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  • 51.
    Lindberg, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lindgren, Monica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Bridging the gender gap in entrepreneurship: A study of a Quadruple helix innovation system project in the Baltic Sea region2011In: 1st International Conference on Entrepreneurship, Innovation and SMEs, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Lindberg, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lindgren, Monica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Bridging the gender gap in entrepreneurship through NGO’s: A study of a Quadruple Helix innovation system project in the Baltic Sea region2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A gender gap in entrepreneurship and innovation can be discerned across Europe – often portrayed as a statistical pattern showing differences in prevalence of entrepreneurial and innovative activities between the categories of men and women. The gender gap can be traced back to the general perceptions of gender in society, where entrepreneurial venturing and innovation work are culturally defined as masculine activities. A situation in which dominating policy models for regional entrepreneurship and innovation – such as the Triple Helix model – sustain the gender gap by being blind to gender issues imply both practical and theoretical challenges for critical management research. In this paper, we intend to analyse the gendered norms and consequences of dominating innovation models, such as the Triple Helix, and to identify roles and challenges of NGO’s in the alternative conceptualization of Quadruple Helix.

    Based on an exploratory case study of an EU-financed project intentionally set up as a Quadruple Helix innovation system, we find that NGOs may fill four roles in bridging the gender gap: (1) collaborative platforms for women-led SMEs, (2) legitimating and linking women-led SMEs to governmental and academic actors, (3) developing competences and process innovations related to entrepreneurial venturing outside traditional Triple Helix constellations, and (4) carrying individual and societal aspects of entrepreneuring

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  • 53.
    Lindberg, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Lindgren, Monica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Quadruple Helix as a way to bridge the gender gap in entrepreneurship: A case study of an innovation system project in the Baltic Sea region2014In: Journal of the Knowledge Economy, ISSN 1868-7865, E-ISSN 1868-7873, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 94-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most developed economies there exist a clear gap between men and women in terms of prevalence of entrepreneurial activity. The gender gap can be traced back to the general perceptions of gender in society, where entrepreneurial venturing is culturally defined as a masculine activity. In this paper, we analyse how such gendered norms are brought into Triple Helix innovation system models, and identify roles and challenges of NGOs in the alternative conceptualization of Quadruple Helix. Based on an exploratory case study of a Quadruple Helix innovation system project in the tourism industry, we find that NGOs may fill four roles in bridging the gender gap: (1) collaborative platforms for women-led SMEs, (2) legitimating and linking women-led SMEs to governmental and academic actors, (3) developing competences and process innovations related to entrepreneurial venturing outside traditional Triple Helix constellations and (4) carrying individual and societal aspects of entrepreneuring.

  • 54.
    Lindberg, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lindgren, Monica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    The role of NGOs in supporting women’s entrepreneurship: a study of a Quadruple Helix project in the Baltic sea region2010Report (Other academic)
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  • 55.
    Lindberg, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lindgren, Monica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    The role of NGO’s in supporting women’s entrepreneurship: A study of Quadruple Helix innovation systems in the Baltic sea region2011In: 7th International Critical Management Studies Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A gender gap in entrepreneurship and innovation can be discerned across Europe – often portrayed as a statistical pattern showing differences in prevalence of entrepreneurial and innovative activities between the categories of men and women. The gender gap can be traced back to the general perceptions of gender in society, where entrepreneurial venturing and innovation work are culturally defined as masculine activities. A situation in which dominating policy models for regional entrepreneurship and innovation – such as the Triple Helix model – sustain the gender gap by being blind to gender issues imply both practical and theoretical challenges for critical management research. In this paper, we intend to analyse the gendered norms and consequences of dominating innovation models, such as the Triple Helix, and to identify roles and challenges of NGO’s in the alternative conceptualization of Quadruple Helix.

    Based on an exploratory case study of an EU--‐financed project intentionally set up as a Quadruple Helixinnovation system, we find that NGOs may fill four roles in bridging the gender gap: (1) collaborative platforms for women--‐led SMEs, (2) legitimating and linking women--‐led SMEs to governmental and academic actors, (3) developing competences and process innovations related to entrepreneurial venturing outside traditional Triple Helix constellations, and (4) carrying individual and societal aspects of entrepreneuring.

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  • 56.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    A framework for the integration of a gender perspective in cross-borderentrepreneurship and cluster promotion programmes2010Report (Other academic)
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  • 57.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    Umeå School of Business & Economics, Dept of Business Administration, Umeå University, SE-901 87 UMEÅ, SWEDEN.
    Packendorff, Johann
    Umeå School of Business & Economics, Dept of Business Administration, Umeå University, SE-901 87 UMEÅ, SWEDEN.
    A Project-based View of Entrepreneurship: Serial Entrepreneurs and Collective Action2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One important concern of the ongoing debates within entrepreneurship research is the tendency of operationalising entrepreneurship as enterprise start-ups. However, some researchers have noted that entrepreneurship and enterprise start-up are not always connected - entrepreneurial acts do not always result in a formal enterprise and not all enterprises are the result of an innovative entrepreneurial act. Moreover, the individual entrepreneur is usually identified from a single start-up, which means that serial entrepreneurship and/or other entrepreneurial acts in their life paths are neglected. If an enterprise start-up is an entrepreneurial act or not should be regarded as context-dependent; to start a traditional enterprise in an established and legitimate industry should not be regarded as ”entrepreneurial” as starting an innovative one in a context characterised by scepticism and hostility.

     

    In addition, there is also a tendency in society to organise innovative processes in terms of projects rather than as enterprises, and there are also research results indicating that some individuals handle enterprise start-ups as a sequence of projects in which the entrepreneur goes on to new start-ups when the enterprise has been established on the market. To summarise, there are several reasons for analysing both entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial acts in terms of project-based work. The aim of the paper is thus to discuss and argue for a project-based view of entrepreneurship, which means that the ongoing entrepreneurial acts of the individual is studied in terms of time-limited courses of action.

     

    Our analysis of a number of narratives from individuals working in creative projects (theatres and musicals, regional development and independent schools) shows that their entrepreneurship is most evident both in terms of idea generation and project organising, and that a lot of non-standardised project work is in fact entrepreneurial acts according to most definitions. These individuals also tended towards serial entrepreneurship, where projects, endeavours in private life, community work and also enterprise start-ups were mixed over time. In order to further our understanding of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship, it seems most important to study series of entrepreneurial acts in the life path of an individual rather than each act as a single event. An additional conclusion from these empirical data is that these entrepreneurial acts cannot always be ascribed single individuals only. To realise innovative ideas, it is often necessary that several individuals are involved in terms of teams or social networks. To put forward an creative and/or innovative idea should in itself be regarded as an entrepreneurial act (speaking is also an act), but to transform it into successful action teamwork is required where issues concerning practical implementation, organising, marketing etc must also be subject to entrepreneurial thinking and action.

     

    From this, we conclude that entrepreneurship should be studied in terms of serial projects in the life course of individuals. In order to understand this process we argue that qualitative studies, of narrative character, are necessary. By such an approach, the concept of entrepreneurship is extended from enterprise start-up as an empirical phenomenon to the individual and collective creative and innovative acts that individuals and groups of individuals perform during their lives in different dimensions, forms and societal sectors.

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  • 58.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Industrial Economics and Management.
    A project-based view of entrepreneurship: Towards action-orientation, seriality and collectivity2003In: New movements of entrepreneurship / [ed] C. Steyaert & D. Hjorth, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2003, 1, p. 86-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional entrepreneurship research often tends to view entrepreneurship in terms of individual actors starting enterprises, an approach which might limit further development of entrepreneurship theory. The project-based view of entrepreneurship proposed here instead focuses on the organising of entrepreneurial acts (action-orientation). Such entrepreneurial acts can be, but are not limited to, enterprise start-ups – entrepreneurship also happens in many other forms. Moreover, those acts are temporary by nature, which means that they can be analysed in terms of projects. Saying that entrepreneurial acts are temporary projects means that people can perform several entrepreneurial acts during a lifetime – in different ways and with different results (seriality). Entrepreneurial acts are also viewed as collective ones, organised by several actors in actor networks temporarily coupled together by a somewhat common mission (collectivity). From this reasoning, it also follows that empirical investigation of project-based entrepreneurship should be made with a narrative approach, understanding the entrepreneurial act as a part of the various actors’ construction of identity. With respect to every actor’s - socially constructed - view of reality we therefore can understand the social construction of the entrepreneurial act. By stressing a project-based view with a social constructionist perspective we hope to encourage pluralism and diversity in theory, practice and methodology.

  • 59.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Caught in the act?: On co-construction of project work and professional identities in theatres2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies point at that the notion of working in a project brings with it expectations on several aspects of the work situation, expectations that are institutionally given by project theory and practice and re-constructed by the project workers in interaction. At the same time, working by projects and re-constructing organisational and institutional norms on how projects should be, they also successively constructed an image of themselves in relation to these norms. This points at that not only are individuals reinforcing established notions on project work while working by projects – they also at the same time construct their own identities, reinforcing notions about themselves as professional, committed and structured enough to endure the hardships of project work. In other words, a project is here seen as a process of co-construction of the project form and of project worker professional identity. In this paper, we will thus analyse how people in project-based operations socially construct projects and individual identities – i.e. what happens when something is labelled a project and/or a project-based firm.

    The analysis of the interviews from two theatres indicates that projects and project-based operations are co-constructed with individual identities in several ways simultaneously,  hrough discourses that may look internally consistent but not always easy to combine with each other. Even though most producers, directors and stage managers at the two theatres are most familiar with Gantt charts, project goal structures etc, they are not actively promoting Project Management as a distinct competence of neither themselves nor the organization. What they do promote is still a modernist notion of professionalism that is closely linked to the project form of work organization. What is co-constructed is a system of inter-subjectively held beliefs linking organizational poverty, legitimacy and success to individual identification with what are highstandard artistry, organizational loyalty and self-fulfilment. The single projects become arenas and critical incidents for such co-construction, for yet another confirmation of the current development or for experimenting with other forms for theatre production project work.

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  • 60.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Industrial Economics and Management.
    Deconstructing project prisons: Towards critical perspectives on project theory and projecticised society2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Industrial Economics and Management.
    Deconstructing Projects: Towards Critical Perspectives on Project Theory and Projecticised Society2003Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 62.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Entrepreneurship and power: Applying power perspectives in the analysis of collective entrepreneurial processes2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Entrepreneurship as a way to unlock hierarchical organizing?: On the construction of power in collective entrepreneurial processes2005Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 64.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Entrepreneurship as boundary work: Deviating from and belonging to community2006In: Entrepreneurship as social change: a third movements in entrepreneurship book / [ed] C. Steyaert & D. Hjorth, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2006, 1, p. 210-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Business Creation, Box 6501, 113 83 STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Entrepreneurship inside and outside community: On the promises and problems of deviating2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to contribute to a developed understanding of the phenomenon of entrepreneurship as deviating from its local cultural context. This is done through the analysis of an in-depth case study made from a social constructionist perspective. Entrepreneurial individuals and collectives define themselves - and are defined by others - in relation to general expectations on what an entrepreneur is and how he or she should behave, and we therefore claim that the entrepreneurial process is about identifying, challenging and breaking institutionalized patterns, to temporarily de-socialize from society rather than socialize into it.

    In this paper, we present an in-depth study of the Hultsfred rock festival in Sweden and how the actors behind the festival has initiated a number of entrepreneurial processes over the years. The study is based on recurrent interviews, participant observation and documentation. In the interviews with the (inter)actors in the Hultsfred organisation, a number of narrative themes on the relation between the entrepreneurial processes and the context emerged. One such theme was the image of rock music and rock culture as rebellious and different as compared to the local culture of sports. Another theme was the massive lack of local understanding for the special characteristics of the music industry, this due to the traditional industrial structure of the region. The relation between the RockCity people and their context has also been characterised by an ongoing debate on the relation between culture and commercial business (cf also Mort et al, 2003), which has also led to severe internal conflicts. It appeared that when met by scepticism on the local arena, RockCity instead focused on networking and collaboration on other arenas; regionally, nationally and internationally. Still, they all share a basic desire to make Hultsfred a better and more prosperous place to live, which represents an aim to contribute and be respected, to be seen as an important and relevant part of community development.

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  • 66.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Från projektarbete till projektintensivt arbete: Människan och projektarbetets institutionalisering2008In: Projektliv: Villkor för uthållig projektverksamhet / [ed] T. Stjernberg, J. Söderlund & E. Wikström, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2008, 1. uppl., p. 33-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Hultsfredsfestivalen: Så osannolik att den inte borde finnas2005In: Social ekonomi, ISSN 1404-3459, no 4, p. 12-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 68. Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Industrial Economics and Management.
    Interactive entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial processes from a social constructionist perspective2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper views entrepreneurship from a social constructionist perspective. The basic standpoint is thus that entrepreneurship is an inter-subjective construct produced and re-produced in everyday social interaction. To understand this interaction in practice, the entire entrepreneurial process should be inquired into – how/why entrepreneurial ideas emerge, how/why ideas are developed as legitimate, how/why interaction between actors unfold, how/why different roles develop, etc. In order to develop a theoretical understanding of entrepreneurial processes in general from this perspective, we need to (1) make in-depth studies of a limited number of processes, (2), choose processes that is intended to imply construction of newness, and (3) follow these processes and involved co-actors over time. The aim of the paper is thus to suggest concepts and theories through which an enhanced understanding of entrepreneurship in terms of interactive processes can be achieved.

     

    The empirical data of the paper is based on three in-depth case studies in Swedish independent schools and one entertainment industry organisation, the Söderbaum school, the Viktor Rydberg Gymnasium and the Hultsfred rock festival. All involved co-actors have been repeatedly interviewed, and we have also been participant observers in their daily interaction. These data have been subject to a narrative analysis where the stories – i.e. the narratives of the participants – are re-written by the researcher in order to cover relevant events, conflicts etc that convey a straightforward understanding of the entrepreneurial process.

     

    From these two cases, a number of implications for theory development can be drawn and discussed. The entrepreneurial process per se is often perceived as limited in time, whereafter continuous management of what has been created follows. Most of the decision-making throughout the process happens in informal interaction, and the interactors assume different roles in the process (i.e. the idea generator, the organizer, the public face, the diplomat, the practical guy etc), implying specialization but also learning from each other. Since many of the co-actors often work together again in different constellations on new related entrepreneurial processes, they change these roles over time. Also, social networks are used consciously in order to create long-term benefits. Money and culture are not seen as opposites – money is a tool to create freedom to do what is important and fun, i.e. create new entrepreneurial processes. Finally, there appears to exist a notion of entrepreneurial careers; by increasing age, personal interests, rebellionship and groupthink are gradually substituted by a sense of responsibility for employees, family and society, by professionalism as ideal, and by activities such as networking and mentorship.

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  • 69.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Interactive Entrepreneurship: On the Study of Innovative Social Processes2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Interactive entrepreneurship: Studying entrepreneurship as projects, in projects2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the development of mainstream entrepreneurship research has been quite successful in academic terms, the field has adopted some taken-for-granted assumptions and views hampering its further development, e.g. the polarisation between individual voluntarism and institutional determinism, the focus on single individuals, the focus on enterprise start-ups etc. Contrary to that, we propose a social constructionist epistemology in entrepreneurship research, according to which entrepreneurship is collectively organised by individuals in interaction, i.e. as projects. In this paper, two issues connected to the notion of ‘interactive entrepreneurship’ are discussed; the meaning of innovative social processes and the empirical inquiry on innovative projects. It is concluded by a discussion on how recent developments in project management can be beneficial to entrepreneurship research.

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  • 71.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Gender, Organisation and Management.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Issues, responsibilities and identities: A distributed leadership perspective on biotechnology R&D management2011In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 157-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the research reported here is to contribute to the ongoing development of R&D project leadership studies by applying a distributed leadership perspective in the analysis of a product development project in a small biotechnology venture. A distributed leadership perspective implies that leadership is studied as a process of social interaction, involving several individuals who continuously construct leadership activities together. From a case study of a bio-tech venture, we conclude that leadership work in R&D projects implies construction of issues, responsibilities and identities. That is, what people do - seen from this perspective - when performing leadership activities in this project is that they gradually move the project and the organization forward by processing issues, resolving ambiguities concerning responsibility, and develop their understandings on the identity bases involved.

  • 72.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Konstruktion av entreprenörskap: Teori, praktik och interaktion2007 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok är ett bidrag till den pågående debatten om vad som karaktäriserar dagens entreprenörskapsforskning och om vilka framtida vägar denna forskning kan ta. I boken hävdas till att börja med att en sådan debatt kräver att entreprenörskapsforskningens grundläggande vetenskapliga utgångspunkter synliggörs och diskuteras, vilket sker alltför sällan. Liksom all annan samhällsvetenskaplig forskning bygger studier av entreprenörskap på paradigmatiska antaganden om vad entreprenörskap är, vilka typer av kunskap som bör eftersträvas, vilka forskningsmetoder som accepteras samt vilken funktion forskningen skall ha i relation till praktik och policyskapande. Bristen på diskussion kring dessa frågor har inom entreprenörskapsforskningen ofta lett till ett överdrivet individfokus, en förkärlek för normativa utsagor och kvantitativ analys, samt en syn på allt entreprenörskap som ett i grunden gott och eftersträvansvärt fenomen.

    Utifrån ett socialkonstruktionistiskt perspektiv med basen i modern organisationsteori studeras här entreprenörskap i termer av tillfälliga, kollektiva handlingsprocesser i aktörsnätverk. Baserat på djupgående kvalitativa fallstudier från två friskolor (Viktor Rydberg Gymnasium och Söderbaumska Skolan) och två verksamheter i kultursektorn (Hultsfredsfestivalen och Stockholms Improvisationsteater) identifieras nya tänkbara vägar för entreprenörskapsforskningen. Teoretiskt öppnar sig möjligheter att i högre grad använda kritisk organisationsteori för analysen av hur entreprenöriella processer skapas och hur dessa processer relateras till sin kulturella kontext. Möjligheten att se entreprenöriella proceser som projekt diskuteras utförligt, liksom kopplingen mellan entreprenörskap och ledarskap.

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  • 73.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Leadership work among senior faculty in Swedish universities: Reinforcing administrative control, redefining collegiality2019In: Proceedings of the 18th International Studying Leadership Conference: Putting Leadership in its Place, Bristol: University of the West of England , 2019, p. 62-64Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyse department-level collective leadership work processes in Swedish universities. Drawing upon a notion of leadership work as co-constructed by many organisational actors in interaction (Bolden et al, 2009; Crevani et al, 2010; Denis et al, 2012; Endres & Weibler, 2017), we show how leadership work among senior faculty increasingly:

    • Becomes concerned with administrative/regulative issues. Our respondents describe how meetings, tasks distributed to ad hoc teams, committee work etc., become increasingly time-consuming and mandatory to partake in. This leadership work also becomes increasingly focussed on receiving and handling administrative issues referred to them by central university bodies, or on the formulation and implementation of internal regulations.

    • Revolves around short-term solutions to eternal problems. Many of the structural issues in the university sector – e.g. under-funding, research-based meritocracy despite heavy teaching loads, expectations on both basic research and societal impact – are acknowledged and subject to continuous attention at department level. However, they are usually translated into short-term problems to be resolved in one or two years, resulting in simplistic ’quick fixes’ and projects whose time horizons usually tend to coincide with national budgetary periods or terms of office for senior managers. Moreover, these quick fixes and projects are rarely coordinated with each other, which from time to time results in ’project overload’ and goal conflicts.

    • Becomes concerned with systems for surveillance and control. Most handling of administrative and regulative issues tend to revolve around the perceived need to make academics report their work contents, performance and whereabouts in more detail, and to prescribe how various work tasks shall be carried out and how decision- making shall happen. Leadership work rarely deals with notions of trust, professional freedom or work satisfaction, but rather with constructing academics as in constant need for further surveillance and control.

    • Builds on shaming and blaming of individuals and groups. Following the focus on surveillance and control, the onus is always on the individual academic to live up to all sorts of expectations and adjust to new regulations and change projects. Very few, if any, are seen as delivering upon all these expectations – instead, the shaming and blaming of individual academics and groups for failing to achieve this or that tend to be part and parcel of everyday management. In the end, virtually everyone can be seen as problematic in one way or the other and in equal dire need for further regulation, surveillance and control. The social worth of successes (top-cited publications, major grants) are passing, while the burden of alleged failures linger.

    This discussion is based in a qualitative study of senior lecturers employed at business administration departments at four different Swedish universities (n=45). Most of them are involved in leadership work at their respective workplaces, either through formal roles such as head of department, director of undergraduate studies, etc., or through informal involvement in task groups, inquiries, committees and boards. The study was originally undertaken to investigate performance-based funding systems (PBFS) and their impact on academic professional identity construction processes. Leadership work appeared to be central for our understanding of these processes, in the sense that the daily practicing of PBFS’ involves construction of organisational direction, issues, spaces of action etc (Crevani, 2018).

    The consequence of the above leadership work processes is that leadership work becomes increasingly irrelevant to daily teaching and research activities and at the same time increasingly time-consuming and central for involved senior faculty. The growing centrality of this particular form of leadership work in the daily life of faculty is self-reinforcing, both due to the content of work (which constantly calls for further decisions, adjustments and remedies) and to growing expectations on senior faculty to perform precisely this sort ’organizational responsibility’ and ’collegiality’ instead of withdrawing into their own teaching and research. Not only are formal managers in the ’chain of command’ pursuing this kind of leadership work, it is also colonising and redefining notions of collegiality and citizenship amongst senior faculty in general. This research builds upon, and adds to earlier similar studies on leadership work in Academia (Macfarlane, 2005; By et al, 2008; Bolden et al, 2009; Clarke & Knights, 2015; Crevani et al, 2015; Kallio et al, 2016; Bristow et al, 2017; Chatelain-Ponroy et al, 2018; Ekman et al, 2018; Spence, 2019; Svedberg Helgesson & Sjögren, 2019).

  • 74.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Living by projects: A gender perspective on international project management2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Love, hate and projects: On passion, obsession and depression in project-based work’2009In: 25th EGOS colloquium, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 76.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Gender, Organisation and Management (closed (20130101).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Gender, Organisation and Management (closed (20130101).
    On the temporary organizing of entrepreneurial processes: Applying a project metaphor to the study of entrepreneurship2011In: Revue de l'entrepreneuriat, ISSN 1766-2524, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 45-67Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Gender, Organisation and Management.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Gender, Organisation and Management.
    Performing arts and the art of performing: On co-construction of project work and professional identities in theatres2007In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 354-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While working by projects and re-constructing organisational and institutional norms on how projects should be, individuals also successively construct an image of themselves in relation to these norms. In this article, we will thus analyse how people in project-based operations simultaneously construct projects and individual identities. The analysis of interviews from two theatres indicates that project work and professional identities are co-constructed by means of mutual confirmation, simultaneous confirmation/disconfirmation, and mutual disconfirmation. The individual projects become arenas and critical incidents for such co-construction. These discourses are not always consistent with each other, but they are important for what the individuals expect from projects and what project managers expect from individuals.

  • 78.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Project leadership as a research field: Antecedents, current research and a critique2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of project-based organizing is a widespread phenomenon in contemporary economy and society. While the actual leadership task – leading a temporary task force towards the successful delivery of a complex goal – is in many ways an instance of general team leadership, the professionalization of Project Management has resulted in the build-up of specialized knowledge bases derived from theoretical and empirical inquiry into settings labeled as ‘projects’. Based on this reasoning, this paper reviews the knowledge base on project leadership as it is expressed in international scholarly literature. We start by tracing the historical developments back to the roots of the Project Management field, and continue by reviewing the current research trends. Extant research is problematized in terms of individualism, theoretical foundation and empirical basis.

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  • 79.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Project leadership revisited: A critique and notes toward a post-heroic perspective2007Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 80.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Project leadership revisited: A post-heroic perspective and research agenda2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 81.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Gender, Organisation and Management.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Gender, Organisation and Management.
    Project leadership revisited: Towards distributed leadership perspectives in project research2009In: International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, ISSN 1740-2891, E-ISSN 1740-2905, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 285-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While project management research in general has become a rapidly expanding field during past decades, scientific inquiry into project leadership has not been a major issue. The extant literature on project leadership also does not make much use of the current developments in leadership research in general – not even those appearing as suitable, such as distributed leadership perspectives. The aim of the paper is threefold: (1) to review the existing research literature on project leadership, (2) to summarise and discuss this research and (3) to make some notes towards a new research agenda built on the current debate in leadership studies on distributed leadership perspectives. Current project leadership research is found to focus exclusively on individuals and their leadership competencies rather than the leadership practices in project settings and does not fully use the perspectives in current leadership research. We then outline a distributed leadership perspective on project leadership research, including the practical consequences of such an ideal and the basic assumptions for future research.

  • 82.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Projects and prisons2006In: Making Projects Critical / [ed] Damian Hodgson; Svetlana Cicmil, London: Palgrave , 2006, p. 111-131Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Projects as a mode of justification: On the discursive fabric of projectification2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 84.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Projektarbete och projektliv: En genusanalys av projektarbetande individer2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Projektarbete som genuskonstruktion: En kritisk analys av projektteori och projektpraktik1999Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 86.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Senmodern nyföretagsekonomi: Entreprenörskap som social konstruktion2007In: Organisation: Teorier om ordning och oordning / [ed] D. Kärreman & A. Rehn, Malmö: Liber , 2007, 1. uppl., p. 195-211Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Gender, Organisation and Management (closed (20130101).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Gender, Organisation and Management (closed (20130101).
    Social constructionism and entrepreneurship: Basic assumptions and consequences for theory and research2009In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 25-47Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this article is to develop a social constructionist approach to entrepreneurship and to discuss its consequences for entrepreneurship research. Design/methodology/approach - Based on a review of current methodological debates in the entrepreneurship field concerning the need and implications of explicit references to basic scientific assumptions in research texts, a social constructionist perspective is outlined and its theoretical and methodological consequences are discussed. Findings - A social constructionist perspective may contribute to the development of entrepreneurship research both through opening up possibilities for the inclusion of new theoretical fields, and through the demands on new methodological approaches following such theoretical inclusions. Originality/value - Based on an identified lack of research literature discussing underlying scientific assumptions within entrepreneurship, the paper provides a thorough discussion and summary of existing and future social constructionist developments.

  • 88.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    The gender and entrepreneurship gap in Estonia, Finland and Sweden2010Report (Other academic)
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  • 89.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.) (closed (20130101).
    What happens when you label something a project?: On co-construction of project work and professional identities in theatres2004In: 2nd Workshop on Making Projects Critical: Projectification and its Discontents, University of the West of England , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 90.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Gender, Organisation and Management.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Gender, Organisation and Management.
    What's new in new forms of organizing? On the construction of gender in project-based work2006In: Journal of Management Studies, ISSN 0022-2380, E-ISSN 1467-6486, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 841-866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In several industries, projects are now the normal form of work for individuals. The consequences of project work have not so far been subject to critical inquiry, however. This implies inquiry not only on how people handle project work at work, it also means inquiring into how they live their lives when working by projects. In this paper, we study this from a constructionist gender perspective, in which project work is seen as an ongoing construction of patterns of femininity and masculinity in society. The aim of the paper is to contribute to an understanding of how project work is related to the ongoing construction of femininity and masculinity in the work and lives of human beings. From a narrative study of individuals in the same project team in an IT-consultancy company, we discuss masculinization and femininization in project-based work. It appears that current project work practices imply reproduction of masculinities such as rationality, efficiency, control, devotion to work etc, while femininization is instead found in the rhetoric of the organizational context and the expectations on newly recruited women. The organization was in the process of femininization through rhetoric on 'family friendliness', but everyday life for consultants was not spent at the organization but in project teams in the customers' offices. Projects are special in the sense that they are clearly delimited episodes of work in which it is possible to apply entirely different norms than 'outside' the project - which makes the tendency to reproduce traditional masculinities even stronger.

  • 91.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    ‘What’s New in New Organisational Forms?: On the Construction of Gender in Project-based Work.2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 92.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Industrial Economics and Management.
    Woman, teacher, entrepreneur: On identity construction in female entrepreneurs of Swedish independent schools2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Woman, teacher, entrepreneur: On identity construction in female entrepreneurs of Swedish independent schools2008In: Women entrepreneurship and social capital: A dialogue and construction / [ed] I. Aaltio, P. Kyrö & E. Sundin, Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press , 2008, 1. ed., p. 193-225Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Life can be seen as an ongoing process of identity construction, where individuals try to understand herself from the various identity bases to which she is exposed. Here, we focus on the identity construction of women who have started independent schools in Sweden. The independent school sector emerged after a political reform in 1992, allowing privately owned schools to operate with public funding. The women are subject to gendered expectations on how they are supposed to behave, and they are teachers, part of a profession with strong traditions. They have also become entrepreneurs through starting new independent schools. From a narrative analysis of their individual identity construction, we identify four different narrative strategies used to combine identity bases with differing norms and expectations.

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  • 94.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Work as Project, Project as Work: An Individual Perspective on the ‘Temporarization’ of Work Life1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Work. life and gender: A study of project-working individuals in two French companies2001Report (Other academic)
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  • 96.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Sergi, Viviane
    Université de Québec à Montréal.
    Thrilled by the discourse, suffering through the experience: Emotions in project-based work2014In: Human Relations, ISSN 0018-7267, E-ISSN 1741-282X, Vol. 67, no 11, p. 1383-1412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we study emotional processes associated with the project management discourse. Employing a constructionist approach where emotions are experienced within an ordering discursive context, the study identifies four distinct emotional processes associated with the invocation of the project management discourse in daily work practices. From a study of theatre and opera house employees, we suggest that the project management discourse tends to normalize feelings of rigidity and weariness in project-based work, while emphasizing projects as extraordinary settings creating thrill and excitement. Moreover, we argue that this discourse is invoked in ways that lead individuals to internalize emotional states related to chaos and anxiety, while ascribing feelings of certainty and confidence to external organizational norms and procedures. The study highlights how employees construct project-based work as a promise of exciting adventures experienced under conditions of rational control, but also how the negative and suppressed aspects of project-based work are constructed as inevitable and to be endured. Through these emotional processes, the project management discourse is sustained and reinforced.

  • 97.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Gender, Organisation and Management.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Gender, Organisation and Management.
    Tham, Henrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Gender, Organisation and Management.
    Relational dysfunctionality: leadership interactions in a Sarbanes-Oxley Act implementation project2011In: European Journal of International Management, ISSN 1751-6757, E-ISSN 1751-6765, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 13-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extant leadership literatures tend to favour the positive and the normative over the negative and descriptive, and context-free individuals over situated organisational interaction. Dysfunctional leadership thus usually becomes a matter of evil individuals deviating from established norms, rather than how leadership interaction processes unfold. In this paper, we view leadership interaction processes in terms of construction of direction, coorientation and action space. We apply this perspective to an empirical study of an organisational change project in a sub-unit of a multinational corporation. Conceptual consequences of the proposed perspective are discussed in terms of confused direction, deteriorating coorientation and delimited action space.

  • 98.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    Umeå School of Business.
    Packendorff, Johann
    Umeå School of Business.
    Wåhlin, Nils
    Umeå School of Business.
    Resa genom arbetslivet: Om människors organisationsbyten och identitetsskapande2001 (ed. 1:1)Book (Other academic)
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  • 99.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Wåhlin, Nils
    Umeå Universitet.
    Studying the Reflexively Constructed Identity: A Narrative View on Individuals in Organizations1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 100.
    Linghede, Karl-Johan
    et al.
    Acando AB.
    Pettersson, Johan
    Scania AB.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Case: MowRock Inc.: Case för kursen ME2013 Produktion: Organisation och styrning2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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