, involvement of local champions, and adaptation of Information material to each group's previous experience and understanding.

  • 74.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Graham, Phil
    n/a.
    Warburton, Michele
    n/a.
    Local assessment of vulnerability to climate change impacts on water resources in the Upper Thukela River Basin, South Africa: Recommendations for Adaptation2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report originates from a project entitled Participatory Modelling for Assessment of Local Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Water Resources (PAMO), financed by the Swedish Development Agency and Research Links cooperation (NRF and the Swedish Research Council).

    The project is based on interactions between stakeholders in the Mhlwazini/Bergville area of the Thukela River basin, climate and water researchers from the University of KwaZulu-Natal (Pietermaritzburg Campus) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) during a series of workshops held in 2007-2009. Between the workshops, the researcher’s compiled locally relevant climate change related information, based on requests from the workshop participants, as a basis for this adaptation plan.

    The aim is to provide a local assessment of vulnerability to climate change impacts on water resources and adaptation strategies. The assessment identifies existing climate-water related problems, current adaptation strategies and recommendations for future action based on likelihoods for change and the severity if such changes will occur.

  • 75.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Wilk, Julie
    Todd, Martin C.
    Hughes, Denis A.
    Earle, Anton
    Kniveton, Dominic
    Layberry, Russet
    Savenije, Hubert H. G.
    Impact of climate change and development scenarios on flow patterns in the Okavango River2006Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 331, nr 1-2, s. 43-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper lays the foundation for the use of scenario modelling as a tool for integrated water resource management in the Okavango River basin. The Pitman hydrological model is used to assess the impact of various development and climate change scenarios on downstream river flow. The simulated impact on modelled river discharge of increased water use for domestic use, livestock, and informal irrigation (proportional to expected population increase) is very limited. Implementation of all likely potential formal irrigation schemes mentioned in available reports is expected to decrease the annual flow by 2% and the minimum monthly flow by 5%. The maximum possible impact of irrigation on annual average flow is estimated as 8%, with a reduction of minimum monthly flow by 17%. Deforestation of all areas within a 1 km buffer around the rivers is estimated to increase the flow by 6%. However, construction of all potential hydropower reservoirs in the basin may change the monthly mean flow distribution dramatically, although under the assumed operational rules, the impact of the dams is only substantial during wet years. The simulated impacts of climate change are considerable larger that those of the development scenarios (with exception of the high development scenario of hydropower schemes) although the results are sensitive to the choice of GCM and the IPCC SRES greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios. The annual mean water flow predictions for the period 2020-2050 averaged over scenarios from all the four GCMs used in this study are close to the present situation for both the A2 and B2 GHG scenarios. For the 2050-2080 and 2070-2099 periods the all-GCM mean shows a flow decrease of 20% (14%) and 26% (17%), respectively, for the A2 (B2) GHG scenarios. However, the uncertainty in the magnitude of simulated future changes remains high. The simulated effect of climate change on minimum monthly flow is proportionally higher than the impact on the annual mean flow. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 76.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Hansson, Martin
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Bjurström, Joel
    Simonsson, Daniel
    Naturtypsbestämning av miljöövervakningsstationer SMHI pelagial miljöövervakning2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Provtagningsstationerna i den nationella miljöövervakningen i havsmiljö är inte naturtypsbestämda. Detta innebär att insamlad miljöövervakningsdata inte kan användas fullt ut till bedömningar för artikel 17, art- och habitatdirektivet, samt för havsmiljödirektivet.  HaV har finansierat och uppdragit åt SMHI att undersöka möjligheterna att på ett enkelt sätt naturtypsklassa de månatliga miljöövervakningsstationerna som SMHI provtar. Uppdraget avsåg att testa utrustning och med hjälp av dropvideo undersöka om det är möjligt att, och i så fall, naturtypsbestämma stationer i utsjön under decemberexpeditionen 2016.  SMHI har konstruerat en rigg och utfört provtagning på 11 av 25 miljöövervakningsstationer. Belysningsproblematik och väder reducerade antalet provtagna stationer. SMHI anser att riggen, med justerad ljuskälla, är ett bra verktyg för visuell registrering av naturtyp på miljöövervakningsstationerna i utsjön.  Dock föreslås ett antal justeringar av riggen för att öka kvalitén på bildmaterialet samt att öka möjligheten att utföra ytterligare bedömningar av bildmaterialet.  Merparten av de undersökta bottnarna visar på väldigt finkornigt materiel, likt silt/lera. Ett fåtal arter har registrerats och ingen större mängd växtlighet. Merparten av de undersökta stationerna uppfyllde inte kriteriet för någon av habitatdirektivets naturtyper. På två stationer har naturtyp registreras som 1160 Vikar och sund, innehållandes1110 Sandbankar. För HUB Underwater biotopes har AB.H3O Baltic aphotic muddy sediment characterized by infaunal echinoderms registrerats på stationen P2 och AB.M4U Baltic aphotic mixed substrate characterized by no macrocommunity på stationerna BY5 och BY4.  SMHI rekommenderar en genomgång av det insamlade materialet med ArtDatabanken och/eller ytterligare expert för att säkerställa bedömning, utföra vissa rekommendationer samt säkerställa material som ska rapporteras till datavärd.SMHI rekommenderar ytterligare visuell provtagning på resterande stationer, samt kompletterande provtagning på stationer där kvalité på bild eller ljus varit bristfällig, eller där ArtDatabanken eller möjlig ytterligare expert rekommenderar ytterligare provtagning. Ytterligare expert kan komma att rekommendera hugg som kompletterande provtagning till den visuella metoden.En visuell undersökning på samtliga 25 stationer, med en landning per station, uppskattas förlänga en expedition med ca 11,5-13,5 timmar. 

  • 77.
    Andersson, Ramon
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Hållbart jordbruk inom vattenskyddsområde: En studie om Sverige, Danmark, Frankrike och Tyskland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    To guarantee protection of our drinking water, water catchment protections are established. These are divided into three different zones and in the first zone it is most likely that an activity, such as agriculture, will contaminate the water resource. Hence the activities are strongly regulated or banned. The EU communion is working towards a sustained water quality through several directives; Nitrate Directive, Waterframwork directives and Sustainable use of pesticide directive. The main purpose is to regulate the diffuse pollution from agriculture.This thesis is about how Denmark, Germany and France are working towards a sustainable agriculture within water protection areas. Sweden is also discussed but mainly about two different methods applied in Linköpings and Ljungbys municipalties.How the different countries work is mainly the same due to the directives. However, there are some interesting water management methods to observe such as voluntary agreements between water companies and farmers. Moreover, the sustainability perspective is approached in a larger scale where you and I as consumers also contribute via consumer-pays-principle. Therefore, we are, by our demand for water, the problem but also the solution and together we can contribute with good social, economic and ecological conditions for ourselves and the farmer.

  • 78.
    Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Lundkvist, Elin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Torkans effekt på dricksvattenförsörjningen i Mälarregionen: En studie om kommuners arbete med vattenfrågor utifrån erfarenheter från 20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka om kommuner i Mälarregionen drabbades av låga yt- och grundvattennivåer under sommaren 2017, hur situationen hanterades, deras dagliga arbete med vattenfrågor och om handlingsplaner fanns för låga nivåer före 2017. Vi vill även se hur kommunerna ställer sig till klimatförändringar samt sammanställa vilka roller och ansvar som olika myndigheter har när det kommer till vattenförsörjning. Arbetets undersökningsområde begränsades till 39 kommuner i fyra län: Södermanlands, Upplands, Västmanlands och Örebro län. För att besvara syftet skickades en enkät ut till kommunerna och intervjuer genomfördes med två av kommunerna. En litteraturstudie genomfördes för att kunna besvara ansvarsfördelningen mellan olika myndigheter. Enkäten besvarades av 26 kommuner. Det viktigaste resultat var att kommunerna, trots vattennivåer under det normala, inte upplevde vattenbrist i den omfattningen som vi trott. Fem kommuner angav att de drabbades av vattenbrist. Den huvudsakliga åtgärden som infördes var bevattningsförbud. Från enkäten framkom att det i stor utsträckning saknats handlingsplaner för att hantera en situation med vattenbrist innan 2017. Majoriteten av kommunerna tror att deras vattenförsörjning kan påverkas av klimatförändringar, men bara 14 angav att de har en handlingsplan för det. Resultatet som framkom från intervjuerna gällde främst processen för införandet av skyddsområden. Även i litteraturstudien framkom det att arbetet med vattenskyddsområden inte går i den takt som är nödvändig för att nå målen förhållbar och långsiktig dricksvattenförsörjning.

  • 79.
    Andin, Caroline
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Sundin, Madelene
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Jämförelse av Sveriges geologiska undersöknings och Naturvårdsverkets extraktionsmetoder för metaller i morän2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 80.
    Andreasson, Arnold
    et al.
    Arnold Andreasson Konsult AB.
    Strömberg, Patrik
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Prager, Maria
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Nexelius, Nils
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Automatisering av nationellt dataflöde till ICES genom skördning - en förstudie2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    SMHI är, på uppdrag av Havs- och vattenmyndigheten (HaV), datavärd för svenska marina miljöövervakningsdata. En central del i uppdraget är att årligen rapportera nationellt insamlad data till nternationella Havsforskningsrådet, ICES.

    För biologiska data sker en årlig rapportering av data levererade från föregående års övervakning. Leveranserna sker på ett format definierat av ICES. Leveransernas innehåll valideras av SMHI mot ICES valideringstjänst DATSU via uppladdning till en webbsida. När samtliga fel är rättade skickas leveranserna till ICES via e-post.

    SMHI har fått ett uppdrag från HaV att utreda om det finns en möjlighet att låta ICES skörda data som ersättning för den nuvarande hanteringen med manuella leveranser. ICES har också ett intresse av att utreda om skördning av data är en lämplig metod för framtida inhämtande av data. ICES vill även testa möjligheterna att byta leveransformat till ett nytt XML-baserat format.

    SMHI föreslår en lösning där SMHI:s tjänst för maskin-maskin-kommunikation, SHARKdata, används. SHARKdata kommer att utökas för att kunna generera exportpaket i enlighet med ICES nya XML-baserade format. ICES har även kompletterat sin valideringstjänst DATSU med ett gränssnitt för maskin-maskinkommunikation så att man med automatik kan anropa DATSU och validera exportpaket. En prototyp har utvecklats för att visa hur SHARKdata kan användas för denna typ av hantering med skördning. I prototypen ingår även konvertering till en inledande testversion av XML-formatet för datatypen Zoobenthos.

    Det fortsatta projektet efter denna förstudie planeras som ett samarbete mellan SMHI och ICES. SMHI utvecklar fortlöpande SHARKdata i takt med att ICES släpper specifikationer på format för nya datatyper, parallellt med att data rapporteras på nuvarande sätt. Detta arbete beräknas pågå under 2016 och 2017, med varierande intensitet. Efter denna test- och utvecklingsperiod antas ICES släppa en ny version av sitt rapporteringformat och då kan SMHI gå över till det nya rapporteringssättet.

  • 81. Andrejev, Oleg
    et al.
    Soomere, Tarmo
    Sokolov, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Myrberg, Kai
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    The role of the spatial resolution of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for marine transport risk assessment2011Inngår i: Oceanologia, ISSN 0078-3234, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 309-334Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the sensitivity of a novel method for quantifying the environmental risks associated with the current-driven transport of adverse impacts released from offshore sources (e.g. ship traffic) with respect to the spatial resolution of the underlying hydrodynamic model. The risk is evaluated as the probability of particles released in different sea areas hitting the coast and in terms of the time after which the hit occurs (particle age) on the basis of a statistical analysis of large sets of 10-day long Lagrangian trajectories calculated for 1987-1991 for the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. The relevant 21) maps are calculated using the OAAS model with spatial resolutions of 2, 1 and 0.5 nautical miles (nm) and with identical initial, boundary and forcing conditions from the Rossby Centre 3D hydrodynamic model (RCO, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute). The spatially averaged values of the probability and particle age display hardly any dependence on the resolution. They both reach almost identical stationary levels (0.67-0.69 and ca 5.3 days respectively) after a few years of simulations. Also, the spatial distributions of the relevant fields are qualitatively similar for all resolutions. In contrast, the optimum locations for fairways depend substantially on the resolution, whereas the results for the 2 nm model differ considerably from those obtained using finer-resolution models. It is concluded that eddy-permitting models with a grid step exceeding half the local baroclinic Rossby radius are suitable for a quick check of whether or not any potential gain from this method is feasible, whereas higher-resolution simulations with eddy-resolving models are necessary for detailed planning. The asymptotic values of the average probability and particle age are suggested as an indicator of the potential gain from the method in question and also as a new measure of the vulnerability of the nearshore of water bodies to offshore traffic accidents.

  • 82.
    André, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Simonsson, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Identification of regional stakeholders for adaptation to climate change:  2009Inngår i:  , 2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve decisions and awareness considering climate change it is argued that stakeholder interaction and dialogue is essential. Engaging stakeholders in research on adaptation thus requires analysis of stakeholder landscape and identification of relevant actors at different levels in society. The term 'stakeholder' is broad and researchers and practitioners might have both interrelated and contrasting views on who is at stake, the need for adaptation and climate risks.

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the stakeholder landscape in a Swedish region, as part of increasing the understanding of the adaptation process. The stakeholder analysis has been initiated by the research teams through stakeholder mapping and complemented by local and regional actors' notions of who is, or should be, involved and active stakeholders in adaptation to climate change. The results indicate the importance of careful stakeholder analysis for sustainable adaptation. The actors' expert knowledge of the regions deepens the picture, show important links and gaps between different actors and illuminate unclear relationships and responsibilities as well as identify those actors who have important roles to play.

  • 83.
    Andréasson, Johan
    et al.
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Bergström, Sten
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Graham, Phil
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Hydrological change - Climate change impact simulations for Sweden2004Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 33, nr 4-5, s. 228-234Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change resulting from the enhanced greenhouse effect is expected to give rise to changes in hydrological systems. This hydrological change, as with the change in climate variables, will vary regionally around the globe. Impact studies at local and regional scales are needed to assess how different regions will be affected. This study focuses on assessment of hydrological impacts of climate change over a wide range of Swedish basins. Different methods of transferring the signal of climate change from climate models to hydrological models were used. Several hydrological model simulations using regional climate model scenarios from Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme (SWECLIM) are presented. A principal conclusion is that subregional impacts to river flow vary considerably according to whether a basin is in northern or southern Sweden. Furthermore, projected hydrological change is just as dependent on the choice of the global climate model used for regional climate model boundary conditions as the choice of anthropogenic emissions scenario.

  • 84.
    Andrén, Hanna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Tillförlitligheten hos översvämningskartering: Utbredningsjämförelse med översvämningen i Hallsberg 20152016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
  • 85.
    Angirekula, Ravi Kumar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Low-Cost treatment methods for purification of Phenolic compounds suitable for ASEAN Agro/forest Industrial Wastewater2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid industrialization of South East Asian countries is causing severe industrial wastewater pollution. Large number of agro/forest industries such as agro-chemicals, rubber, oil palm, pulp and paper and wood preserving industries are contributing major role in industrial pollution. These industries discharging huge amounts of organic pollutants like phenolic compounds into the environment. Phenolic compounds showing significant negative impacts on water resources, aquatic life and human health. The growing problems of industrial wastewater pollution are exacerbated for many developing countries which cannot afford to construct or operate conventional wastewater treatment facilities. It has thus become imperative to develop and popularize low-cost and energy-saving technologies for wastewater treatment. Lack of treatment facilities, feeble environmental legislations and less financial resources of agro-forest industries are might be the some of causes for present situation of industrial pollution. This paper analyzed different low cost treatment methods such as stabilization ponds, constructed treatment wetlands, bioadsorbents and adsorption process on activated carbons prepared from low cost agro/forest based waste byproducts to purify the phenolic compounds present in the agro/forest industrial wastewaters. And also it analyzed the suitability of treatment methods for the circumstances and conditions of agro/forest based industries of ASEAN countries. Based on different factors such as suitability of any kind of physical, chemical and biological conditions, low cost, availability of raw material and availability land adsorption process on low cost activated carbons seem to be most promising treatment method for purification of phenols in ASEAN agro/forest industrial wastewaters.

  • 86. Archfield, Stacey A.
    et al.
    Clark, Martyn
    Arheimer, Berit
    Hay, Lauren E.
    McMillan, Hilary
    Kiang, Julie E.
    Seibert, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Hakala, Kirsti
    Bock, Andrew
    Wagener, Thorsten
    Farmer, William H.
    Andreassian, Vazken
    Attinger, Sabine
    Viglione, Alberto
    Knight, Rodney
    Markstrom, Steven
    Over, Thomas
    Accelerating advances in continental domain hydrologic modeling2015Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 51, nr 12, s. 10078-10091Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past, hydrologic modeling of surface water resources has mainly focused on simulating the hydrologic cycle at local to regional catchment modeling domains. There now exists a level of maturity among the catchment, global water security, and land surface modeling communities such that these communities are converging toward continental domain hydrologic models. This commentary, written from a catchment hydrology community perspective, provides a review of progress in each community toward this achievement, identifies common challenges the communities face, and details immediate and specific areas in which these communities can mutually benefit one another from the convergence of their research perspectives. Those include: (1) creating new incentives and infrastructure to report and share model inputs, outputs, and parameters in data services and open access, machine-independent formats for model replication or reanalysis; (2) ensuring that hydrologic models have: sufficient complexity to represent the dominant physical processes and adequate representation of anthropogenic impacts on the terrestrial water cycle, a process-based approach to model parameter estimation, and appropriate parameterizations to represent large-scale fluxes and scaling behavior; (3) maintaining a balance between model complexity and data availability as well as uncertainties; and (4) quantifying and communicating significant advancements toward these modeling goals.

  • 87. Archfield, Stacey A.
    et al.
    Clark, Martyn
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Hay, Lauren E.
    McMillan, Hilary
    Kiang, Julie E.
    Seibert, Jan
    Hakala, Kirsti
    Bock, Andrew
    Wagener, Thorsten
    Farmer, William H.
    Andreassian, Vazken
    Attinger, Sabine
    Viglione, Alberto
    Knight, Rodney
    Markstrom, Steven
    Over, Thomas
    Accelerating advances in continental domain hydrologic modeling2015Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 51, nr 12, s. 10078-10091Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past, hydrologic modeling of surface water resources has mainly focused on simulating the hydrologic cycle at local to regional catchment modeling domains. There now exists a level of maturity among the catchment, global water security, and land surface modeling communities such that these communities are converging toward continental domain hydrologic models. This commentary, written from a catchment hydrology community perspective, provides a review of progress in each community toward this achievement, identifies common challenges the communities face, and details immediate and specific areas in which these communities can mutually benefit one another from the convergence of their research perspectives. Those include: (1) creating new incentives and infrastructure to report and share model inputs, outputs, and parameters in data services and open access, machine-independent formats for model replication or reanalysis; (2) ensuring that hydrologic models have: sufficient complexity to represent the dominant physical processes and adequate representation of anthropogenic impacts on the terrestrial water cycle, a process-based approach to model parameter estimation, and appropriate parameterizations to represent large-scale fluxes and scaling behavior; (3) maintaining a balance between model complexity and data availability as well as uncertainties; and (4) quantifying and communicating significant advancements toward these modeling goals.

  • 88.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Andersson, Lotta
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Alkan-Olsson, J.
    Jonsson, A.
    Using catchment models to establish measure plans according to the Water Framework Directive2007Inngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 56, nr 1, s. 21-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A participatory modelling process (DEMO) has been developed and applied in a 350 km(2) catchment in southern Sweden. The overall goal is to improve the dialogues between experts and local stakeholders by using numerical models as a platform for discussions. The study is focused on reducing nutrient load and on the development of a locally established measure plan, which is requested by the European Water Framework Directive. The HBV-NP model was chosen as it can calculate effects and costs for different allocations of several combined measures in a catchment. This paper shows the impact of including local data in the modelling process vs. using more general data. It was found that modelled diffuse nutrient pollution was highly modified when including local know-how, soft information and more detailed field investigations. Leaching from arable land was found to be 35% higher using more detailed information on for instance, agricultural practices, crop and soil distribution. Moreover, the stakeholders' acceptance of model results and reliance on experts was increased by applying the participatory process and involving stakeholders in the modelling procedure.

  • 89.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Andersson, Lotta
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Larsson, M
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Olsson, Jonas
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Pers, Charlotta
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Modelling diffuse nutrient flow in eutrophication control scenarios2004Inngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 37-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Water Management Research Programme (VASTRA) focuses on the development and demonstration of tools for more efficient eutrophication control when implementing the EU water framework directive in Sweden. During the first half of the programme, models for nitrogen flow were developed, and at present, similar models for phosphorus are under construction (e.g. HBV-P). The programme is interdisciplinary, and scientists are collaborating in actor-games and focus group evaluations including scenario analysis. The scenarios modelled in VASTRA phase 1, show that (i) changed agricultural practices can be the most effective and-least expensive way to reduce nitrogen transport from land to, the sea; (ii) constructed agricultural wetlands may only have small impact on riverine nitrogen transport in some regions, due to natural hydrometeorological dynamics; (iii) removing planktivorous fish may be an efficient way of reducing the algal concentrations in lakes without the undesired side-effect of increased nutrient load to the down-stream river system. In VASTRA phase 11, one of the highlights will be interdisciplinary scenario-modelling of different measure strategies in a pilot catchment of southern Sweden (Ronne a).

  • 90.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Andreasson, Johan
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Fogelberg, S
    Johnsson, H
    Pers, Charlotta
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Persson, K
    Climate change impact on water quality: Model results from southern Sweden2005Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, nr 7, s. 559-566Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting from six regional climate change scenarios, nitrogen leaching from arable-soil, water discharge, and nitrogen retention was modeled in the Ronnea catchment. Additionally, biological response was modeled in the eutrophic Lake Ringsjon. The results are compared with similar studies on other catchments. All scenarios gave similar impact on water quality but varied in quantities. However, one scenario resulted in a different transport pattern due to less-pronounced seasonal variations in the hydrology. On average, the study shows that, in a future climate, we might expect: i) increased concentrations of nitrogen in the arable root zone (+50%) and in the river (+13%); ii) increased annual load of nitrogen from land to sea (+22%) due to more pronounced winter high flow; moreover, remote areas in the catchment may start to contribute to the outlet load; iii) radical changes in lake biochemistry with increased concentrations of total phosphorus (+50%), total nitrogen (+20%), and planktonic algae such as cyanobacteria (+80%).

  • 91.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Modelling nitrogen transport and retention in the catchments of southern Sweden1998Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 471-480Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is suffering from eutrophication and attempts are being made to reduce nutrient loads. This article focuses on nitrogen transport from southern Sweden (145 000 km(2)), and presents a model approach (HBV-N) that has been used in the national decision-making process for best management practices. Calculations of nitrogen leaching, retention in the freshwater system, net transport to the sea, and source apportionment are presented for the period 1985-1994. Input data were handled in GIS, including results from SOIL-N and MATCH. Daily simulations were made in 3725 subbasins with calibration against measured time series at 722 sites. Diffuse source pollution was normally retained by 10-25% before entering the river network. Lakes normally reduced nitrogen transport by 30-40 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) of lake area. On average, 45% of the annual gross load was reduced during transport, but temporal and spatial variations were great. 75 000 tonnes N yr(-1) reached the sea.

  • 92.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Watershed modelling of nonpoint nitrogen losses from arable land to the Swedish coast in 1985 and 19942000Inngår i: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 389-404Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication problems in the Baltic Sea have drawn attention to the contribution of nutrients from surrounding countries. By using the HBV-N model in southern Sweden (145 000 km(2)) daily nitrogen leaching, reduction in rivers and lakes, net transport to the sea and source apportionment have been calculated in 3725 subbasins for the period 1985-1994, with calibration at 722 sites against measured time series. On average, 48% of the nonpoint losses from agriculture were reduced during the transport towards the sea, which left about 33 500 tonnes in annual mean net transport. This represents 45% of the total land-based load. Land cover and emissions for the years of 1985 and 1994 were used in two separate simulations of the 10-year period. The normalized gross leakage from arable land in 1985 was estimated to 29 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), which corresponds to 15 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) in net leakage to the sea. In 1994 these transports were reduced by 20 and 15%, and thereby the total load on the sea was decreased by 7%. This is still far from the Swedish goal of 50% reduction. The article presents the spatial variation of nitrogen leakage and retention within the southern half of Sweden, and emphasizes the importance of allocating measures where down-stream retention is low in order to achieve efficiency with respect to the sea. It is shown that the model approach may be used in the decision making process for best management practices in watersheds. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 93.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Dahne, Joel
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Climate Change Impact on Riverine Nutrient Load and Land-Based Remedial Measures of the Baltic Sea Action Plan2012Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, nr 6, s. 600-612Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce eutrophication of the Baltic Sea, all nine surrounding countries have agreed upon reduction targets in the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). Yet, monitoring sites and model concepts for decision support are few. To provide one more tool for analysis of water and nutrient fluxes in the Baltic Sea basin, the HYPE model has been applied to the region (called Balt-HYPE). It was used here for experimenting with land-based remedial measures and future climate projections to quantify the impacts of these on water and nutrient loads to the sea. The results suggest that there is a possibility to reach the BSAP nutrient reduction targets by 2100, and that climate change may both aggravate and help in some aspects. Uncertainties in the model results are large, mainly due to the spread of the climate model projections, but also due to the hydrological model.

  • 94.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Dahne, Joel
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Strömqvist, Johan
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Water and nutrient simulations using the HYPE model for Sweden vs. the Baltic Sea basin - influence of input-data quality and scale2012Inngår i: HYDROLOGY RESEARCH, ISSN 1998-9563, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 315-329Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water resource management is often based on numerical models, and large-scale models are sometimes used for international strategic agreements. Sometimes the modelled area entails several political entities and river basins. To avoid methodological bias in results, methods and databases should be homogenous across political and geophysical boundaries, but this may involve fewer details and more assumptions. This paper quantifies the uncertainty when the same model code is applied using two different input datasets; a more detailed one for the country of Sweden (S-HYPE) and a more general one for the entire Baltic Sea basin (Balt-HYPE). Results from the two model applications were compared for the Swedish landmass and for two specific Swedish river basins. The results show that both model applications may be useful in providing spatial information of water and nutrients at various scales. For water discharge, most relative errors are <10% for S-HYPE and <25% for Balt-HYPE. Both applications reproduced the most mean concentration for nitrogen within 25% of the observed mean values, but phosphorus showed a larger scatter. Differences in model set-up were reflected in the simulation of both spatial and temporal dynamics. The most sensitive data were precipitation/temperature, agriculture and model parameter values.

  • 95.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Regulation of snow-fed rivers affects flow regimes more than climate change2017Inngår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 96.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Lidén, R.
    SMHI.
    Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations from agricultural catchments - influence of spatial and temporal variables2000Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 227, nr 1-4, s. 140-159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The eutrophication problem has drawn attention to nutrient leaching from arable land in southern Sweden, and further understanding of spatial and temporal variability is needed in order to develop decision-making tools. Thus, the influence of spatial and temporal variables was analysed statistically using empirical time series of different nutrient species from 35 well-documented catchments (2-35 km(2)), which have been monitored for an average of 5 years. In the spatial analysis several significant correlations between winter median concentrations and catchment characteristics were found. The strongest correlation was found between inorganic nitrogen and land use, while concentrations of different phosphorus species were highly correlated to soil texture. Multiple linear regression models gave satisfactory results for prediction of median winter concentrations in unmeasured catchments, especially for inorganic nitrogen and phosphate. In the analysis of temporal variability within catchments, internal variables from a dynamic hydrological model (HBV) were linked to concentration fluxes. It was found that phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen concentrations were elevated during flow increase at low-Bow conditions, while they were diluted as the wetness in the catchment increased. During unmonitored periods regression models were successful in predicting temporal variability of total phosphorus, phosphate and inorganic nitrogen, while organic nitrogen and particulate phosphorus could not be predicted with this approach. Dividing the data into different flow categories did not improve the prediction of nutrient concentration dynamics. The results and literature review presented, confirm parts of the present HBV-W model approach and will be useful for further development of nutrient routines linked to dynamic hydrological models. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 97.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Climate impact on floods: changes in high flows in Sweden in the past and the future (1911-2100)2015Inngår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 771-784Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing discussion whether floods occur more frequently today than in the past, and whether they will increase in number and magnitude in the future. To explore this issue in Sweden, we merged observed time series for the past century from 69 gauging sites throughout the country (450 000 km(2)) with high-resolution dynamic model projections of the upcoming century. The results show that the changes in annual maximum daily flows in Sweden oscillate between dry and wet periods but exhibit no significant trend over the past 100 years. Temperature was found to be the strongest climate driver of changes in river high flows, which are related primarily to snowmelt in Sweden. Annual daily high flows may decrease by on average -1% per decade in the future, mainly due to lower peaks from snowmelt in the spring (-2% per decade) as a result of higher temperatures and a shorter snow season. In contrast, autumn flows may increase by + 3% per decade due to more intense rainfall. This indicates a shift in floodgenerating processes in the future, with greater influence of rain-fed floods. Changes in climate may have a more significant impact on some specific rivers than on the average for the whole country. Our results suggest that the temporal pattern in future daily high flow in some catchments will shift in time, with spring floods in the northern-central part of Sweden occurring about 1 month earlier than today. High flows in the southern part of the country may become more frequent. Moreover, the current boundary between snow-driven floods in northern-central Sweden and rain-driven floods in the south may move toward higher latitudes due to less snow accumulation in the south and at low altitudes. The findings also indicate a tendency in observations toward the modeled projections for timing of daily high flows over the last 25 years. Uncertainties related to both the observed data and the complex model chain of climate impact assessments in hydrology are discussed.

  • 98.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Olsson, Jonas
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    A systematic review of sensitivities in the Swedish flood-forecasting system2011Inngår i: Atmospheric research, ISSN 0169-8095, E-ISSN 1873-2895, Vol. 100, nr 2-3, s. 275-284Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 1970s operational flood forecasts in Sweden have been based on the hydrological HBV model. However, the model is only one component in a chain of processes for production of hydrological forecasts. During the last 35 years there has been considerable work on improving different parts of the forecast procedure and results from specific studies have been reported frequently. Yet, the results have not been compared in any overall assessment of potential for improvements. Therefore we formulated and applied a method for translating results from different studies to a common criterion of error reduction. The aim was to quantify potential improvements in a systems perspective and to identify in which part of the production chain efforts would result in significantly better forecasts. The most sensitive (> 20% error reduction) components were identified for three different operational-forecast types. From the analyses of historical efforts to minimise the errors in the Swedish flood-forecasting system, it was concluded that 1) general runoff simulations and predictions could be significantly improved by model structure and calibration, model equations (e.g. evapotranspiration expression), and new precipitation input using radar data as a complement to station gauges; 2) annual spring-flood forecasts could be significantly improved by better seasonal meteorological forecast, fresh re-calibration of the hydrological model based on long time-series, and data assimilation of snow-pack measurements using georadar or gamma-ray technique; 3) short-term (2 days) forecasts could be significantly improved by up-dating using an auto-regressive method for discharge, and by ensembles of meteorological forecasts using the median at occasions when the deterministic forecast is out of the ensemble range. The study emphasises the importance of continuously evaluating the entire production chain to search for potential improvements of hydrological forecasts in the operational environment. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 99.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Lowgren, M
    Pers, Charlotta
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Rosberg, Jörgen
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Integrated catchment modeling for nutrient reduction: Scenarios showing impacts, potential, and cost of measures2005Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, nr 7, s. 513-520Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A hydrological-based model (HBV-NP) was applied to a catchment (1900 km(2)) in the southern part of Sweden. Careful characterization of the present load situation and the potential for improved treatment or reduced soil leaching were analyzed. Several scenarios were modeled to find strategies to reach the Swedish environmental goals of reducing anthropogenic nitrogen load by 30% and phosphorus load by 20%. It was stated that the goals could be reached by different approaches that would affect different polluters and social sectors. However, no single measure was enough by itself. Instead, a combination of measures was necessary to achieve the goals. The nitrogen goal was the most difficult to attain. In order to be cost-effective, these measures should be applied to areas contributing the most to the net loading of the sea. This strategy could reduce the costs by 70%-80% when compared with implementing the measures in the entire catchment. Integrated catchment models may thus be helpful tools for reducing costs in environmental control programs.

  • 100.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Nilsson, Johanna
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Experimenting with Coupled Hydro-Ecological Models to Explore Measure Plans and Water Quality Goals in a Semi-Enclosed Swedish Bay2015Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. 3906-3924Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Measure plans are currently being developed for the Water Framework Directive (WFD) by European water authorities. In Sweden, such plans include measures for good ecological status in the coastal ecosystem. However, the effect of suggested measures is not yet known. We therefore experimented with different nutrient reduction measures on land and in the sea, using a model system of two coupled dynamic models for a semi-enclosed bay and its catchment. The science question was whether it is worthwhile to implement measures in the local catchment area to reach local environmental goals, or if the status of the Bay is more governed by the water exchange with the Sea. The results indicate that by combining several measures in the catchment, the nutrient load can be reduced by 15%-20%. To reach the same effect on nutrient concentrations in the Bay, the concentrations of the sea must be reduced by 80%. Hence, in this case, local measures have a stronger impact on coastal water quality. The experiment also show that the present targets for good ecological status set up by the Swedish water authorities may be unrealistic for this Bay. Finally, we discuss when and how to use hydro-ecological models for societal needs.

1234567 51 - 100 of 2317
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf