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  • 51.
    Alcaraz Bosca, Neus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.).
    Lean project management. Assessment of project risk management processes2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional methods of project management are not appropriate for complex projects anymore. Since projects are becoming increasingly complex and uncertain, interaction between activities and resources is growing in ways not considered by these methods. Nowadays, managers need more agile project management methods that are able to recognize and deal with uncertainty and to produce the expected results. Lean project management, the most recent approach of lean methodology, appears as an alternative approach capable of dealing with complexity and uncertainty. The latest investigations in the field show that traditional methods are still adequate for simple projects, while lean methods are more appropriate for complex projects.

    This thesis aims to investigate the nature of lean project management and to examine project risk management processes so that managers can assess the complexity of projects before their beginning and decide which method to apply in order to manage them. 

  • 52.
    Aldenlöv, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Real Estate and Construction Management .
    Public procurement of railway infrastructuremaintenance: a literature review2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of railway infrastructure has in several instances been changed from government-based to being based on public procurement, with varying degrees of flexibility for the contractor to design their maintenance work. The purpose of-giving contractors a larger freedom of choice of how to perform maintenance is to stimulate them to innovate and develop their maintenance processes. Since the contracts differ in between and there are changes in government policies over time that affects both existing and new contracts, a comparison between different contracts becomes challenging. A literature review has been conducted to understand the change in procurement strategy and how to encourage contractors to innovate. The research questions include: What procurement strategies are there? How is maintenance evaluated? How does procurement affect the innovation opportunities for entrepreneurs?

    The literature review focuses on railway maintenance and contract design between client and contractor. In total, 17 articles matched the search criteria and were selected for the review. To have successful maintenance service, five articles suggested partnering as a strategy with common goals in combination with good communication during the entirety of the contract. When selecting incentive plan, four articles mentions that a focus on performance-based incentives in combination with riskmanagement is better rather than actual payment schemes. The reason being that payment is often themain cause of conflicts between client and contractor. The scientific literature suggests that improvement in incentives improves quality of maintenance, decreases delays and technical failures. The conclusion from the literature review is that partnering in railway maintenance is considered successful. With accurate knowledge about railway assets the incentive plan becomes accurate which reduces costs.

    The literature review is a part of a research project with an overall goal to develop a model to guide the selection of appropriate type of procurement strategy, contract and control of maintenance for a moresustainable railway system.

  • 53.
    Alenvret, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Evaldsson, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Creating customer value through knowledge integration: How internal stakeholders can be involved in the product development process2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing globalisation of the market is followed by increased competition between organisations. Therefore it becomes more important to create products with high customer value. To be able to create customer value, deep understanding of the customers’ needs must be obtained by employees, shared between them and transformed into products. Further consequences of globalisation are increasing differences between customers’ needs, which results in demand for customisable and flexible products.The purpose of this study was to analyse how organisations can create more customer value through increased knowledge integration. The focus was on how knowledge that already resides within a globally dispersed organisation can be integrated during the product development process.This study showed that customer value is created throughout the product development process by integrating the knowledge held by R&D and internal stakeholders. Different types of value are created at different phases in the product development process. One important finding is that different parts of the augmented value are created throughout the entire product development process. Since employees obtain different knowledge depending on which customer they interact with, it is important to utilise knowledge from a large number of employees with different roles and in different countries. Hence, the significance of knowledge integration must be disseminated and understood across the organisation. After completing the product development process additional customer value is created by the internal stakeholders’ who sell and implement the product, but it is during the product development process that the basis for their value creation is established.Knowledge needs to be integrated in a formalised, repeatable way, so that the R&D department can ensure that the right product is developed at the right time. Integration means that the tacit knowledge that resides within one employee is codified into an explicit form that can be exploited by more employees. Therefore, four steps must be performed and repeated iteratively to create and spread knowledge throughout the organisation. The first step includes communication by exchanging tacit knowledge. The second step entails documenting the knowledge, and the third step involves combining the knowledge residing in the organisations into one common knowledge system. The final step includes distributing the knowledge so that it recievess wide attention within the organisation. Several factors that have a negative impact on these four steps, and knowledge integration, need to be countered somehow. However, it was found that there are several mechanisms that facilitate knowledge integration, and most often the presence of several mechanisms at the same time had a better effect.

  • 54.
    Alexandersson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Möbelsnickeri.
    Parkettläggning: med massivträ som utgångspunkt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about furniture parquetry and various techniques. Parquetry can be describe as wooden, 2-dimensional patterns used to garnish furniture and other products. It is manufactured in thin veneer layer and applied to the surface. By using thin veneer we are able to minimize stresses in the material, which results in tight joints. In Europe, furniture parquetry is traditionally created by wood veneer pieces that has been formed and joined into a pattern. There are also other proven techniques developed during different stages in history and in different places in the world.

    In my thesis I describe some of those established techniques and some of my experiments in the subject. The report is based on literature studies, observations of movie clips, interviews and empirical practical studies. I have compared different techniques to see in what ways it is possible to rationalize the production of furniture parquetry. At the same time I wanted to try and develop a method that makes it possible to create parquetry patterns containing round shapes. In this way I hope to contribute to the development and modernization in the area. 

  • 55.
    Alghazi, Ziad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wireless instrumentation2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete var att undersöka om det finns möjlighet att implementera en trådlöst instrumenterings kit från Emerson Rosemount Process AB på dagens styrsystem som finns på Siemens gasturbiner. En prototyp skapades som bygger på Siemens Simatic PCS-7 med en styrenhet och en switch. Där efter implementerades Emerson Wireless gateway och två trådlösa instrument. I examanearbetet skapades även en logik som hanterar kommunikationen mellan simatic och gateway. Modbus RTU och TCP/IP är kommunikationsprotokollet som användes under arbetet. En undersökning om den uppsättningen klarar av de atex (ATmosphères EXplosibles )och sil (saftey integrity level ) krav gjordes, för att säkerställa om det finns möjligheter att implementera detta på dagens tillverkningsprocess. Utöver dessa kontrollerades om det råder för och nackdelar med den trådlösa allternativet inom IT-säkerhet, instrumentdiagnostik och störkänslighet. Arbetet fullgjordes på Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery i Finspång tillsammans med företagets utvecklingsavdelning för styrsystem.

  • 56.
    Ali, Islam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Iqbal, Wasim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Performance analysis of various antennas at 2.45 GHz2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this era of technology, there is a swift increase in the number of applications which operate at the Industrial Scientific Medical Band. The applications of this band ranges from home microwave oven to wireless local area networks (WLAN). Therefore, the design of antennas on this band is essential.

    This thesis work revolves around the detailed study and design of various antennas at 2.45 GHz. All the simulation of the antennas was performed using advanced design system (ADS). Microstrip antenna technology is commonly used in antenna design due to its advantages such as low-profile, small size and easy fabrication on printed circuit boards.

    Firstly, various antennas such as rectangular patch, square patch, dipole, inverted F and printed Yagi were designed using ADS and their different performance parameters such as input impedance matching, voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), input reflection, and gain and directivity were discussed. Dipole antenna, inverted F and printed Yagi were fabricated on printed circuit board (PCB) to compare their measured and simulated results.

    At the end, a conclusion is drawn for different antennas based on their various performance parameters.

  • 57.
    Ali, M.
    et al.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Svensk, Olle
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Zhen, Z.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Suihkonen, S.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Törmä, P.T.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Lipsanen, H.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Sopanen, M.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Hjort, Klas
    Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reduced photoluminescence from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures following 40 MeV iodine ion irradiation2009In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, ISSN 0921-4526, Vol. 404, no 23-24, p. 4925-4928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects following ion irradiation of GaN-based devices are still limited. Here we present data on the photoluminescence (PL) emitted from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures, which have been exposed to 40 MeV I ion irradiation. The PL is reduced as a function of applied ion fluence, with essentially no PL signal left above 1011 ions/cm2. It is observed that even the ion fluences in the 109 ions/cm2 range have a pronounced effect on the photoluminescence properties of the MQW structures. This may have consequences concerning application of InGaN/GaN MQW’s in radiation-rich environments, in addition to defect build-up during ion beam analysis.

  • 58.
    Alizadeh-Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Sjöberg, Lars
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Effect of Instrumental Precision on Optimisation of Displacement Monitoring Networks2016In: Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica, ISSN 1217-8977, E-ISSN 1587-1037, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 761-772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to detect the geo-hazards, different deformation monitoring networks are usually established. It is of importance to design an optimal monitoring network to fulfil the requested precision and reliability of the network. Generally, the same observation plan is considered during different time intervals (epochs of observation). Here, we investigate the case that instrumental improvements in sense of precision are used in two successive epochs. As a case study, we perform the optimisation procedure on a GPS monitoring network around the Lilla Edet village in the southwest of Sweden. The network was designed for studying possible displacements caused by landslides. The numerical results show that the optimisation procedure yields an observation plan with significantly fewer baselines in the latter epoch, which leads to saving time and cost in the project. The precision improvement in the second epoch is tested in several steps for the Lilla Edet network. For instance, assuming two times better observation precision in the second epoch decreases the number of baselines from 215 in the first epoch to 143 in the second one.

  • 59.
    Allan, Jon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Emil och Ida i Lönneberga2016Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En tecknad film skapad av Pennfilm med Per Åhlin, Alicja Björk och Lasse Persson som regissörer. Filmen består av tre historier av Astrid Lindgren med karaktärerna Emil och Ida i Lönneberga. Astrids egen röst används. 

    Filmen är producerad av Filmlance International AB och fick 8 miljoner i produktionsstöd från Svenska Filminstitutet. Den distribueras av SF Film och finns tillgänglig på flera plattformar. Första gången var biopremiär 25 december 2013. Den senaste plattformen var visning i SVT med påföljande tid tillgänglig i SVT Play under hösten 2016. Både tecknandet och inspelningen av musiken gjordes på ett äldre traditionellt sätt. D.v.s. alla bildrutor har tecknats för hand. Musiken har spelats in i akustisk studio under Georg Riedels ledning med hjälp musiker och musiktekniker. Till den större delen har musikernas insatser skett tillsammans och utan pålägg. Därefter har musiktekniker och Georg Riedel mixat materialet för filmmediet. 

    Georg Riedel - musik

    Jon Allan - ljudproducent/ljudtekniker

    Filmlance International AB - producent

    Pennfilm - teckning av film

    SF film - distributör

  • 60.
    Allhorn, Simon
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Svensson, Victor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Kapacitetsökning på ett producerande företag: Fallstudie på Villa VIDA AB2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att få en djupare förståelse för hur yta kan frigöras och användas har en studie genomförts på Villa VIDA som idag inte har tillräckligt med fri yta för kapacitetsökning. När nuläget analyserades kunde det konstateras att lagerbildningar på produktionsyta och ett måleri var det som hindrade företaget från att expandera. Baserat på det nuvarande läget genererades två alternativa layouter. I det ena förslaget valdes outsourcing av måleriet för att frigöra ännu mer yta och få plats med en kapacitetsökning på 50 % istället för 25 % som hade blivit resultatet om måleriet bevarats. Åtgärder som frigjorde yta innebar reducering av antal lagringspunkter och minskade orderkvantiteter. Vid utvärdering blev resultatet att företaget bör satsa på förslaget där måleriet är outsourcat då detta bidrar med ekonomiska så väl som flödesrelaterade fördelar samtidigt som ytan används på ett effektivare sätt.

  • 61.
    Alm, Christoffer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Dahlgren, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Value creation through digital solutions in the energy industry: A case study at Skellefteå Kraft AB2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this master thesis is to gain a better understanding of how value creation can be achieved with digital solutions in the energy industry. More specifically, this research aims to increase the understanding of factors that affect customer value in form of exploring the customers’ digital wants and needs.

    Method – This master thesis uses a combination of exploratory and descriptive approach which is based on qualitative data gathered from semi-structured interviews with area experts and focus groups with customers. In this study three area experts and four focus groups were included. The gathered data were analyzed through an abductive analysis approach and a thematic coding.

    Findings – The research found three main findings that energy company’s need to take into consideration. The first is that the energy industry needs to simplify the energy concept since customers’ state that the industry is too complex at the moment. Second is that value creation can be achieved in form of a superior mobile application where customers’ have the ability to follow their consumption and can gain improved customer care. The last main finding from this study show that there may be a lot of changes in the energy industry in the future, which entails many possibilities for energy companies to improve customer value.

    Recommendations – The recommendations from this study is that energy companies need to address that the driving force to buy in the energy industry is that customers want to like their energy company. The energy industry must change their focus and provide marketing strategies that are appealing to the customers’ emotions. Companies in the energy industry also need to deal with the increasing digitalization that is affecting society everywhere. The development of a great mobile application will improve a lot of things for the customers such as making their consumption controllable and easier to grasp, which will make them more satisfied. It is also recommended that energy companies in Sweden unite and together make a proposition to the EU to drop the regulations on electricity charges in order to unlock energy companies’ ability to make energy subscription customer friendly.

    Research contribution – This master thesis contributes to the three dimensions that customer value derived from, in the energy industry digital solutions affect functional and emotional value but has low impact on social value. It also occurred that simplicity, control, better information and customers’ buy with their heart are key factors that contributes to customer value in the industry, which contributes to both theoretical and practical. Digitalization are also moving fast in the energy industry which companies need to embrace right away and take action to not fall behind.

    Paper type – Master thesis

  • 62.
    Alm Lönnefjord, Jonathan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Global project alignment and performance: Combining Chinese and Western management practices2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The research purpose is to add insights to the project management literature by studying a global project encompassing Chinese and Western project participants, to possibly increase the understanding of how project alignment can be achieved.

    Method – The analytical approach for this abductive and explorative study was anchored in a six-phase thematic analysis (Clarke & Braun, 2014). A single-case study approach was used encompassing 17 interviews and 61 days of observations at a multinational manufacturing firm in China. 

    Results - Both Chinese and Western project managers consider project effectiveness and efficiency when evaluating project success. However, there are several key nuances that separate the two groups, as Western project managers focus on customer satisfaction through efficient methods when evaluating project performance, whereas Chinese project managers focus on internal satisfaction through effective methods. The different viewpoints although similar affect the ability of manufacturing organizations to achieve alignment within global projects. To achieve alignment within global projects manufacturing organisations need to focus on three types of alignment while accounting for the nuanced view on project success; objective alignment, role alignment and internal alignment.

    Theoretical implications – Our study proposes an emergent model reducing the complexity of achieving alignment in global projects. The model contains three new types of alignment (objective, role and internal) that are actionable and direct compared to previous alignment types. The alignment types aids in the unification of Chinese and Western project managers view on project success.

    Practical implications – We expand the understanding of the Chinese and Western view on project success and provide insight into how alignment can be achieved in global projects. Our findings suggest that project managers should first achieve objective alignment before addressing role and later internal alignment in efforts to increase project performance. 

  • 63.
    Almström, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Svanberg, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sjörättsmål: En jämförelse mellan målen i Sveriges sjörättsdomstolar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden seven courts has been appointed to specialize in admiralty law cases. These cases are either civil or criminal cases with connection to shipping on Swedish territory.

    The objective was to examine and describe the admiralty law verdicts over time with focus on what types of cases, differences between courts and variation over time. The study focused on merchant shipping.

    Study of literature was chosen as method and with follow-up questions interviews were made with agencies and experts. The literature in this study was the 153 verdicts that were announced between 2009 and 2013.

    Of all verdicts collected were five civil cases and 148 criminal cases with 13 classifications. The largest difference between the courts was the sum of verdicts. A change over time could not be observed.

    Other conclusions that were made were that ships’ masters, that have the utmost responsibility, avoided prosecution when they were not present for the event of the prosecution. 

  • 64.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Condition based maintenance for mechanical systemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a sequential method for the selection of maintenance technique for mechanical systems is presented. It is based on technical knowledge concerning component failure mechanisms and failure causes. Classification of failures according to their consequences is stated. A modified version of failure modes, effects and criticality analysis is given and a way to identify significant components is discussed. Analysis of collected data is discussed and a method to identify a replacement level of a monitoring parameter is proposed. Criteria for the selection of a monitoring technique based on the intrinsic information of monitoring parameters are introduced. Finally, a decision rule for the selection of a suitable maintenance technique is suggested and a modified expression of the long run average cost per unit time is used as a distinguishing criterion between applicable strategies.

  • 65.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Just-in time and dynamic maintenance (JIT-Maint) for turbine, generator, gearbox and sawmills: case stories2015In: 28º COMADEM + X CORENDE 2015 / [ed] Marta Clelia Ruch, Asociación Argentina de Ensayos no Destructivos y Estructurales, AAENDE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Profitable production demands continuously improved maintenance decision accuracy to reduce unplanned stoppages, prolong components/machines  life length and maintain production continuity. When CM, e.g. vibration level or oil temperature, value exceeds a warning level, it demands a clear understanding of what happened and how it will develop to avoid failures. It demands also reliable information, e.g. probability of failure, residual  life and when is the most profitable time for maintenance. Companies strive to reduce production cost through reducing non-value adding times, e.g. failures, for offering customers lower prices and generating additional competitive advantages. In this paper, a new tool (Prediction of Vibration and oil temperature, PreVib) for predicting the condition of a turbine, generator and gearbox is introduced,  discussed and tested. The solution offers a unique opportunity to achieve just in time dynamic and cost-effective maintenance by selecting the most profitable time for maintenance. PreVib is tested in a power plant. The major results: Failures can appreciably be reduced thanks the high precision of prediction ( + 90%), i.e. a negligible difference from the real measurement: PreVib does not demand extensive or additional data, and not replace available maintenance systems. The major conclusion is that applying PreVib, it is possible to reduce failures appreciably, prolong life length of components/equipment and perform profitable maintenance

  • 66.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    On a graphical method for the selection of a maintenance techniqueManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a graphical method for the selection of a cost-effective monitoring technique is suggested. Also, a graphical method to estimate the level at which components should be replaced when using a cost-effective technique, i.e. threshold level, is proposed. These two methods are based on the concept of the Total Time on Test, TTT-plot on age and condition dependent replacement is discussed.

  • 67.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    On the modelling of condition dependent failure rates in mechanical systemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The cycle between two replacements based on condition monitoring is discussed. Models representing a condition dependent failure rate function reflecting the information in a monitoring parameter are suggested. For the selection of a cost-effective technique, a modified version of the Proportional Hazards Model, PHM, is proposed. Utilizing this modified model, it is possible to reveal the effect of monitoring parameters and operating conditions on the failure rate function. General comments on the application of the cost equation are given.

  • 68.
    Alt, Mattheus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Battery Connector - Examensarbete, Produktutveckling - konstruktion2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet är utfört inom produktutveckling – konstruktion och omfattar 15 högskolepoäng. Arbetet utfördes på halvtid under perioden januari – juni 2013. Examensarbetet utfördes för       OJOP Sweden AB i Eskilstuna av en student på Mälardalens Högskola. Examensarbetet startades den 6/1 – 2013 vid ett uppstartsmöte då uppdraget togs emot av OJOP Sweden AB´s ägare Anders Larsson. Uppdraget var att konstruera om eller konstruera en produkt med samma huvudegenskaper som företagets batterikontakt QuickPower. Detta för att reducera tillverkningskostnaderna som upplevdes för höga från företagets sida. Definitionen av problemet gjordes genom att undersöka den befintliga produkten och dess konkurrenter men också andra föremål som fäster på olika sätt. Undersökningarna resulterade i kunskap om hur problemet tidigare lösts och gav inspiration till en mängd idéer som bearbetades mentalt vilket ledde till skisser.  De olika skisserna sågs redan från början som potentiella koncept och redovisades för OJOP Sweden AB som fick utrymme att ge respons på koncepten. Ett koncept som innan redovisningen visat sig vara det bästa i både Pugh´s matris och QFD valdes gemensamt ut och fortsattes med. Det gjordes en enkel prototyp av det framtagna konceptet vilket bevisade en mycket bra funktionsduglighet. Med detta noterat och testat gjordes CAD-modeller som utgick ifrån prototypens dimensioner. Den slutgiltiga konstruktionen består av 6 (gånger två) komponenter, en huvudkomponent (spiralfäste), en kabelplatta, två plastkåpor och två skruvar. Dessa bearbetas på olika sätt och monteras samman för att vara redo att användas när kunden plockar dessa ur förpackningen. I jämförelse med den nuvarande produkten QuickPower håller sig resultatet på en nivå som matchar QP. En nackdel är att den inte fäster lika hårt som QP men resultatets enkla användning och resursbesparing höjer produkten.

  • 69.
    Altgärde, Noomi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Local release of lithium from sol-gel coated orthopaedic screws: an in vitro and in vivo study2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    In orthopaedic practice, fractures are usually stabilised with metal screws or rods. This is done in order to keep the fracture parts in place during the rather slow healing process. The healing time can potentially be reduced by local- or systemic treatment with different bone promoting drugs. In later years, lithium, otherwise used to treat bipolar disease, has shown promise to be such a drug.

     

    The aim of this master thesis was to find a way to coat metal bone screws with lithium and to characterise the coating. The coating was to be designed in such a way that it could release lithium to the surrounding bone tissue.

     

    Lithium chloride was incorporated into a titanate sol-gel and attached to silicon wafers and stainless steel screws by dip coating. Wafers were used for initial in vitro studies of how lithium changed coating characteristics. This was studied using ellipsometry, AFM and SEM. Lithium is most probably physisorbed and not incorporated into the network building up the sol-gel. Coating structure is changed as more lithium is incorporated. For large amounts of lithium, the nanoparticles normally formed when curing the sol-gel are inhibited. One effect of this is reduced bioactivity, seen as a reduced ability for calcium phosphate crystals to nucleate on the coating when immersed in simulated body fluid.

    Lithium release was investigated using AAS. Lithium is released from the coating, showing a burst effect. By changing the number of coating layers used, the release profile can be partly altered. The coating was also applied to screws, showing good attachment, and the lithium release profile was similar to the one seen from wafers.

    Finally, a screw model was used in rats to assess the effect of local lithium treatment from screws and systemic lithium treatment on fracture healing. In the model, a screw was inserted in tibia, mimicking a fracture. When the bone around the screw was healed, a pullout test was performed, giving information about the strength of the bone surrounding the screw. No significant difference could be found for either local- or systemic lithium treatment compared to control. However, when evaluating the strength of intact bone in a similar way, a positive effect of systemic lithium treatment could be seen. Therefore, it is still likely that lithium has a positive effect on bone and further studies are needed to fully evaluate its role in fracture healing.

     

  • 70.
    Altun, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Framtidens elförsörjning med  solceller2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 71.
    Alvehag, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    A stochastic approach for modeling residential interruption costs2008In: 16th Power Systems Computation Conference, PSCC 2008, Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC) , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In power system planning and operation, accurate assessment of reliability worth is essential for making informed decisions. The accuracy of the reliability worth estimation is directly affected by the interruption cost model used in the analysis. Residential interruption costs vary with season, day of week and time of day, and can be difficult to handle because of their intangible characteristics. This paper develops a cost model for residential customers that includes the timing of the outage by modeling the underlying factors that give rise to the temporal variations in residential interruption costs. By considering the stochastic nature of the underlying factors, as for example outdoor temperature, the proposed model makes it possible to estimate the costs for an event that is extreme in other senses than having a long duration. Time sequential Monte Carlo simulations were applied to a test system in order to assess reliability worth. The results show that the commonly used customer damage function overestimates the reliability worth. By accounting for the timing of the outages a more realistic estimation of the interruption costs can be obtained.

  • 72.
    Alves, Mariana
    et al.
    Arkitektur- och designcentrum.
    Ehrnberger, Karin
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Jahnke, Marcus
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Wikberg-Nilsson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    NOVA: Verktyg och metoder för normkreativ innovation2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla är sig själv närmast. Och vi gör oftast som vi är vana att göra. Vi styrs av de normer och värderingar som har format oss - även om vi tror att vi är innovativa. Resultatet riskerar att bli lösningar som diskriminerar och begränsar. En stor utmaning är att förstå andra människors behov. Om vi kan använda ett normkritiskt perspektiv och se bortom våra egna ramar kan vi nå en större potential inom innovation. Men att förverkliga den potentialen är lättare sagt än gjort. Det krävs vad vi kallar normkreativitet. Normkreativitet bygger på en medvetenhet om att normer och värderingar kan begränsa och diskriminera. Men den kräver också ett analytiskt arbete att undersöka människors verkliga situation och djupliggande behov - och samtidigt ett kreativt arbete att omsätta kritik och kunskap i nya lösningar. NOVA innehåller konkreta verktyg och handfasta metoder för alla som vill skapa sådana normkreativa lösningar. Materialet är baserat på praktiskt erfarenhet och forskning från en mängd olika projekt och studier. Formatet är valt för att gynna kreativitet och samverkan. Fokus är på normer som diskriminerar, men egentligen är innehållet användbart i alla innovationssammanhang. All innovation handlar ju om att utmana normer.

  • 73.
    Amare, Abel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Ghahramani, Behrad
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Framework for generalizing entrepreneurship policies from developed to developing countries: A case study on Jönköping and Mashhad2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 74.
    Amenabar, Leire
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Carreras, Leire
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Augmented Reality Framework for Supporting and Monitoring Operators during Maintenance Operations in Industrial Environments2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In an ever-changing and demanding world where short assembly and innovation times are indispensable, it is of paramount importance to ensure that the machinery used throughout the whole process of a product are in their best possible condition. This guarantees that the performance of each machine will be optimal, and hence, the process times will be the shortest possible, while the best quality products are obtained. Moreover, having a machine in an impeccable status permits making the necessary changes to it, in order to fulfil the requirements that a more advanced or complex product may have. Maintenance operations and their corresponding trainings have historically been time-consuming, and a vast amount of information has been transmitted from an expert to a newer operator. This means that there has been the need of working with experienced operators to secure that a good service is provided. However, different technologies like augmented reality (AR) have been shown to have a positive impact in the support and monitoring of operators in industrial maintenance operations.The present project gathers information in regard to the framework of AR, with the aim of supporting and monitoring operators in industrial environments. The proposed method consists on the development of an artefact, which would lead to a possible improvement of the already existing solutions. It is believed that the development of an AR application could grant the necessary aid to any operator in maintenance operations. The result of this suggestion is an AR application which superimposes visual information on the physical equipment.

  • 75.
    Amindezfooli, Soroor
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Analysing the Effect of Angle of Attack on Turbulence Intensity, Wake and Power Production for Hexicon Floating Platform2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When the wind passes through the wind turbine, it losses a part of its energy and as a result a low momentum region creates behind the wind turbine that refers to the wake.  This effect is more significant in a wind farm, where a group of wind turbines are located close to each other in a specific region. Since the wind speed slows down after passing the first row of the turbine, the other rows at the downstream experience lower wind velocity and consequently they can capture less energy in the wind. Wake effect influences the annual power production of a wind farm, not only because of the reduction in the wind velocity but also because of creating  turbulence in the flow and generating more vibration loads on the rotors which can reduce the lifetime of the turbines and increase fatigue on the blades.  Also when the Angle Of Attack (AOA) changes the shape of the wake varies which influence the annual power production and turbulence intensity of a wind farm. 

    The main purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of changing the AOA on the annual power production and the turbulence intensity of Hexicon platform. For this aim, different AOA between zero and 15 degrees are considered in the simulations.

    ANSYS CFX is applied to model the wind turbine configuration and simulate the fluid flow in different wind direction using unstructured meshing method. In addition wind characteristics profiles such as mean wind velocity, turbulence intensity and length scale at different height are imposed at the inlet of the domain to present the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL). RNG k-ε model is implemented for turbulence modeling. In addition roughness modification is utilized in simulation to get more accurate results in terms of turbulence intensity. 

  • 76.
    Amundsdotter, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Gunnarsson, Ewa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    GAAL: a model for practical equality work in an engineering environment2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Ander, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Coating actions for an intersection affected by repeated rutting.2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Korsningar, busshållplatser, söderbackar och lastkajer är ytor med extrem påkänning på grund av hög trafikbelastning, låg hastighet, accelerationer, inbromsningar, svängningar, spårbundenhet och utsatthet för höga temperaturer. Den speciella lastsituationen riskerar orsaka spårbildning, vilket är det vanligaste problemet i korsningar. Genom att anpassa beläggningen efter den utsatta ytan så kan projektören påverka vägens funktion och livslängd. Syftet med detta examensarbete var att studera vilka beläggningsåtgärder som är lämpliga för utsatta körytor såsom korsningar och busshållplatser samt att se vad som orsakar skadebilden i en skadedrabbad korsning. Vidare var syftet att jämföra tre beläggningsalternativ för att se vilket som var mest fördelaktigt ur ett livslängds- och kostnadsperspektiv. Frågeställningarna var följande: 1. Vilka beläggningar är lämpliga för särskilt utsatta körytor såsom korsningar och busshållplatser? 2. Vad orsakar skadebilden vid frånfarten på Malmslättsvägen vid korsningen Malmslättsvägen/ Kaserngatan? 3. Vilken beläggningsåtgärd av ABS11, Densiphalt och PMA är bäst ur ett livslängd- och kostnadsperspektiv under 20 år för korsningen Malmslättsvägen/ Kaserngatan? För att besvara frågeställningarna gjordes litteraturstudier samt en fallstudie i form av okulär bedömning och balkanalys i det aktuella vägsnittet. Dessutom jämfördes livslängd och kostnader mellan beläggningsalternativen i PMS Objekt respektive genom en ekonomisk beräkningsmetod. Resultatet visade att ett bindlager kan uppta de skjuvkrafter som uppstår på utsatta ytor och förhindrar därmed sprickbildning och deformationer. CBÖ och platsgjuten betong har i studier visat begränsa spårbildning. Densiphalt är lämplig som beläggning på utsatta ytor och ger samtidigt ytan motståndskraft mot olja och bensin. IM är starkare, styvare och mindre deformationsbenägen än en vanlig asfalt och är därför lämplig på högtrafikerade vägar. Fallstudien på det aktuella vägsnittet visade att skadebilden hade två orsaker. Dels fanns ett ytslitage som var orsakat av den spårbundna dubbdäckstrafiken. Dessutom förekom plastisk deformation i det andra och tredje asfaltlagret till följd av otillräcklig stabilitet i asfaltmassan med hänsyn till den långsamtgående och stillastående trafiken. De obundna lagren var till synes opåverkade vid balkanalysen. Jämförelsen mellan beläggningsalternativen visade att Densiphalt hade längst livslängd följt av PMA och ABS11. Kostnadsmässigt hade PMA lägst annuitet följt av Densiphalt och ABS11. Orsaken till att ABS11 var dyrast var troligen behovet av mellanliggande akutåtgärder i form av gjutasfalt. Slutsatsen var att kompletterande bindlager, CBÖ, PMA, Densiphalt, betong och IM var lämpliga beläggningar för särskilt utsatta ytor. Skadebilden vid det undersökta vägsnittet bedömdes bero på ytslitage på grund av spårbunden dubbdäckstrafik samt plastisk deformation till följd av tung trafik. Densiphalt hade längst livslängd och PMA hade lägst annuitet. Konventionell ABS11 var sämst ur både livslängds- och kostnadsperspektiv, vilket bedömdes bero på behovet av mellanliggande akutåtgärder i form av gjutasfalt.

  • 78.
    Anderson Kronlid, Carl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Sundin, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Varför tror vi att vissa företagär mer hållbara än andra?: - En studie om hur företags motiv och kommunikation kringhållbarhet är relaterat till konsumenters uppfattning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 79.
    Andersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Lindquist, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Fördjupning i skadestatistik inom sjöfarten: En analys av anmälda arbetsolyckor 2011 – 2013 utförd på uppdrag av Sjöfartens Arbetsmiljönämnd2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to analyse the reported work-related accidents in shipping by using frequency combined with consequence. Thereafter the purpose was to reach conclusions regarding which work-related accident was the most serious. The thesis also aimed to find if there were any connections between these accidents. Statistics were ordered from the Swedish Work Environment Authority. These statistics were processed in several ways, for instance demarcations regarding position onboard was made. Since the conditions of reporting workrelated accidents had changed during time, relevant years was chosen after consideration. The result of the study shows that when a person experiences an accident where he or she stumbles, trips, slips or treads heavily, the person is more likely to have a long sick-leave. These types of accidents are also the most common ones. To lose control of equipment or to lose control of equipment used to move material is also a common accident leading to a long sickleave. The only connection found is that the external factor hawser is present at several accidents with different consequences and cause.

  • 80.
    Andersson, Anna
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    A framework supporting the collaboration between the logistics- and the product development process2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In the competitive environment of today’s global markets, the demands of customers are increasing. They expect to get the best product at the lowest price with immediate availability. Logistics, including transportation, inventory maintenance, order processing, purchasing, warehousing, materials handling, packaging, customer service standards, and product scheduling must continuously be developed to meet the challenges of the market. The globalization, with longer distances to customers and suppliers, and the progressing trend of outsourcing are examples of why the importance of logistics has increased over the last few years.

    A considerable part of the final product cost is frozen during the early product development phases. In the early phases of the product development process, the cost of making design changes is low compared to making changes later in the product development process. The product development decisions made in the early phases of the product development process have considerable impact on future manufacturing and logistics activities as well.

    The objective of this research project is to develop a framework supporting the collaboration between the logistics- and the product development process. To do this, it has been essential to analyze which parameters influence the efficiency of the logistics process and the interface between the logistics- and the product development process. Also, to investigate how the logistics department can be integrated earlier in the product development process has been of interest. This has been done through both a theoretical review and also through a number of case studies.

    The result and conclusion of this project is a framework that gives support for what to focus on, how to collaborate, in which phases collaboration is meaningful, and which persons need to be involved in the different product development phases. Working as the framework suggests will, hopefully, give closer collaboration between the logistics- and the product development process than without this supportive framework. The expectation of the collaboration is an earlier integration of the logistics department in the product development process and through this influence and increase the efficiency of the logistics process.

  • 81.
    Andersson, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perseius, Kent-Inge
    Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    Idwall, Ewa
    Malmö University, Sweden .
    Evaluating a questionnaire to measure improvement initiatives in Swedish healthcare2013In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 13, no 48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Quality improvement initiatives have expanded recently within the healthcare sector. Studies have shown that less than 40% of these initiatives are successful, indicating the need for an instrument that can measure the progress and results of quality improvement initiatives and answer questions about how quality initiatives are conducted. The aim of the present study was to develop and test an instrument to measure improvement process and outcome in Swedish healthcare.

    METHODS:

    A questionnaire, founded on the Minnesota Innovation Survey (MIS), was developed in several steps. Items were merged and answer alternatives were revised. Employees participating in a county council improvement program received the web-based questionnaire. Data was analysed by descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The questionnaire psychometric properties were investigated and an exploratory factor analysis was conducted.

    RESULTS:

    The Swedish Improvement Measurement Questionnaire consists of 27 items. The Improvement Effectiveness Outcome dimension consists of three items and has a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.67. The Internal Improvement Processes dimension consists of eight sub-dimensions with a total of 24 items. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the complete dimension was 0.72. Three significant item correlations were found. A large involvement in the improvement initiative was shown and the majority of the respondents were satisfied with their work.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The psychometric property tests suggest initial support for the questionnaire to study and evaluate quality improvement initiatives in Swedish healthcare settings. The overall satisfaction with the quality improvement initiative correlates positively to the awareness of individual responsibilities.

  • 82.
    Andersson, Christoffer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Utvecklingen av samverkansregler mellan hälso- och sjukvården och näringslivet: Samverkan och krishantering i fält av legitimitet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration is a form of organization on the rise in Sweden. For health care, it is ofinterest to collaborate with industry to ensure that needs for specialist education andtraining are met and that products developed meet the relevant requirements.Conversely, industry actors have an interest to have a close collaboration with healthcare in order to gain insight into customer needs, provide information about theirproducts and to test products in development.The starting point of this study is an agreement and regulatory framework for formsof collaboration between public health care in Sweden in general and thepharmaceutical industry, the medical device industry and the laboratory technologyindustry. The research questions concerns how this agreement has evolved and theprocess surrounding its emergence may contribute to knowledge about collaborationas a form of organization and the relationship to concepts such as legitimacy,corruption and institutional theory.By tracking the emergence of the current regulatory framework genealogicalthroughout history, the study uncovers how the agreements have played a role in andcontributed to the legitimization and institutionalization of collaboration practices andhow crises have changed the shape of the practices. A theoretical treatment ofrelevant concepts such as legitimacy, institutionalization of practices, corruption andstigmatization of organizations form the basis for an interpretation and analysis of theprocess.The conclusions of the examination of the historical process that led to the currentagreements contribute to empirical knowledge of how crises and stigma affect thelegitimacy of collaboration practices and how the repair of legitimacy can be donesuccessfully after a crisis. The treatment of the empirical material is also a historicalsource for the development of ethics agreements between public health care andpharmaceutical industry and the medical industry in Sweden.

  • 83.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandholm, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Total Cost Analysis of frame suppliers in construction2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gotec, som är ett bygg och förvaltningsföretag, är just nu inne på etapp ett av ett byggprojekt i Vallastaden, Linköping. För etapp ett slöt Gotec ett avtal med den polska stomleverantören Baumat, att de skulle leverera samtliga stommar till Gotecs byggnader i projektet. Valet av leverantör baserades till största del på det låga inköpspriset. Dock upplever Gotec idag att det har uppstått vissa problem med Baumat som leverantör. Ett problem som Gotec upplever är att kommunikationen inte har fungerat så bra som de hade hoppats på, detta då engelskan är ytterst bristfällig inom Baumat. Andra problem som märkts av under samarbetet är bland annat att flexibiliteten och leveransprecisionen inte har varit perfekt. Detta har lett till att leveransförseningar har uppstått som i sin tur har givit upphov till extra kostnader, så kallade ÄTOR. Denna fallstudie utreder vilken leverantör av stommar som skulle vara det bästa alternativet för Gotec att använda sig av vid ett byggprojekt i Vallastaden i framtiden. En leverantör från ett lågkostnadsland eller en leverantör från Sverige. De leverantörer som utreds är Gotecs nuvarande leverantör Baumat som representerar en leverantör från ett lågkostnadsland och Strängbetong som representerar en leverantör från Sverige.

  • 84.
    Andersson, David
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    From the Electronic Structure of Point Defects to Functional Properties of Metals and Ceramics2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Point defects are an inherent part of crystalline materials and they influence important physical and chemical properties, such as diffusion, hardness, catalytic activity and phase stability. Increased understanding of point defects enables us to tailor the defect-related properties to the application at hand. Modeling and simulation have a prominent role in acquiring this knowledge. In this thesis thermodynamic and kinetic properties of point defects in metals and ceramics are studied using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Phenomenological models are used to translate the atomic level properties, obtained from the first-principles calculations, into functional materials properties. The next paragraph presents the particular problems under study.

    The formation and migration of vacancies and simple vacancy clusters in copper are investigated by calculating the energies associated with these processes. The structure, stability and electronic properties of the low-oxygen oxides of titanium, TiOx with 1/3 < x < 3/2, are studied and the importance of structural vacancies is demonstrated. We develop an integrated first-principles and Calphad approach to calculate phase diagrams in the titanium-carbon-nitrogen system, with particular focus on vacancy-induced ordering of the substoichiometric

    carbonitride phase, TiCxNy (x+y < 1). The possibility of forming higher oxides of plutonium than plutonium dioxide is explored by calculating the enthalpies for nonstoichiometric defect-containing compounds and the analysis shows that such oxidation is only produced by strong oxidants. For ceria (CeO2) doped with trivalent ions from the lanthanide series we probe the connection between the choice of a dopant and the improvement of ionic conductivity by studying the oxygen-vacancy formation and migration properties. The significance of minimizing the dopant-vacancy interactions is highlighted. We investigate the redox thermodynamics of CeO2-MO2 solid solutions with M being Ti, Zr, Hf, Th, Si, Ge, Sn or Pb and show that reduction is facilitated by small solutes.

    The results in this thesis are relevant for the performance of solid electrolytes, which are an integral part of solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen storage materials in automotive three-way catalysts, nuclear waste materials and cutting tool materials.

  • 85.
    Andersson, David A.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Simak, S. I.
    Monovacancy and divacancy formation and migration in copper: a first-principles theory2004In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 70, no 11, p. 115108-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation and migration of monovacancies and divacancies in copper have been studied from first-principles in order to resolve the discrepancies between previously published experimental and theoretical data. The monovacancy and divacancy formation, migration and binding enthalpies as well as the formation volumes have been calculated in the framework of a plane-wave pseudopotential implementation of the density functional theory, with full structural relaxations included. The monovacancy and divacancy formation entropies have been estimated from experimental data by performing a least-squares analysis. We show that the complete set of first-principles data, taking into account the presence of both vacancies and divacancies as well as the temperature dependence of the formation enthalpies and entropies allow one to reproduce the Arrhenius plot of the total vacancy concentration and the diffusion coefficient, both in good agreement with the most accurate experiments.

  • 86.
    Andersson, David A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Simak, S. I.
    Skorodumova, N. V.
    Abrikosov, I. A.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Modeling of Ce2, Ce2O3 ,and CeO2-x in the LDA+U formalism2007In: Physical Review B Condensed Matter, ISSN 0163-1829, E-ISSN 1095-3795, Vol. 75, no 3, p. 035109-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The electronic structure and thermodynamic properties of CeO2 and Ce2O3 have been studied from first principles by the all-electron projector-augmented-wave (PAW) method, as implemented in the ab initio total-energy and molecular-dynamics program VASP (Vienna ab initio simulation package). The local density approximation (LDA)+U formalism has been used to account for the strong on-site Coulomb repulsion among the localized Ce 4f electrons. We discuss how the properties of CeO2 and Ce2O3 are affected by the choice of U as well as the choice of exchange-correlation potential, i.e., the local density approximation or the generalized gradient approximation. Further, reduction of CeO2, leading to formation of Ce2O3 and CeO2-x, and its dependence on U and exchange-correlation potential have been studied in detail. Our results show that by choosing an appropriate U it is possible to consistently describe structural, thermodynamic, and electronic properties of CeO2, Ce2O3, and CeO2-x, which enables modeling of redox processes involving ceria-based materials.

  • 87.
    Andersson, David A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Simak, S. I.
    Skorodumova, N. V.
    Abrikosov, I. A.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Redox properties of CeO2-MO2 MO2 (M=Ti, Zr, Hf or Th) solid solutions from first principles calculations2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 031909-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors have used density functional theory calculations to investigate how the redox thermodynamics and kinetics of CeO2 are influenced by forming solid solutions with TiO2, ZrO2, HfO2, and ThO2. Reduction is facilitated by dissolving TiO2 (largest improvement), HfO2, or ZrO2 (least improvement), while ThO2 makes reduction slightly more difficult. The migration barrier is much lower in the neighborhood of a Ti (largest decrease), Hf, or Zr (least decrease), while the binding energy of solute ions and vacancies increases in the same sequence. They rationalize the properties of ceria solid solutions in terms of defect cluster relaxations.

  • 88.
    Andersson, David A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Simak, S. I.
    Skorodumova, N. V.
    Abrikosov, I. A.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Theoretical study of CeO(2) doped with tetravalent ions2007In: Physical Review B Condensed Matter, ISSN 0163-1829, E-ISSN 1095-3795, Vol. 76, no 7, p. 174119-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used density functional theory calculations within the LDA+U formulation to investigate how small amounts of dissolved SiO2, GeO2, SnO2, or PbO2 affect the redox thermodynamics of ceria (CeO2). Compared to pure ceria, reduction is facilitated and the reducibility increases in the sequence of CeO2-SnO2, CeO2-GeO2, and CeO2-SiO2, which correlates with the decrease of the ionic radii of the solutes. For low solute concentrations, there is an inverse relation between high reducibility and the solution energy of tetravalent solutes. CeO2-PbO2 is unique in the sense that the initial reduction occurs by Pb(IV)double right arrow Pb(II) instead of the usual Ce(IV)double right arrow Ce(III) reaction. Among the investigated ceria compounds, CeO2-PbO2 has the lowest reduction energy and rather low solution energy. We have studied how the solution and reduction energies depend on the concentration of Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Ti, Zr, Hf, and Th solute ions. While the solution energy increases monotonously with concentration, the reduction energy first decreases, as compared to pure ceria (except for Th, which exhibits a small increase), and with further increase of solute concentration, it either remains almost constant (Zr, Hf, and Th) or slightly increases (Ti, Si, Ge, and Sn).

  • 89.
    Andersson, David A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Simak, Sergei I.
    Skorodumova, Natalia V.
    Abrikosov, Igor A.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Optimization of ionic conductivity in doped ceria2006In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 103, no 10, p. 3518-3521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxides with the cubic fluorite structure, e.g., ceria (CeO2), are known to be good solid electrolytes when they are doped with cations of lower valence than the host cations. The high ionic conductivity of doped ceria makes it an attractive electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells, whose prospects as an environmentally friendly power source are very promising. In these electrolytes, the current is carried by oxygen ions that are transported by oxygen vacancies, present to compensate for the lower charge of the dopant cations. Ionic conductivity in ceria is closely related to oxygen-vacancy formation and migration properties. A clear physical picture of the connection between the choice of a dopant and the improvement of ionic conductivity in ceria is still lacking. Here we present a quantum-mechanical first-principles study of the influence of different trivalent impurities on these properties. Our results reveal a remarkable correspondence between vacancy properties at the atomic level and the macroscopic ionic conductivity. The key parameters comprise migration barriers for bulk diffusion and vacancy-dopant interactions, represented by association (binding) energies of vacancy-dopant clusters. The interactions can be divided into repulsive elastic and attractive electronic parts. In the optimal electrolyte, these parts should balance. This finding offers a simple and clear way to narrow the search for superior dopants and combinations of dopants. The ideal dopant should have an effective atomic number between 61 (Pm) and 62 (Sm), and we elaborate that combinations of Nd/Sm and Pr/Gd show enhanced ionic conductivity, as compared with that for each element separately.

  • 90.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Effektiv lagerstyrning med AHP och tvådimensionell artikelklassificering: En fallstudie på Permobil AB, Timrå2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Costs related to inventory are usually a significant amount of the company’s total assets. Despite this, companies in general don’t pay a lot of interest in it, even if the benefits from effective inventory are obvious when it comes to less tied up capital, increased customer satisfaction and better working environment.

    Permobil AB, Timrå is in an intense period when it comes to revenue and growth. The production unit is aiming for an increased output of 30 % in the next two years. To make this possible the company has to improve their way to distribute and handle material,The purpose of the study is to provide useful information and concrete proposals for action, so that the company can build a strategy for an effective and sustainable solution when it comes to inventory management.

    Alternative methods for making forecasts are suggested, in order to reach a more nuanced perception of different articles, and how they should be managed. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used in order to give specially selected persons the chance to decide criteria for how the article should be valued. The criteria they agreed about were annual volume value, lead time, frequency rate and purchase price. The other method that was proposed was a two-dimensional model where annual volume value and frequency was the criteria that specified in which class an article should be placed. Both methods resulted in significant changes in comparison to the current solution.

    For the spare part inventory different forecast methods were tested and compared with the current solution. It turned out that the current forecast method performed worse than both moving average and exponential smoothing with trend. The small sample of ten random articles is not big enough to reject the current solution, but still the result is a reason enough, for the company to control the quality of the forecasts.

  • 91.
    Andersson, Filip
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    GPGPU-Sim2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the impact of hardware features of graphics cards on performance of GPU computing using GPGPU-Sim simulation software tool. GPU computing is a growing topic in the world of computing, and could be an important milestone for computers. Therefore, such a study that seeks to identify the performance bottlenecks of the program with respect to hardware parameters of the devvice can be considered an important step towards tuning devices for higher efficiency.

    In this work we selected convolution algorithm - a typical GPGPU application - and conducted several tests to study different performance parameters. These tests were performed on two simulated graphics cards (NVIDIA GTX480, NVIDIA Tesla C2050), which are supported by GPGPU-Sim. By changing the hardware parameters of graphics card such as memory cache sizes, frequency and the number of cores, we can make a fine-grained analysis on the effect of these parameters on the performance of the program.

    A graphics card working on a picture convolution task releis on the L1 cache but has the worst performance with a small shared memory. Using this simulator to run performance tests on a theoretical GPU architecture could lead to better GPU design for embedded systems.

  • 92.
    Andersson, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kommunikation mellan under- och byggentreprenör2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study about communication between subcontractor and design-and-build contractor are accomplished at Östervångskolan in Lund. The purpose with this study is to get a better understanding about how the communication works between the contractors today, find out which interferences and misunderstandings that influence the communication and which ways of communication that is being used at the working establishment. The building and development meetings are also being observed and analyzed at the working establishment. To examine how the contractors at Östervångskolan considered the communication today the method of qualitative interviews will be accomplished. These interviews generated a result, which was analyzed. The conclusion of this study is that the communication works fine but there’s a lot of deficits to rectify. One of the deficits that appeared was that the meeting protocol could be improved. A solution to this was to introduce a white board where the sub-contractors can write suggestions or thoughts. These will be processed by the supervisor and brought up at the weekly meeting to get a better participation in meetings. In the category “slutsats” more actions that will minimize the deficits in communication are described.

  • 93. Andersson, Helena
    Förstudie av solcellsanläggning på en skola i Tanzania2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 94.
    Andersson, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Affärsmodellsutveckling: Hur företag hanterar utmaningar på en förändrad marknad2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A market change comes with challenges for the organisations which operate on that market, since they must adjust to the new market conditions, a new competitive situation and such. The purpose of this study was to examine which challenges organisations experience when they develop their business models. This was performed by doing a literature review as well as interviews with representatives from the electric market in Sweden. The result from the literature review showed that multiple concepts can be connected to form an encompassing view with the change as the catalyst. Four aspects regarding challenges could be developed based on previous research: (1) he organisation is not used to change management; (2) the organisation is used to change management; (3) management does not know how to start working with BMI; and (4) management knows how to start working with BMI. The result from the interviews showed that the literature was reflected in reality, since the informants described several concepts from the literature. The informants’ organisations could be placed in the aspects which had been developed and based on previous research suggestions of how to handle these challenges could be developed, some of which the informants had already applied (but not fully, yet).

  • 95.
    Andersson, Joakim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Bizimana, Mike
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Digitalisering och kundnytta: En undersökning om digitaliserings effekt på ett företag och dess kunder2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society, businesses and organizations are facing increasing challenges to change and adapt to a digitizing world. In order to stay relevant in the market, businesses need to work constantly on developing and improving the efficiency of its various processes. This study is designed as a case study at MittSverige Vatten & Avfall which is a municipal corporation in Sundsvall municipality. Its goal is to be a leader in its sector by the year 2021. The study’s objective was to investigate if the digitization of information gathering could bring benefit to a company and its customers. The investigation has focused on the digitization of information gathering from the customer's water meter. The study's objective has been to identify and analyze how digitization impacts business processes and its financial condition with help from value stream mapping and a customer survey. The study was conducted with the support of written and web based literary sources. A survey as well as interviews was conducted. An investment analysis has been conducted to study and evaluate the benefits that the investment brings the customer and MittSverige Vatten & Avfall regarding cost. The study proved that the digitization of water meters would mean an improvement for both MittSverige Vatten & Avfall and its customers.

  • 96.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schelander, Adam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Design and verification of automotive power supply2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the current and next generation automotive telematic platforms, high demands are put on high efficiency power supplies. This thesis investigates different switch mode power converter solutions that operates with high efficiency for both low and high power loads. A market survey was conducted alongside meetings with ACTIA Nordic and their subcontractors. Three solutions from the market survey were selected for further investigation. One solution from the investigation was selected and implemented as a demonstration platform for further testing. The result shows a full test sequence for the designed power supply solution.

  • 97.
    Andersson, Jon Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Controlling the Formation and Stability of Alumina Phases2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, physical phenomena related to the growth and phase formation of alumina, Al2O3, are investigated by experiments and computer calculations. Alumina finds applications in a wide variety of areas, due to many beneficial properties and several existing crystalline phases. For example, the α and κ phases are widely used as wear-resistant coatings due to their hardness and thermal stability, while, e.g., the metastable γ and θ phases find applications as catalysts or catalyst supports, since their surface energies are low and, hence, they have large surface areas available for catalytic reactions.

    The metastable phases are involved in transition sequences, which all irreversibly end in the transformation to the stable α phase at about 1050 °C. As a consequence, the metastable aluminas, which can be grown at low temperatures, cannot be used in high temperature applications, since they are destroyed by the transformation into α. In contrast, α-alumina, which is the only thermodynamically stable phase, typically require high growth temperatures (~1000 °C), prohibiting the use of temperature sensitive substrates. Thus, there is a need for increasing the thermal stability of metastable alumina and decreasing the growth temperature of the α phase.

    In the experimental part of this work, hard and single-phased α-alumina thin films were grown by magnetron sputtering at temperatures down to 280 °C. This dramaticdecrease in growth temperature was achieved by two main factors. Firstly, the nucleation stage of growth was controlled by pre-depositing a chromia “template” layer, which is demonstrated to promote nucleation of α-alumina. Secondly, it is shown that energetic bombardment was needed to sustain growth of the α phase. Energy-resolved mass spectrometry measurements demonstrate that the likely source of energetic bombardment, in the present case, was oxygen ions/atoms originating from the target surface. Overall, these results demonstrate that low-temperature α-alumina growth is possible by controlling both the nucleation step of growth as well as the energetic bombardment of the growing film. In addition, the mass spectrometry studies showed that a large fraction of the deposition flux consisted of AlO molecules, which were sputtered from the target. Since the film is formed by chemical bonding between the depositing species, this observation is important for the fundamental understanding of alumina thin film growth.

    In the computational part of the work, the effect of additives on the phase stability of α- and θ-alumina was investigated by density functional theory calculations. A systematic study was performed of a large number of substitutional dopants in the alumina lattices. Most tested dopants tended to reverse the stability between α- and θ-alumina; so that, e.g., Modoping made the θ phase energetically favored. Thus, it is possible to stabilize the metastable phases by additives. An important reason for this is the physical size of the dopant ions with respect to the space available within the alumina lattices. For example, large ions induced θ stabilization, while ions only slightly larger than Al, e.g., Co and Cu, gave a slight increase in the relative stability of the α phase. We also studied the stability of some of these compounds with respect to pure alumina and other phases, containing the dopants, with the result that phase separations are energetically favored and will most likely occur at elevated temperatures.

  • 98.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division.
    An Exploratory Case Study on Swedish Development of Low Observable Vehicles2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Military Technologies (ICMT) / [ed] Krivanek, V., Brno, 2017, p. 123-129Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study approach, based on interviews and document reviews, was used to analyze the systems engineering processes of the SEP (Armored Multirole Vehicle, in Swedish) and the Visby class corvette cases respectively. The focus was on signature management. The result is a thorough investigation of what worked in the cases studied. The main conclusions can be summarized in three points. 1) A preferred workflow from mission analysis to sub system design has been derived from lessons identified; 2) The three main success factors identified were: building technology demonstrators, having an Integrated Product Team approach, and establishing stealth as a key system design goal; 3) Coherence and traceability between military needs on the battlefield and signature requirements need further research.

  • 99.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Science of Command and Control and Military Technology Division, Military Technology Systems Section.
    Key requirements in the procurement of future low observablecombat vehicles: a European perspective2018In: Systems Engineering, ISSN 1098-1241, E-ISSN 1520-6858, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to propose guidelines for the systems engineering of future stealth combat vehicles using Low Observable Technology (LOT). A case study approach, based on interviews and document reviews, was used to analyze the systems engineering processes of the SEP multirole armored vehicle and the Visby class corvette respectively. The result is a thorough investigation of what worked in the cases studied, butwith lessons extrapolated into recommendations for future development programs. These will have to deal with an increasingly complex sensor threat and a transformed, multilateral, European procurement environment. The main conclusion is that coherence and traceability between military needs on the battlefield and signature requirements is expected to be particularly challenging. A workflow tailored for requirements analysis in LO combat vehicle programs has, therefore, been derived and is presented here. In addition, themost important enablers for future multilateral development programs involving LOT have been identified as: establishing common best practices, demonstrator programs, an integrated product team approach, and, in line with similar work on combat aircraft, establishing stealth as a key architectural  principle.

  • 100.
    Andersson, Kent
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. National Defence University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Modeling the impact of surface emissivity on the military utility of attack aircraft2017In: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 65, p. 133-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis scheme and a mission system model were applied to the evaluation of the military utility of efforts to reduce infrared signature in the conceptual design of survivable aircraft. The purpose is twofold: Firstly, to contribute to the development of a methodological framework for assessing the military utility of spectral design, and secondly to assess the threat from advances in LWIR sensors and their use in surface-to-air-missile systems. The modeling was specifically applied to the problem of linking the emissivity of aircraft coatings to mission accomplishment. The overall results indicate that the analysis scheme and mission system model applied are feasible for assessing the military utility of spectral design and for supporting decision-making in the concept phase. The analysis of different strike options suggests that LWIR sensors will enhance the military utility of low emissive paint, at least for missions executed in clear weather conditions. Furthermore, results corroborate and further clarify the importance of including earthshine when modeling.

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