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  • 51.
    Ahlberg, Carl
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Leon, Miguel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ekstrand, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Unbounded Sparse Census Transform using Genetic Algorithm2019Inngår i: 2019 IEEE WINTER CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER VISION (WACV), IEEE , 2019, s. 1616-1625Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Census Transform (CT) is a well proven method for stereo vision that provides robust matching, with respect to object boundaries, outliers and radiometric distortion, at a low computational cost. Recent CT methods propose patterns for pixel comparison and sparsity, to increase matching accuracy and reduce resource requirements. However, these methods are bounded with respect to symmetry and/or edge length. In this paper, a Genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to find a new and powerful CT method. The proposed method, Genetic Algorithm Census Transform (GACT), is compared with the established CT methods, showing better results for benchmarking datasets. Additional experiments have been performed to study the search space and the correlation between training and evaluation data.

  • 52.
    Ahmed, B. S.
    et al.
    Istituto Dalle Molle di Studi Sull'Intelligenza Artificiale (IDSIA), Manno-Lugano, Switzerland.
    Sahib, M. A.
    Software and Informatics Engineering Department, Engineering College, Salahaddin University - Erbil, Iraq.
    Gambardella, L. M.
    Istituto Dalle Molle di Studi Sull'Intelligenza Artificiale (IDSIA), Manno-Lugano, Switzerland.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Zamli, K. Z.
    IBM Centre of Excellence, Faculty of Computer Systems and Software Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang Lebuhraya Tun Razak, Kuantan, Pahang Darul Makmur, Malaysia.
    Optimum design of PIλDμ controller for an automatic voltage regulator system using combinatorial test design2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 11, artikkel-id e0166150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Combinatorial test design is a plan of test that aims to reduce the amount of test cases systematically by choosing a subset of the test cases based on the combination of input variables. The subset covers all possible combinations of a given strength and hence tries to match the effectiveness of the exhaustive set. This mechanism of reduction has been used successfully in software testing research with t-way testing (where t indicates the interaction strength of combinations). Potentially, other systems may exhibit many similarities with this approach. Hence, it could form an emerging application in different areas of research due to its usefulness. To this end, more recently it has been applied in a few research areas successfully. In this paper, we explore the applicability of combinatorial test design technique for Fractional Order (FO), Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) parameter design controller, named as FOPID, for an automatic voltage regulator (AVR) system. Throughout the paper, we justify this new application theoretically and practically through simulations. In addition, we report on first experiments indicating its practical use in this field. We design different algorithms and adapted other strategies to cover all the combinations with an optimum and effective test set. Our findings indicate that combinatorial test design can find the combinations that lead to optimum design. Besides this, we also found that by increasing the strength of combination, we can approach to the optimum design in a way that with only 4-way combinatorial set, we can get the effectiveness of an exhaustive test set. This significantly reduced the number of tests needed and thus leads to an approach that optimizes design of parameters quickly. © 2016 Ahmed et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • 53.
    Ahmed, Bestoun
    et al.
    Istituto Dalle Molle di Studi sullIntelligenza Artificiale (IDSIA), Switzerland.
    Gambardella, Luca
    Istituto Dalle Molle di Studi sullIntelligenza Artificiale (IDSIA), Switzerland.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Zamli, Kamal
    University Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Malaysia.
    Handling Constraints in Combinatorial Interaction Testing in the Presence of Multi Objective Particle Swarm and Multithreading2017Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 86, nr 01, s. 20-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Combinatorial strategies have received a lot of attention lately as a result of their diverse applications in areas of research, particularly in software engineering. In its simple form, a combinatorial strategy can reduce several input parameters (configurations) of a system into a small set of these parameters based on their interaction (combination). However, in practice, the input configurations of software systems are subjected to constraints, especially highly configurable systems. To implement this feature within a strategy, many difficulties arise for construction. While there are many combinatorial interaction testing strategies nowadays, few of them support constraints. This paper presents a new strategy, called Octopus to construct a combinatorial interaction test suites with the presence of constraints. The design and algorithms are provided in the paper in detail. The strategy is inspired by the behaviour of octopus to search for the optimal solution using multi-threading mechanism. To overcome the multi judgement criteria for an optimal solution, the multi-objective particle swarm optimisation is used. The strategy and its algorithms are evaluated extensively using different benchmarks and comparisons. The evaluation results showed the efficiency of each algorithm in the strategy. The benchmarking results also showed that Octopus can generate test suites efficiently as compared to state-of-the-art strategies.

  • 54.
    Ahmed, Bestoun
    et al.
    Czech Technical University, Czech Republic.
    Zamli, Kamal
    University Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Malaysia..
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bures, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University, Czech Republic.
    Constrained Interaction Testing: A Systematic Literature Study2017Inngår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, IEEE Access, ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. PP, nr 99Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction testing can be used to effectively detect faults that are otherwise difficult to find by other testing techniques. However, in practice, the input configurations of software systems are subjected to constraints, especially in the case of highly configurable systems. Handling constraints effectively and efficiently in combinatorial interaction testing is a challenging problem. Nevertheless, researchers have attacked this challenge through different techniques, and much progress has been achieved in the past decade. Thus, it is useful to reflect on the current achievements and shortcomings and to identify potential areas of improvements. This paper presents the first comprehensive and systematic literature study to structure and categorize the research contributions for constrained interaction testing. Following the guidelines of conducting a literature study, the relevant data is extracted from a set of 103 research papers belonging to constrained interaction testing. The topics addressed in constrained interaction testing research are classified into four categories of constraint test generation, application, generation & application and model validation studies. The papers within each of these categories are extensively reviewed. Apart from answering several other research questions, this study also discusses the applications of constrained interaction testing in several domains such as software product lines, fault detection & characterization, test selection, security and GUI testing. The study ends with a discussion of limitations, challenges and future work in the area.

  • 55.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Personalized Health-Monitoring System for Elderly by Combining Rules and Case-based Reasoning2015Inngår i: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, Volume 21: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wearable Micro and Nano Technologies for Personalized Health, 2–4 June 2015, Västerås, Sweden, 2015, s. 249-254Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Health-monitoring system for elderly in home environment is a promising solution to provide efficient medical services that increasingly interest by the researchers within this area. It is often more challenging when the system is self-served and functioning as personalized provision. This paper proposed a personalized self-served health-monitoring system for elderly in home environment by combining general rules with a case-based reasoning approach. Here, the system generates feedback, recommendation and alarm in a personalized manner based on elderly’s medical information and health parameters such as blood pressure, blood glucose, weight, activity, pulse, etc. A set of general rules has used to classify individual health parameters. The case-based reasoning approach is used to combine all different health parameters, which generates an overall classification of health condition. According to the evaluation result considering 323 cases and k=2 i.e., top 2 most similar retrieved cases, the sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy are achieved as 90%, 97% and 96% respectively. The preliminary result of the system is acceptable since the feedback; recommendation and alarm messages are personalized and differ from the general messages. Thus, this approach could be possibly adapted for other situations in personalized elderly monitoring.

  • 56.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    An Intelligent Healthcare Service to Monitor Vital Signs in Daily Life – A Case Study on Health-IoT2017Inngår i: International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, ISSN 2248-9622, E-ISSN 2248-9622, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 43-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vital signs monitoring for elderly in daily life environment is a promising concept that efficiently can provide medical services to people at home. However, make the system self-served and functioning as personalized provision makes the challenge even larger. This paper presents a case study on a Health-IoT system where an intelligent healthcare service is developed to monitor vital signs in daily life. Here, a generic Health-IoT framework with a Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) is presented. The generic framework is mainly focused on the supporting sensors, communication media, secure and safe data communication, cloud-based storage, and remote accesses of the data. The CDSS is used to provide a personalized report on persons’ health condition based on daily basis observation on vital signs. Six participants, from Spain (n=3) and Slovenia (n=3) have been using the proposed healthcare system for eight weeks (e.g. 300+ health measurements) in their home environments to monitor their health. The sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of the DSS’s classification are achieved as 90%, 97% and 96% respectively while k=2 i.e., top 2 most similar retrieved cases are considered. The initial user evaluation result demonstrates the feasibility and performance of the implemented system through the proposed framework.

  • 57.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Andersson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Andersson, Tim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Tomas Aparicio, Elena
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Malardalen Univ, Future Energy Ctr, Sch Business Soc & Engn, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden.;Malarenergi AB, Sjohagsvagen 3, S-72103 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Baaz, Hampus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Barua, Shaibal
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bergström, Albert
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Orisio, Daniele
    State Inst Higher Educ Guglielmo Marconi, Dalmine, Italy..
    Skvaril, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Zambrano, Jesus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    A Machine Learning Approach for Biomass Characterization2019Inngår i: INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR ENERGY TRANSITIONS / [ed] Yan, J Yang, HX Li, H Chen, X, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2019, s. 1279-1287Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to apply and evaluate different chemometric approaches employing several machine learning techniques in order to characterize the moisture content in biomass from data obtained by Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The approaches include three main parts: a) data pre-processing, b) wavelength selection and c) development of a regression model enabling moisture content measurement. Standard Normal Variate (SNV), Multiplicative Scatter Correction and Savitzky-Golay first (SGi) and second (SG2) derivatives and its combinations were applied for data pre-processing. Genetic algorithm (GA) and iterative PLS (iPLS) were used for wavelength selection. Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), Support Vector Regression (SVR) and traditional Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression, were employed as machine learning regression methods. Results shows that SNV combined with SG1 first derivative performs the best in data pre-processing. The GA is the most effective methods for variable selection and GPR achieved a high accuracy in regression modeling while having low demands on computation time. Overall, the machine learning techniques demonstrate a great potential to be used in future NIR spectroscopy applications.

  • 58.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Andersson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Andersson, Tim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Tomas Aparicio, Elena
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Mälarenergi AB, Sweden.
    Baaz, Hampus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Barua, Shaibal
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. RISE SICS, Sweden.
    Bergström, Albert
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Skvaril, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Zambrano, Jesus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Real-time Biomass Characterization in Energy Conversion Processes using Near Infrared Spectroscopy: A Machine Learning Approach2019Inngår i: “Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions” / [ed] Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 158, s. 1279-1287Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to apply and evaluate different chemometric approaches employing several machine learning techniques in order to characterize the moisture content in biomass from data obtained by Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The approaches include three main parts: a) data pre-processing, b) wavelength selection and c) development of a regression model enabling moisture content measurement. Standard Normal Variate (SNV), Multiplicative Scatter Correction and Savitzky-Golay first (SG1) and second (SG2) derivatives and its combinations were applied for data pre-processing. Genetic algorithm (GA) and iterative PLS (iPLS) were used for wavelength selection. Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), Support Vector Regression (SVR) and traditional Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression, were employed as machine learning regression methods. Results shows that SNV combined with SG1 first derivative performs the best in data pre-processing. The GA is the most effective methods for variable selection and GPR achieved a high accuracy in regression modeling while having low demands on computation time. Overall, the machine learning techniques demonstrate a great potential to be used in future NIR spectroscopy applications.

  • 59.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Banaee, Hadi
    Loutfi, Amy
    Rafael-Palou, Xavier
    Intelligent Healthcare Services to Support Health Monitoring of Elderly2014Inngår i: International Conference on IoT Technologies for HealthCare HealthyIoT, Rome, Italy, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposed an approach of intelligent healthcare services to support health monitoring of old people through the project named SAAPHO. Here, definition and architecture of the proposed healthcare services are presented considering six different health parameters such as: 1) physical activity, 2) blood pressure, 3) glucose, 4) medication compliance, 5) pulse monitoring and 6) weight monitoring. The outcome of the proposed services is evaluated in a case study where total 201 subjects from Spain and Slovenia are involved for user requirements analysis considering 1) end users, 2) clinicians, and 3) field study analysis perspectives. The result shows the potentiality and competence of the proposed healthcare services for the users.

  • 60.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Big Data Analytics in Health Monitoring at Home2017Inngår i: Medicinteknikdagarna 2017 MTD 2017, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposed a big data analytics approach applied in the projects ESS-H and E-care@home in the context of biomedical and health informatics with the advancement of information fusion, data abstraction, data mining, knowledge discovery, learning, and reasoning [1][2]. Data are collected through the projects, considering both the health parameters, e.g. temperature, bio-impedance, skin conductance, heart sound, blood pressure, pulse, respiration, weight, BMI, BFP, movement, activity, oxygen saturation, blood glucose, heart rate, medication compliance, ECG, EMG, and EEG, and the environmental parameters e.g. force/pressure, infrared (IR), light/luminosity, photoelectric, room-temperature, room-humidity, electrical usage, water usage, RFID localization and accelerometers. They are collected as semi-structured/unstructured, continuous/periodic, digital/paper record, single/multiple patients, once/several-times, etc. and stored in a central could server [5]. Thus, with the help of embedded system, digital technologies, wireless communication, Internet of Things (IoT) and smart sensors, massive quantities of data (so called ‘Big Data’) with value, volume, velocity, variety, veracity and variability are achieved [2]. The data analysis work in the following three steps. In Step1, pre-processing, future extraction and selection are performed based on a combination of statistical, machine learning and signal processing techniques. A novel strategy to fuse the data at feature level and as well as at data level considers a defined fusion mechanism [3]. In Step2, a combination of potential sequences in the learning and search procedure is investigated. Data mining and knowledge discovery, using the refined data from the above for rule extraction and knowledge mining, with support for anomaly detection, pattern recognition and regression are also explored here [4]. In Step3, adaptation of knowledge representation approaches is achieved by combining different artificial intelligence methods [3] [4]. To provide decision support a hybrid approach is applied utilizing different machine learning algorithms, e.g. case-based reasoning, and clustering [4]. The approach offers several data analytics tasks, e.g. information fusion, anomaly detection, rules and knowledge extraction, clustering, pattern identification, correlation analysis, linear regression, logic regression, decision trees, etc. Thus, the approach assist in decision support, early detection of symptoms, context awareness and patient’s health status in a personal environment.

  • 61.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Catalina, Carlos Alberto
    ITCL Polígono Industrial Villalonquéjar c/López Bravo, 70. 09001 BURGOS, Spain.
    Limonad, Lior
    Smart Wearable and IoT Solutions, IBM Research, Haifa, Israil.
    Hök, Bertil
    Hök Instrument AB, Sweden.
    Flumeri, Gianluca Di
    Cognitive States in Operative Environment, BrainSigns, Italy.
    Cloud-based Data Analytics on Human Factor Measurement to Improve Safer Transport2018Inngår i: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST, Volume 225, 2018, s. 101-106Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving safer transport includes individual and collective behavioural aspects and their interaction. A system that can monitor and evaluate the human cognitive and physical capacities based on human factor measurement is often beneficial to improve safety in driving condition. However, analysis and evaluation of human factor measurement i.e. Demographics, Behavioural and Physiological in real-time is challenging. This paper presents a methodology for cloud-based data analysis, categorization and metrics correlation in real-time through a H2020 project called SimuSafe. Initial implementation of this methodology shows a step-by-step approach which can handle huge amount of data with variation and verity in the cloud.

  • 62.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Kerstis, Birgitta
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Petrovic, Nikola
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sandborgh, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Third Eye: An Intelligent Assisting Aid for Visual Impairment Elderly2016Inngår i: Medicinteknikdagarna 2016 MTF, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Visually impaired older persons need support in daily activities, e.g. moving around inside the house; making and eating food and taking medicine independently. A system that simulates the environment based on both dynamic and static objects, identify obstacles, navigates and translates sensory information in voice would be valuable to support their daily activities. Today several sensors and camera-based systems are popular as ambient-assisted living tools for older adults. However, intelligent assisting aid (IAA) to support older individuals with a recently acquired visual impairment is limited. The proposed system ‘Third Eye’ focuses on the advanced research and development of an IAA to support older individuals with a recently acquired visual impairment. The main goal in this system is to provide a usable, feasible and cost-effective solution for older persons to support their daily activities using intelligent sensor based system. Method The system consists of the following five phases to meet several central challenges in developing IAA in such domain. • User-perspective, focuses on user-driven technical development, investigating needs of potential users. The study will have a participatory design with focus group interviews of lead users. • Sensor-based system, focuses on the identification obstacles based on ultrasounds and/or radio frequencies embedded in white-cane or weaker. • Camera-based system, focuses on image based information translation into voice embedded in white-cane or weaker or glasses. • System of systems, focuses on integration of above systems where knowledge is engineered and suitable representations are learned and reasoning for decisions are made [9]. • Experimental, focuses on usability and feasibility of the IAA, with idiographic and group studies Results The initial results have shown the necessity of the proposed AAI systems for older individuals with a recently acquired visual impairment. However, more extension work e.g., process and analyze the information and synthesize it with existing literature for developing the system is ongoing.

  • 63.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Begum, ShahinaMälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.Raad, WasimKing Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
    Internet of Things Technologies for HealthCare: Third International Conference, HealthyIoT 2016, Västerås, Sweden, October 18-19, 2016, Revised Selected Papers2016Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the Third International Conference on Internet of Things (IoT) Technologies for HealthCare, HealthyIoT 2016, held in Västerås, Sweden, October 18-19, 2016. The conference also included the First Workshop on Emerging eHealth through Internet of Things (EHIoT 2016). IoT as a set of existing and emerging technologies, notions and services provides many solutions to delivery of electronic healthcare, patient care, and medical data management. The 31 revised full papers presented along with 9 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions in total. The papers cover topics such as healthcare support for the elderly, real-time monitoring systems, security, safety and communication, smart homes and smart caring environments, intelligent data processing and predictive algorithms in e-Health, emerging eHealth IoT applications, signal processing and analysis, and smartphones as a healthy thing.

  • 64.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Causevic, Aida
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    An Overview on the Internet of Things for Health Monitoring Systems2016Inngår i: 2nd EAI International Conference on IoT Technologies for HealthCare HealthyIoT2015, 2016, Vol. 169, s. 429-436Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aging population and the increasing healthcare cost in hospitals are spurring the advent of remote health monitoring systems. Advances in physiological sensing devices and the emergence of reliable low-power wireless network technologies have enabled the design of remote health monitoring systems. The next generation Internet, commonly referred to as Internet of Things (IoT), depicts a world populated by devices that are able to sense, process and react via the Internet. Thus, we envision health monitoring systems that support Internet connection and use this connectivity to enable better and more reliable services. This paper presents an overview on existing health monitoring systems, considering the IoT vision. We focus on recent trends and the development of health monitoring systems in terms of: (1) health parameters, (2) frameworks, (3) wireless communication, and (4) security issues. We also identify the main limitations, requirements and advantages within these systems.

  • 65.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Generic System-level Framework for Self-Serve Health Monitoring System through Internet of Things(IoT)2015Inngår i: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, Volume 211: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wearable Micro and Nano Technologies for Personalized Health, 2–4 June 2015, Västerås, Sweden, 2015, Vol. 211, s. 305-307Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensor data are traveling from sensors to a remote server, data is analysed remotely in a distributed manner, and health status of a user is presented in real-time. This paper presents a generic system-level framework for a self-served health monitoring system through the Internet of Things (IoT) to facilities an efficient sensor data management.

  • 66.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Boubezoul, Abderrahmane
    UPE-IFSTTAR/TS2/SIMU&MOTO, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex, France.
    Forsström, Nils Göran Gustav
    Sherif, Nabaz
    Stenekap, Daniel
    Espie, Stephane
    Sundström, Anton
    Södergren, Rasmus
    Data Analysis on Powered Two Wheelers Riders’ Behaviour using Machine Learning2019Inngår i: First International Conference on Advances in Signal Processing and Artificial Intelligence ASPAI' 2019, Barcelona, Spain, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyzing powered two-wheeler rider behavior, i.e. classification of riding patterns based on 3-D accelerometer/gyroscope sensors mounted on motorcycles is challenging. This paper presents machine learning approach to classify four different riding events performed by powered two wheeler riders’ as a step towards increasing traffic safety. Three machine learning algorithms, Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) have been used to classify riding patterns. The classification is conducted based on features extracted in time and frequency domains from accelerometer/gyroscope sensors signals. A comparison result between different filter frequencies, window sizes, features sets, as well as machine learning algorithms is presented. According to the results, the Random Forest method performs most consistently through the different data sets and scores best.

  • 67.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Brickman, Staffan
    Dengg, Alexander
    Fasth, Niklas
    Mihajlovic, Marko
    Norman, Jacob
    A Machine Learning Approach to Classify Pedestrians’ Event based on IMU and GPS2019Inngår i: International Conference on Modern Intelligent Systems Concepts MISC'18, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates and implements six Machine Learning (ML) algorithms, i.e. Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Decision Tree (DT), Random Forest (RF), Extra Tree (ET), and Gradient Boosted Trees (GBT) to classify different Pedestrians’ events based on Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and Global Positioning System (GPS) signals. Pedestrians’ events are pedestrian movements as the first step of H2020 project called SimuSafe1 with a goal to reduce traffic fatalities by doing risk assessments of the pedestrians. The movements the MLs’ models are attempting to classify are standing, walking, and running. Data, i.e. IMU, GPS sensor signals and other contextual information are collected by a smartphone through a controlled procedure. The smartphone is placed in five different positions onto the body of participants, i.e. arm, chest, ear, hand and pocket. The recordings are filtered, trimmed, and labeled. Next, samples are generated from small overlapping sections from which time and frequency domain features are extracted. Three different experiments are conducted to evaluate the performances in term of accuracy of the MLs’ models in different circumstances. The best performing MLs’ models determined by the average accuracy across all experiments is Extra Tree (ET) with a classification accuracy of 91%. 

  • 68.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Köckemann, Uwe
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE SICS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE SICS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Run-Time Assurance for the E-care@home System2018Inngår i: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST, Volume 225, 2018, s. 107-110Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the software for a run-time assurance infrastructure in the E-care@home system. An experimental evaluation is conducted to verify that the run-time assurance infrastructure is functioning correctly, and to enable detecting performance degradation in experimental IoT network deployments within the context of E-care@home.

  • 69.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Healthcare Service at Home: An Intelligent Health Monitoring System for Elderly2015Inngår i: Medicinteknikdagarna 2015 MFT 2015, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an intelligent healthcare service to support active ageing by assisting seniors to participate in regular monitoring of elderly’s health condition. The proposed system is applicable to use in home environment and offers a self-service approach to monitor elderly’s health condition. According to the evaluation, the proposed system shows its necessity, competence and usefulness.

  • 70.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Multi-parameter Sensing Platform in ESS-H and E-care@home2017Inngår i: Joint conference of the European Medical and Biological Engineering Conference (EMBEC) and the Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics (NBC) EMBEC & NBC’17, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the population of ageing, health monitoring of elderly at home have the possibility for a person to keep track on his/her health status, e.g. decreased mobility in a personal environment. This also shows the potential of real-time decision support, early detection of symptoms, following of health trends and context awareness [1]. The ongoing projects Embedded Sensor for Health (ESS-H)1 and E-care@home2 are focusing on health monitoring of elderly at home. This paper presents the implementation of multi-parameter sensing on an Android platform. The objectives are, both to follow health trends and to enabling real time monitoring.

  • 71.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rahman, Hamidur
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Quality index analysis on camera- A sed R-eak identification considering movements and light illumination2018Inngår i: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol 249, IOS Press , 2018, s. 84-92Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a quality index (QI) analysis on R-peak extracted by a camera system considering movements and light illumination. Here, the proposed camera system is compared with a reference system named Shimmer PPG sensor. The study considers five test subjects with a 15 minutes measurement protocol, where the protocol consists of several conditions. The conditions are: Normal sittings, head movements i.e., up/down/left/right/forward/backword, with light on/off and with moving flash on/off. A percentage of corrected R-peaks are calculated based on time difference in milliseconds (MS) between the R-peaks extracted both from camera-based and sensor-based systems. A comparison results between normal, movements, and lighting condition is presented as individual and group wise. Furthermore, the comparison is extended considering gender and origin of the subjects. According to the results, more than 90% R-peaks are correctly identified by the camera system with ±200 MS time differences, however, it decreases with while there is no light than when it is on. At the same time, the camera system shows more 95% accuracy for European than Asian men. 

  • 72.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rahman, Hamidur
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Quality Index Analysis on Camera-based R-peak Identification Considering Movements and Light Illumination2018Inngår i: 15th International Conference on Wearable, Micro & Nano technologies for Personalized Health pHealth2018, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a quality index (QI) analysis on R-peak extracted by a camera system considering movements and light illumination. Here, the proposed camera system is compared with a reference system named Shimmer PPG sensor. The study considers five test subjects with a 15 minutes measurement protocol, where the protocol consists of several conditions. The conditions are: normal sittings, head movements i.e., up/down/left/right/forward/backword, with light on/off and with moving flash on/off. A percentage of corrected R-peaks are calculated based on time difference in milliseconds (MS) between the R-peaks extracted both from camera-based and sensor-based systems. A comparison results between normal, movements, and lighting condition is presented as individual and group wise. Furthermore, the comparison is extended considering gender and origin of the subjects. According to the results, more than 90% R-peaks are correctly identified by the camera system with ?200 MS time differences, however, it decreases with while there is no light than when it is on. At the same time, the camera system shows more 95% accuracy for European than Asian men.

  • 73.
    Aisa, J.
    et al.
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain .
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Villarroel, J. L.
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain .
    Almeida, L.
    University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Soft real-time traffic communication in loaded Wireless Mesh Networks2016Inngår i: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, 2016, artikkel-id Article number 7496503Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial applications have been shifting towards wireless multi-hop networks in recent years due to their lower cost of deployment and reconfiguration compared with their wired counterparts. These wireless networks usually must support real-time communication to meet the application requirements. For this reason, Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are potential candidates for industrial applications as they support a fixed infrastructure of static nodes for relaying packets. To meet the application demands, we modify the wireless chain network protocol (WICKPro) to support soft real-time traffic in WMNs with chain topologies over IEEE 802.11. We employ tele-operation of mobile robots as our case study, and perform extensive simulation and laboratory experiments. We show that the data delivery ratio is increased up to 42% in a scenario with 7 nodes, when the maximum end-to-end delay tolerated by the application is doubled. This is particularly suited to soft real-time applications that can trade longer delays by higher reliability. Moreover, when compared with a distributed priority-based token-passing protocol (RT-WMP), the lower overhead of WICKPro allows, in an error-free scenario, obtaining a throughput improvement of 33.42% on average.

  • 74.
    Aisa, Jesus
    et al.
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Almeida, Luis
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Villarroel, José Luis
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    DoTHa - A Double-threshold Hand-off Algorithm for Managing Mobility in Wireless Mesh Networks2016Inngår i: 21st IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA'16, 2016, artikkel-id 7733511Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communication will play an increasingly important role in future factory automation and process control, where the presence of mobile autonomous devices is expected to grow. However, wireless links are prone to errors due to shadowing and multi-path fading, which is even more severe in dynamic environments. These problems can be attenuated by using a mesh backbone to which mobile node connect to, using a hand-off algorithm. This solution is particularly important under real-time requirements typically found in factory automation. In this paper, we devise the Double-Threshold Hand-off (DoTHa) algorithm, a novel hand-off mechanism that triggers a hand-off in various environmental conditions. As a case study, we carry out the tele-operation of a mobile robot through a wireless mesh network in an indoor setting, using a wireless chain network protocol (WICKPro-SRT) that supports soft real-time traffic. We empirically compared DoTHa with two existing hand-off algorithms based on single and double hysteresis margin. The results revealed that DoTHa achieves Data Delivery Ratio (DDR) close to 100% whereas the single hysteresis-based hand-off suffers from frequent disconnections, dropping DDR to 88%. The double hysteresis-based hand-off shows higher ping-pong effect than DoTHa, doubling the number of hand-offs in some scenarios.

  • 75.
    Akalin, Neziha
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Evaluating the Sense of Safety and Security in Human–Robot Interaction with Older People2019Inngår i: Social Robots: Technological, Societal and Ethical Aspects of Human-Robot Interaction / [ed] Oliver Korn, Springer, Cham , 2019, s. 237-264Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For many applications where interaction between robots and older people takes place, safety and security are key dimensions to consider. ‘Safety’ refers to a perceived threat of physical harm, whereas ‘security’ is a broad term which refers to many aspects related to health, well-being, and aging. This chapter presents a quantitative evaluation tool of the sense of safety and security for robots in elder care. By investigating the literature on measurement of safety and security in human–robot interaction, we propose new evaluation tools specially tailored to assess interaction between robots and older people.

  • 76.
    Akan, Batu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Planning and Sequencing Through Multimodal Interaction for Robot Programming2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past few decades the use of industrial robots has increased the efficiency as well as the competitiveness of several sectors. Despite this fact, in many cases robot automation investments are considered to be technically challenging. In addition, for most small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) this process is associated with high costs. Due to their continuously changing product lines, reprogramming costs are likely to exceed installation costs by a large margin. Furthermore, traditional programming methods of industrial robots are too complex for most technicians or manufacturing engineers, and thus assistance from a robot programming expert is often needed. The hypothesis is that in order to make the use of industrial robots more common within the SME sector, the robots should be reprogrammable by technicians or manufacturing engineers rather than robot programming experts. In this thesis, a novel system for task-level programming is proposed. The user interacts with an industrial robot by giving instructions in a structured natural language and by selecting objects through an augmented reality interface. The proposed system consists of two parts: (i) a multimodal framework that provides a natural language interface for the user to interact in which the framework performs modality fusion and semantic analysis, (ii) a symbolic planner, POPStar, to create a time-efficient plan based on the user's instructions. The ultimate goal of this work in this thesis is to bring robot programming to a stage where it is as easy as working together with a colleague.This thesis mainly addresses two issues. The first issue is a general framework for designing and developing multimodal interfaces. The general framework proposed in this thesis is designed to perform natural language understanding, multimodal integration and semantic analysis with an incremental pipeline. The framework also includes a novel multimodal grammar language, which is used for multimodal presentation and semantic meaning generation. Such a framework helps us to make interaction with a robot easier and more natural. The proposed language architecture makes it possible to manipulate, pick or place objects in a scene through high-level commands. Interaction with simple voice commands and gestures enables the manufacturing engineer to focus on the task itself, rather than the programming issues of the robot. The second issue addressed is due to inherent characteristics of communication with the use of natural language; instructions given by a user are often vague and may require other actions to be taken before the conditions for applying the user's instructions are met. In order to solve this problem a symbolic planner, POPStar, based on a partial order planner (POP) is proposed. The system takes landmarks extracted from user instructions as input, and creates a sequence of actions to operate the robotic cell with minimal makespan. The proposed planner takes advantage of the partial order capabilities of POP to execute actions in parallel and employs a best-first search algorithm to seek the series of actions that lead to a minimal makespan. The proposed planner can also handle robots with multiple grippers, parallel machines as well as scheduling for multiple product types.

  • 77.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ameri E., Afsh
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Towards Creation of Robot Programs Through User InteractionManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a novel system for task-level programming of industrial robots. The user interacts with an industrial robot by giving instructions in a structured natural language and by selecting objects through an augmented reality interface. The proposed system consists of two parts. First, a multimodal framework that provides a natural language interface to the user. This framework performs modality fusion, semantic analysis and helps the user to interact with the system easier and more naturally. The proposed language architecture makes it possible to manipulate, pick or place objects in a scene through high-level commands. The second component is the POPStar planner, which is based on partial order planner (POP), that takes landmarks extracted from user instructions as input, and creates a sequence of actions to operate the robotic cell with minimal makespan. The proposed planner takes advantage of partial order capabilities of POP to plan execution of actions in parallel and employs a best-first search algorithm to seek a series of actions that lead to a minimal makespan. The proposed planner can as well handle robots with multiple grippers, and  parallel machines. Using different topologies for the landmark graphs, we show that it is possible to create schedules for changing object types, which are processed in different stages in the robot cell. Results show that the proposed system can create and adapt schedules for robot cells with changing product types in low volume production based on the user's instructions.

  • 78.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ameri E., Afshin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Scheduling for Multiple Type Objects Using POPStar Planner2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA'14), Barcelona, Spain, September, 2014, 2014, s. Article number 7005148-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, scheduling of robot cells that produce multiple object types in low volumes are considered. The challenge is to maximize the number of objects produced in a given time window as well as to adopt the  schedule for changing object types. Proposed algorithm, POPStar, is based on a partial order planner which is guided by best-first search algorithm and landmarks. The best-first search, uses heuristics to help the planner to create complete plans while minimizing the makespan. The algorithm takes landmarks, which are extracted from user's instructions given in structured English as input. Using different topologies for the landmark graphs, we show that it is possible to create schedules for changing object types, which will be processed in different stages in the robot cell. Results show that the POPStar algorithm can create and adapt schedules for robot cells with changing product types in low volume production.

  • 79.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ameri E., Afshin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Intuitive Industrial Robot Programming Through Incremental Multimodal Language and Augmented Reality2011Inngår i: 2011 IEEE International Conferance on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2011), IEEE , 2011, s. 3934-3939Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing easy to use, intuitive interfaces is crucial to introduce robotic automation to many small medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Due to their continuously changing product lines, reprogramming costs exceed installation costs by a large margin. In addition, traditional programming methods for industrial robots is too complex for an inexperienced robot programmer, thus external assistance is often needed. In this paper a new incremental multimodal language, which uses augmented reality (AR) environment, is presented. The proposed language architecture makes it possible to manipulate, pick or place the objects in the scene. This approach shifts the focus of industrial robot programming from coordinate based programming paradigm, to object based programming scheme. This makes it possible for non-experts to program the robot in an intuitive way, without going through rigorous training in robot programming.

  • 80.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Scheduling POP-Star for Automatic Creation of Robot Cell Programs2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Typical pick and place, and machine tending applications often require an industrial robot to be embedded in a cell and to communicate with other devices in the cell. Programming the program logic is a tedious job, requiring expert programming knowledge, and it can take more time than programming the specific robot movements itself. We propose a new system, which takes in the description of the whole manufacturing process in natural language as input, fills in the implicit actions, and plans the sequence of actions to accomplish the task described in minimal makespan using a modified partial planning algorithm. Finally we demonstrate that the proposed system can come up with a sensible plan for the given instructions.

  • 81.
    Akbari, N.
    et al.
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Modarressi, M.
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Loni, Mohammad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    A Customized Processing-in-Memory Architecture for Biological Sequence Alignment2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Application-Specific Systems, Architectures and Processors, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, artikkel-id 8445124Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sequence alignment is the most widely used operation in bioinformatics. With the exponential growth of the biological sequence databases, searching a database to find the optimal alignment for a query sequence (that can be at the order of hundreds of millions of characters long) would require excessive processing power and memory bandwidth. Sequence alignment algorithms can potentially benefit from the processing power of massive parallel processors due their simple arithmetic operations, coupled with the inherent fine-grained and coarse-grained parallelism that they exhibit. However, the limited memory bandwidth in conventional computing systems prevents exploiting the maximum achievable speedup. In this paper, we propose a processing-in-memory architecture as a viable solution for the excessive memory bandwidth demand of bioinformatics applications. The design is composed of a set of simple and lightweight processing elements, customized to the sequence alignment algorithm, integrated at the logic layer of an emerging 3D DRAM architecture. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture results in up to 2.4x speedup and 41% reduction in power consumption, compared to a processor-side parallel implementation. 

  • 82.
    Aksit, Kaan
    et al.
    Koç University, Turkey.
    Kade, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Özcan, Oguzhan
    Koç University, Turkey.
    Ürey, Hakan
    Koç University, Turkey.
    Head-worn Mixed Reality Projection Display Application2014Inngår i: ACM International Conference Proceedings Series (ICPS), 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of this research is to develop a mixed real- ity (MR) application to support motion capture actors. This application allows seeing and exploring a digital environment without occluding the actor’s visual field. A prototype is built by combining a retro-reflective screen covering surrounding walls and a headband consisting of a laser scanning projector with a smartphone. Built-in sensors of a smartphone provide navigation capabilities in the digital world. The integrated system has some unique advantages, which are collectively demonstrated for the first time: (i) providing fixed field-of- view (50o in diagonal), fixed retinal images at full-resolution, and distortion-free images that are independent of the screen distance and shape; (ii) presenting different perspectives to the users as they move around or tilt their heads, (iii) allow- ing a focus-free and calibration-free display even on non-flat surfaces using laser scanning technology, (iv) enabling mul- tiple users to share the same screen without crosstalk due to the use of retro-reflectors, and (v) producing high brightness pictures with a projector of only 15 lm; due to a high-gain retro-reflective screen. We demonstrated a lightweight, com- fortable to wear and low cost head-mounted projection dis- play (HMPD) which acts as a stand-a-lone mobile system. Initial informal functionality tests have been successfully per- formed. The prototype can also be used as a 3D stereo system using the same hardware by additionally mounting polarized glasses and an active polarization rotator, while maintaining all of the advantages listed above. 

  • 83.
    Alajrami, S.
    et al.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Romanovsky, A.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom.
    EXE-SPEM: Towards cloud-based executable software process models2016Inngår i: MODELSWARD 2016 - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development, 2016, s. 517-526Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Executing software processes in the cloud can bring several benefits to software development. In this paper, we discuss the benefits and considerations of cloud-based software processes. EXE-SPEM is our extension of the Software and Systems Process Engineering (SPEM2.0) Meta-model to support creating cloud-based executable software process models. Since SPEM2.0 is a visual modelling language, we introduce an XML notation meta-model and mapping rules from EXE-SPEM to this notation which can be executed in a workflow engine. We demonstrate our approach by modelling an example software process using EXE-SPEM and mapping it to the XML notation. 

  • 84.
    Alajrami, S.
    et al.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom .
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Romanovsky, A.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom .
    Isberg, Petter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Towards cloud-based enactment of safety-related processes2016Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 9922, 2016, s. 309-321Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering safety-critical systems is a complex task which involves multiple stakeholders. It requires shared and scalable computation to systematically involve geographically distributed teams. The paper proposes a model-driven cloud-based enactment architecture automating safety-critical processes. This work adapts our previous work on cloud-based software engineering by enriching the architecture with an automatic support for generation of both, product-based safety arguments from failure logic analysis results and process-based arguments from the process model and the enactment data. The approach is demonstrated using a fragment of a process adapted from the aerospace domain. 

  • 85.
    Alajrami, S.
    et al.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Romanovsky, A.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Software development in the Post-PC era: Towards software development as a service2016Inngår i: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., 2016, s. 662-671Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years, software development has evolved to meet the needs of new types of applications and to embrace new technological disruptions. Today, we witness the rise of mobility where the role of the conventional high-end PC is declining. Some refer to this era as the Post- PC era. This technological shift, powered by a key enabling technology, cloud computing, has opened new opportunities for human advancement. Consequently, the evolving landscape of software systems drives the need for new methods for conceiving them. Such methods need to: (a) address the challenges and requirements of this era and (b) embrace the benefits of new technological breakthroughs. In this paper, we list the characteristics of the Post-PC era from the software development perspective and describe two motivating trends of software development processes. Then, we derive a list of requirements for the future software development from the characteristics of the Post-PC era and from the motivating trends. Finally, we propose a reference architecture for cloud-based software process enactment as an enabler for Software Development as a Service. The architecture is the first step addressing the needs that we have identified.

  • 86.
    Alajrami, Sami
    et al.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Romanovsky, Alexander
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Enabling GSD Task Allocation via Cloud-based Software Processes2017Inngår i: Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications SERA-2017, Springer, 2017, s. 179-192Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Allocating tasks to distributed sites in Global Software Development (GSD) projects is often done unsystematically and based on the personal experi- ence of project managers. Wrong allocation decisions increase the project’s risks as tasks have dependencies that are inherited by the distributed sites. Decision sup- port can help make the task allocation a more informed and systematic process. The challenges in allocating tasks to distributed sites exist because of three dis- tance dimensions between sites (geographical, temporal and cultural). An informed task allocation decision needs to consider these distances. Therefore, in this paper, we propose to integrate and semi-automate the calculation of an existing Global Distance Metric (GDM) into an architecture that supports executing cloud-based software processes. We analyze the potential of integrating the GDM into this archi- tecture and identify the needed extensions to the architecture.

  • 87.
    Alajrami, Sami
    et al.
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Romanovsky, Alexander
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Enabling GSD Task Allocation via Cloud-based Software Processes2017Inngår i: International Journal of Networked and Distributed Computing, ISSN 2211-7938, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 221-232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Allocating tasks to distributed sites in Global Software Development (GSD) projects is often done unsystematically and based on the personal experience of project managers. Wrong allocation decisions increase the project’s risks as tasks have dependencies that are inherited by the distributed sites. Decision support can help make the task allocation a more informed and systematic process. The challenges in allocating tasks to distributed sites exist because of three distance dimensions between sites (geographical, temporal and cultural). An informed task allocation decision needs to consider these distances. Therefore, in this paper, we propose to integrate and semi-automate the calculation of an existing Global Distance Metric (GDM) into an architecture that supports executing cloud-based software processes. We analyze the potential of integrating the GDM into this architecture and identify the needed extensions to the architecture.

  • 88.
    Alajrami, Sami
    et al.
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Romanovsky, Alexander
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Cost-Aware Scheduling of Software Processes Execution in the Cloud2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development - Volume 1, 2018, s. 203-212Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using cloud computing to execute software processes brings several benefits to software development. In a previous work, we proposed a reference architecture, which treats software processes as workflows and uses cloud computing to execute them. Scheduling the execution in the cloud impacts the execution cost and the cloud resources utilization. Existing workflow scheduling algorithms target business and scientific (data-driven) workflows, but not software processes workflows. In this paper, we adapt three scheduling algorithms for our architecture and propose a fourth one; the Proportional Adaptive Task Schedule algorithm. We evaluate the algorithms in terms of their execution cost, makespan and cloud resource utilization. Our results show that our proposed algorithm saves between 19.74% and 45.78% of the execution cost and provides the best resource (virtual machine) utilization compared to the adapted algorithms while providing the second best makespan. 

  • 89.
    Alape Vivekananda, Ashish
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Test Generation For Digital Circuits – A Mapping Study On VHDL, Verilog and SystemVerilog2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have proposed different methods for testing digital logic circuits. The need for testing digital logic circuits has become more important than ever due to the growing complexity of such systems. During the development process, testing is focusing on design defects as well as manufacturing and wear out type of defects. Failures in digital systems could be caused by design errors, the use of inherently probabilistic devices, and manufacturing variability. The research in this area has focused also on the design of digital logic circuit for achieving better testability. In addition, automated test generation has been used to create tests that can quickly and accurately identify faulty components. Examples of such methods are the Ad Hoc techniques, Scan Path Technique for testable sequential circuits, and the random scan technique. With the research domain becoming more mature and the number of related studies increasing, it is essential to systematically identify, analyse and classify the papers in this area. The systematic mapping study of testing digital circuits performed in this thesis aims at providing an overview of the research trends in this domain and empirical evidence. In order to restrict the scope of the mapping study we only focus on some of the most widely-used and well-supported hardware description languages (HDLs): Verilog, SystemVerilog and VHDL. Our results suggest that most of the methods proposed for test generation of digital circuits are focused on the behavioral level and Register Transfer Levels. Fault independent test generation is the most frequently applied test goal and simulation is the most common experimental test evaluation method. Majority of papers published in this area are conference papers and the publication trend shows a growing interest in this area. 63% of papers execute the test method proposed. An equal percentage of papers experimetnatlly evaluate the test method they propose. From the mapping study we inferred that papers that execute the test method proposed, evaluate them as well.

  • 90.
    Alderisi, Giuliana
    et al.
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Girs, Svetlana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lo Bello, Lucia
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Probabilistic Scheduling and Adaptive Relaying for WirelessHART Networks2015Inngår i: 20th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA'15, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with a way to probabilistically guarantee reliable packet delivery in WirelessHART based networks suitable for industrial control systems. We propose a new scheduling scheme, called Iterative Probabilistic Scheduling with Adaptive Relaying (IPS-AR), which consists of a static part (IPS) and a dynamic part (AR). IPS takes into account the channel characteristics and exploits relaying to achieve a minimum reliability threshold as requested by the supported industrial application. In the AR part, each relay node decides the packet to be sent based on online assessment of both the number of consecutive errors experienced by previous packets belonging to the same flow, as well as the number of copies of the packet currently available at the other relay nodes. This enables IPS-AR to achieve the desired reliability level while using the available re-sources in terms of time and bandwidth more efficiently.

  • 91.
    Alemzadeh, H.
    et al.
    University of Virginia, United States.
    Barbosa, R.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Brancati, F.
    Resil Tech S.r.l, Italy.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lawford, M.
    McMaster University, Canada.
    Natella, R.
    Federico II University of Naples, Italy.
    Netkachova, K.
    City University of London, United Kingdom.
    Pietrantuono, R.
    Federico II University of Naples, Italy.
    Silva, N.
    CRITICAL Software S.A, Portugal.
    Message from the WoSoCer workshop organizers2017Inngår i: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 28th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops, ISSREW 2017, s. xxxviii-, artikkel-id 8109232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 92.
    Alemzadeh, H.
    et al.
    University of Virginia, Virginia, United States.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Natella, R.
    Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy.
    Netkachova, K.
    University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Pietrantuono, R.
    Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy.
    Silva, N.
    CRITICAL Software S.A., Portugal.
    Message from the WoSoCer 2018 Workshop Chairs2018Inngår i: Proceedings - 29th IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops, ISSREW 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, artikkel-id 8539151Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 93.
    Alexanderson, H.
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, KI Physiotherapy Clin, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Björklund, Annika
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Hälsopoolen Rehabil Clin, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ottosson, C.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Rheumatol Clin, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dastmalchi, M.
    Karolinska Inst, Rheumatol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lundberg, I. E.
    Karolinska Inst, Rheumatol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    FATIGUE IN ADULT IDIOPATHIC INFLAMMATORY MYOPATHIES2015Inngår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 74, s. 106-106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 94.
    Almeida, Luis
    et al.
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pedreiras, Paulo
    University of Aveiro, Portugal.
    Managing end-to-end resource reservations2014Inngår i: 7th International Workshop on Compositional Theory and Technology for Real-Time Embedded Systems CRTS'14, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 95.
    Alorda, B.
    et al.
    Electronic System Group, Illes Balears University, Spain .
    Pujol-Nadal, R.
    Physics Department, Illes Balears University, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Navas, G.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Mathematics and Computer Science Dept, Illes Balears University, Spain .
    Moià-Pol, A.
    Physics Department, Illes Balears University, Spain .
    Martínez-Moll, V.
    Physics Department, Illes Balears University, Spain .
    Collaborative distributed sun-tracking control system for building integration with minimal plant area and maximum energy-conversion efficiency2015Inngår i: International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, ISSN 0142-0615, E-ISSN 1879-3517, Vol. 70, s. 52-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a collaborative distributed sun-tracking control system for a novel Fixed Mirror Solar Concentrator (FMSC) structure, which increases the energy-conversion efficiency of the FMSC and reduces the space between solar collectors units, a positive aspect for in-building integration. The improved FMSC uses solar concentration collectors suited for mid-range thermal applications (90-200 °C) and is designed for easy installation in buildings because of its relatively small extension. The proposed solar orientation system (ORSYS) relies on a two-step algorithm to increase the energy captured by the receiver, which provides tolerance to common logical and mechanical errors in the estimation of the receiver position. ORSYS is implemented as a CAN-based distributed system, extended with web-interface features for supervision and configuration of the overall system. ORSYS also includes a coordination algorithm that allows adjacent collectors to share the physical space between them, thus reducing the total plant area. Experimental evaluation has been performed using an industrial-scale solar collector prototype, showing its feasibility and efficiency in terms of energy conversion in real environments.

  • 96.
    Al-Rawi, M. S.
    et al.
    Departamento de Eletrónica, Telecomunicações e Informática (DETI), Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Galdrán, A.
    Departamento de Eletrónica, Telecomunicações e Informática (DETI), Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Yuan, X.
    Research Center on Software Technologies and Multimedia Systems for Sustainability (CITSEM), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Eckert, M.
    Research Center on Software Technologies and Multimedia Systems for Sustainability (CITSEM), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Martínez, J. -F
    Research Center on Software Technologies and Multimedia Systems for Sustainability (CITSEM), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Elmgren, Fredrik
    DeepVision AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rodriguez, J.
    Departamento de Eletrónica, Telecomunicações e Informática (DETI), Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Bastos, J.
    Instituto de Telecomunicações, Pólo de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Pinto, M.
    ECA Robotics, La Garde, France.
    Intensity normalization of sidescan sonar imagery2016Inngår i: 2016 6th International Conference on Image Processing Theory, Tools and Applications, IPTA 2016, 2016, artikkel-id 7820967Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sonar imaging is currently the exemplary choice used in underwater imaging. However, since sound signals are absorbed by water, an image acquired by a sonar will have gradient illumination; thus, underwater maps will be difficult to process. In this work, we investigated this phenomenon with the objective to propose methods to normalize the images with regard to illumination. We propose to use MIxed exponential Regression Analysis (MIRA) estimated from each image that requires normalization. Two sidescan sonars have been used to capture the seabed in Lake Vattern in Sweden in two opposite directions west-east and east-west; hence, the task is extremely difficult due to differences in the acoustic shadows. Using the structural similarity index, we performed similarity analyses between corresponding regions extracted from the sonar images. Results showed that MIRA has superior normalization performance. This work has been carried out as part of the SWARMs project (http://www.swarms.eu/).

  • 97.
    Al-Rawi, Mohammed
    et al.
    Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal.
    Elmgren, Fredrik
    DeepVision AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Frasheri, Mirgita
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Yuan, Xin
    Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Martínez, José-Fernán
    Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Bastos, Joaquim
    Instituto de Telecomunicações - Pólo de Aveiro, Portugal.
    Rodriguez, Jonathan
    Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal.
    Pinto, Marc
    ECA Robotics, France.
    Algorithms for the Detection of First Bottom Returns and Objects in the Water Column in Side-Scan Sonar Images2017Inngår i: OCEANS '17 A Vision for our Marine Future OCEANS '17, Aberdeen, United Kingdom, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Underwater imaging has become an active research area in recent years as an effect of increased interest in underwater environments and is getting potential impact on the world economy, in what is called blue growth. Since sound propagates larger distances than electromagnetic waves underwater, sonar is typically used for underwater imaging. One interesting sonar image setting is comprised of using two parts (left and right) and is usually referred to as sidescan sonar. The image resulted from sidescan sonars, which is called waterfall image, usually has to distinctive parts, the water column and the image seabed. Therefore, the edge separating these two parts, which is called the first bottom return, is the real distance between the sonar and the seabed bottom (which is equivalent to sensor primary altitude). The sensory primary altitude can be measured if the imaging sonar is complemented by interferometric sonar, however, simple sonar systems have no way to measure the first bottom returns other than signal processing techniques. In this work, we propose two methods to detect the first bottom returns; the first is based on smoothing cubic spline regression and the second is based on a moving average filter to detect signal variations. The results of both methods are compared to the sensor primary altitude and have been successful in 22 images out of 25.

  • 98.
    Altarabichi, Mohammed Ghaith
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Supervised Learning for Road Junctions Identification using IMU2019Inngår i: First International Conference on Advances in Signal Processing and Artificial Intelligence ASPAI' 2019, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 99.
    Altenbernd, Peter
    et al.
    University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Stappert, Friedhelm
    Siemens VDO Automotive AG, Germany.
    Early execution time-estimation through automatically generated timing models2016Inngår i: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383, Vol. 52, nr 6, s. 731-760Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional timing analysis, such as worst-case execution time analysis, is normally applied only in the late stages of embedded system software development, when the hardware is available and the code is compiled and linked. However, preliminary timing estimates are often needed in early stages of system development as an essential prerequisite for the configuration of the hardware setup and dimensioning of the system. During this phase the hardware is often not available, and the code might not be ready to link. This article describes an approach to predict the execution time of software through an early, source-level timing analysis. A timing model for source code is automatically derived from a given combination of hardware architecture and compiler. The model is identified from measured execution times for a set of synthetic training programs, compiled for the hardware platform in question. It can be used to estimate the execution time for code running on the platform: the estimation is then done directly from the source code, without compiling and running it. Our experiments show that, using this model, we can predict the execution times of the final, compiled code surprisingly well. For instance, we achieve an average deviation of 8 % for a set of benchmark programs for the ARM7 architecture.

  • 100.
    Altmeyer, S.
    et al.
    University of Luxembourg.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Maiza, C.
    Université Grenoble Alpes, Verimag, France.
    Reineke, J.
    Saarland University, Germany.
    Rochange, C.
    University of Toulouse, France.
    WCET and mixed-criticality: What does confidence in WCET estimations depend upon?2015Inngår i: OpenAccess Series in Informatics, 2015, s. 65-74Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed-criticality systems integrate components of different criticality. Different criticality levels require different levels of confidence in the correct behavior of a component. One aspect of correctness is timing. Confidence in worst-case execution time (WCET) estimates depends on the process by which they have been obtained. A somewhat naive view is that static WCET analyses determines safe bounds in which we can have absolute confidence, while measurement-based approaches are inherently unreliable. In this paper, we refine this view by exploring sources of doubt in the correctness of both static and measurement-based WCET analysis.

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