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  • 51.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Djuret som pendlar mellan liv och död2001Inngår i: Finlands natur, ISSN 0356-4509, nr 3, s. 22-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 52.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Inget liv utan vatten2001Inngår i: Forskning och framsteg, ISSN 0015-7937, nr 6, s. 59-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 53.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Long-term experimental manipulation of moisture conditions and its impact on moss-living tardigrades2007Inngår i: Journal of limnology, ISSN 1129-5767, E-ISSN 1723-8633, Vol. 66, nr Suppl. 1, s. 119-125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of long-term experimentally modified hydration conditions on populations of moss-living tardigrades were investigated in a naturally dry South-Swedish alvar environment at the Island Öland. Carbonite rocks with mosses were collected from rock fences and arranged in three experimental groups: increased dehydration, increased hydration, and control. The total experimental period was 18 months, with treatments applied during two 6 month periods. The density of tardigrade populations was recorded. The total population of tardigrades, all species included, tended to be lower under watering treatment, but the difference was only marginally significant. Populations of Richtersius coronifer and Echiniscus spiniger did not respond to the treatments, while populations of Milnesium tardigradum declined under conditions of increased hydration. The density of eggs in R. coronifer was also lower in the watering treatment. Thus, no positive response to increased hydration was recorded. These results suggest that the tardigrade populations either were not limited by the amount of hydrated periods, or that some other factor(s) counteracted the expected positive response to increased hydration. All populations showed a high variability in density among different moss samples, and the rock from which a sample was taken explained a significant part of this variability. This confirms a commonly believed, but seldom quantified, high heterogeneity in density of semi-terrestrial tardigrades, also among seemingly very similar substrates.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 54.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lunds universitet.
    On the disparate terminological use of the concept cryptobiosis2004Inngår i: Journal of Fish Diseases, ISSN 0140-7775, E-ISSN 1365-2761, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 175-176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conceptual and terminological consistency is an important component of science, promoting clarity and preventing confusion. Scientists should therefore always try to avoid giving different meanings to the same term. Apart from this general aspect, multiple definitions of a single term also give rise to practical problems, particularly in connection with literature search. In this note, I will bring attention to a term, cryptobiosis, that has relatively recently appeared in the field of fish disease research, but which has a much longer history and use in a completely different area.

    The concept of cryptobiosis was introduced by Keilin (1959) and defined as ‘the state of an organism when it shows no visible signs of life and when its metabolic activity becomes hardly measurable, or comes reversibly to a standstill’ (Keilin 1959, p. 166). Cryptobiosis replaced the earlier term anabiosis, and is today generally accepted as the common term for different ametabolic life forms (e.g. Clegg 2001; Wright 2001). Cryptobiosis means ‘hidden life’, an appropriate name for a state in which all traditional attributes of life (metabolism, reproduction, DNA replication) are absent. Cryptobiotic life forms have been documented in a variety of organisms, including both plants and animals, but in the latter category mainly among invertebrates (Wright, Westh & Ramløv 1992). Cryptobiosis is commonly induced by desiccation (so-called anhydrobiosis; e.g. Keilin 1959; Jönsson 2001), and aquatic invertebrates such as rotifers, nematodes and tardigrades living in microhabitats exposed to rapid desiccation frequently enter a cryptobiotic state. The research field dealing with cryptobiotic, sensu ametabolic, life forms has expanded considerably during the last 30 years, to a large extent fuelled by the detection of the ability of the disaccharide trehalose to protect dry and frozen biological cells (Crowe 2002).

    More recently, a completely different use of the term cryptobiosis has appeared in the literature on fish disease. In this literature, the term refers to infections of fish by biflagellated protozoa of the genus Cryptobia. Because of the economic importance of salmonid fish, much of the Cryptobia research has focused on Cryptobia salmositica (Katz) that infects salmonids (Woo 2001). The origin of the term cryptobiosis within fish pathology and studies of Cryptobia is unclear, but the earliest record of the term that I have found is Obradovic & Fijan (1979) who used it in a paper on chemotherapeutic treatment against Cryptobia in carp. From 1987 onwards, Woo et al. have used the term frequently (e.g. Woo, Leatherland & Lee 1987; Woo 1987, 1998, 2001), but apparently without any comments on the original proposal of the term. Curiously, few other researchers on Cryptobia seem to have adopted the cryptobiosis terminology, at least as judged from an examination of published titles. Other authors have instead used the expression ‘infections by Cryptobia’. Although using cryptobiosis as a term for infections by Cryptobia is consistent with the rule of creating names for infectious diseases by putting -osis as a post-fix to the name of the infecting organism, in the current case it creates terminological confusion.

    The problems of using the term cryptobiosis in several unrelated fields are obvious. A title such as ‘The biology of cryptobiosis’ would attract the attention of many students interested in ametabolic life forms. They would be disappointed, however, if the paper turned out to be about Cryptobia infection biology. Similarly, fish biologists would find the publication irrelevant to their research if it were properly confined to ametabolic life forms.

    Because ‘cryptobiosis’ as a term for ametabolic life forms is well established and has been used for more than 40 years, it should have priority over the more recent and limited use within fish pathology. I therefore hope that fish pathologists will avoid using the term cryptobiosis and instead use ‘infections by Cryptobia’, ‘cryptobiasis’ or some other term that does not interfere with already established terminology.

  • 55.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Population density and species composition of moss-living tardigrades in a boreo-nemoral forest2003Inngår i: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 356-364Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates for the first time the tardigrade fauna in a variety of different mosses from a coniferous forest and an adjacent clear-cut area in southern Sweden. Tardigrades were found in a majority of the samples. Sixteen species were recorded, of which the cosmopolitan species Macrobiotus hufelandi was the far most common. Some mosses, particularly species with "wefts" growth form, contained more tardigrades than other mosses, indicating that growth form may have an impact on tardigrade abundance. Mosses of the same species collected from a forest and from a clear-cut, respectively, did not show a general trend in the overall abundance of tardigrades, but the forest tended to contain more species. Five species of tardigrades (Murrayon dianae, Isohypsibius sattleri, Platicrista angustata, Diphascon belgicae and Diphascon pingue) never previously reported from Sweden were recorded.

  • 56.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Radiation tolerance in tardigrades: current knowledge and potential applications in medicine2019Inngår i: Cancers, ISSN 2072-6694, Vol. 11, nr 9Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades represent a phylum of very small aquatic animals in which many species have evolved adaptations to survive under extreme environmental conditions, such as desiccation and freezing. Studies on several species have documented that tardigrades also belong to the most radiation-tolerant animals on Earth. This paper gives an overview of our current knowledge on radiation tolerance of tardigrades, with respect to dose-responses, developmental stages, and different radiation sources. The molecular mechanisms behind radiation tolerance in tardigrades are still largely unknown, but omics studies suggest that both mechanisms related to the avoidance of DNA damage and mechanisms of DNA repair are involved. The potential of tardigrades to provide knowledge of importance for medical sciences has long been recognized, but it is not until recently that more apparent evidence of such potential has appeared. Recent studies show that stress-related tardigrade genes may be transfected to human cells and provide increased tolerance to osmotic stress and ionizing radiation. With the recent sequencing of the tardigrade genome, more studies applying tardigrade omics to relevant aspects of human medicine are expected. In particular, the cancer research field has potential to learn from studies on tardigrades about molecular mechanisms evolved to maintain genome integrity.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 57.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Radiation tolerance in tardigrades: evidence and implications2008Inngår i: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, ISSN 1095-6433, E-ISSN 1531-4332, Vol. 151, nr Suppl. 1, s. S33-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades belong to the most desiccation-tolerant animals on Earth, and are able to lose practically all water in their cells without dying. Recent investigations have also confirmed a seminal study from 1964 showing that tardigrades have an extraordinary tolerance also to ionizing radiation. The biochemical and physiological mechanisms behind these two tolerance phenomena, and the possible functional link between them, is currently not understood. However, the finding that desiccated and non-desiccated tardigrades show similar tolerances to ionizing radiation suggests that radiation tolerance in these animals is not a physical function of the dry state. Rather, both mechanisms preventing damage and mechanisms repairing damage to cell components are likely to be involved. The possible involvement of DNA repair mechanisms in tolerances of anhydrobiotic animals make them of special interest for understanding naturally evolved adaptations for coping with environmental agents inducing damage to DNA. I will summarize our current knowledge about radiation tolerance in tardigrades and other anhydrobiotic animals, discuss some of its implications for our understanding of desiccation tolerance, and also present some recent data on radiation tolerance in tardigrade embryos.

  • 58.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Skendödens mästare1999Inngår i: Forskning och framsteg, ISSN 0015-7937, nr 7, s. 38-41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 59.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Tardigrades as a potential model organism in space research2007Inngår i: Astrobiology, ISSN 1531-1074, E-ISSN 1557-8070, Vol. 7, nr 5, s. 757-766Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure of living organisms to open space requires a high level of tolerance to desiccation, cold, and radiation. Among animals, only anhydrobiotic species can fulfill these requirements. The invertebrate phylum Tardigrada includes many anhydrobiotic species, which are adapted to survive in very dry or cold environmental conditions. As a likely by-product of the adaptations for desiccation and freezing, tardigrades also show a very high tolerance to a number of other, unnatural conditions, including exposure to ionizing radiation. This makes tardigrades an interesting candidate for experimental exposure to open space. This paper reviews the tolerances that make tardigrades suitable for astrobiological studies and the reported radiation tolerance in other anhydrobiotic animals. Several studies have shown that tardigrades can survive gamma-irradiation well above 1 kilogray, and desiccated and hydrated (active) tardigrades respond similarly to irradiation. Thus, tolerance is not restricted to the dry anhydrobiotic state, and I discuss the possible involvement of an efficient, but yet undocumented, mechanism for DNA repair. Other anhydrobiotic animals (Artemia, Polypedium), when dessicated, show a higher tolerance to gamma-irradiation than hydrated animals, possibly due to the presence of high levels of the protective disaccharide trehalose in the dry state. Tardigrades and other anhydrobiotic animals provide a unique opportunity to study the effects of space exposure on metabolically inactive but vital metazoans.

  • 60.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    The evolution of life histories in holo-anhydrobiotic animals: a first approach2005Inngår i: Integrative and Comparative Biology, ISSN 1540-7063, E-ISSN 1557-7023, Vol. 45, nr 5, s. 764-770Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The life histories of holo-anhydrobiotic animals differ from those of all other organisms by a regular or irregular entrance into an ametabolic state induced by desiccation. Such ametabolic periods will arrest growth and reproduction completely and thus affect primary life history parameters dramatically. The selective forces and the genetic and physiological trade-offs acting on anhydrobiotic animals are to a large extent unknown. Assuming low growth rates and low juvenile to adult survival, general theoretical models on life history responses to stress predict that anhydrobiotic animals will be selected for a high degree of iteroparity, with low fecundity, large egg size, and low total reproductive investment. A high degree of variability in growth and reproduction should create a selective force in the same direction. Although basic empirical data on life history parameters are very scarce, available observations seem to be consistent with this prediction.

  • 61.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Transdisciplinär forskning visar vägen mot en hållbar ekologisk utveckling2018Inngår i: Man and Biosphere Health: en komplett akademisk miljö / [ed] Ann-Sofi Rehnstam-Holm, Kristianstad: Högskolan Kristianstad , 2018, s. 48-56Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 62.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Tuffa djur prövas i rymden2007Inngår i: Populär astronomi, ISSN 1650-7177, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 10-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 63.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Beery, Thomas H.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Bengtsson, Fredrik
    Helsingborg municipality .
    Björn, Helena
    Lomma municipality.
    Boström, Marja
    Skåne Association of Local Authorities.
    Cole, Scott
    EnviroEconomics Sweden.
    Ersborg, Johanna
    Ecogain AB.
    Franzén, Frida
    Tyréns AB.
    Hasselström, Linus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jephson, Therese
    Skåne Association of Local Authorities.
    Lindblom, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mellin, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Pettersson, Ida
    Ecogain AB.
    Scharin, Henrik
    Formas Research Council for Sustainable Development, Sweden..
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Anthesis Enveco AB.
    Environmental compensation as a policy tool in Swedish municipal planning2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the struggle to reach the national environmental policy objectives, environmental compensation has emerged as a possible policy tool that may contribute to achieving the objectives. In Sweden, environmental compensation is legally mandated mainly in cases of exploitation within Natura 2000 areas and nature reserves, which is handled through the Swedish Environmental Code. In contrast, regulatory support is weak when it comes to compensation for impacts arising from municipal development (e.g., housing, schools, hospitals, local roads, etc), even though detailed development planning is required through the Planning and Building Act. Despite this, some municipalities have voluntarily mainstreamed environmental compensation into their planning processes. In the research project ”MuniComp” (2018-2020) we investigate the more progressive use of environmental compensation in planning in two Southern Swedish municipalities, Lomma and Helsingborg (in the province of Skåne). We analyze the models and processes of compensation used, and planning cases where compensation have been applied, in terms of general aspects and criteria for environmental compensation and in light of the constraints of the Swedish legislative context. In the presentation, the compensation models and some of the results from the compensation cases will be presented.

  • 64.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Beery, Thomas H.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    van Dijk, Jiska
    Norge.
    Bongard, Terje
    Norge.
    Seidl, Roman
    Schweiz.
    Stålhammar, Sanna
    Lund University .
    Managing the transformation –: perspectives from human evolution and human behavioral ecology2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming the current society towards sustainability is a formidable task, requiring changes at many levels of society. Reductions in our use of natural resources and environmental impacts of human societies are necessary, while maintaining a progress in satisfying human well-being in a growing world population. Considerable efforts in developing low impact economy and technology will be needed to change societies towards more sustainable social-ecological systems. However, perhaps the most challenging aspect of this transformation is to manage the very roots of the problem: the human mind. Implicit in many, if not all, of the well-known causes of environmental degradation (e.g., externalities of businesses and individual behavior, tragedy of the unmanaged commons, conspicuous consumption) are a human mind originally evolved to maximize individual reproductive success within short-sighted perspectives and small social groups. We are therefore ill equipped to take responsibility for long-term global environmental problems. We argue that an understanding of human evolution and the functioning of the brain as an adaptive unit underlying human behavior will be necessary in order to create societal reorganization and incentives that successfully deal with the challenges of the Anthropocene. Cooperation and altruistic behavior are certainly part of the human repertoire but only if social contexts are arranged to support these behaviors. We believe that evolutionary approaches to human behavior can no longer be left out of the discussion on the environmental crisis, and in environmental policy, and that managing the transformation will also require applying evolutionary science to human behavior.

  • 65.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Czarnezki, J
    Eco-labeling policy in light of human behavioral ecology and evolutionary psychology2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-labeling can foster environmentally friendly consumer behavior and, in the aggregate, influenceand reduce environmental harm. In light of consumer interest and perceived economics gains for producers and retailers for making and selling a value-added product, eco-labels have proliferated. Despite the increase in green labels, there are concerns about consumer confusion and best practices, and there is limited information on the best process in creating an eco-label, what types of eco-labels are effective in changing consumer behavior, and how they should be designed. Our approach to eco-labeling is that a successful labeling should be rooted in the basic evolutionary psychological mechanisms underlying human decisions and behavior. Thus, development of eco-labeling strategies may benefit from exploration of evolutionary theories on human behavior. Based on this premise we analyse various aspects of eco-labeling and discuss what eco-label strategies anddesigns are expected to be successful and which may not be so.

  • 66.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Ekelund, Nils
    Malmö University.
    Wamsler, Christine
    Lund University .
    Brink, Ebba
    Lund University.
    Beery, Thomas H.
    Palo, Thomas R.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science.
    Schubert, Per
    Malmö University.
    Stålhammar, Sanna
    Lund University .
    Bramryd, Torleif
    Lund University.
    Johansson, Michael
    Lund University.
    Implementering av ekosystemtjänst-begreppet i kommunal verksamhet: slutrapport2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet ECOSIMP handlar om förutsättningen för att implementera begreppet ekosystemtjänst, i fortsättningen kallat EST-begreppet, i kommunerna, och undersöker bland annat hur kommunala tjänstemän och politiker ser på denna utmaning. En intervjustudie genomfördes med tjänstemän och politikeri de sju medverkande kommunerna. I en studie av Malmö stad undersöktes hur ekosystemtjänst-relaterade begrepp har integrerats i översiktsplaner ochutvecklats till ett verktyg i hållbar samhällsplanering. Ett annat delprojekt handlar om miljökonsekvens-bedömningar (MKB) och behovet av metodutveckling för att integrera ekosystemtjänstansatsen i MKB, där möjligheten att integrera ekosystemtjänster i den så kallade RIAM-metoden analyserades. Projektet innehåller också en analys av arbetet med att integrera ekosystemtjänsteri kommunernas klimatanpassning, så kallad ekosystembaserad klimatanpassning (EbA). Slutligen redovisas en analys av det transdisciplinära arbetssättet inom ECOSIMP-projektet. Resultaten visar att EST-begreppet idag är relativt välkänt i kommunerna och att det finns en övervägande positiv inställning till det och förhoppningar om att det ska skapa större möjlighet till miljöhänsyn. Förståelsen av begreppet behöver dock fördjupas i den kommunala verksamheten och distinktionen mellan implicit och explicit användning av EST-begreppet och den relaterade EST-ansatsen förtydligas. Ett antal hinder och möjligheter för att börja använda begreppet och för att uppnå etappmålet 2018 identifierades också. Bland annat upplevs innebörden av etappmålet 2018 som oklar, och bara en mindre del av de intervjuade i kommunerna ansåg att etappmålet skulle nås. Betydelsen av att politiker och allmänhet får kännedom om, och förståelse för, EST-begreppet betonades också. Malmö framstår som ett bra exempel på hur långsiktigt arbete för en hållbar stadsutveckling kan skapa förutsättningar att integrera ekosystemtjänster i den fysiska planeringen. Analysen av EbA i kommunerna visade att initiativ relaterade till klimatanpassning och ekosystemtjänster oftast inte är samordnade, men de skulle kunna utvecklas i den riktningen genom bättre samordning mellan kommunernas olika enheter och integrering av EbA i den långsiktiga planeringen utifrån kunskap om nutida och framtida klimatrisker. Verktyg för att värdera förändringar i EST till följd av mänsklig exploatering behövs och här föreslås en utveckling av den såkallade RIAM-metoden, som kan erbjuda ett sätt att väga in olika EST i planeringen. Den transdisciplinära analysen visar på värdet av nära samverkan mellan forskning och kommuner kring implementeringen av EST-ansatsen, men också på behovet av politiskt och ekonomiskt stöd för att frigöra tid för kommunerna att delta i sådana projekt.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    ECOSIMP slutrapport
  • 67.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Mats
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Torudd, Jesper
    Stockholm University.
    Radiation tolerance in the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer2005Inngår i: International Journal of Radiation Biology, ISSN 0955-3002, E-ISSN 1362-3095, Vol. 81, nr 9, s. 649-656Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Tardigrades have a reputation of being extremely tolerant to extreme environmental conditions including tolerance to ionizing radiation while in a desiccated, anhydrobiotic state. However, the evidence for radio-tolerance in tardigrades is based on only one previous report, and there is an obvious need for complementary studies. In this paper we report an investigation on radio-tolerance in desiccated and hydrated specimens of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Groups of 30 - 50 tardigrades were exposed to gamma-radiation at doses between 1.0 - 9.0 (anhydrobiotic animals) or 0.5 - 5.0 (hydrated animals) kGy and the animals were followed until all were dead. Radiation tolerance of both desiccated and hydrated tardigrades was studied.

    RESULTS: Both desiccated and hydrated animals irradiated with 0.5 and 1 kGy did not deviate in survival from the control groups. Animals from all exposed groups underwent their moulting and egg production cycle, but at decreasing frequency for doses above 1 kGy. No eggs laid by irradiated animals hatched, while eggs laid by controls did so.

    CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that radiation tolerance in tardigrades is not due to biochemical protectants connected with the desiccated state. Rather, cryptobiotic tardigrades may rely on efficient mechanisms of DNA repair, the nature of which is currently unknown.

  • 68.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Hasselström, Linus
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Bengtsson, Fredrik
    Helsingborg kommun.
    Björn, Helena
    Lomma kommun.
    Cole, Scott
    WSP Sweden.
    Doherty, Hannah
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Franzén, Frida
    Tyréns AB.
    Kjeller, Elsie
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Lidfalk, Sofia
    Ecogain AB.
    Lindblom, Erik
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Mellin, Anna
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Pettersson, Ida
    Ecogain AB.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Holmboe & Skarp AB.
    Ekologisk kompensation som styrmedel i kommunal planering2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet har undersökt erfarenheter av och förutsättningar för att tillämpa ekologisk kompensation inom ramen för den kommunala planeringen. Inom olika delstudier har projektet undersökt ekologisk kompensation som styrmedel, tillämpningen av skadelindringshierarkin, utformningen av kompensationsmodeller och rutiner, användningen av olika modeller för beräkning av förluster och vinster inom kompensationsprojekt, samt allmänhetens preferenser för olika kompensationsalternativ. Projektet har genomförts i nära samarbete med Helsingborgs och Lomma kommun, och Kommunförbundet Skåne har varit projektets kommunikationspartner och arrangör av flera större möten och workshopar med tjänstemän från många kommuner i Skåne. ...

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  • 69.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Herczeg, Gabor
    Finland.
    O´Hara, Robert
    Finland.
    Söderman, Fredrik
    Uppsala University.
    ter Schure, Arnout
    USA.
    Larsson, Per
    Lund University.
    Merilä, Juha
    Finland.
    Sexual patterns of prebreeding energy reserves in the common frog Rana temporaria along a latitudinal gradient2009Inngår i: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 32, nr 5, s. 831-839Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to store energy is an important life history trait for organisms facing long periods without energy income, and in particular for capital breeders such as temperate zone amphibians, which rely on stored energy during reproduction. However, large scale comparative studies of energy stores in populations with different environmental constraints on energy allocation are scarce. We investigated energy storage patterns in spring (after hibernation and before reproduction) in eight common frog (Rana temporaria) populations exposed to different environmental conditions along a 1600 km latitudinal gradient across Scandinavia (range of annual activity period 3-7 months). Analyses of lean body weight (eviscerated body mass), weight of fat bodies, liver weight, and liver fat content, showed that (i) post-hibernation/pre-breeding energy stores increased with increasing latitude in both sexes, (ii) males generally had larger energy reserves than females and (iii) the difference in energy stores between sexes decreased towards the north. Larger energy reserves towards the north can serve as a buffer against less predictable and/or less benign weather conditions during the short activity period, and may also represent a risk-averse tactic connected with a more pronounced iteroparous life history. In females, the continuous and overlapping vitellogenic activity in the north may also demand more reserves in early spring. The general sexual difference could be a consequence of the fact that, at the time of our sampling, females had already invested their energy into reproduction in the given year (i.e. their eggs were already ovulated), while the males' main reproductive activities (e.g. calling, mate searching, sexual competition) occurred later in the season.

  • 70.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Holm, Ingvar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Tassidis, Helena
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Cell biology of the tardigrades: current knowledge and perspectives2019Inngår i: Evo-Devo: Non-model species in cell and developmental biology / [ed] Tworzydlo W., Bilinski S., Cham: Springer, 2019, s. 231-249Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The invertebrate phylum Tardigrada has received much attention for containing species adapted to the most challenging environmental conditions where an ability to survive complete desiccation or freezing in a cryptobiotic state is necessary for persistence. Although research on tardigrades has a long history, the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in molecular biological (“omics”) studies, most of them with the aim to reveal the biochemical mechanisms behind desiccation tolerance of tardigrades. Several other aspects of tardigrade cell biology have been studied, and we review some of them, including karyology, embryology, the role of storage cells, and the question of whether tardigrades are eutelic animals. We also review some of the theories about how anhydrobiotic organisms are able to maintain cell integrity under dry conditions, and our current knowledge on the role of vitrification and DNA protection and repair. Many aspects of tardigrade stress tolerance have relevance for human medicine, and the first transfers of tardigrade stress genes to human cells have now appeared. We expect this field to develop rapidly in the coming years, as more genomic information becomes available. However, many basic cell biological aspects remain to be investigated, such as immunology, cell cycle kinetics, cell metabolism, and culturing of tardigrade cells. Such development will be necessary to allow tardigrades to move from a nonmodel organism position to a true model organism with interesting associations with the current models C. elegans and D. melanogaster.

  • 71.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Hygum, Thomas L
    Danmark.
    Andersen, Kasper N
    Danmark.
    Clausen, Lykke K. B.
    Danmark.
    Møbjerg, Nadja
    Danmark.
    Tolerance to gamma radiation in the marine heterotardigrade, Echiniscoides sigismundi2016Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 12, artikkel-id e0168884Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades belong to the most radiation tolerant animals on Earth, as documented by a number of studies using both low-LET and high-LET ionizing radiation. Previous studies have focused on semi-terrestrial species, which are also very tolerant to desiccation. The predominant view on the reason for the high radiation tolerance among these semi-terrestrial species is that it relies on molecular mechanisms that evolved as adaptations for surviving dehydration. In this study we report the first study on radiation tolerance in a marine tardigrade, Echiniscoides sigismundi. Adult specimens in the hydrated active state were exposed to doses of gamma radiation from 100 to 5000 Gy. The results showed little effect of radiation at 100 and 500 Gy but a clear decline in activity at 1000 Gy and higher. The highest dose survived was 4000 Gy, at which ca. 8% of the tardigrades were active 7 days after irradiation. LD50 in the first 7 days after irradiation was in the range of 1100±1600 Gy. Compared to previous studies on radiation tolerance in semi-terrestrial and limnic tardigrades, Echiniscoides sigismundi seems to have a lower tolerance. However, the species still fits into the category of tardigrades that have high tolerance to both desiccation and radiation, supporting the hypothesis that radiation tolerance is a by-product of adaptive mechanisms to survive desiccation. More studies on radiation tolerance in tardigrade species adapted to permanently wet conditions, both marine and freshwater, are needed to obtain a more comprehensive picture of the patterns of radiation tolerance.

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  • 72.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Järemo, Johannes
    Lund University.
    A model on the evolution of cryptobiosis2003Inngår i: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 331-340Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cryptobiosis is an ametabolic state of life entered by some lower organisms (among metazoans mainly rotifers, tardigrades and nematodes) in response to adverse environmental conditions. Despite a long recognition of cryptobiotic organisms, the evolutionary origin and life history consequences of this biological phenomenon have remained unexplored. We present one of the first theoretical models on the evolution of cryptobiosis, using a hypothetical population of marine tardigrades that migrates between open sea and the tidal zone as the model framework. Our model analyses the conditions under which investments into anhydrobiotic (cryptobiosis induced by desiccation) functions will evolve, and which factors affect the optimal level Of Such investments. In particular, we evaluate how the probability of being exposed to adverse conditions (getting stranded) and the consequences for survival Of Such exposure (getting desiccated) affects the option for cryptobiosis to evolve. The optimal level of investment into anhydrobiotic traits increases with increasing probability of being stranded as well as with increasing negative survival effects of being stranded. However, our analysis shows that the effect on survival of being stranded is a more important parameter than the probability of stranding for the evolution of anhydrobiosis. The existing, although limited, evidence from empirical studies seems to support some of these predictions.

  • 73.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Levin, Eliana B
    USA & Colombia.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholm University.
    Haghdoost, Siamak
    Stockholm University & France.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Mats
    Stockholm University.
    Environmental adaptations: radiation tolerance2019Inngår i: Water bears: the biology of tardigrades / [ed] Ralph O Schill, Springer, 2019, s. 311-330Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies in different species have documented that tardigrades are among the most radiation-tolerant animals on Earth, surviving doses of ionizing radiation on the order of kGy. Both low-LET and high-LET radiation have been used with no apparent differences in the tolerance of the animals. Tolerance to ionizing radiation in tardigrades also seems to be independent of whether the animal has entered a dry anhydrobiotic state or is hydrated with normal activity. However, when exposed to UV radiation, desiccated tardigrades show a higher tolerance than hydrated animals. Recent studies in several species have shown that tardigrade embryos have considerably lower tolerance to ionizing radiation compared to adults, and embryos in the early stage of development are clearly more sensitive to radiation than those in the late developmental stage. The molecular mechanisms behind radiation tolerance in tardigrades are still largely unclear, but available evidence suggests that mechanisms related to both the avoidance of DNA damage and the repair of damage are involved.

  • 74.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Persson, Ola
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Trehalose in three species of desiccation tolerant tardigrades2010Inngår i: Open Zoology Journal, ISSN 1874-3366, Vol. 3, s. 1-5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a study on the presence of the disaccharide trehalose in three desiccation tolerant tardigrades. This sugar has long been suggested to play a protective role in desiccation tolerant animals. Trehalose was found in all species, with increased levels in dehydrated specimens of Macrobiotus islandicus, and possibly also in Macrobiotus krynauwi, both belonging to the family Macrobiotidae. In the third species, Milnesium tardigradum, very low amounts of trehalose were found, with no increase in the dehydrated state. This species has previously been reported to lack trehalose. Induction of trehalose has been reported only for species in the family Macrobiotidae, where also the highest levels have been found. Although the role of trehalose in the desiccation tolerance of tardigrades remains unclear, the diverging patterns in response to desiccation are interesting. Further studies of higher tardigrade taxa are needed in order to understand the evolutionary history of trehalose in these invertebrates.

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  • 75.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Rabbow, Elke
    Tyskland.
    Schill, Ralph O
    Tyskland.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Mats
    Stockholm University.
    Rettberg, Petra
    Tyskland.
    Tardigrades survive exposure to space in low earth orbit2008Inngår i: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 18, nr 17, s. R729-R731Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vacuum (imposing extreme dehydration) and solar/galactic cosmic radiation prevent survival of most organisms in space . Only anhydrobiotic organisms, which have evolved adaptations to survive more or less complete desiccation, have a potential to survive space vacuum, and few organisms can stand the unfiltered solar radiation in space. Tardigrades, commonly known as water-bears, are among the most desiccation and radiation-tolerant animals and have been shown to survive extreme levels of ionizing radiation. Here, we show that tardigrades are also able to survive space vacuum without loss in survival, and that some specimens even recovered after combined exposure to space vacuum and solar radiation. These results add the first animal to the exclusive and short list of organisms that have survived such exposure.

  • 76.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Rebecchi, Lorena
    Italien.
    Experimentally induced anhydrobiosis in the tardigrade Richtersius coronifer: phenotypic factors affecting survival2002Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Zoology, ISSN 0022-104X, E-ISSN 1097-010X, Vol. 293, nr 6, s. 578-584Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of some animal taxa (e.g., nematodes, rotifers, and tardigrades) to enter an ametabolic (cryptobiotic) state is well known. Nevertheless, the phenotypic factors affecting successful anhydrobiosis have rarely been investigated. We report a laboratory study on the effects of body size, reproductive condition, and energetic condition on anhydrobiotic survival in a population of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer. Body size and energetic condition interacted in affecting the probability of survival, while reproductive condition had no effect. Large tardigrades had a lower probability of survival than medium-sized tardigrades and showed a positive response in survival to energetic condition. This suggests that energy constrained the possibility for large tardigrades toenter and to leave anhydrobiosis. As a possible alternative explanation for low survival in the largest specimens we discuss the expression of senescence. In line with the view that processes related to anhydrobiosis are connected with energetic costs we documented a decrease in the size of storage cells over a period of anhydrobiosis, showing for the first time that energy is consumed in the process of anhydrobiosis in tardigrades.

  • 77.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Thelaus, Magnus
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Dahlblom, Peter
    Hur kvalitetssäkrar vi framtida examensarbeten inom naturvetenskap och biomedicin?2013Inngår i: Högskolepedagogisk debatt, ISSN 2000-9216, nr 1, s. 16-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 78.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Schill, Ralph O.
    Tyskland.
    Induction of Hsp70 by desiccation, ionising radiation and heat-shock in the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer2007Inngår i: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part B: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, ISSN 1096-4959, E-ISSN 1879-1107, Vol. 146, nr 4, s. 456-460Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The physiology and biochemistry behind the extreme tolerance to desiccation shown by the so-called anhydrobiotic animals represents an exciting challenge to biology. The current knowledge suggests that both carbohydrates and proteins are often involved in protecting the dry cell from damage, or in the repair of induced damage. Tardigrades belong to the most desiccation-tolerant multicellular organisms, but very little research has been reported on the biochemistry behind desiccation tolerance in this group. We quantified the induction of the heat-shock protein Hsp70, a very wide-spread stress protein, in response to desiccation, ionising radiation, and heating, in the anhydrobiotic tardigrade Richtersius coronifer using an immuno-westemblot method. Elevated levels of Hsp70 were recorded after treatment of both heat and ionising radiation, and also in rehydrated tardigrades after a period of desiccation. In contrast, tardigrades in the desiccated (dry) state had reduced Hsp70 levels compared to the non-treated control group. Our results suggest that Hsp70 may be involved in the physiological and biochemical system underlying desiccation (and radiation) tolerance in tardigrades, and that its role may be connected to repair processes after desiccation rather than to biochemical stabilization in the dry state.

  • 79.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Schill, Ralph O
    Tyskland.
    Rabbow, Elke
    Tyskland.
    Rettberg, Petra
    Tyskland.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Mats
    Stockholm University.
    The fate of the TARDIS offspring: no intergenerational effects of space exposure in Milnesium tardigradum2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In September 2007 tardigrades became the first animal in the history to survive the combined effect of exposure to space vacuum, cosmic radiation, and ultra-violet radiation in low Earth orbit. The main results from this experiment were reported in 2008, but some of the results have remained unpublished. Here we report that no delayed effects of the exposure to space could be detected in the descendants (up to F3 generation) of space exposed Milnesium tardigradum. This indicates that individual tardigrades that survived the damage induced by environmental agents in space, and were able to reproduce, did not transfer any delayed damage to later generations. Repair of environmentally induced damage may therefore follow a “make or break” rule, such that a damaged animal either fails to repair all damage and dies, or repairs damage successfully and leaves no mutations to descendants. We also provide previously unreported data on two tardigrade species, Echiniscus testudo and Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri, that showed high survival after exposure to space vacuum and cosmic radiation within the TARDIS experiment.

  • 80.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Schill, Ralph
    Tyskland.
    Rabbow, Elke
    Tyskland.
    Rettberg, Petra
    Tyskland.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Mats
    Stockholm University.
    The fate of the TARDIS offspring: no intergenerational effects of space exposure2016Inngår i: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4082, E-ISSN 1096-3642, Vol. 178, nr 4, s. 924-930Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In September 2007 tardigrades became the first animal in history to survive the combined effect of exposure to space vacuum, cosmic radiation and ultraviolet radiation in low Earth orbit. The main results from this experiment were reported in 2008, but some of the results have remained unpublished. Here we report that descendant generations of space-exposed tardigrades of the species Milnesium tardigradum did not show reduced performance. This indicates that individual tardigrades that survived the exposure to environmental extremes in space, and were able to reproduce, did not transfer any damage to later generations. Repair of environmentally induced damage may therefore follow a ‘make or break’ rule, such that a damaged animal either fails to repair all damage and dies, or repairs damage successfully and leaves no mutations to descendants. We also report that two additional tardigrade species, Echiniscus testudo and Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri, showed high survival after exposure to space vacuum and cosmic radiation within the TARDIS experiment.

  • 81.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholms universitet.
    Tolerance to X-rays and Heavy Ions (Fe, He) in the Tardigrade Richtersius coronifer and the Bdelloid Rotifer Mniobia russeola2017Inngår i: Astrobiology, ISSN 1531-1074, E-ISSN 1557-8070, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 163-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyze tolerance to heavy ions in desiccated animals of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer and the bdelloid rotifer Mniobia russeola within the STARLIFE project. Both species were exposed to iron (Fe) and helium (He) ions at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan, and to X-rays at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Cologne, Germany. Results show no effect of Fe and He on viability up to 7 days post-rehydration in both R. coronifer and M. russeola, while X-rays tended to reduce viability in R. coronifer at the highest doses. Mean egg production rate tended to decline with higher doses in R. coronifer for all radiation types, but the pattern was not statistically confirmed. In M. russeola, there was no such tendency for a dose response in egg production rate. These results confirm the previously reported high tolerance to high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in tardigrades and show for the first time that bdelloid rotifers are also very tolerant to high-LET radiation. These animal phyla represent the most desiccation- and radiation-tolerant animals on Earth and provide excellent eukaryotic models for astrobiological research. 

  • 82.
    Kjeller, Elsie
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Analys av kompensationsfall i Helsingborgs och Lomma kommun: Delrapport 4:2 från forskningsprojektet Ekologisk kompensation som styrmedel – ett kommunperspektiv (MuniComp)2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Som ett led i MuniComp-projektets analys av kommunernas erfarenheter av att tillämpa ekologisk kompensation i samhällsplanering analyserades ett antal fall med detaljplaner där kompensation har använts i Helsingborgs och Lommas kommun. Analysen syftar till att belysa hur den praktiska tillämpningen av kommunernas modeller för kompensation ser ut, samt att identifiera framgångar, begränsningar, och områden för förbättring. Analysen utgör ett komplement till de generella beskrivningarna av kompensationsmodellerna i Helsingborg och Lomma(Delrapport 4:1), och analyserna av beräkningsmodeller för kompensation (Delrapport 4:3), skadelindringshierarkin (Delrapport 3), och kompensation som styrmedel (Delrapport 1) som redovisas separat. Analysen har i huvudsak inriktats på vissa grundläggande frågor kring kompensationsarbetet som innefattar både vilka miljövärden och åtgärder som omfattas av kompensationen, hur kompensationsarbetet redovisas i olika dokument, och vilka begränsningar i tillämpningen av kompensation som kan urskiljas [...]

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    fulltext
  • 83.
    Kjeller, Elsie
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Franzén, Frida
    Tyréns AB.
    Analys av modellerna för kompensation i Helsingborgs och Lomma kommun: Delrapport 4:1 från forskningsprojektet Ekologisk kompensation som styrmedel – ett kommunperspektiv (MuniComp)2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom ramen för forskningsprojektet MuniComps analys av kommunernas tillämpning av ekologisk kompensation i samhällsplaneringen analyseradeskompensationsmodellerna i Helsingborgs och Lommas kommun. Båda kommuner bygger sina modeller på balanseringsprincipen från Tyskland som introducerades till Sverige under 1990-talet (Skärbäck, 1997). Balanseringsprincipen innehåller en skadelindringshierarki med fyra steg som innebär att negativ påverkan på naturvärden till följd av exploatering i första hand ska undvikas och i andra hand minimeras. Kan påverkan inte undvikas eller minimeras så ska värdenakompenseras antingen genom utjämning eller ersättning. Utjämning betyder att kompensation görs inom planområdet med ett liknande värde. Ersättning betyder att kompensation antingen görs med ett annat värde och/eller med samma värde på annan plats än planområdet. [...]

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  • 84.
    Laugen, A T
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Laurila, A
    Uppsala University.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Söderman, F
    Uppsala University.
    Merila, Juha
    Finland.
    Do common frogs (Rana temporaria) follow Bergmann's rule?2005Inngår i: Evolutionary Ecology Research, ISSN 1522-0613, E-ISSN 1937-3791, Vol. 7, nr 5, s. 717-731Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions: Does intraspecific extension of Bergmann's rule - larger size within a species in cooler areas - hold true for ectotherms in general, and for the common frog (Rana temporaria) in particular? What is the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors (i.e. direct environmental induction) in determining latitudinal patterns of body size variation in common frogs?

    Methods: We tested for a positive association between mean body size and latitude in common frogs (Rana temporaria) across a 1600 km long latitudinal gradient in Scandinavia both for wild-collected adults and laboratory-reared metamorphs.

    Results: In adults, the mean body size increased from south to mid-latitudes, and declined thereafter. This occurred despite the fact that the mean age of adult frogs increased with increasing latitude, and age and body size were positively correlated. The latitudinal pattern of body size variation in metamorphs reared in a common garden experiment was similar to that observed among wild-caught adults.

    Conclusions: The results suggest that the concave pattern of body size variation across the latitudinal cline may be at least partly genetically determined, and that although there is considerable geographic variation in mean body size of R. temporaria, this variation does not conform with Bergmann's rule.

  • 85.
    Lee, N. M.
    et al.
    Tyskland.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Braissant, O.
    Schweiz.
    Schrallhammer, M.
    Italien.
    Petroni, G.
    Italien.
    Schmid, M.
    Tyskland.
    Rettberg, P.
    Tyskland.
    Horneck, G.
    Tyskland.
    The microbiology of tardigrades and its potential role for astrobiological research2010Inngår i: Origins of life and evolution of the biosphere, ISSN 0169-6149, E-ISSN 1573-0875, Vol. 40, nr 6, s. 555-556Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 86.
    Massa, Edoardo
    et al.
    Italien.
    Guidetti, Roberto
    Italien.
    Cesari, Michele
    Italien.
    Rebecchi, Lorena
    Italien.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Tardigrades of Kristianstads Vattenrike biosphere reserve with description of four new species from Sweden2021Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 1-19, artikkel-id 4861Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve [KVBR] is a UNESCO designated area of Sweden possessing high biological value. Although several studies on tardigrades inhabiting Sweden havebeen performed, the KVBR area has been neglected. The current study investigates the tardigrade fauna of five areas of the biosphere reserve and includes 34 samples of different substrates analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. In total, 33 species of tardigrades were found in the samples, including 22 new records for the Skåne region, 15 new records for Sweden, and four species new to science. Mesobiotus emiliae sp. nov., Xerobiotus gretae sp. nov., Itaquascon magnussoni sp. nov., and Thulinius gustavi sp. nov. were described with an integrative approach (when possible) using morphological characters (light, electron scanning, and confocal laser scanning microscopies) and molecular markers (ITS2, 18S, 28S, cox1). A new protocol to increase morphological data was developed recovering mounted specimens within old slides for SEM analysis. Emended diagnoses for the genus Itaquascon and the transfer of Platicrista itaquasconoide to the genus Meplitumen are proposed. This study enriches the knowledge of the tardigrade biodiversity both within the KVBR and in Sweden and contributes to the rapidly increasing number of tardigrade species reported worldwide. The 33 species identified in the KVBR area represents 28% of all water bear species found in Sweden so far. The restricted study areas and limited number of samples collected suggests that the KVBR is very rich of tardigrades.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 87.
    Massa, Edoardo
    et al.
    Italy.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Guidetti, Roberto
    Italy.
    A faunistic survey of tardigrades in Kristianstad Vattenrike biosphere reserve (Sweden)2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 88.
    Nilsson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University.
    Jönsson, Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Pallon, Jan
    Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University.
    Element analysis of the eutardigrades Richtersius coronifer and Milnesium cf. asiaticum using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE)2013Inngår i: Journal of limnology, ISSN 1129-5767, E-ISSN 1723-8633, Vol. 72, nr s1, s. 92-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-terrestrial tardigrades are well-known for their tolerance to a variety of environmental extremes, including desiccation, freezing and radiation. Despite several attempts to reveal the genetic and molecular mechanisms behind the resilience of tardigrades, it is still unknown how these animals are able to maintain the integrity of their cellular components under severe stress. Quantitative or qualitative changes in molecular compounds (e.g., carbohydrates, proteins) are expected, and have been the main line of research towards understanding the tolerance of tardigrades. In radiation tolerant bacteria, a tolerance mechanism based on manganese has been proposed. We evaluate this hypothesis in tardigrades and provide the first data on element composition in desiccated and non-desiccated specimens of two eutardigrade species, Richtersius coronifer and Milnesium cf. asiaticum. A focused 2 MeV proton microbeam was utilised to determine the elemental content, distributions and concentrations, using the ion beam analytical technique particle induced X-ray emission(PIXE). The presence of six elements – phosphorus, sulphur, chlorine, potassium, calcium and iron – were confirmed in all tardigrade specimens, at levels up to a few mg g–1. However, manganese was found in less than 10% of the analysed specimens, and in low amounts, thus our study provides no evidence for the manganese hypothesis. We also show that the distributions and/or concentrations of some elements differ between the two species as well as between the dehydrated and hydrated state. In particular, very low levels of iron were found in dehydrated M. cf. asiaticum. Our analysis shows that the PIXE technique is a useful tool for investigating questions on the distribution of elements both in dehydrated and hydrated tardigrades.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 89.
    Nilsson, E. J. Charlotta
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Stockholm University.
    Pallon, Jan
    Lund University.
    Tolerance to proton irradiation in the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer: a nuclear microprobe study2010Inngår i: International Journal of Radiation Biology, ISSN 0955-3002, E-ISSN 1362-3095, Vol. 86, nr 5, s. 420-427Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:The tardigrade Richtersius coronifer has previously been shown to tolerate very high doses of low linear energy transfer (low-LET) radiation (gamma rays). The purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge on radiation tolerance in this species by investigating the dose-response to high-LET radiation in terms of protons.

    Materials and methods:Dehydrated tardigrades of the species R. coronifer were irradiated with 2.55 MeV (megaelectronvolts) protons at doses ranging from 500 gray (Gy) to 15,000 Gy, to investigate the dose-viability relationship. In addition, a focused proton microbeam was utilised to determine the areal mass distribution, using the ion beam analytical technique STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy).

    Results:The experiment suggests that R. coronifer is unaffected by doses of proton irradiation up to 10,000 Gy, but shows very little viability at higher doses. The STIM analysis revealed that the thickness of the dehydrated tardigrades exceeds 150 μm, and that a fraction of the protons may not be fully absorbed.

    Conclusion:Our results are in line with previous studies of exposure to high-LET radiation in tardigrades, indicating that these animals are equally or even more tolerant to high-LET compared to low-LET gamma radiation. The physiological background to this remarkable result is currently unknown, but deserves investigation. 

  • 90.
    Nilsson, E J Charlotta
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Pallon, Jan
    Lunds universitet.
    Przybylowicz, W J
    Sydafrika.
    Wang, Y D
    Sydafrika.
    Jönsson, K Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Evaluation of cryoanalysis as a tool for analyzing elemental distributionin ‘‘live’’ tardigrades using micro-PIXE2014Inngår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 332, s. 181-186Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although heavy on labor and equipment, thus not often applied, cryoanalysis of frozen hydrated biological specimens can provide information that better reflects the living state of the organism, compared with analysis in the freeze-dried state. In this paper we report a study where the cryoanalysis facility with cryosectioning capabilities at Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, South Africa was employed to evaluate the usefulness of combining three ion beam analytical methods (μPIXE, RBS and STIM) to analyze a biological target where a better elemental compositional description is needed – the tardigrade. Imaging as well as quantification results are of interest.

    In a previous study, the element composition and redistribution of elements in the desiccated and active states of two tardigrade species was investigated. This study included analysis of both whole and sectioned tardigrades, and the aim was to analyze each specimen twice; first frozen hydrated and later freeze-dried. The combination of the three analytical techniques proved useful: elements from C to Rb in the tardigrades could be determined and certain differences in distribution of elements between the frozen hydrated and the freeze-dried states were observed. RBS on frozen hydrated specimens provided knowledge of matrix elements.

  • 91.
    Omrcen, Eddi
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Ylva, Hillbur
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ahlbäck, Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Johansson, Catrin
    Mid Sweden University.
    Djupström, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Larsdotter, Karin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Pouliot, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Carlsson, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Wennberg, Paula
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Nilsson, Tor
    Mälardalen University.
    Hancke, Marnie
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Agenda 2030 as a framework for collaboration: experiences and recommendations from eight Swedish universities2021Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 92.
    Palo, Thomas R.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science .
    Lagercrantz, Karen
    Skåne Association of Local Authorities.
    Bramryd, Torleif
    Lund University.
    Johansson, Michael
    Lund University.
    Beery, Thomas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Wamsler, Christine
    Lund University .
    Brink, Ebba
    Lund University .
    Schubert, Per
    Malmö University.
    Ekelund, Nils
    Malmö University.
    Priority areas in municipality planning: ecosystemservices, environmental impact assessments and research areas2016Inngår i: One Ecosystem, ISSN 2367-8194, Vol. 1, artikkel-id e9869Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several pressing issues face municipal planners including increased land use and climate change. Managing these issues requires a balance between different actions to accommodate citizen’s demands of ecosystem services (ES) and development projects. The implementation of ES as a new tool for assessments needs to be contrasted by research considering existing tools such as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). ES has been introduced as a policy tool at the governmental level but implementation at the local and regional scale is still needed; municipalities could benefit from collaboration with the research community for state of the art methods. One obstacle for implementation of ES is that it is not always easy for laymen to understand and additionally, the ES concept may be weakly supported by science. The municipalities realize that a society on its way towards sustainability takes advantage of new knowledge and that interactions with research will put them in the forefront of new scientific questions. The municipalities ask for research that takes a citizen perspective and research that prioritizes questions other than pure environmental considerations. Priorities in municipality planning are based on local conditions and rely on EIA. Many ecological indicators are already covered in EIA and this is reflected in Swedish Comprehensive Plans (SCP) documents, yet need further analysis is needed to be a part of ES. The SCPs present concepts at a policy level and rarely provide a more detailed plan of action compatible with the ES approach.

    New information: We found that the use of ES concepts in Swedish Comprehensive Plans and in EIA is still not common and in need of further support from research and in practice. The EIA is decisive for comprehensive planning documents in the Swedish municipalities and follows standard format over time and between municipalities. ES is focused on human needs while the EIA describes place based assessments on environmental impact rather than feedback to the society by the intervention. Municipalities of south Sweden ask for research support in many different areas, for instance how to set up proper organization for implementation of ES and environmental issues, but priorities are based on their local conditions. The results shows that collaboration between stakeholders and researchers is needed which can create incentives, so that the decisions made by individuals, communities, corporations, and governments may be able to promote widely shared values compatible with ES. Researchers and municipalities who work on an operational level face many challenges in promoting greater use of the ES approach, with some of them yet to be defined. We conclude that implementation of ES could draw from lessons learned in the use of EIA. Further, it is presented that ES has the potential for greater public and stakeholder feedback into decisions as compared to EIA.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 93.
    Radeklev, Elisabet
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Fortbildning för fälthandledare inom lärarprofessionen2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 94.
    Richnau, Gustav
    et al.
    Landscape Management, Design and Construction, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Angelstam, Per
    Faculty of Forest Sciences, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Valasiuk, Sviataslau
    Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
    Zahvoyska, Lyudmyla
    Institute of Ecological Economics, Ukrainian National Forestry University, Lviv.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Faculty of Forest Sciences, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Faculty of Forest Sciences, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Farley, Joshua
    Department of Community Development and Applied Economics, UVM College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Burlington.
    Jönsson, Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Soloviy, Ihor
    Institute of Ecological Economics, Ukrainian National Forestry University, Lviv.
    Multifaceted value profiles of forest owner categories in south Sweden: the river Helge å catchment as a case study2013Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 188-200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest landscapes provide benefits from a widerange of goods, function and intangible values. But whatare different forest owner categories’ profiles of economicuse and non-use values? This study focuses on the complexforest ownership pattern of the River Helge a ̊catchmentincluding the Kristianstad Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve insouthern Sweden. We made 89 telephone interviews withinformants representing the four main forest owner cate-gories. Our mapping included consumptive and non-con-sumptive direct use values, indirect use values, and non-usevalues such as natural and cultural heritage. While thevalue profiles of non-industrial forest land owners andmunicipalities included all value categories, the forestcompanies focused on wood production, and the SwedishEnvironmental Protection Agency on nature protection. Wediscuss the challenges of communicating different forestowners’ economic value profiles among stakeholders, theneed for a broader suite of forest management systems, andfora for collaborative planning.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 95.
    Schill, Ralph O.
    et al.
    Tyskland.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Pfannkuchen, Martin
    Tyskland.
    Brümmer, Franz
    Tyskland.
    Food of tardigrades: a case study to understand food choice, intake and digestion2011Inngår i: Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, ISSN 0947-5745, E-ISSN 1439-0469, Vol. 49, nr Suppl. 1, s. 66-70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosses are an excellent habitat for tardigrades because of their ability to ensure a high humidity and to provide a rich food supply for both carnivorous and herbivorous species. Food choice can be correlated with the morphology of the buccal apparatus, and consequentially, their distribution is sometimes linked to food availability (nematodes, rotifers, plant cells, algae, yeast and bacteria). In many species, material containing chlorophyll is often observed in the midgut. However, little information has been available until now on the actual food preference of tardigrades. Since trophic interactions within soil food webs are difficult to study, here we use a polymerase chain reaction–based approach as a highly sensitive detection method. The study was carried out to investigate the presence of chlorophyll matter in the gut of active specimens, based on sequence analyses of the chloroplast ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) gene from mosses and algae. The sequences found in the gut of Macrobiotus sapiens were derived from the moss families Pottiaceae and Erpodiaceae, in Macrobiotus persimilis and Echiniscus granulatus from the moss family Grimmiaceae, and in Richtersius coronifer from the green algae genus Trebouxia. Furthermore, we show the emission of green autofluorescence from the chloroplasts in the algae within the gut of tardigrades and followed the progress of digestion over a 48-h period. The autofluorescent emission level declined significantly, and after 2 days, the signal level was similar to the level of the starved control.

  • 96.
    Schubert, Per
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Ekelund, Nils
    Malmö University.
    Beery, Thomas H.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Wamsler, Christine
    Lund University .
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Roth, Andreas
    Malmö University.
    Stålhammar, Sanna
    Lund University .
    Bramryd, Torleif
    Lund University.
    Johansson, Michael
    Lund University.
    Palo, Thomas R.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science .
    Implementation of the ecosystem services approach in Swedish municipal planning2018Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 298-312Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While ecosystem-based planning approaches are increasingly promoted through international and national policies, municipalities are still struggling with translating them into practice. Against this background, this paper aims to increase the knowledge of current advances and possible ways to support the implementation of the ecosystem services (ES) approach at the municipal level. More specifically, we analyze how ES have been integrated into comprehensive planning within the municipality of Malmö in Sweden over the last 60 years, a declared forerunner in local environmental governance. Based on a content analysis of comprehensive plans over the period 1956–2014 and interviews with municipal stakeholders, this paper demonstrates how planning has shifted over time toward a more holistic view of ES and their significance for human well-being and urban sustainability. Both explicit and implicit applications of the ES concept were found in the analyzed comprehensive plans and associated programs and projects. Our study shows how these applications reflect international, national, and local policy changes, and indicates how municipalities can gradually integrate the ES approach into comprehensive planning and facilitate the transition from implicit to more explicit knowledge use.

  • 97.
    Schubert, Per
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Bramryd, Torleif
    Lund University.
    Johansson, Michael
    Lund University.
    Brink, Ebba
    Lund University.
    Wamsler, Christine
    Lund University .
    Palo, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science .
    Beery, Thomas H.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Ekelund, Nils
    Malmö University.
    Stålhammar, Sanna
    Lund University.
    Ekosystemtjänstbegreppet: en historisk tillbakablick och den förväntade rollen i svensk miljöpolicy.2017Inngår i: Urban utveckling och interaktion / [ed] Borén, T., Stockholm: Svenska Sällskapet för Antropologi och Geografi , 2017, s. 213-237Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 98.
    Sohlenius, B
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Boström, S
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Occurrence of nematodes, tardigrades and rotifers on ice-free areas in East Antarctica2004Inngår i: Pedobiologia, ISSN 0031-4056, E-ISSN 1873-1511, Vol. 48, nr 4, s. 395-408Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nematodes, rotifers and tardigrades were collected on three nunataks (mountain peaks penetrating the ice sheet) in Vestfjella, on six nunataks; in Heimefrontfjella and on the Schirmacher Oasis in East Antarctica in the austral summers of 1996/97 and 2001/02. Most samples were taken on the nunatak Basen in Vestfjella where the Swedish station Wasa is located. The microfauna was patchily distributed and the highest densities of animals were found on sites with visible vegetation of mosses, lichens or algae. Thirty-four taxa of nematodes and tardigrades were found. Only seven of these occurred regularly in apparently actively reproducing populations. Other occasional records of nematodes had very few specimens. The highest number of species was found on the nunatak Basen. Rotifers, found in 66% of the samples, were the most frequent animal group. Nematodes occurred in 37% of the samples and tardigrades in 42%. The most frequent nematodes were Plectus and Panagrolaimus, occurring in 26% and 5% of the samples, respectively. Macrobiotus, Hebesuncus and Acutuncus were the most frequent and abundant tardigrades. The pattern of animal distribution can be related to both habitat characteristics and to the geographic position of the nunatak. The communities are little organised and the distribution of the fauna has similarities with an early phase of colonisation.

  • 99.
    Stålhammar, Sanna
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Evolutionary psychology and contemporary behavioural framework for environmental policy2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the extent to which evolutionary psychology is applied in common behavioural frameworks that are used to explain, analyse and promote pro-environmental behaviour and inform environmental policy in the EU context. Such behavioural frameworks have been developed and analysed by for example the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and the Sustainable Practices Research Group.

    Methods: A review of documents was conducted that consisted of contemporary behavioural frameworks related to environmental behaviour as well as environmental policy documents within the EU. We also reviewed previous efforts to link the field of evolutionary psychology to pro-environmental behaviour.

    Results and Conclusions: The results show that contemporary behavioural frameworks for environmental policy lack an evolutionary perspective. Evolutionary-related behavioural theory is mentioned once, as ‘sexual signaling’ theory by the Ecologic Institute (2014). The behavioural theories informing contemporary frameworks and recommendations are predominantly drawing on the fields of social and cognitive psychology, behavioural economics and sociology. The current narrative on behaviour change is primarily focused on personal responsibility and choice, and how these are shaped by individual’s attitudes and values. We argue that an evolutionary consideration of behaviour could be beneficial when designing environmental policies that aim to take into account individuals mechanisms for motivation and behaviour. A combination of instruments that target innate psychological mechanisms could be used to promote pro-environmental behaviour and such instruments could aid policy-makers and environmental campaigners in developing strategies. The evolutionary perspective is to be regarded as a complementary framework for analysis of behavioural change and is not intended to replace the contemporary frameworks.

  • 100.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    et al.
    Anthesis Enveco AB.
    Cole, Scott
    EnviroEconomics Sweden Consultancy.
    Franzén, Frida
    Tyréns AB.
    Hasselström, Linus
    KTH Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Beery, Thomas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Bengtsson, Fredrik
    Helsingborg kommun.
    Björn, Helena
    Lomma kommun.
    Kjeller, Elsie
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Lindblom, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mellin, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wiberg, Johanna
    Ecogain AB.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Metrics for environmental compensation: A comparative analysis of Swedish municipalities2021Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 299, s. 1-11, artikkel-id 113622Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental compensation (EC) aims at addressing environmental losses due to development projects and involves a need to compare development losses with compensation gains using relevant metrics. A conceptual procedure for computing no net loss is formulated and used as a point of departure for a comparative analysis of metrics used by five Swedish municipalities as a part of their EC implementation in the spatial planning context of detailed development plans. While Swedish law does not require EC in this context, these municipalities have still decided to introduce EC requirements for development projects that occur on municipality-owned land and to promote voluntary EC among private actors in development projects on private land. There is substantial variation across the municipalities studied with respect to both metrics and attributes subject to measurement, but there are also similarities: The attributes considered when assessing the need for EC in conjunction with development are not only about nature per se, but also about recreational opportunities and other types ecosystem services; semi-quantitative metrics such as scores are common while quantitative or monetary metrics are rare; and metrics are rarely applied to assess compensatory gains, focusing instead on losses from development. Streamlining across municipalities might be warranted for increasing predictability and transparency for developers and citizens, but it also introduces considerable challenges such as a need for developing consistent guidelines for semi-quantitative metrics, and to handle substitutability issues if metrics are not only applied on individual attributes but also on groups of attributes. The broad scope of attributes used by the municipalities is in line with an international tendency to broaden EC to include not only biodiversity aspects but also ecosystem services. Moreover, the EC systems applied by the municipalities are of particular importance for highlighting the crucial role of environmental management for maintaining and enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem services not only in areas having formal protection status but also in the everyday landscape. The municipalities’ experience and strengths and weaknesses associated with their EC systems are therefore relevant also in an international perspective.

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