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  • 51.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Anchoring in inference and preference judgments2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Decision-making is an important part of everyday life and we often need to make trade-offs among different alternatives with desirable traits. Previous studies investigating the anchoring bias suggest that when a question is asked with a reference value, the reference value will affect the answer to that question. This effect seems to occur in a variety of different domains. However, previous studies have mainly focused on anchoring using inference questions. The present study, therefore, aims to investigate if high and low anchors have an effect, not only on inference judgments but also on subjective preferences when making a trade-off decision. A computer-based questionnaire was used to collect data (N = 90) in a between-subject design. The anchor showed to have an effect on the inference questions. For the preference questions, one of the questions were close to the chosen threshold (p < .05). The other question for preference showed not to be significant. The result from this study imply that the anchoring effect was more explicit in inference judgment than in preferences with trade-offs.

  • 52.
    Andersson, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Behandlingstrovärdighet och utfallsförväntan: Dess påverkan på behandlingsutfallet i en internetadministrerad depressionsbehandling2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Depression ären av vår tids vanligaste folksjukdomar. Behovet av lättillgängliga och effektiva behandlingsmetoder är stort. För att maximera effekten av en behandlingmåste gemensamma faktorer likt behandlingstrovärdighet och utfallsförväntan säkras. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur behandlingstrovärdighet och utfallsförväntan yttrade sig i en internetadministrerad depressionsbehandling med två behandlingsformer. Vidare, om behandlingstrovärdighet och utfallsförväntan samvarierade med behandlingsutfallet. De två behandlingsformerna var ökad fysisk aktivitet, samt beteendeaktivering. De 197 deltagarna var diagnosticerade med mild till måttlig depression. De var i åldern 18-80 år, 75 % var kvinnor och 25 % män. Deltagarna skattade de två behandlingsformernas behandlingstrovärdighet och utfallsförväntani Treatment Credibility Scale (TCS)innan de randomiserades till någon av behandlingarna. Resultaten visade att behandlingsformen fysisk aktivitet uppfattadessom signifikant mer trovärdig och med högre utfallsförväntan än beteendeaktivering. Vidare fannsett signifikant samband mellan behandlingstrovärdighet och utfallförväntan och behandlingsutfallet för behandlingsformen beteendeaktivering. Inget signifikant sambandmellan behandlingstrovärdighet och utfallsförväntan och behandlingsutfallet för behandlingsformen fysisk aktivitet fanns. Förklaringen till resultaten kan tänkas återspeglas i behandlingsformernasskilda utformning, TCS konstruktionsamt den valdaanalysmetoden.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 53.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nilsson, Mikael
    INTERNET-BASED MINDFULNESS-ACCEPTANCE-COMMITMENT IN SPORTS: A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The psychological aspects of sports is crucial for performance and important for sustaining good mental health. Despite this, efforts to improve those aspects are surprisingly rare and partly due to stigmatization of help-seeking together with lack of time and economic resources. However, in recent decades much research on internet-based interventions have been conducted. Also, a growing body of empirical support for the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment approach (MAC) related to enhancement in performance and mental health in sports has emerged. This study was the first to explore the effects of internet-based MAC, which was conducted with the digital self-care programme ACTSPORT with or without feedback. Of 193 participants (aged 18 - 71, from 40 different sports on a variety of levels) who were randomly assigned to feedback, non-feedback and waitlist group, 125 completed the study. The results showed that participants who completed ACTSPORT with feedback experienced significantly enhanced performance, reduced performance anxiety and improved mental health, which included higher quality of life and less symptoms of depression. These improvements were predicted by significant improvements in acceptance and dispositional mindfulness. A larger effect was found for participants with feedback which indicated that some support is preferable. In conclusion, the present study indicate that internet-based interventions in sport may be  effective, time-saving, cost-effective, flexible and available means for both enhancement in performance and aspects of mental health.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    INTERNET-BASED MINDFULNESS-ACCEPTANCE-COMMITMENT IN SPORTS: A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL
  • 54.
    Andersson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Salander, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Brandstetter-Hiltunen, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Knutsson, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Is it possible to identify patient´s sex when reading blinded illness narratives? An experimental study about gender bias2008Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 7, nr 21, s. 1-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In many diseases men and women, for no apparent medical reason, are not offered the same investigations and treatment in health care. This may be due to staff's stereotypical preconceptions about men and women, i.e., gender bias. In the clinical situation it is difficult to know whether gender differences in management reflect physicians' gender bias or male and female patients' different needs or different ways of expressing their needs. To shed some light on these possibilities this study investigated to what extent it was possible to identify patients' sex when reading their blinded illness narratives, i.e., do male and female patients express themselves differently enough to be recognised as men and women without being categorised on beforehand?

    Methods: Eighty-one authentic letters about being diseased by cancer were blinded regarding sex and read by 130 students of medicine and psychology. For each letter the participants were asked to give the author's sex and to explain their choice. The success rates were analysed statistically. To illuminate the participants' reasoning the explanations of four letters were analysed qualitatively.

    Results: The patient's sex was correctly identified in 62% of the cases, with significantly higher rates in male narratives. There were no differences between male and female participants. In the qualitative analysis the choice of a male writer was explained by: a short letter; formal language; a focus on facts and a lack of emotions. In contrast the reasons for the choice of a woman were: a long letter; vivid language; mention of emotions and interpersonal relationships. Furthermore, the same expressions were interpreted differently depending on whether the participant believed the writer to be male or female.

    Conclusion: It was possible to detect gender differences in the blinded illness narratives. The students' explanations for their choice of sex agreed with common gender stereotypes implying that such stereotypes correspond, at least on a group level, to differences in male and female patients' illness descriptions. However, it was also obvious that preconceptions about gender obstructed and biased the interpretations, a finding with implications for the understanding of gender bias in clinical practice.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 55.
    Andersson, John
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Road traffic noise, air pollution, and risk of dementia: results from the Betula project2018Inngår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 166, s. 334-339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is growing evidence for a negative impact of traffic-related air pollution on risk of dementia. However, the contribution of noise exposure to this association has been rarely examined.

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the individual and combined effect of noise and air pollution on risk of dementia.

    Methods: Data on dementia incidence over a 15 year period was obtained from the Betula project, a longitudinal study on health and ageing. Estimates of annual mean levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the participants’ residential address were obtained using a land-use regression model. Modelled data provided road traffic noise levels (Leq. 24 h) at the participants’ residential address at baseline. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR).

    Results: Of 1721 participants at baseline, 302 developed dementia during the follow up period. Exposure to noise levels (Leq. 24 h) > 55 dB had no significant effect on dementia risk (HR 0.95; CI: 0.57, 1.57). Residing in the two highest quartiles of NOx exposure was associated with an increased risk of dementia. The risk associated with NOx was not modified by adjusting for noise. Moreover, we found no significant interaction effects between NOx and road traffic noise on dementia risk.

    Conclusion: We found no evidence that exposure to road traffic noise, either independently or in combination with traffic air pollution, was associated with risk of dementia in our study area. Our results suggest that pollution should be considered the main component in the association between traffic related exposures and dementia.

  • 56.
    Andersson, Kjell
    et al.
    Arbets- och miljömedicinska kliniken, Universitetssjukhuset i Örebro.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Warg, Lars-Erik
    Arbets- och miljömedicinska kliniken, Universitetssjukhuset i Örebro.
    Inomhusklimat och riskkommunikation2010Inngår i: Allergi i praksis, ISSN 0806-5462, nr 2, s. 52-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

     

     

  • 57.
    Andersson, Klara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wallberg, Agnes
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Examining associations between motives, instructor relationship quality, and state mindfulness in yoga2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Yoga is an ancient tradition that in contemporary research has been shown to have positive associations with a broad spectrum of health outcomes. Although promising findings have been highlighted, research exploring the mechanisms underlying the use of yoga for enhancing mental health is still in its infancy. Researchers have shown that yoga can increase levels of mindfulness, which has been shown to relate to several aspects of general well-being such as low levels of anxiety, depression, and stress. However, limited study has examined how the quality of the relationship between the yoga student and yoga instructor affects state mindfulness during the yoga class. The present study used a cross sectional research design to investigate associations between levels of stress, negative affect, motives for yoga, relationship quality, and mindfulness during yoga classes. The sample consisted of 219 adults that completed measures of stress, affect, motives for yoga, mindfulness, and relationship quality immediately following a yoga class. Analysis of data indicated that higher levels of stress and negative emotional wellbeing increased the likelihood that yoga was practiced to address psychological motives rather than perceived physical health outcomes. Additionally, relationship quality with the instructor was found to predict greater state mindfulness during the yoga session. The present study highlights the importance of the relationship quality between instructor and student, and suggests that future research investigating the efficacy of yoga in optimizing psychological health should consider how health outcomes might be influenced by interpersonal relationships.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Examining associations between motives, instructor relationship quality, and state mindfulness in yoga
  • 58.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Multiple chemical sensitivity and persistent pain states are related, may be treated with similar procedures?2014Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 102-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 59.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sick of smells: Empirical findings and a theoretical framework for chemical intolerance2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term that refers to the surprisingly common phenomenon of persons getting ill from everyday chemicals. Although seemingly similar to asthma and allergies, CI sufferers do not react to exposures with increased histamine release. CI neither conforms to toxicological dose-response relationships as sufferers react to very low concentrations of chemicals assumed to be harmless. In addition, no particular chemical can be tied to any particular set of symptoms as in the case of other kinds of toxic injuries. The two overreaching goals of this thesis were to empirically investigate important hypotheses regarding CI, and to develop a theoretical framework that integrates previous theories of CI into a coherent whole.There are four empirical studies in this thesis. Utilizing event-related potentials (ERPs), magnitude estimations of perceived intensity, detection tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the studies provided support for the following hypotheses: (1) persons with self-reported CI sensitize to olfactory and chemosomatosensory stimuli, whereas non-intolerant individuals habituate; (2) sensitization in CI is similar in terms of brain activation patterns to both non-clinical sensitization and other unexplained illnesses such as fibromyalgia; (3) persons with CI have an attention bias to chemical exposures, reflected by problems with withdrawing attention from such stimuli; (4) measures of peripheral hyperreactivity are correlated with chemosensory ERP measures; but failed to corroborate (5) the reactions of women resemble those found in persons with CI to a greater degree than the case in men.Three major theories of CI are also discussed. The neural sensitization theory describes CI as pathological and non-immunological increases in neural responsiveness. The conditioning theory describes CI as the result of basic associative learning mechanisms. The neurogenic inflammation theory describes CI as proliferation of sensory c-fibers and inflammatory responses carried to several parts of the body through axon reflexes and release of inflammatory mediators. The main point of the theoretical synthesis is that the theories offer different and complementary perspectives on CI, rather than presenting conflicting ontologies. With an integrated perspective, infected debates whether CI is a psychological or organic illness can hopefully be avoided.Finally, the unexplained characteristics of CI, the empirical findings and the theoretical accounts are described within the theoretical framework of signal detection theory. Several features of CI, e.g. sensitization and peripheral hyperreactivity, are described in terms of applying a low criterion (ß).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Sick of Smells
  • 60.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sjuk av lukter2014Inngår i: Fagbladet Allergi i praksis, ISSN 0806-5462, Vol. 3, s. 6-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 61.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bende, Mats
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Millqvist, Eva
    Astma and Allergy Research Group, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Attention bias and sensitization in chemical sensitivity2009Inngår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 66, nr 5, s. 407-416Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveWe investigated whether persons with self-reported chemical sensitivity (CS) have an attention bias and enhanced sensitization to chemical exposure.MethodsChemosomatosensory, olfactory, and auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 21 CS subjects and 17 controls in attend and ignore conditions. Reaction times (RTs) and magnitude estimations of perceived intensity were collected in the attend condition. ERPs were averaged over attention conditions and during the first/second part of the testing.ResultsERP patterns indicated that CS subjects did not habituate to the same extent as the controls and had difficulties ignoring the chemical exposure. CS subjects had faster overall RT, and the perceived intensities for the chemosomatosensory stimuli did not decrease with time in the CS group, which was the case for the controls.ConclusionsThese results indicating attention bias and enhanced sensitization in CS suggest alterations in central, cognitive responses to chemical exposure.

  • 62.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    Department of Systems Biology, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte.
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Chemosensory perception, symptoms and autonomic responses during chemical exposure in multiple chemical sensitivity2016Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 89, nr 1, s. 79-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a prevalent medically unexplained symptom characterized by symptom reactions to everyday chemical exposure below hygienic thresholds. The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of hyper-reactivity in MCS during whole-body exposure to low concentrations of the odorant n-butanol.

    Methods: We exposed 18 participants with MCS and 18 non-ill controls to a low concentration of the odorantn-butanol using an exposure chamber. The first 10 min constituted blank exposure, after which then-butanol concentration increased and reached a plateau at 11.5 mg/m3.

    Results: MCS participants, compared with controls, reported greater perceived odor intensities, more unpleasantness to the exposure and increasing symptoms over time. MCS participants also expressed higher pulse rate and lower pulse rate variability than controls did. No group differences were found for breathing rate or tonic electrodermal activity responses.

    Conclusions: We conclude that MCS sufferers differ from healthy controls in terms of autonomic responses, symptoms and chemosensory perception during chemical exposure.

  • 63.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ledin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wisting, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The influence of health-risk perception and distress on reactions to low-level chemical exposure2013Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, s. 816-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of the current study was to investigate how perceived health risk of a chemical exposure and self-reported distress are related to perceived odor intensity and odor valence, symptoms, cognitive performance over time as well as reactions to blank exposure. Based on ratings of general distress, 20 participants constituted a relatively low distress group, and 20 other participants a relatively high distress group. Health risk perception was manipulated by providing positively and negatively biased information regarding n-butanol. Participants made repeated ratings of intensity, valence and symptoms and performed cognitive tasks while exposed to 4.7 ppm n-butanol for 60 min (first 10 min were blank exposure) inside an exposure chamber. Ratings by the positive and negative bias groups suggest that the manipulation influenced perceived health risk of the exposure. The high distress group did not habituate to the exposure in terms of intensity when receiving negative information, but did so when receiving positive information. The high distress group, compared with the low distress group, rated the exposure as significantly more unpleasant, reported greater symptoms and performed worse on a cognitively demanding task over time. The positive bias group and high distress group rated blank exposure as more intense. The main findings suggest that relatively distressed individuals are negatively affected by exposures to a greater degree than non-distressed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 64.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Short-term olfactory sensitization involves brain networks relevant for pain, and indicates chemical intolerance2017Inngår i: International journal of hygiene and environmental health (Print), ISSN 1438-4639, E-ISSN 1618-131X, Vol. 220, nr 2, s. 503-509Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance is a medically unexplained affliction that implies deleterious reactions to non-toxic everyday chemical exposure. Sensitization (i.e. increased reactivity to repeated, invariant stimulation) to odorous stimulation is an important component in theoretical explanations of chemical intolerance, but empirical evidence is scarce. We hypothesized that (1) individuals who sensitize to repeated olfactory stimulation, compared with those who habituate, would express a lower blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) response in key inhibitory areas such as the rACC, and higher signal in pain/saliency detection regions, as well as primary and/or secondary olfactory projection areas; and (2) olfactory sensitization, compared with habituation, would be associated with greater self-reported chemical intolerance. More-over, we assessed whether olfactory sensitization was paralleled by comparable trigeminal processing - in terms of perceptual ratings and BOLD responses. We grouped women from a previous functional magnetic imaging study based on intensity ratings of repeated amyl acetate exposure over time. Fourteen women sensitized to the exposure, 15 habituated, and 20 were considered "intermediate" (i.e. neither sensitizers nor habituaters). Olfactory sensitizers, compared with habituaters, displayed a BOLD-pattern in line with the hypothesis, and reported greater problems with odours in everyday life. They also expressed greater reactions to CO2 in terms of both perceived intensity and BOLD signal. The similarities with pain are discussed.

  • 65. Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Highlighting the large variation in perceived properties of odors over time2017Inngår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. E26-E26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 66.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Claesson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Stenberg, Berndt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Dermatologi och venereologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Brain responses to olfactory and trigeminal exposure in idiopathic environmental illness (IEI) attributed to smells: An fMRI study2014Inngår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 77, nr 5, s. 401-408Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) to smells is a prevalent medically unexplained illness. Sufferers attribute severe symptoms to low doses of non-toxic chemicals. Despite the label, IEI is not characterized by acute chemical senses. Theoretical models suggest that sensitized responses in the limbic system of the brain constitute an important mechanism behind the symptoms. The aim was to investigate whether and how brain reactions to low-levels of olfactory and trigeminal stimuli differ in individuals with and without IEI. METHODS: Brain responses to intranasally delivered isoamyl acetate and carbon dioxide were assessed in 25 women with IEI and 26 non-ill controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The IEI group had higher blood-oxygenated-level-dependent (BOLD) signal than controls in the thalamus and a number of, mainly, parietal areas, and lower BOLD signal in the superior frontal gyrus. The IEI group did not rate the exposures as more intense than the control group did, and there were no BOLD signal differences between groups in the piriform cortex or olfactory regions of the orbitofrontal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: The IEI reactions were not characterized by hyper-responsiveness in sensory areas. The results can be interpreted as a limbic hyperreactivity and speculatively as an inability to inhibit salient extemal stimuli.

  • 67.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Stillesjö, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Peter
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Neurocognitive processes underlying heuristic and normative probability judgments2020Inngår i: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 196, s. 1-7, artikkel-id 104153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Judging two events in combination (A&B) as more probable than one of the events (A) is known as a conjunction fallacy. According to dual-process explanations of human judgment and decision making, the fallacy is due to the application of a heuristic, associative cognitive process. Avoiding the fallacy has been suggested to require the recruitment of a separate process that can apply normative rules. We investigated these assumptions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during conjunction tasks. Judgments, whether correct or not, engaged a network of brain regions identical to that engaged during similarity judgments. Avoidance of the conjunction fallacy additionally, and uniquely, involved a fronto-parietal network previously linked to supervisory, analytic control processes. The results lend credibility to the idea that incorrect probability judgments are the result of a representativeness heuristic that requires additional neurocognitive resources to avoid.

  • 68.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Johansson, Åke
    Millqvist, Eva
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Bende, Mats
    Prevalence and risk factors for chemical sensitivity and sensory hyperreactivity in teenagers2008Inngår i: International journal of hygiene and environmental health (Print), ISSN 1438-4639, E-ISSN 1618-131X, Vol. 211, nr 5-6, s. 690-697Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of chemical sensitivity (CS) and sensory hyperreactivity (SHR) was assessed in a teenage population. Among a random sample of 401 teenagers, 326 (81.3%) answered questionnaires assessing sensitivity to chemicals and noise, anxiety and depression. A subgroup of 85 teenagers conducted a capsaicin inhalation test. The estimated prevalence was 15.6% for general self-reported CS, 3.7% for CS with affective and behavioral consequences, about 1% for SHR. Sensitivity variables were positively intercorrelated. Risk factors for general CS were noise sensitivity (OR: 2.1), probable anxiety (OR: 2.5) and female sex (OR: 2.0). CS problems seem to be present also in teenagers, although less so than in adults. Furthermore, CS seems to be related to other environmental sensitivities.

  • 69.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundberg, Catrine
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Åström, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Chemosensory attention, habituation and detection in women and men2011Inngår i: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 79, s. 316-322Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences between women and men in how chemosensory stimuli are processed. Event-related potentials from 36 participants (18 men) showed that women had larger P3 amplitudes when attending, but not when ignoring CO 2 but not for n-butanol, compared with men. The main finding was that women and men differ in cognitive measures of chemosensory processing. 

  • 70.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Millqvist, E
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital Asthma and Allergy Research Group Göteborg, Sweden.
    Bende, M
    Central Hospital Department of Otorhinolaryngology Skövde Sweden.
    On the relation between capsaicin sensitivity and responsiveness to CO2: detection sensitivity and event-related brain potentials2009Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 82, nr 3, s. 285-290Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensory hyperreactivity (SHR) with predominantly airway symptoms is a subgroup of chemical intolerance to various environmental substances with pungent/odorous properties. The hallmark of SHR is sensitivity to capsaicin inhalation, resulting in extensive coughing likely to be mediated by a C-fiber hyperreactivity of the airway sensory neurons. However, it is not clear whether capsaicin sensitivity implies a greater sensitivity to chemosomatosensory substances in general. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis of an association between capsaicin cough sensitivity and sensitivity to CO2 with respect to detection sensitivity and electrophysiological brain response.

    Methods A correlational study was employed to investigate the relation between capsaicin cough sensitivity and detection thresholds and chemosomatosensory event-related potentials (ERPs) for CO2 presented in the nasal cavity in 35 persons varying in capsaicin cough sensitivity.

    Results Number of coughs were found to correlate negatively with CO2 threshold and tended to correlate negatively also with N1 and P2 latencies of the chemosomatosensory ERP for CO2. No tendencies of correlations were found between number of coughs and latencies for olfactory and auditory ERPs, recorded for comparison, but, unexpectedly, were found between number of coughs and auditory N1 amplitude.

    Conclusions The results imply that capsaicin cough sensitivity, such as in SHR, is related to higher detection sensitivity, and tends to be related to faster cortical processing of other chemosomatosensory substances, at least of CO2.

  • 71.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Box 7629, SE-90712 Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Effects of Task Demands on Olfactory, Auditory, and Visual Event-Related Potentials Suggest Similar Top-Down Modulation Across Senses2018Inngår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 129-134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A widely held view is that top-down modulation of sensory information relies on an amodal control network that acts through the thalamus to regulate incoming signals. Olfaction lacks a direct thalamic projection, which suggests that it may differ from other modalities in this regard. We investigated the late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) from 28 participants, elicited by intensity-matched olfactory, auditory and visual stimuli, during a condition of focused attention, a neutral condition, and a condition in which stimuli were to be actively ignored. Amplitudes were largest during the attend condition, lowest during the ignore condition, with the neutral condition in between. A Bayesian analysis resulted in strong evidence for similar effects of task across sensory modalities. We conclude that olfaction, despite its unique neural projections, does not differ from audition and vision in terms of task-dependent neural modulation of the LPC.

  • 72.
    Andersson, Maja
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kinberg, Emelie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    A one year follow-up of children and adolescents treated for ADHD in a clinical setting2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) är en vanlig utvecklingsrelaterad funktionsnedsättning med risk för en negativ utveckling. Syftet med denna retrospektiva studie var att utvärdera utfallet av ett års behandling och analysera effekterna av ADHD-medicinering, psykoedukation för föräldrar, komorbiditet och andra potentiellt predicerande faktorer på ADHD-symtom och funktion. Metod: En konsekutiv kohort av 5-17 år gamla öppenvårdspatienter med ADHD, n = 289 (69% pojkar) fick symtombelastning och funktion skattade av föräldrar. Detta samlades in rutinmässigt innan nybesök och efter ett år med Brief Child Family Phone Interview (BCFPI). BCFPI-faktorer, kliniska och demografiska faktorer analyserades i multipla regressioner. Resultat: Patienter förbättrades i symtom (d = .45) och funktion (d = 0,62), 57,4% fick mediciner och 38,8% deltog i psykoedukation för föräldrar. Patienter med komorbid ångest, depression eller autism förbättrades inte i symtom i motsats till de med beteendestörningar. Symtom vid uppföljning predicerades negativt av behandling med medicinering (β = -.18) och positivt av familjekonflikter/ ångest (β = .18) och separationsångest (β = .123). Effektstorleken på symtom med medicinering var d = .65 mot utan d = .21. Funktionsnedsättningen vid uppföljningen predicerades positivt av totala psykiatriska symtom (β = .396), autismdiagnos (β = .129) samt negativt av ADHD-symtom vid baslinjen (β = -144) och psykoedukation för föräldrar (β = -132). Effektstorlek på funktion för psykoedukation för föräldrar var d = ,80 kontra utan d = .51. Slutsatser: Komorbiditet och familjekonflikter/ ångest måste utvärderas vid behandlingsplanering av ADHD. Medicin förbättrar ADHD symtom medan psykoedukation för föräldrar förbättrar funktionen.

  • 73.
    Andersson, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Complexity and problem solving: A tale of two systems2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate if increasing complexity for a problem makes a difference for a learning system with dual parts. The dual parts of the learning system are modelled after the Actor and Critic parts from the Actor-Critic algorithm, using the reinforcement learning framework. The results conclude that not any difference can be found in the relative performance in the Actor and Critic parts when increasing the complexity of a problem. These results could depend on technical difficulties in comparing the environments and the algorithms. The difference in complexity would then be non-uniform in an unknowable way and uncertain to use as comparison. If on the other hand the change of complexity is uniform, this could point to the fact that there is an actual difference in how each of the actor and critic handles different types of complexity. Further studies with a controlled increase in complexity are needed to establish which of the scenarios is most likely to be true. In the discussion an idea is presented of using the Actor-Critic framework as a model to understand the success rate of psychological treatments better.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Andersson_Kogvet_Kand_15hp.pdf
  • 74.
    Andersson, Maria J. E.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bende, Mats
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Millqvist, Eva
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The idiopathic environmental intolerance symptom inventory: development, evaluation, and application2009Inngår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 51, nr 7, s. 838-847Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To develop, evaluate, and apply a questionnaire-based instrument for investigation of specific symptoms in idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI), called the Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance Symptom Inventory (IEISI).

    Methods: Participants with IEI to chemicals responded to 82 candidate symptoms and to three subscales of the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI) at a test (n = 207) and retest (n = 193) occasion.

    Results: The 27 most commonly reported symptoms were selected and grouped into five symptom categories. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity were found to be satisfying. Cluster analysis identified two subgroups of IEI to chemicals.

    Conclusions: The results provide support for the IEISI being a reliable, valid, and fast tool for the study of specific symptom prevalence in IEI and encourage further study of subgroups.

  • 75.
    Andersson, Maria JE
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Tannå, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Self-image in adolescents with deliberate self-harm behavior2013Inngår i: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0260, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 209-216Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tested the hypothesis of a positive relation between deliberate self-harm and poor self-image in adolescents and investigated the relation between substance abuse (drugs, cigarettes, and alcohol) and deliberate self-harm. One-hundred thirteen highschool students, aged predominantly 16–18 years, responded to the 16-item version of the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory, the 36-item Structural Analysis of Social Behavior, and single questions about use of drugs, cigarettes, and alcohol. The results showed a positiverelation between deliberate self-harm and poor self-image, and between deliberate self-harm and cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption.These results imply that poor self-image and a large extent of substance use may be markers for identifying adolescents at risk for deliberate self-harm.

  • 76.
    Andersson, Måns
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Examining Facebook Use, Self-compassion and its Interactions With Subjective Well-being2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The use of social network services (SNS) has exponentially grown especially among younger generations. Facebook (FB) use today constitutes a part of many university students’ everyday life. At the same time, research interest for self-compassion has grown tremendously. High self-compassion is associated with high subjective well-being (SWB), while high FB use has shown association with lower SWB. The effect of interaction between FB use and self-compassion in predicting SWB has thus far not been tested. This study examined if FB use correlated with SWB, if self-compassion correlated with SWB, and if the level of self-compassion had a moderating effect between FB use and SWB. A survey containing measures of frequency and duration of FB use, Self-Compassion Scale - Short Form, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and Satisfaction With Life Scale was administered to Swedish university students (N = 231, M age = 24.84, SD = 5.9). A hierarchal regression analysis was used to test if FB use and self-compassion interacted to predict SWB. The regression analysis showed that only self-compassion significantly predicted SWB. This study suggests that frequency and duration of FB use might not be enough to predict SWB. Future research could benefit from mapping more precisely what kind of FB use is beneficial or non-beneficial for user well-being. Also, future research could benefit from considering type of FB use in interaction with the level of self-compassion in predicting SWB.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 77.
    Andersson, Oskar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Cognitive Abilities in Human Echolocation2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 78.
    Andersson, Pehr
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Psykologi.
    THE ROLE OF VISUAL-SPATIAL ABILITY AND WORKING MEMORY IN IMAGE GUIDED SIMULATOR PERFORMANCE2007Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies have analyzed the critical factors for training in surgical endoscopy to ensure high performance and increased patient safety. There are, however, surprisingly few studies that focus on the role of cognitive abilities, especially considering the fact that an estimated 50% of allmedical errors that lead to permanent disability and death are the result of cognitive failures (Gawande, Zinner, Studdert & Biennen, 2003). This thesis provides initial outlines of two cognitive abilities that may underlie endoscopic simulator performance. In study 1 we addressed how high-level visual-spatial ability of surgical novices is related to performance of two simulatortasks with and without anatomical graphics and haptic feedback, differing in visual-spatial complexity. In study 2 we investigated whether visual and verbal working memory are related to the outcome of task performance scores in simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomy and gastroscopy training. Taken together, the results suggest that visual-spatial ability and working memory are significantly related to endoscopic simulator performance scores and that anincreased cognitive workload enhances the individual differences found. These findings can be used to better implement endoscopic surgical curriculum since novice trainees can be identified early and they might benefit from supplementary education in specific surgical tasks.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 79.
    Andersson, Pehr
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hedman, Leif
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Center for Surgical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet at Huddinge University Hospital.
    Enochsson, Lars
    Ström, Pär
    Kjellin, Ann
    Westman, Bo
    Felländer-Tsai, Li
    Working memory and virtual endoscopy simulation2004Inngår i: Proceedings of the twenty-sixth annual conference of the cognitive science society / [ed] Forbus, K; Gentner, D; Regier, T, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004, s. 1519-1519Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 80.
    Andersson, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Att sluta som tränare: Sambandet mellan att sluta som tränare och motivation, psykologisk behovstillfredsställelse och stöd från föreningen2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Idrottstränare har viktiga roller i att få idrottsverksamheterna att gå runt och i att utveckla idrottarna såväl idrottsligt som personligt. Tränare som slutar kan leda till negativa följder både för idrottsföreningar och idrottare. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om motivation, psykologisk behovstillfredsställelse och stöd från föreningen kan predicera tränares intention att sluta och att de faktiskt slutar i en förening. En longitudinell design tillämpades där data samlades in vid tre olika tillfällen genom en enkät. Deltagarna (N = 335) var innebandytränare från svenska föreningar, med en medelålder på 41.65, varav 81.2 % var män. Resultatet visade att behovet av autonomi kunde predicera tränares intention att sluta och att behovet av kompetens kunde predicera att tränare faktiskt slutar i en förening. Stöd från föreningen och de olika motivationstyperna enligt Self-Determination Theory kunde varken predicera intention att sluta eller att faktiskt sluta. Detta tyder på att det kan vara värdefullt att lägga resurser på att öka behoven av autonomi och kompetens hos tränare, då det tycks kunna påverka att tränare stannar kvar i sina föreningar. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 81.
    Andersson, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bergdal, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Episodisk minnesprestation vid utmattningssyndrom undersökt med Buschkes selektiva påminnelseprocedur2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Förekomsten av stressrelaterad ohälsa har ökat de senaste åren. Långvarig stress utan möjligheter till behandling och rehabilitering kan få allvarliga konsekvenser med kognitiva symtom som försämrad minnesfunktion som följd. Episodisk minnesprestation vid stressrelaterad ohälsa har undersökts i en handfull studie och syftet i föreliggande uppsats har varit att undersöka verbal episodisk minnesprestation hos patienter med utmattningssyndrom (UMS). Genom att använda Buschkes selektiva påminnelseprocedur jämfördes en patientgrupp (n = 121) med en frisk kontrollgrupp (n = 60) för att undersöka mått på fri återgivning (RC), långtidsminne (LTR, LL) samt korttidsminne (STR). Resultatet analyserades med mixad ANOVA och visade att patientgruppen presterade marginellt signifikant sämre på ett av måtten för långtidsminne (LTR). På de övriga måtten återfanns inga signifikanta skillnader. Resultatet går i linje med tidigare forskning som också indikerar små eller inga skillnader på verbal episodisk minnesprestation hos patienter med UMS. För klinisk praktik innebär det att de minnesnedsättningar som patienter med UMS upplever inte alltid speglas i kognitiva test.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Episodisk minnesprestation vid utmattningssyndrom undersökt med Buschkes selektiva påminnelseprocedur
  • 82.
    Andersson, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sundberg, Felicia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Upplevd motivation: En kvallitativ studie av tävlingsaktiva inom fitness2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka upplevd motivation hos tävlingsaktiva inom fitness. Sex semistrukturerade intervjuer analyserades med en abduktiv tematisk ansats. Den teoretiska utgångspunkten var Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Resultatet delades in i fyra teman: Fitness som livsstil, Målsättningens betydelse för tävlingssatsningen, Upplevd valfrihet i fitnessutövandet samt Identitetsskapande inom fitness. Resultatet påvisade en spridning i informanternas tal vad gäller motivation. Utifrån denna spridning utvecklades två profiler: den valfria- och den rigida profilen. Informanter inom den valfria profilen var enligt vår uppfattning drivna av inre motivation och självbestämda former av yttre motivation. Vår tolkning var att träningsglädje, strävan efter personlig utveckling och frihet att ta beslut utifrån lust och behov främjade inre motivation inom denna profil. Informanter inom den rigida profilen var enligt vår tolkning drivna av kontrollerade former av yttre motivation, såsom introjicerad reglering. Vår uppfattning var att minskad flexibilitet kring tränings- och kostupplägg och ett fokus på att prestera bättre än andra underminerade inre motivation inom denna profil.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 83.
    Andersson, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Behandlares beskrivningar av autismliknande drag hos vuxna transsexuella2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Autismliknande drag har visat sig vara överrepresenterade hos transsexuella. Studiens syfte var att undersöka behandlares bild av vuxna transsexuella med autismliknande drag , deras uppfattningar om vilka autismliknande drag som varit mest framträdande i denna grupp samt att undersöka hur behandlares syn på de beskrivna dragen påverkar könsbytesprocessen. Strukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med behandlare. Intervjumaterialet från sex behandlare analyserades utifrån Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), vilket resulterade i tre huvudteman; Kognitiva och perceptuella förmågor hos transsexuella med autismliknande drag, Sociala och kommunikativa förmågor hos transsexuella med autismliknande drag och Beskrivningar av klinisk innebörd av att uppmärksamma autismliknande drag hos transsexuella . Sammanfattningsvis beskriver behandlarna att de oftare har träffat transsexuella som fått diagnoser inom autismspektrumet, och att behandlare har olika kunskapssyner och det kan vara aktuellt med standarliserade screeningtest för autismliknande drag.

  • 84. Andrew, Churchill
    et al.
    Hopkins, Brian
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Vogt, Stefan
    Vision of the hand and environmental context in human prehension2000Inngår i: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 134, nr 1, s. 81-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous findings on the role of visual contact with the hand in the control of reaching and grasping have been contradictory. Some studies have shown that such contact is largely irrelevant, while more recent ones have emphasised its importance. In contrast, information arising from the surrounding environment has received relatively little attention in the study of prehensile actions. In order to identify the roles of both sources of information, we made kinematic comparisons between three conditions. In the first, reaching was performed in a dimly lit room and compared with a second condition in which reaches in the dark, but with the thumb and first finger illuminated, were made to a luminous object. This contrast allows the effects of environmental context to be identified. A comparison between the second and a third condition, in which both vision of the hand and the environment was removed, but the object was still visually available, enabled the assessment of how and when vision of the hand plays a role. Removing environmental cues had effects both early and late in the reach, while vision of the hand was only crucial in the period after peak deceleration. In addition, removal of both sources of information resulted in larger grip apertures. Differences and similarities between our findings and those of other studies are discussed, as is the ongoing debate about the relative importance of visual feedback of the hand in the control and co-ordination of prehensile actions. We conclude with suggestions for further research based on the set-up used in the present study.

  • 85.
    Anna, Westman
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Mellqvist, Elin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Att leda med hjärta eller hjärna?: Autentiskt ledarskap inom en organisation som säger sig tillämpa lean2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Autentiskt ledarskap representerar ett nytt område inom ledarskapsforskning och fokuserar på ett äkta och genuint ledarskap som återspeglar ledarens sanna jag. Samtidigt finns tvetydigheter om det går att vara sann mot sig själv eller om organisatoriska komplexiteter försvårar ens möjligheter. Efter Migrationsverkets implementation av lean har autentiskt ledarskap lyfts fram som ett framgångsrikt ledarskap för ett lyckat arbete med lean. Syftet med studien var därför att studera upplevelser av det autentiska ledarskapet i en organisation som säger sig tillämpa lean. Studien hade en kvalitativ forskningsdesign vilket innefattade sex semistrukturerade intervjuer med ledare på Migrationsverket. Resultatet visade på att autentiskt ledarskap förklaras som äkta genom självreflektion och relationer. Studien visar också att organisationen har en betydande roll för ledarnas möjlighet att vara autentiska eller inte. Med denna studie vill vi uppmärksamma det autentiska ledarskapet och vad det kan bidra med, men också lyfta organisationens innebörd för det.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 86.
    Antonson, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Emotion and timing: -How emotional Valence and Arousal affect subjective time estimates for short and long durations2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies suggest that emotion affects long duration estimates of 3-7 seconds and more, but how emotions affect shorter events is not well known. The aim of the thesis was to investigate how emotion, in terms of emotional Valence and Arousal, affects subjective time estimates of short (sub-second) and long (half-a-minute) durations. Participants (N= 26) were exposed to neutral and emotive video clips resembling the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Bradley, 1995) while making time discrimination judgments (short duration estimates: PSE). Afterwards they made long duration estimates (Long Time Estimates: LTE) and ratings of Valence and Arousal of every video clip. Significant results were that Arousal affected LTE estimates, with longer LTE estimates, the higher the Arousal level. The results indicate that Arousal, but not Valence, affects subjective time perception both of short and long durations.

     

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Emotion and timing -How emotional Valence and Arousal affect subjective time estimates for short and long durations
  • 87.
    Appelblad, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sandzén, Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bilingualism and the Simon effect: A multimodal approach2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has studied the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive abilities. In some of those studies results have shown that bilinguals perform better than monolinguals in visual Simon tasks (i.e. they are less distracted by the incongruent stimuli). The aim of the current study is to see if a similar effect can be found in Simon tasks using the tactile and auditory sensory modalities. In this study bilingual participants (36 university students) with different proficiency in their second language performed a Simon task employing two intensities of vibration and two different sounds as the relevant stimuli. The results indicated no negative correlation between either bilingual proficiency and Simon effect or daily use of the second language and Simon effect when controlling for working memory. Without controlling for working memory a negative correlation for the tactile condition and a positive correlation for the auditory condition between Simon effect and daily use of the second language was found. It’s concluded that the statistical power of this study suffers from a lack of participants and that if the test was reproduced with more participants with a greater spread in their language abilities a stronger effect might be seen. Also concluded is that more cross-modal studies need to be performed before conclusions about general cognitive effects of bilingualism can be drawn.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Uppsats_Appelblad_Sandzen_2015
  • 88. Appelgren, Alva
    et al.
    Osika, Walter
    Theorell, Töres
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Horwitz, Eva
    Tuning in on motivation: Differences between non-musicians, amateurs, and professional musicians2019Inngår i: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 47, nr 6, s. 864-873Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The drive to learn and engage in music varies among individuals. Global motivation to do something can be intrinsic, for example, the joy and satisfaction in an activity. But motivation behind our action can also be extrinsic, such as the desire for fame, status or increased financial resources. The type of motivation probably influences to what degree individuals engage in musical activities. In this study, we examined the associations between the level of musical engagement and self-rated global motivation, factoring in age and sex, in a sample of 5,435 individuals. Musical engagement ranged from no music activity to amateurs and professional musicians. We found that intrinsic motivation increases with level of music activity and that motivation differs depending on sex, with females scoring higher on intrinsic motivation than males. Such differences may be considered in adjusting the forms of support offered to young musicians in music education. The phenomenon of motivation is complex, and we have highlighted areas that require further investigation, but this study has elucidated some differences in motivation types found in men and women, and between non-musicians, amateurs and professional musicians.

  • 89. Appleby, Ralph
    et al.
    Davis, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gustafsson, Henrick
    Examining perceptions of teammates’ burnout and training hours in athlete burnout2018Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 316-332Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceptions of teammates and training load have been shown to influence athletes' physical and psychological health; however, limited research has investigated these factors in relation to burnout. Athletes (N = 140) from a variety of competitive team sports, ranging in level from regional to professional, completed questionnaires measuring individual burnout, perceptions of teammates' burnout, and training hours perweek on two occasions separated by threemonths. After controlling for burnout at time one, training hours were associated with athletes' burnout and perceptions of teammates' burnout at time two. Multilevel modeling indicated actual team burnout (i.e., the average burnout score of the individual athletes in a team) and perceived team burnout were associated with individual's own burnout. The findings highlight that burnout is dynamic and relates to physiological stressors associated with training and psychological perceptions of teammates' burnout. Future research directions exploring potential social influences on athlete burnout are presented.

  • 90.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Oxford textbook of psychotherapy2006Inngår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 113, s. 159-Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 91.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Process studies of inference behavior1976Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Process studies of inference behavior
  • 92.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andreassen, TH
    Cognitive-behavioral treatment for antisocial behavior in youth in residential treatment2007Inngår i: COCHRANE DATABASE SYST REV, ISSN 1469-493X, nr 4Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 93.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Combination rules in multiple-cue probability learning: I, relation to task charateristics and performance1976Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Armelius, B-Å., and Armelius, K. Combination rules in multiple cue probability learning I. Relation to task characteristics and performance. Umeå Psychological Reports No. 99, 1976. - The rules used by subjects in multiple cue probability learning (MCPL) was investigated by means of verbal reports given by subjects at the end of learning of a two cue MCPL-task. Eight tasks varied factorially with respect to task predictability, cue-criterion correlations and the sign of the cue intercorre-lation. In addition there were two orthogonal tasks. 47 of the 100 subjects gave verbal descriptions that were classified as inconsistent or incomplete, 7 were classified as a single rule i.e., the same rule was used for all cue combinations, and 4-6 were classified as multiple rulesi.e., different rules were used for different parts of the cue matrix 77 % of the 53 combination rules were found to account for the systematic variance in subjects responses. While performance was related to the characteristics of the tasks, the frequency of combination rules was not. Subjects with multiple rules reached the highest level of performance and subjects with a single rule the lowest. It was concluded that the formulation of combination rules is important for performance in MCPL. Futher developments of the method to extract combination rules were discussed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Combination rules in multiple-cue probability learning. I, relation to task charateristics and performance
  • 94.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Combination rules in multiple-cue probability learning: II, performance, confidence and development of rules1976Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Armelius, B-Å., and Armelius, K. Combination rules in multiple-cue probability learning. II. Performance, confidence and development of rules. Umeå Psychological Reports No. 101, 1976. - Subjects' use of combination rules was studied in five two-cue multiple-cue probability learning tasks with varying degrees of predictability. Subjects were asked to state how they made their predictions at different times during the experiment. 70 % of the subjects formulated systematic and consistent combination rules, while the remaining 30 % formur lated rules that were incomplete or inconsistent. The verbal statements were found to account for the subject's actual judgments in 86 % of the cases. About 50 % of the rules were single rules, with one rule coveming the complete cue matrix and the rest were multiple rules with different rules being used for different parts of the cue matrix. Performance and confidence were higher for subjects who had formulated systematic combination rules. The results of the experiment were analyzed in terms of a two-stage model for inference behavior. According to this model subjects sample their first combination rule from a hierarchy of hypotheses about relations between cues and criterion. Frequent hypotheses in that hierarchy seem to be average, sum and difference of the two cue values. In the second stage subjects test their hypotheses or develop them through their experience with the task. In the present experiment there was some evidence that subjects using multiple rules construct their rules on the basis of their experience with the task, especially in tasks with high predictability.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Combination rules in multiple-cue probability learning.: II, performance, confidence and development of rules
  • 95.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Confidence and performance in probabilistic inference tasks with intercorrelated cues1976Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Armelius, B-Å, and Amelius, K. Confidence and performance in probabilistic inference tasks with intercorrelated cues. Umeå Psychological Reports No. 96, 1976. - The relation between confidence and subjects' beliefs about their performance as well as their actual performance was studied in five two-cue MCPL-tasks. The tasks varied with respect to task predictability. The results were that confidence was strongly related to believed performance, but not to actual performance. The lack of relation between believed and actual performance was interpreted as support for the notion that subjects know very little about their performance in MCPL-tasks. Confidence was also perfectly related to task predictability, while performance was not. This may in certain tasks cause an illusion of achievement, i.e. subjects feel more confident than their performance allows them to.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Confidence and performance in probabilistic inference tasks with intercorrelated cues
  • 96.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Detection of cue intercorrelation and cue validities in a multiple-cue judgment task with a suppressor cue1973Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Arnelius, B., & Armelius, K. Detection of cue inter correlation and cue validities in a multiple-cue judgment task with a suppressor cue. Umeå Psychological Reports No. 74, 1973. - The subjects detection of cue intercor-relation, rij, and cue validities, rei, was tested after completion of a learning task with three levels of rij (.00, .40 and .80). The detection was tested by means of reproduction of rij in one test condition and rei in another. The reproduced rij values in the two redundant conditions closely matched the values of the learning tasks. There were, however, no differences among reproduced rij values which was explained as a positive set in the rij = .00 condition. The reproduced rij values were generally close to the rei values of the task with the exception of the non-valid cue for the rij = .00 condition, which was greatly overestimated. The conclusion was that the poor performance in suppressor variable tasks is due to the subjects inability to adjust the weights given to the cues, rather than to poor learning of rij and rei.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Detection of cue intercorrelation and cue validities in a multiple-cue judgment task with a suppressor cue
  • 97.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    En naturalistisk studie av 14000 svenska missbruksklienter baserad på Addiction Severity Index, ASI2011Inngår i: Missbruket, kunskapen, vården: Missbruksutredningens forskningsbilaga, Stockholm: Fritzes , 2011, kap 6, s. 97-168Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien bygger på 14 000 grundintervjuer och 3 000 uppföljningsintervjuermed klienter vid 50 olika enheter för missbruksvård iSverige, som har intervjuats med ASI-intervjun. Intervjuarskattningarav problem visar att problemen är störst med alkohol, följt avproblem med psykisk hälsa, narkotika, arbete/försörjning, familj/umgänge, fysisk hälsa och kriminalitet. Dominerande problemdrog äralkohol (57 procent), narkotika (37 procent) och båda (6 procent).Indikationer på tungt missbruk och svår psykisk störning togs framför ASI-data och enligt dessa uppvisar 17 procent av klienternatungt narkotikamissbruk, 13 procent tungt alkoholmissbruk och 2procent både tungt narkotika- och tungt alkoholmissbruk. Svårpsykisk störning indikeras av 28 procent av klienterna.Skillnader mellan män och kvinnor är små. Yngre missbrukarehar en betydligt sämre social situation, mer narkotikaproblem och merproblem med psykisk hälsa. Klienterna har delats in i tre åtskilda menhomogena problemprofiler. En knapp tredjedel av klienterna har fåttbehandling för sitt missbruk någon gång medan drygt hälften harfått behandling i psykiatrin. Behandling för alkoholproblem ärnågot vanligare för män, medan behandling för psykiska problem ärvanligare för kvinnor. Klienter med tungt missbruk eller svårpsykisk störning har fått behandling oftare än andra.Drygt 20 procent av klienterna har följts upp efter ca ett år.Störst förbättring sker inom alkohol där nästan hälften av klienternauppvisar en reliabel förbättring. Inom psykisk hälsa är detdrygt 40 procent och inom narkotika drygt 30 procent somförbättras.

  • 98.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Integration rules in a multiple-cue probability learning task with intercorrelated cues1975Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Armelius, B., and Armelius, K. Integratici miles in a multiple-cue probability learning task with intercorrelated cues. Umeå Psychological Reports No. 80, 1975. - The question of hew the subjects use the cues in multiple-cue probability learning tasks was studied by having the subjects fill in a questionnaire asking than to describe how they had made their predictions. The questionnaire was given after the subjects had completed their learning of a two-cue suppressor variable task for 100 trials. For 19 of the subjects it was possible to formulate a model on the basis of their verbal report. The models were classified as a) linear models b) configurai models or c) estimated weights models. The correlation between the responses generated by the model and the actual responses was computed for each subject. Goodness of fit of the models was found to be quite satisfactory. The results of the learning phase shewed that ten subjects reached a performance higher than that expected if they only utilized the information provided by the cue criterion correlations. Performance was highest for subjects using a linear model, while the achievement was low for subjects using an estimated weights model due to the low consistency. The performance of subjects using configurai models was relatively poor due to the low validity of the configurai models in the present task. When •the validity of the models was taken into account, however, the configurai nodels were found to be as easy to follow as the linear models. The conclusions were that it is possible to use the verbal reports given by the subjects to study the strategies employed by the subjects in MCPL tasks, and that it is necessary to do so since very different psychological processes may be expressed in the game mathematical model.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Integration rules in a multiple-cue probability learning task with intercorrelated cues
  • 99.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Social work.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Social work.
    UBÅT: En ny metod för uppföljning och beskrivning av åtgärder i missbruksvård2016Inngår i: Socionomen, ISSN 0283-1929, nr 4, s. 14-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 100.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Borderline diagnosis from hospital records:  reliability and validity of Gunderson's diagnostic interview for Borderlines (DIB)1985Inngår i: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 173, nr 1, s. 32-4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two trained and experienced clinical psychologists and two nontrained students rated the sections in Gunderson's Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB) on the basis of hospital records for 16 patients (DIB-R). The results showed that both reliability and validity, i.e., correlations with an actual interview, were unexpectedly high, around .80 for the trained judges and around .55 for the nontrained judges. The conclusion is that the DIB may be used for retrospective diagnosis of borderline patients from hospital records.

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