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  • 51.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Kulturarvsbruk i väpnade konflikter2016Inngår i: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 136, nr 4, s. 658-672Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 52.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Kulturarvsbruk i väpnade konflikter2016Inngår i: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 136, nr 4, s. 658-672Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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    fulltext
  • 53.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Museerna och första världskriget2018Inngår i: Militärhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0283-8400, s. 114-118Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Recension av Christina Kott och Bénédicte Savoy (Hg.), Mars & Museum: Europäische Museum im Erste Weltkrieg, Köln m fl, Böhlau Verlag 2016. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 54.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Not Just a Summer Temple: The Development of Conservation and Indoor Climate in Nationalmuseum, Sweden2019Inngår i: Addressing the Climate in Modern Age's Construction History: Between Architecture and Building Services Engineering / [ed] Carlo Manfredi, Springer, 2019, 1, s. 147-169Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    This essay examines the building and management of Nationalmuseum in Stockholm. Today the building has just recently been reopened after years of renovation and fitting of a new system that will control the indoor climate. This means deep interventions in a nineteenth-century building that was not designed to be airtight or to be heated all year around. The renovation gives a reason to ponder on how the building originally was designed and constructed, but also how it was managed over time. The climate of the house has been an issue ever since the building was constructed in the early years of the 1860s. It was fitted with a central heating system already then, but the building proved difficult to heat in winter and to ventilate in summer. There were continuous problems with dehydration of organic materials in the art collections in winter-time, and with too much sunlight exposing fragile art in the warmer season. Curiously, the introduction of artificial humidification first around 1930 and then again in the 1950s did not solve the problem of dehydration. On the contrary climate problems became ever more complex around the mid-20thcentury because of the introduction of motor traffic with its exhausts, and increasing demands on a stable indoor climate in art museums. 

    How did museums balance the needs of their collections, against the needs of staff and visitors? What considerations where made when choosing heating and ventilation for a museum at this time? In order to illuminate these questions, archival sources from Nationalmuseum, Riksarkivet (National State Archives) and the engineering and architectural company SWECO have been used. Överintendentsämbetet (Board of Public Works and Buildings, abbreviated ÖIÄ) was the custodian of government buildings, followed by Kungliga Byggnadsstyrelsen (Board of Building and Planning, abbreviated KBS) after an organizational shift in 1918. The museum was thus responsible for the management of its collections but not of its building. Until 1939 there was also a second museum housed in the bottom floor: Statens Historiska Museum, the National Historical Museum.  

    If the museum had a complaint on the performance of the building or the heating system, it would have to notify ÖIÄ (or KBS after 1918), which then would decide how to act. Judging by archive sources, it becomes evident that ÖIÄ had small means to make more demanding interventions in existing buildings, and often complaints seem to have been more or less ignored because of lack of resources. By studying the correspondence it is possible to gain a better understanding of how museum management perceived indoor climate and how ÖIÄ responded. 

    The purpose of the essay is to explore how the construction and management of the indoor climate was shaped by technological development and how views on the running of a museum building shifted. Nationalmuseum was fitted with a hot water central heating system. In the early 1860s this was something hardly heard of in Sweden at this time. In general, the central heating systems used at that time were caloriphers, furnaces that heated the air that was then circulated through the building.  

    There were firms in Stockholm installing piping, but none of them was considered competent enough to do the installations in Nationalmuseum. Most entrepreneurs in Stockholm worked with gas piping, not with water or sewer piping.[1]In the early 1860s it was still not evident that a public building should be equipped with this kind of heating, despite the relatively long and cold winters in Stockholm. Public buildings in general were heated with local fireplaces, most often tile stoves produced in the city.  

    Today it is well known that control of indoor climate is key to the management of collections. Too much heat makes the air dry, which may cause damage to fragile objects such as paintings on panels or wooden furniture with veneer. Too little heat makes the air very humid, which promotes mold, vermin, corrosion and rot. What is considered "too little" or "too much", however, has changed since the nineteenth century.[2]The essay explores why central heating was installed in the museum, what the expectations on its functioning were, and how building and museum management (they were – and are – separate from each other) continuously commented on its performance in the decades following the opening of the museum, up until the 1970s when air pollution had become a serious problem demanding a technical solution.

    [1]G. Stålbom, Varmt och vädrat. VVS-teknik i äldre byggnader, Sveriges VVS Museum – SBUF – VVS Företagen, Stockholm 2010, 15. In 1861 Stockholm opened its first waterworks with 30 km of piping. 

    [2]M. Legnér, "Conservation versus thermal comfort – conflicting interests?: The issue of church heating, Sweden c. 1918–1975",Konsthistorisk Tidskrift 2014 (e-publication ahead of print).

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  • 55.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    När krig raderar ­historiens spår2016Inngår i: Svenska DagbladetArtikkel, omtale (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    I krig som syftar till etnisk rensning utplånas samtidigt ofta byggnader och andra kulturarv som vittnar om ett multikulturellt förflutet. En ny bok kartlägger den systematiska förstörelsen av moskéer och ­monument ­under Balkankrigen på 1990-talet.

  • 56.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Post-conflict reconstruction and the heritage process2018Inngår i: Journal of Architectural Conservation, ISSN 1355-6207, E-ISSN 2326-6384, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 78-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite that large investments have been made by the European Union in restoring and preserving heritage damaged after the Kosovo War 1998–99, there have been no previous attempts to gain more in-depth knowledge about the implementation and success of the interventions. Organisations involved in funding and facilitating architectural interventions in post-conflict zones may have differing aims and agendas that influence selection and methods, and ultimately the results. This paper aims to shed light on a pioneering project carried out on damaged kullas, massive masonry towers connected to farmsteads, in Kosovo 2001–02. Kullas were systematically attacked and burned during the conflict. The methodology is based on interviews with involved people and on documentation that is publically available, since it is crucial to uncover the aims and agendas of involved actors if one wishes to understand how and why decisions were made. In the end, what was deemed most important in the process was not the reconstruction in itself, but rather the development of craftsmen's skills and the need to create a dialogue on the values of Kosovo heritage. The paper shows how the reconstruction of built heritage can facilitate processes of dialogue in conflict areas.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 57.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Recension av Ove Bring, Parthenonsyndromet. Kampen om kulturskatterna2016Inngår i: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 136, nr 3, s. 549-551Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 58.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Securitizing the past: a discussion on the connections between heritage and security2017Inngår i: PLURAL. Journal of the History and Geography Department, “Ion Creangă” Pedagogical State University, Chișinău, ISSN 2345-1262, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 5-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Are there connections between security policies, peacebuilding, and heritage politics? The first aim of this paper is to discuss how heritage policies sometimes are used to add to and reinforce security policies and practices. This issue is largely unknown and remains to be researched. Secondly, it would also be of importance to try to better understand how security policies may be influenced by notions of heritage and certain interventions on heritage sites. It is argued that it has become necessary to move beyond the study of wars to better understand how heritage affects security and vice versa not only in conflicts but also in peacetime and in “afterwar” periods. The paper builds on a critical reading of previous research mainly on heritage studies and partly on security studies, and on a case study of Swedish-led heritage interventions in the Balkans following the Yugoslavian wars. The case study discusses how issues of security and safety may become relevant in heritage politics in the Balkans following the Yugoslavian wars. It serves to demonstrate how heritage interventions can be seen as either providing security in a community or constituting a threat to its survival. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 59.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Värdering och skydd av kulturegendom i Sverige under andra världskriget, med en särskild utblick mot Gotland2018Inngår i: GUSEM - Gutilandorum universitas scholarium et magistrorum, Vol. 9, s. 21-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural property protection in Sweden during the Second World War, with focus on the island Gotland

    As cultural property became increasingly important to national identities in the early 20th century, European states strove to protect monuments and collections from damage and destruction. The most cataclysmic situation that cultural property could be subjected to was utter destruction. The First World War proved to be such a disaster not only to human life but also to property of importance to national identity and culture. The Second World War, however, was even more disastrous when it came to destruction in areas close to the sometimes fast-moving fronts. 

         This essay is based on new investigations of documents found in a number of archives in Sweden: the archive of the National Heritage Board, the Military Archives in Stockholm, Nationalmuseum and the county archive in Visby. It deals with a topic that has previously been completely ignored – namely how Swedish national treasures were to be protected in the event of war. The essay analyses how the National Heritage Board cooperated with the Military Headquarters in order to survey, evaluate and protect a substantial part of Swedish heritage before the outbreak of the Second World War and during the war years. Their measures were based on experiences from the First World War but also from observations of how other states had been organising their cultural property protection in the 1930s, most notably France. French cultural authorities were well prepared when Germany invaded in May 1940.

         Aerial bombardment severly damaged major cities as well as historic towns in the Second World War. Before the outbreak of war cultural and military authorities in different countries prepared by taking protective measures such as the moving of collections, the building of sandbag walls around architectural details, and removal of stained glass windows from churches. Also Swedish authorities foresaw the risk of Sweden becoming involved in the war, even though the country was to be formally neutral in an upcoming conflict. Protective measures were organised by making plans for how evacuation of the most valuable collections in museums, archives and libraries Stockholm should be carried out in the event of war. In rural areas people were to a large degree left to themselves to prepare for war by following instructions from the authorities. 

         Some of the attention of the National Heritage Board was directed towards the island Gotland in the Baltic Sea. Gotland was very rich in archaeological findings and medieval heritage. The island was running the risk of becoming invaded, alternatively bombed, if war broke out in the Baltic region. Due to the development of aerial warfare there needed to be more extensive plans for evacuation in the 1930s than earlier. Bombers could potentially strike almost anywhere but cities, industrial plants, main roads, bridges, railroads and harbours were especially at risk. Measures continued to be re-organised during the war depending on its development. 

         On Gotland there are 92 standing churches of medieval origin. Many of these were considered as potential targets of warships or bombers because of their visibility and proximity to the coast. Churches were documented in photographs, some protective measures were taken, and stained glass windows were taken down, stored and later conserved. Such measures were the responsibility of the parish and the diocese, but they were conducted under the watchful eyes of professor Johnny Roosval, an art historian specialised on the architecture and art of Gotland churches. Roosval, who also was an officer in the Reserve, worked closely with the Military Headquarters to inform local authorities about the need to protect cultural property.

         After 1945 a completely new civilian defense was organised in Sweden with cultural property protection as an integrated part. The new organisation was based on close observations of how the victorious countries in the war, most notable Great Britain, had treated cultural property in battle and territorial occupation.   

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  • 60.
    Legnér, Mattias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    A Legacy of Energy Saving: The Discussion on Heritage Values in the First Programme on Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Sweden, c. 1974–19842019Inngår i: The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, ISSN 1756-7505, E-ISSN 1756-7513, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 40-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses the ‘energy savings plan for existing buildings’ (EBB) introduced in Sweden after the first oil crisis of 1973, and how effects of policies on the built heritage were perceived and communicated to a wider public. A conflict between conservation aims and energy efficiency was constructed for the first time in Sweden. The programme was a huge investment made by the government to reduce the import of oil. At first, little consideration was taken to the fact that heritage values might be at risk when giving property owners financial incentives to retrofit their houses. Soon increasing knowledge about the existing building stock showed that older houses were not necessarily energy inefficient. An information campaign launched by protagonists of building conservation encouraged property owners to direct measures to the interiors of buildings, thus saving the exterior character of not just single buildings but also complete neighbourhoods. Towards the end of EBB, the field of conservation had become a more articulated voice when it came to influencing measures aiming at increased energy efficiency. Finally, the paper discusses how values constituted in the 1970s affect policy and practice today.

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  • 61.
    Legnér, Mattias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Tunefalk, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Energy policy and conservation planning in Sweden: a longitudinal evaluation2020Inngår i: International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, ISSN 2398-4708Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose – Sweden, like other countries, has set ambitious national targets for both energy efficiency and conservation of heritage values in the built environment. However, how these policies are implemented on a local level and how they affect each other is not known. This study aims to argue that extensive energy-saving policies can have unintentional impacts not just on the built environment but also on conservation practice.

    Design/methodology/approach – By using a longitudinal approach, the aim is to investigate thepossibilities of conserving the built environment when policies for increased energy efficiency are implemented in existing urban areas. The methodology used is qualitative, applying a combination of study of public records, policy documents, interviews with public officials and ocular investigation of buildings in three areas located in two different municipalities.

    Findings – The study suggests that extensive refurbishments not only have effects on the character of an area, but in extension, affect how urban planners and local authorities approach the development in the same area. Urban areas affected by extensive retrofits in the past seem to be managed in less detail, leaving existing policy measures on both energy and heritage untapped.

    Research limitations/implications – This is a study concerning two Swedish municipalities. Furthermore, it is limited to one specific policy measure, energy-saving subsidies provided in the 1970s and 1980s. The generalisability of the findings may, therefore, be limited. Despite this, the findings provide an important indication of the relationship between energy-saving policies in the past and urban planning practice of existing urban areas today, as well as the importance of alignment between policy-making and implementation.

    Practical implications – Policy instruments for the building stock and the practice of conservation planning have not worked well together. Due to local practice, energy subsidies provided in the 1970s and 1980s still today have a negative effect on both heritage conservation and energy efficiency in existing areas.

    Social implications – There is a discrepancy between expectations and outcome of policy measures. National decision-makers overestimate the possibilities to control the development on a local level, for both energy efficiency and heritage values. By examining an innovative set of sources, acknowledging long-term effects and entanglements of policies and practice, this study contributes to a better understanding of the complexity of different values in the built environment.

    Originality/value – By comparing the share of approved applications, as well as completed energy retrofits, this study demonstrates that the effects of the national energy subsidy policy differed significantly between urban areas. Areas with a high degree of approved subsidies also had a high degree of retrofits, suggesting that the policy had intended effects. In these areas, the number of retrofits were also significantly higher than the number of subsidies. This was not the case where energy subsidies were fewer, which indicates that energy retrofits are performative, meaning that they accelerate further retrofits in the same area.

  • 62.
    Legnér, Mattias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Ristic, Mirjana
    Bravaglieri, Simona
    Contested heritage-making as an instrument of ethnic division: Mitrovica, Kosovo2020Inngår i: Urban Heritage in Divided Cities: Contested Pasts / [ed] Sibylle Frank and Mirjana Ristic, London: Routledge, 2020, 1, s. 35-52Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 63.
    Legnér, Mattias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Stengård, Malin
    Post-conflict reconstruction of cultural heritage2019Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 64.
    Legnér, Mattias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Tunefalk, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    It's not the end of the World (Heritage Site): Impacts of an energy savings programme on historical values in Visby, Sweden2018Inngår i: The 3rdInternational Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Visby Sweden, 26-27 September 2018 / [ed] T. Broström, L. Nilsen, S. Carlsten, Visby, 2018, Vol. 1, s. 444-452Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the practical impact of the ‘Energy savings plan for existing buildings’ (EBB) on the historical values of the built environment in Visby, Sweden. The EBB, active 1977–1984, has been generally criticized for its negative impact on historical values. The paper nuances this image by comparing changes in the built environment during and after the time the EEB. The aim is to contribute to a wider understanding of changes in the built environment in the historical inner city of Visby, and to relate changes in the built environment to the EEB. The paper concludes that EEB had little impact on the historical values of the studied area. Change has been an inherent part of the area both prior to, during, and after the EEB, but the rate and impact has increased since the 1980’s.

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  • 65.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Bevarandeklimat i historiska byggnader - Några kunskapsluckor2009Inngår i: Meddelser om konservering, ISSN 0106-469x, nr 1, s. 22-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    The indoor climate in a number of Scandinavian historic buildings such as churches, castles and manor houses deviates considerably from climate recommendations given for museums. Nonetheless, these buildings accommodate fragile and valuable movable and immovable objects. In the present article, a brief literature review of the risk of mechanical damages to art objects caused by fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity is given. Two cases are presented to illustrate the problems with indoor climates that deviates from common standards. The two cases were chosen because they are interesting from an energy saving perspective. The first case is an intermittently heated church in northern Sweden, typical for a Scandinavian rural church used only for services. The second case is a completely unheated building with an indoor climate closely following the fluctuations of the outdoor climate, including sub-zero temperatures in winter. The research about mechanical damages is discussed with reference to these cases. Two areas are identified where more research is needed. There is limited knowledge on the correlation between a fluctuating indoor climate and the risk of mechanical damages, i.e. the rate of temperature and relative humidity changes. Secondly, the knowledge of how low temperatures affect the risk of mechanical damages is inadequate.

  • 66.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Energideklaration – hot eller möjlighet?2007Inngår i: Byggnadskultur, ISSN 0348-6885, Vol. 1, s. 16-17-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 67.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Making sense of climate risk information: The case of future indoor climate risks in Swedish churches2016Inngår i: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 13, s. 76-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations and institutions managing built heritage have to make use of increasingly detailed, elaborate and complex climate change impact assessments. It is a challenge to determine how, when and by whom climate predictions should be translated into risk estimates usable for decision-making. In this paper results from the Climate for Culture project are used to study how heritage decision-makers interpret future indoor climate-related risks to Swedish churches. Different sets of risk maps were presented to ten engineers, ten building conservators and five experts on indoor climate related risks. Interviews were used to understand how the interviewees made sense of the presented information and if they associated it with a perceived need for adaptation. The results show that the risks were interpreted and assessed largely dependent on their pre-understanding and familiarity with the individual risks. The magnitude of change and the lack of uncertainty estimates were subordinate to the overall impression of the information as being credible and salient. The major conclusion is that the dissemination of risk information, also from projects which at the outset have aimed at producing knowledge relevant for end-users, should be both customized and tested in collaborative efforts by stakeholders and scientists.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 68.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Standardizing the Indoor Climate in Swedish Churches: Opportunities, Challenges and Ways ForwardManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Standardization for indoor climate control in historic buildings has recently taken a new direction with standards and guidelines that focus more on decision processes than outcomes. The objective of the paper is to explore and discuss how standards can evolve to both fit and guide decision processes to facilitate a sustainable managementof Swedish churches. Interviews with engineersand heritage professionals in the Church of Sweden in combination with indoor climate monitoring were used to understand the technical and organizational context.The results show that the development of process standards solves some of the problems related to the conventional outcome-oriented approach by opening up for a wider set of solutions. However, available guidelines are difficult to apply and integrate in the existing management of churches. A stronger focus on strategic feedback and an increased use of local guidelines are suggested.

  • 69.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Bertolin, C
    Camuffo, D
    Leissner, J
    Antretter, F
    Winkler, M
    Kotova, L
    Mikolajewicz, U
    Jacob, D
    van Schijndel, A.W.M.
    Schellen, Henk
    Broström, Tor
    Ashley-Smith, Jonathan
    Results of the EU Project Climate For Culture: Future Climate-induced Risks to Historic Buildings and their Interiors2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU funded Climate for Culture (CfC) Project is finalized to forecast the impact ofclimate change on either indoor or outdoor Cultural Heritage and advise on relatedrisks. CfC has produced high-resolution thematic maps over Europe to highlight theexpected changes and related risks for a number of key materials, building types,deterioration mechanisms for the near and far future based on two emissionscenarios as developed by IPCC. The procedure to obtain a thematic map is asfollows: to simulate outdoor climate change; to pass from outdoor to indoor climatechange through building simulation and case studies measurements; to use damagefunctions and literature results to evaluate potential risk for buildings and objects; tomap the above results for advice and stakeholders use. This methodology hasproduced 55,650 thematic maps of future climate induced risks to historic buildingsand collections in their interiors. The results can be used for climate change impactassessments and for planning adaption and mitigation measures in view ofpreventive conservation or other applications, e.g. human health, energyconsumption, cultural tourism. This paper presents some of the main projectoutcomes.

  • 70.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Broström, Tor
    Kyrkobyggnader och klimatförändringar2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med rapporten är att identifiera och värdera framtida inneklimatre-laterade risker i kyrkobyggnader på grund av framtida klimatförändringar samt att undersöka hur informationen om framtida risker kan användas. Vidare diskuteras styrkor och svagheter med befintlig fastighetsförvaltning med avseende på klimatanpassning. Undersökningen bygger på resultat från det europeiska projektet Climate for Culture där framtida risker, förknippade med klimatförändringar, pre-senteras i form av riskkartor. Som komplement till detta genomfördes en intervjuundersökning med ett tjugotal personer inom Svenska kyrkan som arbetar med fastighetsförvaltning.Undersökningen visar att risker för mögel och insektsangrepp ökar sig-nifikant medan andra risker, t ex mekaniska skador på bemålat trä, inte ökar. Följdfrågan blir då, vilka åtgärder kan eller bör vidtas i nuläget? För-fattarnas uppfattning är att klimatförändringarna förstärker betydelsen av förebyggande åtgärder och regelbundna kontroller för att förhindra innekli-matrelaterade skador. Vid långsiktiga insatser och investeringar, till exem-pel vid nyinstallation av uppvärmnings- eller avfuktningsanläggningar, bör kommande klimatförändringar beaktas vid dimensioneringen. Vidare borde Svenska kyrkan, i samverkan med andra nationella aktörer, överväga att införa ett program för långsiktiga uppföljningar av effekter på inneklimat och skador i kyrkor.

  • 71.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Standardizing the indoor climate in historic buildings: opportunities, challenges and ways forward2018Inngår i: Journal of Architectural Conservation, ISSN 1355-6207, E-ISSN 2326-6384, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 3-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Standardization for indoor climate control in historic buildings has recently taken a new direction with standards and guidelines that focus more on decision processes than outcomes. The objective of the paper is to explore and discuss how standards can evolve to both fit and guide decision processes to facilitate a sustainable management of historic buildings. Interviews with engineers and heritage professionals in the Church of Sweden in combination with indoor climate monitoring were used to understand the technical and organizational context. The results show that the development of process standards solves some of the problems related to the conventional outcome-oriented approach by opening up for a wider set of solutions. However, available guidelines are difficult to apply and integrate in the existing management of churches. A stronger focus on strategic feedback and an increased use of local guidelines are suggested.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 72.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Tunefalk, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    What’s behind the façade?: A long-term assessment of the Swedish energy efficiency programme 1977–1984 and its impact on built heritage2018Inngår i: The 3rdInternational Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings / [ed] T. Broström, L. Nilsen, S. Carlsten, Visby, 2018, Vol. 1, s. 191-198Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy ef ciency policies might have a negative impact on the heritage values of buildings, an issue widely recognized in Sweden during and after the extensive energy ef ciency programme ‘Energy savings plan for existing buildings’ (EBB 1977–84). The purpose of this paper is to assess the long-term impact of the EBB on an urban district in Gävle, Sweden. The district comprises 69 single- and multi-family detached houses built between the 1920’s and 1950’s. Using archival sources and field studies we describe how the buildings have been modified and trace the role of the EBB on the district as a whole. The results show that despite that the EBB has had a major impact on the district, it is difficult to disentangle its role in relation to other factors. The study raises concerns over the common approach in policy making to draw distinct lines in the sand between heritage and non-heritage buildings.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 73.
    Leissner, Johanna
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Gesell, D-80686 Munich, Germany..
    Kilian, Ralf
    Fraunhofer Gesell, D-80686 Munich, Germany..
    Kotova, Lola
    Helmholtz Ctr Geesthacht, Climate Serv Ctr 20, D-20095 Hamburg, Germany..
    Jacob, Daniela
    Helmholtz Ctr Geesthacht, Climate Serv Ctr 20, D-20095 Hamburg, Germany..
    Mikolajewicz, Uwe
    Max Planck Inst Meteorol, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany..
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Ashley-Smith, Jonathan
    Schellen, Henk L.
    Tech Univ Eindhoven, NL-5612 AZ Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Martens, Marco
    Tech Univ Eindhoven, NL-5612 AZ Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    van Schijndel, Jos
    Tech Univ Eindhoven, NL-5612 AZ Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Antretter, Florian
    Fraunhofer Gesell, D-80686 Munich, Germany..
    Winkler, Matthias
    Fraunhofer Gesell, D-80686 Munich, Germany..
    Bertolin, Chiara
    CNR ISAC Padova, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Camuffo, Dario
    CNR ISAC Padova, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Simeunovic, Goran
    Czech Tech Univ, Prague 16636 6, Czech Republic..
    Vyhlidal, Tomas
    Czech Tech Univ, Prague 16636 6, Czech Republic..
    Climate for Culture: assessing the impact of climate change on the future indoor climate in historic buildings using simulations2015Inngår i: Heritage Science, E-ISSN 2050-7445, Vol. 3, artikkel-id 38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The present study reports results from the large-scale integrated EU project "Climate for Culture". The full name, or title, of the project is Climate for Culture: damage risk assessment, economic impact and mitigation strategies for sustainable preservation of cultural heritage in times of climate change. This paper focusses on implementing high resolution regional climate models together with new building simulation tools in order to predict future outdoor and indoor climate conditions. The potential impact of gradual climate change on historic buildings and on the vast collections they contain has been assessed. Two moderate IPCC emission scenarios A1B and RCP 4.5 were used to predict indoor climates in historic buildings from the recent past until the year 2100. Risks to the building and to the interiors with valuable artifacts were assessed using damage functions. A set of generic building types based on data from existing buildings were used to transfer outdoor climate conditions to indoor conditions using high resolution climate projections for Europe and the Mediterranean. Results The high resolution climate change simulations have been performed with the regional climate model REMO over the whole of Europe including the Mediterranean region. Whole building simulation tools and a simplified building model were developed for historic buildings; they were forced with high resolution climate simulations. This has allowed maps of future climate-induced risks for historic buildings and their interiors to be produced. With this procedure future energy demands for building control can also be calculated. Conclusion With the newly developed method described here not only can outdoor risks for cultural heritage assets resulting from climate change be assessed, but also risks for indoor collections. This can be done for individual buildings as well as on a larger scale in the form of European risk maps. By using different standardized and exemplary artificial buildings in modelling climate change impact, a comparison between different regions in Europe has become possible for the first time. The methodology will serve heritage owners and managers as a decision tool, helping them to plan more effectively mitigation and adaption measures at various levels.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 74.
    Lindblom, Emmy
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Det var en gång en trädgård: Om odlande vid Stora Karlsö fyrplats2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Ön Stora Karlsö, belägen ca 15 km väster om Klintehamn, Gotland, har sedan länge varit skyddad för sina höga naturvärden. På ön finns en fyrplats från 1887 vars bebyggelse är statliga byggnadsminnen. Söder om fyrplatsen finns en gammal igenvuxen fyrträdgård vilken utgör föremål för fallstudie i detta arbete. Karlsö Jagt- och Djurskyddsförening AB äger majoriteten av all mark på ön och förvaltar den, samt bedriver besöksverksamhet. De har en önskan om att eventuellt åter kunna bruka mark i fyrträdgården för småskalig odling av köksväxter. Syftet med arbetet är att genom dokumentation, insamlande av kunskap och information om fyrträdgården på Stora Karlsö bidra till att dess kulturhistoriska värden inte går förlorade vid eventuella nyodlingar i trädgården. Syftet är även att öka kunskapen om fyrträdgårdar och dess betydelse och funktion i Sverige i allmänhet, samt att därigenom synliggöra det gröna kulturarvet i äldre tiders trädgårdsodling. Resultaten visar att trädgården, som var i ständig förändring under tiden den brukades, var hierarkiskt uppdelad mellan de anställda vid fyrplatsen och odlingsytan var indelad i inhägnade lotter. Trädgården har både haft en funktion för självförsörjning och kontemplation och både köksväxter och prydnadsväxter har odlats. Idag finns t. ex. syrener, gullregn, bondpioner samt nio olika äldre sorter av narcisser kvar i trädgården. Avläsbara strukturer i marken samt gjutna fundament för staketstolpar visar var tidigare odlingslotter har funnits. Väldisponerade och genomtänkta nyodlingar i trädgården skulle inte skada dess kulturhistoriska värden, utan snarare bidra till förståelsen av platsens historia och vara positivt ur ett bevarandeperspektiv.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 75.
    Lindqvist, Carina
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Målkonflikter i kulturmiljövården: När Kulturmiljölagen utmanas - en fallstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Fallstudiens syfte är att belysa problematiken med målkonflikter där Kulturmiljölagen utmanas av andra lagstiftningar. Med utgångspunkt i fallet Östigården, samt några andra ärenden där olika typer av målkonflikter uppstått, undersöks hur en målkonflikt kan uppstå, vad en sådan kan bestå av samt vilka konsekvenserna kan bli. Teoretisk utgångspunkt för analys av resultatet har inspirerats från The Halland Model  där avhandlingens författare kommer fram till att samverkan i förhandling - ”The trading zone”  - där parterna är lyhörda för vad motståndaren vill och anpassar sig därefter för att hitta en gemensam inriktning, ger större möjlighet att få sina respektive intressen tillgodosedda. Arkivstudier, ärendegranskning, litteraturstudier samt en besiktning av Östigården ligger till grund för studien. E-postintervjuer har genomförts med Kulturmiljöenheten och Natur- och viltenheten på Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg. I fallet Östigården har betydande kulturvärden gått förlorade på grund av en ickehantering av problematiken med fladdermusskador under lång tid. Skadeorsak utreddes inte och åtgärder uteblev vid upptäckt av skadorna på 1990-talet. Samverkan med Natur- och viltenheten kom till stånd först 2015 då en gemensam tillsyn gjordes. I maj 2016 ansöktes om dispens från Artskyddsförordningen för att få stänga ute de fridlysta fladdermössen. Konsekvenserna för byggnaden har blivit ansenliga både ur kulturhistorisk och ekonomisk synvinkel, medan fladdermössen hittills inte lidit någon skada såvitt känt. Studien visar att samverkan över sektorsgränserna i ett tidigt skede i processen är eftersträvansvärt och kanske till och med nödvändigt. För att uppnå detta och säkerställa viktiga värden kan det behövas förtydliganden i ärendehanteringen såsom givna procedurer med ändamålsenliga och signifikanta checklistor.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Målkonflikter i kulturmiljövården
  • 76.
    Lingfors, David
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Donarelli, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Solenergi på kulturhistoriska byggnader2018Inngår i: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, Vol. 5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2040 ska 5-10 procent av den svenska elmixen komma från sol- energi. En stor del av dagens sol- cellsinstallationer är uppförda på byggnader och det är troligt att den trenden kommer att hålla i sig. Samtidigt omfattas en stor del av byggnadsbeståndet av olika lag- skydd på grund av kulturhistoriska värden vilket kräver särskild varsamhet när man installerar sol- celler på dessa byggnader. I ett nystartat forskningsprojekt kom- mer verktyg och riktlinjer tas fram som tar hänsyn till både de tekniska och arkitektoniska aspekterna av solcellsinstallationer på kulturhistoriskt värdefulla byggnader.

  • 77.
    Lingfors, David
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad mekanik, Byggteknik.
    Johansson, Tim
    Gitter AB.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad mekanik, Byggteknik.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Target-based visibility assessment on building envelopes: Applications to PV and cultural-heritage values2019Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 204, artikkel-id 109483Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy applications have, in recent years, become a common element in the urban landscape, especially on roofs and facades. However, it is important that the integration of solar energy in the built environment do not distort the fabric or expression of the existing building envelope, not at least in areas of high cultural-heritage values. The aesthetics depend, to a large extent, on how visible the new technology, such as photovoltaic (PV) panels, is. This paper describes a method for visibility assessment of building envelopes. It is referred to as target-based as it, in contrast to previously reported methods, bases the assessment from the perspective of the building envelope itself, rather than possible vantage points on the ground. The method was evaluated for two Swedish cities; Stockholm and Visby. In Stockholm, each building was evaluated based on its cultural-heritage values, solar irradiation and visibility. Deploying PV only on the roofs with the lowest cultural-heritage values, with insolation > 900 kWh/m2, and with no visibility from ground, results in a total PV yield of up to 2% of the total electricity demand. In Visby, various definitions of the vantage area were evaluated, from which the building envelope can be seen. It was found that the choice of vantage area greatly impacts the solar energy potential. If the vantage area is defined by the public domain, i.e., streets and other public open spaces, the non-visible roof area doubles compared to if all ground/terrain defines it. Compared to previous studies, the use of a vantage area, instead of discrete vantage points, seems to result in higher visibility of the roofs.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    targetBased
  • 78.
    Luciani, Andrea
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Department of Architecture and Urban Studies (DAStU), Italy.
    Wessberg, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    The influence of air exchange on the stability of the indoor climate in Skokloster castle2013Inngår i: e-Preservation Science, ISSN 1854-3928, E-ISSN 1581-9280, ISSN 1581-9280, Vol. 10, s. 77-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Skokloster Castle is a historic masonry building without any active climate control and hosting an important and heterogeneous collection of artefacts. Despite being cited as a good passive preservation environment, conservators are observing decay in the collections related to the indoor climate that may call for a re-evaluation of the climate control strategy. Air exchange is generally considered one of the driving forces influencing the indoor climate in unheated historic buildings. This study was developed to better understand and evaluate its influence on the indoor climate stability of the castle. The present study has outlined an experimental procedure for the assessment of the influence of air exchange that can be used in historic buildings in general. Air exchange rate was measured in seven rooms using tracer gas passive sampling. The results were related to an analysis of the variability of indoor temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and mixing ratio (MR). A connection with short-term RH fluctuations, considered the most dangerous for hygroscopic materials, was identified. Problems connected with mould growth and high RH levels were also considered and discussed.

  • 79. Moshfegh, B.
    et al.
    Rohdin, P.
    Milic, V.
    Donarelli, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Eriksson, Petra
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    A method to assess the potential for and consequences of energy retrofits in Swedish historic districts2018Inngår i: Conference Report: The 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings / [ed] Tor Broström, Lisa Nilsen and Susanna Carlsten, Uppsala University, 2018, s. 302-310Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 80.
    Napp, Margus
    et al.
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Chair Bldg Phys & Energy Efficiency, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Wessberg, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Kalamees, Targo
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Chair Bldg Phys & Energy Efficiency, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Adaptive ventilation for climate control in a medieval church in cold climate2016Inngår i: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 1-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Old medieval churches hold objects of great historical and cultural value: organs, altars, paintings. But they have no systems for indoor climate control or the church may be heated only at services. These conditions are inadequate for the preservation of cultural heritage. The objective of this paper is to assess an adaptive ventilation (AV) solution in a church for reduction of the relative humidity (RH) in an unheated church to prevent mould growth and disintegration of wooden parts. The operation principle of the system is to ensure ventilation in the church when water vapour content in the outdoor air is lower than that indoors, to lower the RH in the church. A case study in Hangvar Church in Gotland, Sweden, was conducted to test the performance of AV to reduce the RH in the church. Field measurements showed that AV has a positive impact on the indoor RH of the church. During the measurement period without climate control, the RH in the church was higher than 70% of 98% of the time; with AV, the indoor RH was higher than 70% only 78% of the time. Building simulation was carried out to test the performance and energy consumption of AV under different conditions. The simulations showed that auxiliary heating and airflow rate both have high impact on the system performance. The higher the heating power, the more effective the system is; thus, lower airflow rates are needed. Infiltration has also high impact on the system performance: the lower the infiltration rate, the better the AV performance is.

  • 81.
    Nerman, Solveig
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Utställningspedagogik möter neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar: Nordiska museet under luppen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A goal in conservation is that cultural heritage should be for everyone and therefore should be experienced by everyone. With ramps, lifts, Braille exhibitions, sign language interpreted tours, tours for the visually impaired, etc., adaptions are made for people with physical disabilities. The purpose of this paper is to highlight how the Nordic Museum works to reach people with neuropsychiatric disorders along with the specific needs and disabilities which may need to be met by the museum. The case study will aim to highlight problems and opportunities in pedagogy of exhibitions focused on neuropsychiatric disorders. Moreover, it provides an indication of how the works with these issues at the museums are implemented, etc., which can create a greater awareness for the various professions in museums and conservations. This has been examined by the means of interviews, with the unions that advocate groups of neuropsychiatric disorders, and observations of selected exhibitions and shows, museum space, some audioguide-tours and part of the museum's website. In addition, other interviews are made with a museum educator with experience in the subject and a museum educator and head of the department of hosts and shops from the Nordic Museum. The materials which are used are mainly written public reports, as for example the Nordic museum Annual 2015. The museum caterers mostly focus on physical disability. They have also focused on reading disabilities and dementia, in addition to the physical functional limitations. The museum does its best and have a desire to improve themselves, which is shown at their website. The educational tools and approaches, etc. is well thought through, but the focus here is primarily on children and not adults. Something that may be because they have more impressions for children than for adults, if one example is taken. Some of the unions advocate “design for all” and more focus on a different view from the society, as well as personal attitudes to face persons with neuropsychiatric disabilities. They believe this will also affect the museum's education in general. Also, the use of different types of media and interactions in the exhibitions, as well as peace in the museum hall will make an impact in the pedagogy of the museum. The conclusions are that it probably always will be development potential in the pedagogy of the museum. The Nordic Museum has come a long way in the use of several media, but the design could in some cases be fine-tuned. Awareness of neuropsychiatric disorders could also be developed, both in society and in museums.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Utställningspedagogik möter neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar
  • 82.
    Nordström, Frida
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    ”Ett vackert hem börjar med golvet”: Linoleummattan i Sverige under tidigt 1900- tal2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar hur samhällsströmningar i samhället under tidigt 1900-tal påverkade användningen av linoleum i hemmen och i arkitekturen i Sverige. Även utseendet på linoleummattor och tillverkningssätt undersöks. Undersökningen omfattar också den svenska linoleumtillverkaren Forshaga linoleum och andra typer av golvmattor som har tillverkats av dem.
 


    Linoleum uppfanns av Fredrick Walton på 1860-talet och hade sin storhetstid under de kommande 100 åren. Linoleum är tillverkat av oxiderad linolja, kork- eller trämjöl och pigment. Mönster skapas antingen genom att färga massan och sedan blanda ihop olika färger, stansa ut bitar i olika färger, så kallad inlaid, eller genom tryck. De tryckta mönstren har en fantastisk mönsterrikedom eftersom det var möjligt att trycka mycket detaljerade mönster och med många färger. De flesta av dessa mönster var imiterande, det vill säga att de skapades för att se ut som ett mer exklusivt golv, såsom parkett, textilmattor och klinkermosaik.


    Linoleum hade sitt genombrott i svenska hem i början av 1900-talet. Inledningsvis var det en exklusiv vara för medelklassen som placerades på hedersplats i finrummet för att markera status och ett modernt tankesätt. Några årtionden senare hade linoleumgolv blivit standard i de flesta hem och användes särskilt i rum som behövde vara lättstädade såsom kök och hall. Funktionalismen medförde att linoleumgolv lades in i moderna byggnader och i samlingslokaler och offentliga miljöer. Detta eftersom linoleum med sina många praktiska egenskaper tilltalade funktionalismens arkitekter.

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  • 83.
    Närlund, Ingrid
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Social Sustainability, Cultural heritage, and the Swedish Million Homes program2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Creating socially sustainable residential areas is an important topic as urbanisation and migration increase. This thesis is about Swedish residential areas built during the period 1965 to 1974 as the result of a political programme called the Million homes programme. The areas hold cultural historic values being the physical manifestation of an era of the Swedish history that has strongly shaped our present society, but is now threatened by lack of social sustainability. The Million homes areas constitute a large part of the residential areas in Sweden today. By the end of the programme there were an abundance of housing options in Sweden, and empty apartments were in a high degree located in the modernistic suburbs, as people with good economy chose to move elsewhere. To fill the apartment, the municipalities used them for social contracts. The areas became segregated, and still are today despite several attempts to improve their popularity. This thesis analyses various measures and strategies for improving social sustainability in the Million homes areas, and their effects on the cultural heritage. The ambition with the study is to give a broad, cross-functional view of the topic, studying various approaches, e.g. physical renovations to social activities to cooperation with the police. The thesis starts with a literature study of social sustainability in residential areas, and the factors influencing it. A classification of aspects influencing social sustainability is created, to be used for evaluating the results from the case study in the second part of the thesis. The case study is performed in six suburbs in the Stockholm region, being new developments during the Million homes program. Social sustainability in each area is evaluated using the aspects defined in the first part of the study, and measures to improve social sustainability in the areas, and their effect on the intangible cultural heritage, are discussed. The work is valid for goal number 11 of the Sustainable Development Goals Sustainable cities and communities, in particular target number 11.3 Inclusive and sustainable urbanisations, as well as goal number 5 Gender equality and goal number 10 Reduced inequalities

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Social Sustainability, Cultural heritage, and the Swedish Million Homes program
  • 84.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Upp till kamp med nål och tråd: Om kvinnligt kodade textiltraditioner genom hantverksaktivism idag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a personal interest in textile craft, my own experience as a knitter in combination with studies in integrated conservation and gender studies as a subsidiary subject this research was done as my thesis in integrated conservation. With the purpose to study textile craft traditions as a feminine part of the intangible cultural heritage in todays society with focus on craftivism, a questionnaire study was done. The study was addressed to craftivists who practice any kind of textile craft with the purpose to get a deeper insight in their understanding, attitude and opinions related to craftivism and textile craft traditions. The female norm in textile craft and especially textile craftivism was remarkably striking in the results of the questionnaire study, which can explain why feminism is an issue close to heart for most of the informants. Among many of the craftivists in this study there is an awareness of this norm and traditional feminine connotative meanings related to textile, for example softness and warmth. These connotative meanings are consciously used by many craftivists to create contrasts with norm breaking statements. These contrasting effects can be interpreted as innovative, inspiring and remarkable. Craftivism is therefore a way to use one’s creativity to make one’s voice heard. It could be a part of textile craft traditions today, in a stage of innovation and forward looking, which is likely to be a contributing variable due to the preservation of the intangible textile cultural heritage in the future.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 85.
    Pennanen, Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad mekanik, Byggteknik. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Syed, Simon
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad mekanik, Byggteknik. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Social hållbarhet i renoveringsprocessen: En studie om hur dialog, jämställdhet och trygghet främjas vid ombyggnationer av bostäder2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines the correlation between social sustainability and the renovation process, focusing on the aspects; dialogue, gender equality and security. They were chosen after an interpretation of needs was done with help from a literature study. It concluded that the three chosen aspects were most beneficial to focus on from a socially sustainable perspective.

    Through interviews, a model of all stages of Uppsalahem's renovation process have been created to find opportunities for development with regard to the chosen aspects. The report begins with a comprehensive background description of today’s state and knowledge regarding renovation needs, social sustainability, civil dialogue and also an introduction of Uppsalahem. The main part of the report starts with an account of interviews in the form of a clarification of Uppsalahem's current renovation process. The main part also presents the results from a deeper literature study with regard to the selected aspects. In the final sections, the aspectsare linked to the renovation process, which then leads to conclusions summarized in the areas; renovation, dialogue,equality and security.

    The study has shown, among other things, that a neighbourhood security survey as a method of making the residential area more secure in association with the renovation can benefits theresidents. Housing company have also deemed to benefit by constructing a good dialogue.. It also appears that the action package is a progressive method that favors social sustainability,but is also a method with great development potential.

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  • 86. Raslan, E.
    et al.
    Donarelli, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    De Angelis, E.
    Categorization of the heritage building stock in Cairo for the energy planning purposes: A method and the typical buildings2018Inngår i: Conference Report: The 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings / [ed] Tor Broström, Lisa Nilsen and Susanna Carlsten, Uppsala University, 2018, s. 503-511Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 87.
    Ribohn, Mio
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Fredsmuseer & Försvarsmuseer: Två perspektiv på fred och säkerhet inom kulturvården2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen undersöker huruvida freds- och konfliktvetenskapliga teorier kan kopplas till freds- respektive försvarsmuseer. Tidigare forskning som kopplar dessa två tvärvetenskapliga ämnesområden till varandra är ytterst bristfällig, vilket kan ge negativa konsekvenser på det museer förmedlar till sina besökare. Är freds- och försvarsmuseerna inte medvetna om vilka teoretiska utgångspunkter de faktiskt har kan de omedvetet ge besökarna en snedvriden och ensidig bild av verkligheten. I uppsatsens undersökning beskrivs Fredens Hus och Armémuseum utifrån ett freds- och konfliktvetenskapligt analysverktyg för att utröna hur de tolkar och förmedlar säkerhet. De två freds- och konfliktvetenskapliga teorierna realism och feminism används sedan för att se om endera museum faktiskt förmedlar en verklighetsuppfattning baserad på någon av dessa teorier. I slutsatsen redogörs att Fredens Hus förmedlar en verklighetssyn som sammanfaller med det kritiska perspektivet feminism och att Armémuseum förmedlar ett perspektiv som sammanfaller med det traditionella perspektivet realism.

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  • 88. Rohdin, P.
    et al.
    Milic, V.
    Wahlqvist, Max
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Moshfegh, B.
    On the use of change-point models to describe the energy performance of historic buildings2018Inngår i: Conference Report: The 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings / [ed] Tor Broström, Lisa Nilsen and Susanna Carlsten, Uppsala University, 2018, s. 512-520Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 89.
    Stanojev, Jermina
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Progression Analytics And Establishing Continuum Of Participatory Governance In Cultural Heritage2019Inngår i: SCIRES-IT: SCIentific RESearch and Information Technology, ISSN 2239-4303, E-ISSN 2239-4303, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 79-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A participatory approach was at the heart of understanding the European Year of Cultural Heritage 2018 and consequently after the end of 2018, the cultural heritage sector is putting efforts to understand if the approach was a contemporary trend, a methodology for the Year itself, a topic that was widely discussed, an outlook that is becoming more and more embedded in cultural heritage practices or a synthesis of all aspects. The paper explores if and how the European Year has contributed to advance and progress the understanding of the approach and enhance practices of the participatory governance of cultural heritage.

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  • 90.
    Stengård, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Påverkare och Påverkade: En diskursanalys av relationen mellan Sida och Kulturarv utan Gränser utifrån deras arbete i Bosnien och Hercegovina 1996-20082017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker dels hur relationen ser ut mellan den statliga biståndsmyndigheten Sida och stiftelsen Kulturarv utan Gränser (KuG) samt vilka diskurser som förekommer i kommunikationen dem emellan, samt vilka positioner dessa intar i konstruktionen av kulturarvet under återuppbyggnadsprocessen efter kriget i Bosnien och Hercegovina. Materialet till undersökningen har bestått av projektansökningshandlingar som ansökningar, beslut och rapporter. Till hjälp för att analysera mitt material har jag haft Ashworth och Tunbridges modell som beskriver processen bakom konstruktionen av kulturarv. För att se hur relationen såg ut mellan KuG och Sida har jag använt Norman Faircloughs kritiska diskursanalys för att synliggöra den diskurs KuG och Sida verkar inom och hur den påverkas dels av andra diskurser men också av den sociala praktiken. Under drygt 10 år var Sida KuGs huvudfinansiär under stiftelsens arbete med restaureringar av byggnader, kompetensutveckling och institutionsbyggande för att bygga upp och stärka kulturvård- och kulturarvssektorn i Bosnien och Hercegovina. Utgångspunkten är att relationen mellan Sida och KuG i grunden var ojämn på grund av stiftelsens finansiella beroende till Sida. Resultatet av undersökningen visar att tack vare sitt övertag kom Sida att under den undersökta tidsperioden fullständigt omforma KuGs verksamhet. Från att ha varit inriktade mot att arbeta för bevarande och skydd av kulturarv i Bosnien och Hercegovina så skiftade stiftelsens fokus till att inriktas mot att jobba med kulturarv som en resurs för vidare social- och ekonomiska utveckling

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    fulltext
  • 91.
    Stengård, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Funder and facilitator: Swedish development aid aimed at cultural heritage in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1995–20082019Inngår i: The International Journal of Cultural Policy, ISSN 1028-6632, E-ISSN 1477-2833, Vol. 25, nr 7, s. 858-870Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper investigates the relationship between the Swedish development agency Sida and Cultural Heritage without Borders (CHwB), a facilitating organisation in the field of cultural heritage in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) following the Bosnia War. From 1995 to 2008 CHwB was the only NGO in BiH working to preserve cultural heritage, and was almost exclusively funded by Sida. From having been an organisation focusing on the restoration of historic monuments, CHwB transformed into becoming an NGO facilitating social and economic development. The paper suggests that CHwB gradually changed from having a very particular position of working with the pre- servation of an ethnically diverse cultural heritage with the aim of promot- ing reconciliation, to one where it needed to focus on reconstruction and its implications for economic development. By analysing a large number of key documents using Norman Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis this change is interpreted in relation to changes taking place within the land- scape of international aid and post-conflict recovery.

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    fulltext
  • 92.
    Strandberg, Paulien
    et al.
    Lund University, Faculty of Engineering, Division of Building Materials.
    Balksten, Kristin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Donarelli, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Sustainable insulation of historical wooden and stone buildings with lime-hemp2017Inngår i: ICBBM 2017 Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Bio-Based Building Materials / [ed] Sofiane Amziane; Mohammed Sonebi; Karine Charlet, 2017, s. 651-655Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this multidisciplinary project lime-hemp is studied as a thermal insulating material for the renovation of historic timber and brick buildings*). Focus is on buildings in the historic city of Visby on the Swedish island of Gotland in the Baltic sea. Many historic buildings in Visby have over the past decades been thermally insulated with materials such as mineral wools and polystyrene. Due to this, damage caused by moisture and microbial growth has increased. As a consequence, cultural and historical values have been damaged. Lime-hemp is a sustainable building material that consists of hemp shiv and building limes. It works differently than conventional insulating materials; in addition to good thermal insulation properties, it also has good thermal mass and moisture buffering capacity. This project will study the durability of the lime-hemp, especially microbial growth and moisture problems, and opportunities for renovation of historic buildings, while creating a good indoor climate and preserving historical values. Lab-studies as well as full-scale studies are conducted. The aim of the project is to sustainably improve energy efficiency while preserving historical values, without durability problems.*) The project started in September 2016 and results are not expected until earliest autumn 2017. The article will therefore give an outline of the project and some preliminary findings.

  • 93.
    Strandberg-de Bruijn, Paulien
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Div Bldg Mat, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Donarelli, Anna
    Swedish Natl Heritage Board, S-62122 Visby, Sweden.
    Balksten, Kristin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Full-scale Studies of Improving Energy Performance by Renovating Historic Swedish Timber Buildings with Hemp-lime2019Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 12, artikkel-id 2484Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, energy saving is of great importance in all sectors of society. EU directives set targets for member states to reduce energy use in buildings. Energy saving in historic buildings requires special measures, balancing energy-saving renovations against the preservation of heritage values. Traditional constructions are open to vapor diffusion and generally work differently from modern constructions. Modern materials in traditional constructions sometimes damages the original material as they are usually diffusion-tight. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hemp-lime could be used as an insulation material to improve the energy efficiency of historic timber building envelopes with a rendered facade in Sweden. The objective was to determine the actual energy savings for space heating. An additional objective was to determine the actual thermal transmittance and to study thermal buffering through in-situ measurements in a full-scale wall renovated with hemp-lime. Two full-scale wall sections were constructed at the Energy and Building Design laboratory at Lund University: A traditional post-and-plank wall with a lime render (80 mm), and a post-and-plank wall with a hemp-lime render (90 mm). Energy use for space heating was monitored continuously over a period of one year. The wall with a hemp-lime render required 33% less energy for space heating than the traditional post-and-plank wall with a lime render. This was accomplished without changing the framework, appearance or material in the render and without drastically changing the hygric properties of the facade. From the gathered data, the thermal transmittance (U-values) for both walls was calculated using two different methods, one based on material properties and the other based on energy use data. For both walls, thermal transmittance based on actual energy use data during the heating period was lower than what was expected from their material properties. This indicates that more material properties than thermal conductivity and material thickness need to be taken into account when performing energy use calculations. With hemp-lime, a renovation can be accomplished without damaging the timber structure and wooden slats, and it can be done with local traditional materials and building methods with no difference in appearance to a traditional lime render. This allows for heritage values to be preserved, while also allowing the building to comply with modern standards and with increased thermal comfort and reduced energy use.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 94.
    Tawfeeq, Safeen
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Håkansson, Gustav
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Energieffektiviseringsmöjligheter i kulturhistoriska byggnader2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    All around the country there are historic buildings considered to have a cultural heritage value and are therefore historically important and should be preserved.  They are an important part of a city’s identity and it is important to preserve them so that they can keep being part of our societies. The thesis of this study is therefore to explore the possibilities for how these buildings can become more energy efficient, so that they can meet today’s standards and keep being functional.

    Cultural heritage buildings can be subject to legal preservation and for every building there are individual preservation requirements that are to be considered. Three fictional buildings with different preservation requirements have thus been created to take into consideration all the challenges and possibilities that can present themselves.  

    The result shows the multitude of opportunities, but that these can vary greatly between buildings and cases. It is always the individual building’s preservation requirements and its premise that are the determining factors for if the solutions are applicable or if the value is affected negatively. Thus, a thorough prestudy is always significant before every project. Window retrofit solutions are mostly made of adding additional glass and sealing, which in many cases can be applied to existing windows without further complications. Ventilation and heating systems, however, require more space and are in most cases a more difficult retrofit action. Though, in some cases existing canals and pipelines can be utilized for installation of the new system, without affecting the heritage value negatively.

    Energy efficient retrofits in cultural heritage buildings could bring value and should therefore be considered. By retrofitting the building’s existing systems with newer and modernized techniques the indoor climate can be greatly improved, and thus the building’s use can be broadened, and it can continue to be a functional part of the city. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 95.
    Thor, Henric
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Jesper, Håkansson
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Simulering av klimatstyrning i Härnevi kyrka: påverkan på fuktupplagringen i en medeltida stenvägg2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how the moisture content of a stone wall from the 15th century varies with different types of climate control. The simulations in this report is based on measured data from sensors placed inside and outside Härnevi Church north of Enköping. The measured data are processed to simulate different climate control strategies in the church porch. The simulated climate control strategies are temperature control and air-dehumidification, the systems are controlled against either a mold risk curve or a fixed maximum value for the relative humidity. The simulations are performed with the program WUFI Pro 6.1; which performs onedimensional hygrothermal calculations of building component crosssections and is an alternative to the traditional Glaser-Method.Many climate simulations have been performed, though only four are fully accounted for in this dissertation. Simulations that have not resulted in surface conditions below the mold risk curve LIM I has not been included in the investigation process. Simulation results are based on climate controls against "fixed relative humidity max 71%" and "mold risk curve LIM I-10 percentage points". The results show that the desorption process of the wall is similar to all four simulations but provides different absorption processes, control against the mould risk curve allows the wall a faster water content build up. The simulations show that control against the mould risk curve results in a greater moisture storage in the wall during the winter months; compared to control the climate against a constant relative humidity. During summertime there is no significant difference in moisture storage between the various climate control simulations. The operating time to control against the mould risk curve for one year is roughly 1000 hours less than control against constant relative humidity. When considering the results in this report together with Härnevi church's current heating system, this dissertation recommends a climate control based on temperature control against a mould risk curve. The results also show the importance of investigating the difference between the mold ratio in the air and on the surface of the wall to perform a proper and safe climate control.

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    fulltext
  • 96.
    Tunefalk, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Decision-Making on a National Home Improvement Programme in Sweden and Its Effects on the Built Environment, 1984–19932019Inngår i: The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, ISSN 1756-7505, E-ISSN 1756-7513, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 106-121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Following a period of unprecedented building in the 1960s and 1970s, the national government of Sweden decided on a programme to promote renovations, refurbishments and extension of older buildings. The programme (abbreviated R.O.T.) was introduced in 1984 and consisted of loans and subsidies for the modernisation of houses older than 30 years, as well as information to home owners and builders on the benefits of home improvement. The target was to modernise 425,000 homes during the period 1984–1993. The programme stated that ‘the energy-saving measures must be intensified’ and ‘all out-dated and the main part of all inadequate apartments should be rebuilt to mod- ern apartments, or be demolished’. By relating the processes that formed R.O.T. to theories of decision-making, this study contributes to a better understanding of how housing policies may affect historical values in the built environment. The study reveals a conflict of interest between stakeholders. R.O.T. developed ad hoc as discourses shifted between interests. Initially, it was presented as a solution for unemployment in the building sector and a social improvement for the poor and elderly. It was not until the late 1980s that a discussion turned to the consequences for historical values.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 97.
    Tunefalk, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    The ROT programme, energy efficiency, and historical values in buildings in Sweden2018Inngår i: Preliminary conference report: Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Visby Sweden, 26-27 September 2018, Visby, 2018, Vol. 1, s. 255-263Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the early 1980’s, the Swedish government launched a homeimprovement programme (ROT), consisting of loans, grants and information to property owners for modernization of houses older than 30 years. The target was to modernize 425,000 homes during the period 1984–1993. It was a priority that ‘energy saving measures must be intensified’.

    By studying how ROT was conceived and negotiated in regards to energy efficiency and historical values in buildings, this paper contributes to a better understanding of how housing policies may generate both risks and opportunities. The study reveals a conflict of interest between stakeholders. Discourses regarding the programme shifted widely between interest groups and over time. Initially, it was presented as a solution for unemployment in the building sector, and a social improvement for the poor and elderly. It was not until the late 1980’s that a discussion started on the consequences for historical values.

  • 98.
    Tunefalk, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Long-term effects of additional insulation of building façades in Sweden: Towards a holistic approach2020Inngår i: International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, ISSN 2398-4708, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 374-385Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate long-term effects of previous policies for energy efficiency on energy performance and heritage values. A further ambition is to better understand the relationship between energy and preservation by exploring a quantitative method of combining energy performance data with official heritage designation.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on a quantitative analysis of energy performance,completed additional insulations, and official heritage classification for individual buildings. Data have been collected and analysed for a sample consisting of 289 multi-family buildings heated with district heating and constructed 1940–1949 in an urban area in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Findings – The data exhibit a significant correlation between the studied features. The study further shows that additional insulation has been installed in roughly half of the buildings. The large majority of them were carried out in the national programme for home improvement called ROT.

    Research limitations/implications – The findings indicate that previous policies for energy efficiency had an important effect on energy performance and heritage values in the studied area. They continue to affect urban planning and building permit administration today. Research of the physics of individual buildings would be needed in order to determine the reason for differences in the sample.

    Originality/value – By presenting a novel method, the study provides a useful tool for policy makers to bridge the gap between issues of energy and preservation and adopt a more holistic approach towards a sustainable built environment.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 99.
    Valge, Claudia
    et al.
    Estonian Academy of Arts.
    Bertacchi, Silvia
    University of Bologna.
    Carlsten, Susanna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Kormpaki, Theodora
    Estonian Academy of Arts.
    Õunapuu, Varje
    Estonian Academy of Arts.
    Ribelus, Kristiina
    Estonian Academy of Arts.
    Toom, Johanna
    Estonian Academy of Arts.
    Vinnal, Hannes
    Estonian Academy of Arts.
    Coulour Measurement and Documentation in Architectural Paint Research: International workshop - Final report2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The international workshop titled “Colour Measurement and Documentation in Architectural Paint Research” took place on the 22nd–25th of October, 2019 in Tallinn and Kirna, Estonia. The workshop was organised by the Department of Cultural Heritage and Conservation of the Estonian Academy of Arts. Lecturers, conservators, heritage officials, architectural conservation students and architectural paint research specialists from Estonia, Italy, Sweden, the Netherlands, Latvia and Lithuania made up the 25 participants of the workshop.

    After the international participants arrived on the 21st of October, the workshop formally begun on the following day. In the first half of the day, keynote lectures by Estonian and international speakers were held at the Estonian Academy of Arts. In the afternoon, the workshop participants left Tallinn for Järva County, first visiting the Purdi manor house to get acquainted with the architectural paint research practice in Estonia. Then, the group headed to the Kirna manor house and received an introductory tour of the building from one of its owners. Next morning, everyone once again assembled at the Kirna manor house and some of the participants presented case studies about their previous paint research projects. Subsequently, the 2-day long practical workshop begun with the participants being split into five research teams, each assigned a vault in the manor house entrance hall for paint investigation.

    The main aim of the workshop and the research in the entrance hall was to test out different paint investigation and colour measuring methods, techniques and tools (including colour measurement devices like colourimeters and spectrophotometers). The wider objective of this was to optimise and modernise the way historical colour information on architectural surfaces is identified, documented and preserved in Estonia and abroad. To learn from international expertise, the five research teams were assigned leaders from different countries (the Netherlands, Lithuania, Italy, Sweden, and Estonia), with each leader instructing their team members according to the prevalent architectural paint research methods in their respective country. Thus, every team had a distinct methodology and the participants were introduced to various research styles and techniques, which differ significantly between countries and researchers.

    In addition to the professional and educational purpose, it was also intended to investigate the finishes of the five vaults (one assigned to each team) and their adjacent architectural features. The preliminary research questions for the entrance hall are presented in chapter 4.1. In order to ascertain the historical paint layers and constructional stages, mechanical paint exposures and smaller openings were made in strategic areas like the vaults, pillars and pilasters, walls, window and door openings, doors, and the stucco decor on the vaults. Additionally, a few research teams took cross-sections of the finishes, some of which were microscopically examined to clarify the paint stratigraphy and pigments. The results were documented separately by each team in the form of reports and paint exposure/cross-section charts included in chapter 5. The team reports were mainly compiled by the participating students from the EAA Department of Cultural Heritage and Conservation, however, other team members contributed as well. The main results of the architectural paint research in the entrance hall, as well as a relative chronology of the discovered decorative finishes are presented in chapter 6. As the Kirna manor house is a listed building, permission for the aforementioned research was acquired beforehand by presenting the Estonian National Heritage Board a plan of action, which was approved by the Senior Inspector for Järva County.1

    Simultaneously with the paint research, a colour vision test was conducted with the workshop participants. In the first part of the experiment, the test subjects were asked to describe and determine the colour of two different historical paint layers on one entrance hall wall in two different lighting conditions using the NCS INDEX 1950 colour chart. After the experiment was performed by all of the participants present, the colours were scientifically ascertained with the colourimeters NCS Colourpin SE and NCS Colour Scan 1.0 RM200, as well as the Konica Minolta Spectrophotometer CM 2300d. In the second part of the experiment, the test subjects took the Jean Jouannic's colour blindness test and the X-Rite hue test online to test their general colour perception and the ability to differentiate similar hues. Later, the results of these tests were compared with the colours they determined using a colour chart to see if the discoveries correlate. The outcome of this experiment is presented in chapter 7.

    The workshop was concluded on the 25th of October at the Estonian Academy of Arts with a presentation and discussion of the initial results. Each research team presented their methods and findings, and there were general discussions about the accuracy and preservability of different methods in identifying and collecting historical colour information. The conclusions of the participants are summarised in chapter 8. Thereafter, the preliminary results of the colour determination experiment were revealed. Finally, all of the participants received a certificate for part-taking in the workshop and a tour of the Department of Cultural Heritage and Conservation was conducted for the international participants.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 100.
    Vyhlidal, Tomas
    et al.
    Department of Innstrumentation and Control Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech republic.
    Zitek, Pavel
    Department of Innstrumentation and Control Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech republic.
    Camuffo, Dario
    Consiglio Nazionale Delle Ricerche - Istituto di Scienze dell' atmosfera e del Clima, Italy..
    Simeunovic, Goran
    Department of Innstrumentation and Control Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech republic.
    Sladek, Otto
    Kybertec, Czech Republic.
    Wessberg, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Relative humidity control in historical buildings allowing the safe natural indoor-climate fluctuations2013Inngår i: EWCHP 2013 / [ed] Alexandra Troi, Elena Lucchi, Bozen / Bolzano: European Academy of Bozen / Bolzano (EURAC) , 2013, s. 77-84Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the paper, we present a method of relative humidity control in historical buildings based on the specifications of the European standard EN 15757. The approach follows the concept of acclimatization of the objects containing hygroscopic materials to the fluctuations of historical environment, which in general should not change substantially if the control is introduced. Only large fluctuations from the natural seasonal cycles of the indoor climate should be removed by the control system. Thus, the set point for the dehumidifier and humidifier are not constant, but follow the natural (seasonal) cycles of the interior microclimate. Next to the theoretical background, simulation experiments are provided and the application issues, including implementation on a programmable controller, are discussed.

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