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  • 51.
    Adevik, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Effekt av överlast på förstärkt jord: FEM- analys för att visa överlastens verkningsgrad på krypsättningar i kalkcementpelarförstärkt lös jord2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Applicering av överlast på kalkcementförstärkta jordar är ofta förekommande idag, forskning indikerar dock på att överlasten här, inte ger samma effekt som på oförstärkta jordar. Med grund i uppmätta värden i fält, visas i denna rapport, sättningsdifferenser mellan att använda överlast jämfört med att endast applicera brukslast. Resultat av analyserna visar på sättningsbeteende observerat i fält. Om erforderlig liggtid för brukslast finns, uppstår endast små sättningsdifferenser mellan att använda överlast eller inte.

    Genom att utföra sensitivitetsanalys i FEM- programvaran PLAXIS studeras kryputvecklingen i den förstärkta jorden. Effekten av att applicera en överlast visas för krypsättningar över lång tid.

    Inget resultat från de numeriska FEM- analyserna visade att märkbart gynnsam effekt uppstår på grund av överlastens applicering, med avseende på krypsättningar.

    De numeriska analyserna utförs i 2 och 3 dimensioner för att belysa effekt av förenkling av ett lastfall som inte uppfyller krav för oförstärkta jordar i plant töjningstillstånd.

    Utöver detta ges efter en litteraturstudie, förslag på hur vissa indataparametrar kan utvärderas från empiriska relationer. Indataparametrar som ligger till grund för analyserna är utvärderade från sonderingsresultat i kombination med värden från laborationsförsök och empiriska data.

  • 52. Ahlberg, P
    Grundvattenplanering. Styrning av grundvattennivåer i tätort. Delrapport 1: Nulägesbeskrivning från fyra kommuner1991Report (Other academic)
  • 53. Ahlberg, P
    et al.
    Bergdahl, U
    Berggren, B
    Johansson, L
    Schälin, J
    Geotekniska utredningar för stabilitetsanalyser. Allmänna råd för omfattning och kvalitet1993Report (Other academic)
  • 54. Ahlberg, P
    et al.
    Lindmark, A
    Mätanordning vid markradonmätningar. Radonsond 21984Report (Other academic)
  • 55. Ahlberg, P
    et al.
    Lundgren, T
    Grundvattensänkning till följd av tunnelsprängning1977Report (Other academic)
  • 56. Ahlberg, P
    et al.
    Sunden, J
    Grundvattenplanering. Styrning av grundvattennivåer i tätort. Delrapport 2: Förutsättningar för planering1992Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    (1) Grundvatten som naturresurs; (2) Grundvattenplanering hittills; (3) Motiv för grundvattenplanering; (4) Strategifrågor; (5) Kunskapsförsörjning; (6) Planeringsprocessen

  • 57. Ahlberg, P
    et al.
    Sunden, J
    Grundvattenplanering. Styrning av grundvattennivåer i tätort. Slutrapport: Strategi, organisation, teknik1992Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    (1) Behov av målsättning; (2) Förslag till politiska beslut; (3) Planering med stöd av PBL; (4) Övrig kommunal planering; (5) Behöver grundvattenplanering organiseras?; (6) Några förutsättningar; (7) Förslag till organisation; (8) Förslagets innebörd

  • 58.
    Ahlund, Rasmus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Ögren, Oscar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Pore pressures and settlements generated from two different pile drilling methods2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For piling works in sensitive soil, especially in inner city projects, it is essential to be aware of the available methods and to choose the most suitable method to minimize the risk of damaging existing buildings or endanger the workers at the construction site. Down-the-hole drilling of piles is a relatively safe method and can be separated into drilling with air powered hammers and water powered hammers. This study compares water powered drilling with air powered drilling and shows that the impact on the soil generated by air powered drilling is larger than that from water powered drilling.

    A field study was carried out where 4 piles were drilled, two with air powered DTH drilling and two with water powered DTH drilling. The drilling was carried out in clay resting on an approximately 4 m layer of silt and friction soil. The total soil depth was about 12- 15 m. To analyze the soil influence, settlements were measured at ground level and in depth and pore pressure was measured in the middle of the clay layer. This study distinguished two major problems when drilling through this type of soil. The first is the risk of over-drilling in the friction layer. The second problem is the risk of increasing the pore pressure in the clay. Both these problems were experienced when using air powered drilling but for the water powered case only a small pore pressure increase and no over-drilling was observed. In conclusion, drilling with water has less influence on the soil in the sense that it gives a smaller effect on the pore water pressure and causes smaller settlements.

  • 59. Ahmed, K. M.
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hasan, M. A.
    Rahman, M
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    Islam, M. Mainul
    Rahman, Marina
    Rashid, S.M.A.
    Sustainable Arsenic Mitigation (SASMIT) in Bangladesh: The Matlab strategy2010In: Abstracts with programs (Geological Society of America), ISSN 0016-7592, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 652-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 60. Ahmed, K. M.
    et al.
    Sultana, S.
    Hasan, M. A.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hasan, M. K.
    Burgess, W. K.
    Hoque, M. A.
    Groundwater quality contrasts between Upper and Lower Dupi Tila Aquifers in Megacity Dhaka, Bangladesh2011In: Groundwater quality contrasts between Upper and Lower Dupi Tila Aquifers in Megacity Dhaka, Bangladesh: Proc. 7th International Groundwater Quality Conference, 2011, p. 71-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dhaka is one of the fastest growing megacities of the world and is set to become the third largest by 2025. Currently about 86% of the municipal water supply comes from over 500 wells drilled in the Dupi Tila aquifers underlying the city. The Upper Dupi Tila aquifer (UDTA) is overexploited and a large part has been dewatered; abstractions from the lower Dupi Tila started only recently. Results of water analysis and EC surveys have been used to decipher the variations in groundwater quality in the UDTA and LDTA. EC surveys reveal a systematic deterioration of water quality in the vicinity of the Buriganga River in southeast Dhaka. The UDTA is more widely affected by anthropogenic processes than the LDTA, which still largely exhibits its intrinsic water quality characteristics. Regular monitoring and proper management practices are essential to protect the quality of this precarious resource.

  • 61.
    Al Amli, Ali
    et al.
    Civil Engineering Department, AlMu stansiriyah Engineering College, ALMust ansiriyah University, Baghdad .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Shejiri, Sabah Jasim Dahboosh
    Department of Civil Engin eering, AL-Farabi University College, Baghdad.
    Repairing of RC T-Section Beams with Opening by CFRP for Cracks and Ultimate Torque2018In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 12, p. 83-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The repair of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) is experimentally investigated in this study. The four T-section reinforced reactive powder concrete beams with many locations of circular opening were repaired by CFRP and investigated under pure torsion. The repairing beams were tested to obtain the effect of the amount of CFRP laminate on beams cracking and ultimate torque behavior, angle of twist and failure modes. The results obtained from the adopted repairing technique showed a significant effect of external high strength CFRP laminates on effectively restore of section solid of 85% of crack torsional strength effectively restored. In addition, the results show that effectively restoring of section opening by 82%-80% of crack torsional strength, and the adopted repairing technique gives a good strength to the beams.

  • 62.
    Al Amli, Ali Sabah Ahmed
    et al.
    Civil Engineering Department, Al Mustansiriyah Engineering College, Al Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Abtan, Yaarub G.
    Civil Engineering Department, Al Mustansiriyah Engineering College, Al Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad.
    Behavior of Repairing Composite I-SectionBeams with Opening under Ultimate Torque2018In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 202-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the behavior of composite concrete beams damaged and cracked under pure torsion, and then repaired by external strengthening. This was achieved using high strength Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminates bonded with epoxy four composite modify reactive powder concrete (MRPC) I-beams. Different types of section (Solid & with opening) were tested to obtain the effect of amount of CFRP laminate on beams ultimate torque behavior, angle of twist and failure modes. The results obtained showed that a significant effect of external high strength CFRP laminates on effectively restore of section solid, the range of 89.8% to 91.2% of ultimate torsional strength effectively restored as well as effectively restoring of section opening by 83.48% - 86.67% of ultimate torsional strength. The repaired beams give high efficiency in ultimate torsional strength, and indicate that the adopted technique gives a good torsional strength.

  • 63.
    Al Dahaan, Saadi
    et al.
    University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Influence of Groundwater Hypothetical Salts on Electrical Conductivity Total Dissolved Solids2016In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 823-830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A relationship between electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) was tested for solutions of same salinity levels with respect to different artificial salts with their combinations. Results showed remarkable jumping at the order of the artificial salt sequence specially that of the magnesium type. A computer model is designed with an input of EC and TDS. The output will be the possible prevailing artificial salts. The accuracy of the model was tested by using the groundwater data of Safwan-Zubair area south of Iraq and it proved to be significant at 95% matching. The 5% unmatched results are due to the possibility of having more than one type of prevailing salt.

  • 64.
    Al Maliki, Ali
    et al.
    Environment Research Centre, Ministry of Since and Technology, Jadriah, Baghdad.
    Al-lami, Ahmed Kadhim
    Department of Physics, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, Jadriah, Baghdad.
    Hussain, H.M.
    Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Comparison between inductively coupled plasma and X-ray fluorescence performance for Pb analysis in environmental soil samples2017In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 76, no 12, article id 433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparison of two conventional analytical techniques such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for measuring Pb concentrations in soil samples was achieved using field and laboratory work. Seventy-three samples were collected from urban areas surrounding the large lead smelter at South Australia, as an indicator of the environment impact of smelter activity. Soil Pb concentrations were determined using hand-held XRF analyser under laboratory conditions. ICP-MS analysis on digested soils (using a microwave-assisted nitric acid digestion-extraction) was applied to validate p-XRF data. The analysis showed that Pb concentrations determined by XRF correlated with high linearity with Pb concentrations determined by ICP-MS measurements (R2 = 0.89). Statistical test (t test) was applied to the data of both methods applied without any significant difference between the two techniques. These results indicated that ICP-MS corroborated XRF for Pb soil measurements and suggests that XRF was a reliable and quick alternative to traditional analytical methods in studies of environmental health risk assessment, allowing for much larger sampling regimes in relatively shorter times and could be applied in the field.

  • 65.
    Al Maliki, Ali
    et al.
    Environment Research Centre, Ministry of Since and Technology, Naghdad.
    Owens, Gary
    University of South Australia, Adelaide.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Centre, University of Kufa, Al-Najf.
    Al-Dahaan, Saadi
    Environment and Geomorphology Department, University of Kufa, Al-Najf.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Chemometric Methods to Predict of Pb in Urban Soil from Port Pirie, South Australia, using Spectrally Active of Soil Carbon2018In: Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, ISSN 0010-3624, E-ISSN 1532-2416, Vol. 49, no 11, p. 1370-1383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 73 soil samples were initially analyzed for lead (Pb) concentration as an indicator of the environment impact of smelter activity in the Port Pirie, South Australia. Chemometric techniques were used to assess the ability of near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy to predict soil Pb using spectrally active soil characteristics such as soil carbon (C). The result indicated a strong linear relationship between log-transformed data of soil Pb and spectral reflectance in the range between 500 and 612 nm with R2 = 0.54 and a low root-mean-square error (RMSEv = 0.38) for the validation mode with an acceptable ratio of performance to deviation and ratio of error range (1.6 and 7.7, respectively). This study suggested that NIR spectroscopy based on auxiliary spectrally active components is a rapid and noninvasive assessment technique and has the ability to determine Pb contamination in urban soil to be useful in environmental health risk assessment.

  • 66.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Dagli, Deniz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Literature review on potential geochemical and geotechnical effects of adopting paste technology under cold climate conditions2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this literature review is to summarize the recent research regarding geochemical and geotechnical stability of paste tailings, identify knowledge gaps and future research needs. The present study has been conducted by the Division of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering together with the Division of Mining and Geotechnical Engineering at Luleå University of Technology on behalf of Boliden Mineral, LKAB and Outotec.A survey conducted by MEND (Mine Environment Neutral Drainage) in 2006 on the environmental effects related to the use of paste tailings summarizes that only a few studies had been performed about long-term effects on the surface and groundwater quality. Instead, the focus had been on the additives and the strength of the paste. It is still uncertain how the paste technology affects the long-term environmental stability from a geochemical point of view. Concerns regarding the stability of paste with high sulphide content are still relevant. Studies performed indicate that sulphide oxidation occurs within cemented paste as well as on the surface of non-cemented paste and cracks formed on the surfaces could induce oxidation. For cemented paste, metals released by sulphide oxidation might be sequestered due to high pH induced by the alkaline additives, but anion such as Se has been shown to be mobilized. The leachate has been shown to be near-neutral initially, but the neutrality decreases with time and probably metals sequestered in the matrix will also be released. Again, it should be noted that no long term study was performed on leaching of paste, cemented or uncemented. The longest leaching study was performed for one year. Arsenic has been proven to be retained in Ca-arsenates in cemented paste, but the long term stability of these precipitates is relatively unknown. Expanded secondary phases e.g. gypsum and ettringite have been observed to form when there is sulphate in the process or drainage of water. These phases could crack the paste, but, on the other hand, can also fill former cracks when deposited in layers. The effects of the formation of these phases are relatively uncertain in a long-term perspective. Presence of different elements such as ammonium, sulphates and metals in the water has been shown to negatively affect the curing process and therefore water is suggested to be treated before use. The presence of carbon dioxide during the paste formation could also affect the curing process, but could sequester metals in carbonate phases.Geotechnical and rheological properties of paste is well defined and documented. Several case studies have been found in literature providing valuable information about the details of the works being carried out. However, a difficulty has been noted during the investigation of the effects of cold climate conditions when current practice is applied in the colder parts of the world. It is not certain how some specific and vital parameters are going to be affected by cold temperatures. Parameters such as deposition slopes and deposition scheme, strength development of the paste are expected to be responsive to cold climate conditions. There are predictions about which properties are going to be affected in what way, but there is also a need to establish a scientific base for discussion. These have been highlighted as research needs and information gaps at the end of the report.

  • 67.
    Alamaa, Angelica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    High-speed railway embankments: a comparison of different regulation2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish transport administration initiated this Master Thesis project and the aim was to compare regulations for the design of high-speed railways from three European countries: France, Germany and Spain. The reason why this is of interest for the Swedish transport administration is the design of the first Swedish high-speed railway, called Ostlänken. Therefore, a literature study of the regulations and other literature regarding high-speed railway has been carried out. A basic description of railway components, slab track and ballasted tracks is presented.

    Ballasted embankments usually consist of a trackbed layer (ballast onto subballast), and the ultimate thickness of this layer is discussed, as there are a number of methods available to calculate the appropriate thickness, with a number of different design parameters. These design methods results in different trackbed thickness and choosing the “wrong” method might lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the trackbed layer. Constructing a ballastless railway line means that the ballast is replaced by another material, usually a slab made of reinforced concrete or asphalt, and the rail is cast onto this slab. Countries design their slab using different methods. Germany has constructed high-speed railway lines with a slab track solution, generally slabs with low flexible stiffness. France has until recently constructed their high-speed line ballasted but is now developing a new slab track technique, called NBT (New Ballastless Track) and Spain uses various methods.

    It is difficult to compare the regulations, however, there are some factors that at least begin to explain the differences between the countries: the frost hazard, the inherent ground quality, purpose with the railway (mixed traffic, solely passenger traffic, etc.), design parameters (life, axle load, etc.). Furthermore, the settlement requirements, soil classification and bearing capacity are factors that varies from country to country, but the origin for this variation is harder to detect.

  • 68.
    Alanbari, Mohammad A.
    et al.
    Babylon University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Altaee, S.A.
    Babylon University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Application of Simapro7 on Karbala Wastewater Treatment Plant, Iraq2014In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 55-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of treated wastewater is becoming more popular especially in countries suffering from water shortages despite the fact that wastewater plants have some environmental implications. For this reason there are various software designed to do the assessment. Among these is SimaPro software package designed to make a valuable contribution. It is a powerful tool for analyzing the environmental impact to products during their whole life cycle. A huge amount of knowledge about the environment is built into the program and database, enabling to analyze a product with a minimum of specialized knowledge. In this study, Simapro was used to analyze and evaluate the impacts that result from Karbala Wastewater treatment plant. The results of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) show that Karbala WWTP has an impact and damage on the environment of the order of 171 point for each 1 cubic meter of wastewater. The most environmental impacts potential were global warming, respiratory inorganics and non-renewable energy. The study also showed that most of the effects were as a result of the phase of construction more than of the operational phase.

  • 69.
    Al-Anbari, Mohammad A.
    et al.
    Collage of Engineering, University of Babylon, Iraq.
    Thameer, Mohanad Y.
    Collage of Engineering, University of Babylon, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Landfill Site Selection by Weighted OverlayTechnique: Case Study of Al-Kufa, Iraq2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill siting is a hard and complex process. For this reason, it is considered as one of the major problems in waste management. This is due to the fact that a number of factors are involved within the process such as such as inhabitants’ growth, rapid economic growth, living standards improvements, etc. In Iraq, landfill siting does not follow environmental regulations. Al-Kufa city located is located south-western part of Iraq (area of 550 km2 and inhabitants 372,760). Existing landfills are not selected according to the environmental standards. Landfill site that is required was achieved using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and spatial overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS). Many factors were considered in the siting process; including geology, water supplies resources, urban centers, sensitive sites, and wells. AHP (analytic hierarchy process) method was used in weighting the criteria used. The result showed that there are six sites most suitable covering an area about (113) km2.

  • 70. Alanbari, Mohammad
    et al.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Jasim, Hadeel
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Mseiab Qadaa landfill site selection using GIS and multicriteria decision analysis2014In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 6, no 9, p. 526-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid waste management is becoming more serious problem with time especially in developing countries like Iraq. It is not regulated sufficiently in Iraq. At present, there are various techniques used for solid waste management such as landfill, thermal treatment, biological treatment, recycling etc. The landfill is the most common mode for the disposal of solid waste. There are no regulations for landfill site selection which is quite complex process. In this study, landfill site selection was performed by using Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and Geographic Information System (GIS) for the Al-Mseiab qadaa. Even in the case of existing landfills in this qadaa, it's temporary or non-conforming to the environmental condition. In order to determine landfill site that is good for the inhabitants and the environment several criteria (e.g. as Urban centers, Land use, Airports, Pipes, Power lines, Railways, Roads, Slope, Streams, Surface water, Industrial areas, Oil pipes, Liquid gas pipes, Soil types) were used to select the proper site. The MCDA was used to measure the relative importance weighting for each criterion used. Each map layer was formed with the aid of GIS and final suitability map was created by overlay analyses of each criterion map. According to obtained results, high and low suitable areas were determined in the study area. Field checks were also performed to determine the accuracy and suitability of candidate site.

  • 71. Alanbari, Mohammad
    et al.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Jasim, Hadeel
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Modeling landfill suitability based on GIS and multicriteria decision analysis: case study in Al-Mahaweel Qadaa2014In: Natural Science, ISSN 2150-4091, E-ISSN 2150-4105, Vol. 6, no 11, p. 828-851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management system is not regulated in Iraq. At present, there are various techniques used for solid waste management such as landfill, thermal treatment, biological treatment, recycling etc. Landfill is the most common mode for the disposal of solid waste. However, landfill site selection is quite complex process and it depends on several criteria and regulations. In this study landfill site selection is performed for Al-Mahaweel qadaa using Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) And Geographic Information System (GIS). It should be mentioned however, that the existing landfill in this area, is temporary and does not fulfill the environmental conditions. To select suitable landfill site, several criteria were considered such as Urban centers, Land use, Airports, Pipes, Power lines, Railways, Roads, slope, streams, Surface water, Industrial areas, Oil pipes, Liquid gas pipes, Soil types are prepared. (MCDA) was used to evaluate the relative importance of each criterion. Each map layers were formed with the aid of GIS and final suitability map was created by overlay analyses of each criterion map. According to obtained results, high and low suitable areas were determined in the study area. Field and office checks were performed out to determine the accuracy and suitability of the candidate sites.

  • 72.
    Alanbari, Mohammad
    et al.
    Babylon University.
    Alazzawi, Hind
    Babylon University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Application of SimaPro7 on Al-Hilla City Sewerage Network, Iraq2015In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 224-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SimaPro is a software package designed to make a valuable contribution for analyzing the environmental impact on products during their whole life cycle. A huge amount of knowledge about the environment is built into the program and database, enabling to analyze a product with a minimum of specialized knowledge. In this study, SimaPro was used to analyze and evaluate the impacts that resulted from sewerage network in Al-Hilla city, Iraq. The results of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) showed that sewerage network had an impact and damage on the environment by 291 points for every cubic meter of collect wastewater. The most potential environmental impacts were global warming, respiratory inorganics and non-renewable energy, contributing to the sewerage network. The study also showed that most of the effects were as a result of energy consumption in the pumping of wastewater, pipes used and diesel using for network operation.

  • 73.
    Alanbari, Mohammad
    et al.
    College of Engineering, Babylon University.
    Alazzawi, Hind
    College of Engineering, Babylon University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Environmental Assessment of Al-Hilla City Wastewater Treatment Plants2015In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 749-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is one of the countries that is suffering from water shortage problems and, for this reason, wastewater treatment plantsbecome a necessity to minimize this problem. In this study, the impact of Al-Hilla WWTP (wastewater treatment plant) on theenvironment has been studied. This was achieved using SimaPro software package. This software is a powerful tool for analyzing theenvironmental impact on products during their whole life cycle. A huge amount of knowledge about the environment is built into theprogram and database, enabling to analyze a product with a minimum of specialized knowledge. The results of LCA (life cycleassessment) showed that the impact and damage on the environment by Al-Hilla WWTP was 41 bad points for each 1 m3 of treatedwastewater. The most environmental impacts potentially were global warming, respiratory inorganics and non-renewable energy. Thestudy also showed that most of the effects were the result of the use of cement, steel and electricity consumption

  • 74.
    Alanbari, Mohammad
    et al.
    Babylon University.
    Alazzawi, Hind
    Babylon University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Selecting sustainability indicators of urban water systems: case study of al-Hilla City, Iraq2015In: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 22, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study used environmental criteria to appraise the sustainability of the urban water system(UWS) of Al-Hilla city, Iraq. The study focused on the assessment of the environmental impact anddamage to the urban water system. Environmental criteria of sustainability included a number ofindicators. These indicators were selected using tools of sustainability analysis, where life cycleassessment (LCA) was used to select and analyze the environmental indicators by applyingSimaPro7.1.8. LCA. The results for urban water system in Al-Hilla city showed that water treatmentplants (WTPs) and distribution network were most sustainable compared with sewerage network andwaste water treatment plants (WWTP). WTPs impact and damage on the environment and distributionnetwork was 4 and 11.5 points respectively, while Al-Hilla WWTP and sewerage network was 41 and291 points respectively, for delivery of one cubic meter of potable water at the point of consumption ortreatment of one cubic meter of wastewater. In addition, the study showed that most of the effects weredue to electricity consumption, pumping raw water and clean water, chemical use (such as chlorine),pipes used in water distribution and sewage collection networks, and diesel used for plant operation.

  • 75.
    Alanbari, Mohammad Ali
    et al.
    Babylon University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Jasim, Hadeel Kareem
    Babylon University.
    GIS and Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Landfill Site Selection in AL-HashimyahQadaa2014In: Natural Science, ISSN 2150-4091, E-ISSN 2150-4105, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 282-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management system is not well regulated in Iraq. Despite the fact that there are various techniques used for solid waste disposal, landfill is the most common mode for the disposal of solid waste in Iraq, landfill site selection criteria is quite complex process and it depends on several regulation and factors. In this study landfill site selection is performed by using Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and Geographic Information System (GIS) for the Al-Hashimyahqadaa. Existing landfills in qadaa are temporary and/or non-conforming to the environmental conditions. In order to determine landfill site, several criteria were examined such as Urban centers, Land use, Airports, Pipes, Power lines, Railways, Roads, Slope, Streams, Surface water, Industrial areas, Oil pipes, Liquid gas pipes, Soil types are prepared. MCDA was used to measure the relative importance weighting for each criterion. Each map layer was prepared using GIS and the final suitable map was created by overlay analyses of each criterion maps. According to the results, high and low suitable areas were determined in the study area. Field site check was performed to determine the accuracy and suitability of the candidate sites.

  • 76. Alanbari, Mohammad
    et al.
    Rahman, Israa
    College of Engineering , University of Babylon.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Comparison of Potential Environmental Impacts on the Production of Gasoline and Kerosene, Al-Daura Refinery, Baghdad, Iraq2016In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 767-776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oil represents the main energy sources used by mankind. In addition, petroleum products serve as feedstock for several consumer goods, thus playing an important growing role in people’s lives. For this reason there are various software applications designed to do the environmental assessment to see their impact on the environment. Among these is SimaPro software package designed to make a valuable contribution. It is a powerful tool for analyzing the environmental impact of products during their whole life cycle. In this study, it was pplied to analyze and evaluate the impacts for Al-Daura refinery for the gasoline and kerosene fuel production. This refinery located in Baghdad, Iraq was analyzed. The results of the life cycle assessment (LCA) show that gasoline has a (single score) of the order of 11.1 point for each 1 cubic meter produce from gasoline fuel compared with 4.83 point for each 1 cubic meter produce from kerosene. Global warming, respiratory inorganics and nonrenewable energy were the most effective environmental impacts.

  • 77.
    Al-Anbari, Mohammad
    et al.
    Babylon University, Collage of Engineering.
    Thameer, Mohanad
    Babylon University, Collage of Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Estimation of Domestic Solid Waste Amount and Its Required Landfill Volume in Najaf Governorate-Iraq for the Period 2015-20352016In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 339-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid waste management is one of the most important challenges facing the local administration in the governorate of Najaf. This paper investigates the domestic amount generated in Najaf gover- norate for period 2015-2035 and the required landfill volume for the disposal of the waste. The daily per capita waste generation in Al-Najaf is 0.42 kg, the humidity content about 43% and the ound 473 kg/m3. The total amount was about 5,914,415 ton and the required landfill volume is 11,828,829 m3.

  • 78.
    Al-Anbari, Mohammad
    et al.
    Babylon University, Collage of Engineering.
    Thameer, Muhannad
    Babylon University, Collage of Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Landfill Site Selection in Al-Najaf Governorate, Iraq2016In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 651-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid waste management aspect is one of the most important challenges facing the local administration in the Governorate of Najaf. Therefore, this study aims to provide for solid waste management problem by choosing the best locations for the establishment of sanitary landfills in the governorate. In this study, GIS (geographic information system) and MCDA (multi-criteria decision analysis) were used based on 17 environmental, economic and geological criteria converted to input digital map layers. These were urban centres, cemetery, airports, electrical power lines, oil pipes, railways, roads, slope, historical sites, main rivers,industrial areas, religion sites, wells, military area, electrical power plants, nature reserves and national borders to select most importance sites in the governorate. AHP (analytic hierarchy process) method was used in weighting the criteria used. All layers’ maps were graded from 0 (not suitable) to 5 (most suitable) using spatial information scale then SAW (simple additive weighting)method was integrated in GIS used to calculate the suitability index for the studied area. The results indicated that 4.4% of the study region is suitable for land¿ll siting with grading values greater than 4.0. This included five sites distributed in three qadhaas of governorate.

  • 79.
    Al-Anbari, Mohammad
    et al.
    College of Engineering, Babylon University.
    Thameer, Muhannad
    College of Engineering, Babylon University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ranking Landfill Sites in Najaf Governorate, Iraq Using AHP and Fuzzy TOPSIS Methods2016In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 815-821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Najaf Governorate, Iraq, there are five landfill sites. This study aims to rank these sites based on their criteria which are site capacity, land elevation and land price. AHP (analytic hierarchy process) method was used to weight the criteria and the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution. Fuzzy TOPSIS (technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution) method was used to rank these sites from best to worst. Based on AHP method, the site capacity criterion was the most important than land price and land elevation.

  • 80.
    Al-Ani, Thair
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo.
    Ahtola, Timo
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo.
    Kuusela, Janne
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mineralogical and Petrographic Characteristics of Indium and REE-Bearing Accessory Phases in the Kymi Granite Stock, Southern Finland2018In: Natural Resources, ISSN 2158-706X, E-ISSN 2158-7086, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 23-41, article id 82556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Wiborg rapakivi batholith (1.64 Ga) in southeastern Finland with docu-mented occurrences of REE, indium and Zn-Cu-Pb sulphide mineralization was studied. Hydrothermal greisen and quartz vein type Fe-Sn and Zn-Cu-Pb are found in the Kymi granite stock as intrusions. They are enriched with in-dium and rare earth elements, with roquesite (CuInS2) being a major indium- carrier, whereas monazite (Ce), allanite (Ce), bastnäesite (Ce), xenotime-(Y) and thorite are the main REE carriers. Combination of optical and field emis-sion scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and electron probe microanaly-sis (EPMA) were used to study the indium and REE-bearing mineral assem-blages. EPMA of roquesite found in galena had a composition of 26.16% S, 0.02% Fe, 25.06% Cu, 0.03% Zn, 1.06% As, 0.31% Sb and 47.14% In. Substitu-tion reaction Pb2+S2− ↔ Cu+In3+S2− is the cause of the incorporation of indium in the galena structure. The majority of the LREE are carried by monazite, bastnäesite and allanite, and the HREE by xenotime and zircon. There is a partial solid solution between monazite and xenotime with minor or trace amounts of LREE in xenotime grains (6.0 wt%). LREE (>95 mol% LREE) and less than 5 mol% HREE + Y reflects the enrichment of chondrite-normalized REE of the monazite grains of the Kymi granite stock. The xenotime grains (small and irregular) main composition contains 71 - 76 mol% YPO4, 16 - 27 mol% HREE, and 6 - 8 mol% LREE. It is believed that indium and REE-mineralization presence is due to the combination of magmatic and postmagmatic processes, particularly at later stages by fluid fractionation.

  • 81.
    Al-Ani, Thair
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Finland, P.O.Box 96, 02151 Espoo.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dawood, Anwaer
    Koya University.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Trace elements in water and sediments of the Tigris river, Baghdad City, Iraq2014In: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 22, p. 1-17, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial, agricultural and rural activities may result in pollution of watercourses with elevated trace metal concentrations and implications for water supply and ecosystem functioning. The concentration of the trace metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Pb, Cu, and Cd in the water and clay fractions (<2μm) of the bank sediments of River Tigris in Baghdad city were determined. Dissolved trace metals concentrations were far below the upper permissible limits during 2012-2013. There was no consistent pattern between element concentrations and river discharge. Seasonal interrelations between water and sediments were most obvious for Fe that decreased in both environments with rising flows during autumn. Although independent of discharge, Mn in water and sediments often followed each other at all stations. Zinc, however, increased in the sediments and decreased in the water with discharge. The clay fractions were slightly to strongly enriched in trace metals with the gradient Co > Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu suggesting absorption of the metals on sediment substrate.

  • 82.
    Al-Ani, Thair
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo, Finland.
    Hölttä, Pentti
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo, Finland.
    Grönholm, Sari
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo, Finland.
    Pakkanen, Lassi
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo, Finland.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Crystal Chemistry and Geochronology of Thorium-Rich Monazite from Kovela Granitic Complex, Southern Finland2019In: Natural Resources, ISSN 2158-706X, E-ISSN 2158-7086, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 230-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abundant porphyritic granites, including Grt-bearing and Bt-bearing porphyritic granites, and porphyritic potash-feldspar granite (trondhjemite-granitic composition) are widely distributed within the Kovela granitic complex Southern Finland, which associated with monazite-bearing dikes (strong trondhjemite composition). The investigated monazite-bearing dikes are dominated by a quartz + K-feldspar + plagioclase + biotite + garnet + monazite assemblage. The monazite forms complexly zoned subhedral to euhedral crystals variable in size (100 - 1500 μm in diameter) characterized by high Th content. The chemical zoning characterised as: 1) concentric, 2) patchy, and 3) intergrowth-like. Textural evidence suggests that these accessory minerals crystallized at an early magmatic stage, as they are commonly associated with clusters of the observed variations in their chemical composition are largely explained by the huttonite exchange , and subordinately by the cheralite exchange   with proportions of huttonite (ThSiO4) and cheralite [CaTh(PO4)2] up to 20.4% and 9.8%, respectively. Textural evidence suggests that these monazites and associated Th-rich minerals (huttonite/thorite) crystallized at an early magmatic stage, rather than metamorphic origin. The total lanthanide and actinide contents in monazite and host dikes are strongly correlated. Mineral compositions applied to calculate P-T crystallization conditions using different approaches reveal a temperature range of 700°C - 820°C and pressure 3 - 6 kbars for the garnet-biotite geothermometry. P-T pseudo-section analyses calculated using THERMOCALC software for the bulk compositions of suitable rock types, constrain the PT conditions of garnet growth equilibration within the range of 5 - 6 kbars and 760°C - 770°C respectively. Empirical calculations and pseudo-section approaches indicate a clockwise P-T path for the rocks of the studied area. 207Pb/206Pb dating of monazite by LA-MC-ICPMS revealed a recrystallization period at around 1860 - 1840 Ma. These ages are related to the tectonic-thermal event associated with the intense crustal melting and intra-orogenic intrusions, constraining the youngest time limit for metamorphic processes in the Kovela granitic complex.

  • 83.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hydro-Politics of the Tigris and Euphrates Basins2016In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 140-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The supply of fresh water is essential to life, socioeconomic development, and political stability in Middle East. Turkey, Syria and Iraq are the main riparian countries in the Tigris-Euphrates basin. Turkey is the riparian hegemon for a long time due to its structural power and dominant river position. Iraq and Syria are the lower countries in the basin and for this reason they always like toensure the quantity of water required to satisfy their requirements. The conflict between riparian countries is due to several factors. These are: population growth rate and food security, energy security, economic and technological development, political fragmentation, international water laws, water and management availability and public awareness. There have been a number of attempts to find a common ground on water issues between the main three riparian countries since 1920 but no agreement signed yet. Present situation is very bad in Syria and Iraq where thousands of people have no access to water and farmers are leaving their land because of draught. Such situation will definitely raise tension and might lead to war. To avoid this, a mediator that has the capability to bring all countries concerned to the negotiation table is required. In addition, Syria and Iraq are to adopt prudent strategic plan based on resources development theory to ensure good water management and minimum water loses.

  • 84.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Landfills in arid environment2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Protection of the environment from solid waste hazards is becoming a serious problem. Different laws and legislations had been put into practice for this purpose. The effect of solid waste in developing countries with limited financial and natural resources and high population growth rate is more severe. To overcome these difficulties, prudent management system for solid waste is required. Furthermore, solid waste disposal site should be selected using scientific criteria to prevent any harmful effect on local communities and the environment. Criteria for solid waste disposal dump site for arid and semi arid regions should be selected in accordance with well known international requirements that suit the local conditions. These criteria can be used to select the best suitable solid waste dump site using remote sensing and geographic information system techniques. The selected sites are harmless to human life, natural resources and the environment. The same can be achieved when dumping hazardous solid waste. In all cases however, priorities of the site selection criteria should meet the existing geological, meteorological and environmental conditions.

  • 85.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Locating landfills in arid environment2013In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 11-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protection of the environment from solid waste hazards is becoming a serious problem. Different laws and legislations had been put into practice for this purpose. The effect of solid waste in developing countries with limited financial and natural resources and high population growth rate is more severe. To overcome these difficulties, prudent management system for solid waste is required. Furthermore, solid waste disposal site should be selected using scientific criteria to prevent any harmful effect on local communities and the environment.Criteria for solid waste disposal dump site for arid and semi-arid regions should be selected in accordance with well-known international requirements that suit the local conditions. These criteria can be used to select the best suitable solid waste dump site using remote sensing and geographic information system techniques. The selected sites are harmless to human life, natural resources and the environment. The same can be achieved when dumping hazardous solid waste. In all cases however, priorities of the site selection criteria should meet the existing geological, meteorological and environmental conditions.

  • 86.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Management of water resources in Iraq: perspectives and prognoses2013In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 667-684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is one of the Middle East and North African countries (MENA region). The country is currently facing a serious water shortage problem. This problem is expected to be more severe in the future where the supply is predicted to be 43 and 17.61 Billion Cubic Meters (BCM) in 2015 and 2025 respectively while current demand is estimated to be between 66.8 and 77 BCM. It has been estimated that the Tigris and Euphrates river discharges will continue to decrease with time, and they will be completely dry by 2040. Serious, prudent and quick measures need to be taken to overcome this problem. The government should take measures to have a strategic water management vision, including regional coop-eration and coordination, research and development, improving agriculture and sanitation sector as well as public awareness program. These measures are required in order to address the following topics: Strategic Water Management Vision, Regional cooperation and coordination, Irrigation and Agriculture, Water Supply and Sanitation, and Research and Development.

  • 87.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Abdellatif, Mawada
    School of Built Environment, Liverpool John Moores University.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    Sulaimani University, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Long term effect of climate change on rainfall in northwest Iraq2014In: Central European Journal of Engineering, ISSN 1896-1541, E-ISSN 2081-9927, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 250-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Middle East, like North Africa, is considered as arid to semi-arid region. Water shortages in this region, represents an extremely important factor in stability of the region and an integral element in its economic development and prosperity. Iraq was an exception due to presence of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. After the 1970s the situation began to deteriorate due to continuous decrease in discharges of these rivers, are expected to dry by 2040 with the current climate change. In the present paper, long rainfall trends up to the year 2099 were studied in Sinjar area, northwest of Iraq, to give an idea about its future prospects. Two emission scenarios, used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (A2 and B2), were employed to study the long term rainfall trends in northwestern Iraq. All seasons consistently project a drop in daily rainfall for all future periods with the summer season is expected to have more reduction compared to other seasons. Generally the average rainfall trend shows a continuous decrease. The overall average annual rainfall is slightly above 210 mm. In view of these results, prudent water management strategies have to be adopted to overcome or mitigate consequences of future severe water crisis.

  • 88.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Abdellatif, Mawada
    Liverpool JM University.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Sulaimani University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Climate change and future long term trends of rainfall at north-east Part of Iraq2014In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 790-805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is facing water shortage problem despite the presence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. In this research, long rainfall trends up to the year 2099 were studied in Sulaimani city northeast Iraq to give an idea about future prospects. Two emission scenarios used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (A2 & B2) were employed. The results indicates that the average annual rainfall show a significant downward trend for both A2 and B2 scenarios. In addition, winter projects some increase/decrease in the daily rainfall statistics of wet days, the spring season show very slight drop and no change for both scenarios. However both summer and autumn show a significant reduction in maximum rainfall value especially in 2080s while the other statistics remain nearly the same. The extremes events are to decrease slightly in 2080s with highest decrease associated with A2 scenario. This because the rainfall under scenario A2 is more significant than under scenario B2 and temperature can be very hot and worse with increase in emission scenario which causes the moist air to be evaporated before going up and cause the rainfall. The return period of a certain rainfall will increase in the future when a present storm of 20 year could occur once every 43 year in the 2080s. An increase in the frequency of extreme rainfall depends on the return period, season of the year, the future period considered and the emission scenario under which it will occur

  • 89.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Abdellatif, Mawada
    Liverpool JM University.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mustafa, Yaseen
    University of Zakho.
    Future Prospects for Macro Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) technique in north east Iraq.2014In: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 403-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries in Middle East and North Africa (MENA region) are considered arid and semi-arid areas that are suffering from water scarcity. They are expected to have more water shortages problem due to climatic change. Iraq is located in the Middle East covering an area of 433,970 square kilometers populated by 31 million inhabitants.One of the solutions suggested to overcome water scarcity is Rain Water Harvesting (RWH).In this study Macro rainwater harvesting technique had been tested for future rainfall data that were predicted by two emission scenarios of climatic change (A2 and B2) for the period 2020-2099 at Sulaimaniyah Governorate north east of Iraq. Future volumes of total runoff that might be harvested for different conditions of maximum, average, and minimum future rainfall seasons under both scenarios (A2 and B2) were calculated. The results indicate that the volumes of average harvested runoff will be reduced when average rainfall seasons are considered due to the effect of climatic change on future rainfall. The reduction reached 53.73 % and 43.0% when scenario A2 is for scenario B2 are considered respectively.

  • 90.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Abdulatif, Mawada
    Zakaria, Salih
    Mustafa, Yassin
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Future Prospects for Macro Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) technique in north east Iraq2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are considered arid and semi-arid areas that are suffering from water scarcity. They are expected to have more water shortages problem due to climatic change. Iraq is located in the Middle East covering an area of 433,970 square kilometers populated by 31 million inhabitants.One of the solutions suggested to overcome water scarcity is Rain Water Harvesting (RWH).In this study Macro rainwater harvesting technique had been tested for future rainfall data that were predicted by two emission scenarios of climatic change (A2 and B2) for the period 2020-2099 at Sulaimaniyah Governorate north east of Iraq. Future volumes of total runoff that might be harvested for different conditions of maximum, average, and minimum future rainfall seasons under both scenarios (A2 and B2) were calculated. The results indicate that the volumes of average harvested runoff will be reduced when average rainfall seasons are considered due to the effect of climatic change on future rainfall. The reduction reached 53.73 % and 43.0% when scenario A2 is for scenario B2 are considered respectively.

  • 91.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping.
    Present Water Crises in Iraq and Its Human and Environmental Implications2018In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 305-319, article id 85135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is facing a serious water shortage problem now, which has not been experienced before. This is because of the reduction of flow of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers which is due to the implementation of hydrological projects within the upstream part of the catchment and climate change. Mismanagement of water resources within Iraq made the problem graver. It is believed that serious discussion with all riparian countries to reach an agreement to share the water of the two rivers and their tributaries is desperately needed. In addition, a prudent scientific strategy should be implemented and put into practice to overcome this problem in Iraq. In addition, the key positions within the Iraqi Ministry of Water Resources should be given to people having real experience in the water resources sector to ensure discreet and prudent management of the problem.

  • 92.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the Most Dangerous Dam in the World: Dam Failure and its Consequences2015In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 95-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worries concerning the possibility of the dam failure due to the seepages under the foundation of Mosul Dam during its construction and operation phases enhanced the application of several dam failure models on Mosul Dam case. All the applied models gave similar results. It was noticed through the models that the wave in case of the dam failure will have a height of 54m and the discharge will be of the order of 551000 m3/sec. This wave will reach the capital city of Iraq “Baghdad” after about 38 hours. The discharge of the River Tigris at Baghdad will be 46000m3/sec and the height of the wave will reach 4m. The propagation of the wave along this distance will cause a catastrophe. About 500000 civilians will die in addition to the unbelievable damage that will be caused to the infrastructure of the country.

  • 93.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the Most Dangerous Dam in the World: Karstification and Sinkholes2015In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 33-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fatha (ex-Lower Fars) Formation (Middle Miocene) is the predominant stratigraphic unit in the Mosul Dam area. It is about 250 meters thick near Mosul. Marls, chalky limestone, gypsum, anhydrite, and limestone form a layered sequence of rocks under the foundation of the dam. The foundation of the dam is mainly resting on the Fatha Formation (Middle Miocene) which is highly karstified. Karstic limestone and the development of solution cavities within the gypsum and anhydrite layers are the main geological features under the foundation of the dam. The right (west) abutment is located in the steeply dipping Fatha Formation within Butmah East anticline with SE plunge being in the reservoir north of the dam, whereas the left (east) abutment is located on gently dipping beds of the Fatha Formation, which is overlain by fine clastics of the Injana Formation. These differences in lithology as well the dip amount and direction along both abutments as well upstream and downstream of the dam have certainly affected on the hydraulic pressure and increased the dissolution ability of the gypsum and limestone beds, along the abutments and the foundations, which are already karstified in nearby areas. Consequently, more gypsum, anhydrite and limestone beds are dissolved and karst openings are continuously increasing, as the exerted hydraulic pressure is continuous.First appearance of sinkholes on the right bank down-stream was not until approximately six years after the filling of the reservoir began. The surface expression of the sinkholes suggests that they are caused by an under-ground collapse. Concentric tension cracks appear to have developed around the central void as the sinkholes have developed progressively. Karstification and formation of sinkholes are the most dangerous features threatening the safety of Mosul dam.

  • 94.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Geopolitics of the Tigris and Euphrates Basins2018In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 187-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Euphrates and Tigris Rivers are the longest Rivers in southwest Asia. The main utilizers of the water of these rivers and tributaries are Turkey, Syria, Iran and Iraq. The two rivers rise in Turkey, which makes it the riparian hegemon. Some of the tributaries of the Tigris and Shat Al-Arab Rivers rise in Iran, which makes it the riparian hegemon for these rivers. Iraq and Syria are the lower countries in the basin and for this reason, they always to ensure the quantity of water required to satisfy their requirements. All these countries are in the Middle East, which characterized by its shortage of water resources. Since the 1970s conflict between riparian counties were noticed due to population growth rates, food security, energy needs, economic and technological development, political fragmentation, international water laws, water and management availability and public awareness. These caused tensions, which sometimes escalated to the verge of war. To solve this conflict a mediator is required that has the capability to bring all countries concerned to the negotiation table. Syria and Iraq are to give Turkey and Iran some incentives to cooperate. Furthermore, all counties are to adopt prudent strategic plan based on comprehensive resources development to ensure good water management and minimum water loses and waste. This due to the fact that modeling studies of the future suggest that water shortage problem will intensify.

  • 95.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Geological and Engineering investigations of the most dangerous dam in the world2015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is located on River Tigris north of Iraq with a storage capacity of 11.11 billion cubic meters. Since its operation in 1986 plenty of problems were noticed that might lead to the failure of the dam. The book highlights the geological and engineering problems experienced within Mosul Dam. It also reviews the expert’s opinion on these problems. Recent investigations were described and the consequences of the dam failure were given. It is believed that 500,000 people will die in case of the dam failure and for this reason it is considered as the most dangerous dam in the world. Finally, possible solutions were explained to avoid the dam failure

  • 96.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU Team.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Water Resources of the Euphrates River Catchment2018In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The River Euphrates is the longest River in southwest Asia. Its length reaches 2786 km and drains an area of about 440000 km2, which is occupied by 23 million inhabitants. The Euphrates basin is shared by 5 countries (Iraq 47%, Turkey 28%, Syria 22%, Saudi Arabia 2.97%, Jordan 0.03%) where the first three countries are the main riparian. Climate change and construction of dams in the upper parts of the basin has reduced the flow downstream with time. The flow was about 30.6 BCM in Hit (Iraq) before 1974, and now it is about 4 BCM. Syria and Iraq are facing water shortage and quality deterioration problems, which require national, regional and international cooperation to overcome these problems.

  • 97.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Water Resources of the Tigris River Catchment2018In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 21-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tigris River is one of the longest rivers in western Asia. Its length is about 1800 km. It drains a catchment area of 473103 km2 divided in 4 countries (Turkey, Syria, Iran and Iraq). About 23 million people live within this catchment. The flow of the River Tigris is decreasing with time due to the construction of dams and climate change. The discharge of the Tigris River at Baghdad was 1,207 m3/s for the period 1931-1960 and since 2000 onward it is 522m3/s. Riparian countries (mainly Iraq and Iran) are facing water shortage problems. This requires prudent regional and national cooperation and management to overcome this problem.

  • 98.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Aldardor, Wafa
    Al al-Bayt University.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Effect of treated wastewater irrigation on vegetables2013In: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 21, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treated waste water is normally used for irrigation purposes in countries suffering from water shortages to narrow the gap between supply and demand. The concept behind this is to save water consumed for agricultural activities, which consumes most of the water, for municipal and industrial uses. The Alsukhna area in Jordan is used to grow vegetables which are irrigated by treated wastewater. Surface and groundwater samples from the Zarqa region were analyzed for their major cations, anions and heavy metals. The impact of the treated waste water on the chemical components of vegetables was studied using Zn, Mn, Fe, Pb and Ni in sweet and hot pepper, tomato, cauliflower, cabbage, squash, cucumber and eggplant which were compared with similar vegetables irrigated by natural unpolluted water from the Mafraq region. The four metals, namely Zn, Fe, Pb, and Ni, had concentrations higher than in the reference vegetables by 3423%, 155%, 397%, 2949% and 289%, 187%, 211%, 214% fortomato and cauliflower, respectively. Sweet pepper was mainly influenced by an increased content of Fe, which was almost 180% higher than that in sweet pepper from the Mafraq region. Hot pepper had highly elevated concentrations of Ni (6980%) and Zn (419%), while squash demonstrated high Zn (207%) and Pb (666%). When all the heavy metals are considered, the most affected vegetable is the hot pepper with an average percent of heavy metals accumulation of 1559% while the least effected is cabbage at 116%.

  • 99.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Hanbali, Ahmad
    Kojimatchi 4-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 Japan.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Locating solid waste landfills in Mafraq city, Jordan2012In: Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research, ISSN 2231-8844, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 40-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protection of the environment from solid waste hazards is becoming a serious problem. Different laws and legislations had been put into practice for this purpose. The effect of solid waste in countries like Jordan with limited financial and natural resources and high population growth rate is more severe. To overcome these difficulties, prudent management system for solid waste is required. Furthermore, solid waste disposal site should be selected using scientific criteria to prevent any harmful effect on local communities and the environment. Criteria for solid waste disposal dump site for Mafraq city were selected in accordance with well known international requirements that suit the local conditions. These criteria were used to select the best suitable solid waste dump site using remote sensing and geographic information system techniques. The selected sites are harmless to human life, natural resources and the environment.

  • 100.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Hanbaly, Mariam
    Al al-Bayt University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hydrology of the most ancient water harvesting schemes2013In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 15-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Middle East area and in particular Jordan suffer from water shortages. It is believed that water harvesting techniques can solve part of the problem. Jawa and Umm El-Jimal water harvesting schemes were established 6000 and 2000 years ago respectively. They are considered as the most ancient water harvesting scheme. The engineering design and techniques used in those schemes are very unique.The adaptation of the engineering techniques used in the ancient schemes in the newly established schemes will help to save energy and minimize the evaporation losses. In addition, harvested water can be used for ground water recharge.

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