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  • 51.
    Kierkegaard, Amelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Environmental analysis of higher brominated diphenyl ethers and decabromodiphenyl ethane.2009In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1216, no 3, p. 364-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods for environmental analysis of higher brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in particular decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209), and the recently discovered environmental contaminant decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) are reviewed. The extensive literature on analysis of BDE209 has identified several critical issues, including contamination of the sample, degradation of the analyte during sample preparation and GC analysis, and the selection of appropriate detection methods and surrogate standards. The limited experience with the analysis of deBDethane suggests that there are many commonalities with BDE209. The experience garnered from the analysis of BDE209 over the last 15 years will greatly facilitate progress in the analysis of deBDethane.

  • 52.
    Kierkegaard, Amelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    van Egmond, Roger
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cyclic Volatile Methylsiloxane Bioaccumulation in Flounder and Ragworm in the Humber Estuary2011In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, no 14, p. 5936-5942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes are being subjected to regulatory scrutiny as possible PET chemicals. The investigation of bioaccumulation has yielded apparently contradictory results, with high laboratory fish bioconcentration factors on the one hand and low field trophic magnification factors on the other. In this study, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) were studied along with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments, ragworm, and flounder from six sites in the Humber Estuary. Bioaccumulation was evaluated using multimedia bioaccumulation factors (mmBAFs) which quantified the fraction of the contaminant present in the aquatic environment that is transferred to the biota. PCB 180, a known strongly bioaccumulative chemical, was used as a benchmark. The mean mmBAF of D5 was about twice that of PCB 180 in both polycheates and flounder, while for D4 it was 6 and 14 times higher, respectively. The mmBAF of D6 was a factor 5-10 lower than that of PCB180. The comparatively strong multimedia bioaccumulation of D4 and D5, even in the absence of biomagnification, was explained by both compounds having a >100 times stronger tendency to partition into lipid rather than into organic carbon, while PCB 180 partitions to a similar extent into both matrices.

  • 53. Lehnert, Kristina
    et al.
    Siebert, Ursula
    Reissmann, Kristina
    Bruhn, Regina
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Baltic Sea Research Institute, Germany.
    Müller, Gundi
    van Elk, Cornelis E.
    Ciurkiewicz, Malgorzata
    Baumgärtner, Wolfgang
    Beineke, Andreas
    Cytokine expression and lymphocyte proliferative capacity in diseased harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) - Biomarkers for health assessment in wildlife cetaceans2019In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 247, p. 783-791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the North and Baltic Seas are exposed to anthropogenic influences including acoustic stress and environmental contaminants. In order to evaluate immune responses in healthy and diseased harbor porpoise cells, cytokine expression analyses and lymphocyte proliferation assays, together with toxicological analyses were performed in stranded and bycaught animals as well as in animals kept in permanent human care. Severely diseased harbor porpoises showed a reduced proliferative capacity of peripheral blood lymphocytes together with diminished transcription of transforming growth factor-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha compared to healthy controls. Toxicological analyses revealed accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in harbor porpoise blood samples. Correlation analyses between blood organochlorine levels and immune parameters revealed no direct effects of xenobiotics upon lymphocyte proliferation or cytokine transcription, respectively. Results reveal an impaired function of peripheral blood leukocytes in severely diseased harbor porpoises, indicating immune exhaustion and increased disease susceptibility.

  • 54.
    Li, Zhe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Biodegradation of Chemicals in Unspiked Surface Waters Downstream of Wastewater Treatment Plants2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 1884-1892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The OECD 309 guideline uses spiked incubation tests to provide data on biodegradation kinetics in surface waters. However, potential limitations of spiking test chemicals into the studied water have not been investigated. We conducted the OECD 309 test with unspiked surface water relying on chemical residues present in the water. Parallel experiments were conducted with the same water spiked with 13 chemicals at higher concentrations (50 mu g L-1). Six chemicals detected in both the spiked and the unspiked systems were biodegraded. For each chemical the concentration change over time differed between the systems. Tramadol and venlafaxine showed constant concentrations in the spiked systems but increasing concentrations in the unspiked systems. Atenolol and metoprolol showed first-order elimination with no lag in the unspiked systems, compared to a lag of 15-28 d followed by zero-order elimination kinetics in the spiked systems. Acesulfame was only slightly degraded (<50%) in the unspiked system, while removal was complete (>99%) in the spiked systems. Gabapentin displayed a complex behavior where the features differed markedly between the spiked and the unspiked systems. We conclude that spiking can strongly influence biodegradation, reducing the environmental relevance of test results. Under some conditions biodegradation can be measured in unspiked natural waters instead.

  • 55.
    Li, Zhe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Undeman, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Papa, Ester
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    High-throughput evaluation of organic contaminant removal efficiency in a wastewater treatment plant using direct injection UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS/MS2018In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 561-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The removal efficiency (RE) of organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is a major determinant of the environmental impact of these contaminants. However, RE data are available for only a few chemicals due to the time and cost required for conventional target analysis. In the present study, we applied non-target screening analysis to evaluate the RE of polar contaminants, by analyzing influent and effluent samples from a Swedish WWTP with direct injection UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS/MS. Matrix effects were evaluated by spiking the samples with isotope-labeled standards of 40 polar contaminants. For 85% of the compounds, the matrix effects in the influent and effluent were not significantly different. Approximately 10000 compounds were detected in the wastewater, of which 319 were identified by using the online database mzCloud. Level 1 identification confidence was achieved for 31 compounds for which we had reference standards, and level 2 was achieved for the remainder. RE was calculated from the ratio of the peak areas in the influent and the effluent from the non-target analysis. Good agreement was found with RE determined from the target analysis of the target compounds. The method generated reliable estimates of RE for large numbers of contaminants with comparatively low effort and is foreseen to be particularly useful in applications where information on a large number of chemicals is needed.

  • 56. MacLeod, M.
    et al.
    Arnot, J.
    McLachlan, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wania, F.
    Tracking the sources, transport and fate of persistent pollutants at regional, continental and global scales.2008In: ISEA Special Symposium: Characterizing Global Exposures to POPs: The Role of Models: Pasadena, 12-16 October, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 57.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Persson, Linn M.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Ruden, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Identifying Chemicals That Are Planetary Boundary Threats2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 19, p. 11057-11063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rockstrom et al. proposed a set of planetary boundaries that delimit a safe operating space for humanity Many of the planetary boundaries that have so far been identified are determined by chemical agents. Other chemical pollution-related planetary boundaries likely exist, but are currently unknown. A chemical posed an unknown planetary boundary threat if it simultaneously fulfills three conditions (1) it has an unknown disruptive effect on a vital Earth system process; (2) the disruptive effect is not discovered until it is a problem at the global scale, and (3) the effect is not readily reversible. In this paper, we outline scenarios in which chemical could fulfill each of the three conditions, then use the scenarios as the basis to define chemical profiles that fit each scenario. The chemical profiles are defined in terms of the nature of the effect of the chemical and the nature of exposure of the environment to the chemical. Priortization of chemicals in commerce against some of the profiles appears feasible, but there are considerable uncertainites and scientific challenges that must be addressed. Most challenging is prioritizing chemicals for the potential to have a currently unknown effect on a vital. Earth system process. We conclude that the most effective strategy currently available to identify chemicals that are planetary boundary threats is prioritization against profiles defined in terms of environmental exposure combined with monitoring and study of the biogeochemical process that underlie vital Earth system processes to identify currently unknown disruptive effects.

  • 58. Mamontova, E.A.
    et al.
    Tarasova, E.N.
    Mamontov, A.A.
    Kuzmin, M.I.
    McLachlan,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Khomutova, M.Iu.
    The influence of soil contamination on the concentrations of PCBs in milk in Siberia2007In: Chemosphere, Vol. 67, p. S71-S78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 59. McKone, T.E.
    et al.
    McLachlan, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    MacLeod, M.
    Vallero, D.
    Characterizing source-to-dose relationships for persistent pollutants.2008In: ISEA Special Symposium: Characterizing Global Exposures to POPs: The Role of Models: Pasadena, 12-16 October, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    McLachlan,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Discovering new environmental contaminants at ITM2007In: Kemikalieinspektionen: 9 November, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 61.
    McLachlan,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Perfluorinated chemical research at ITM2007In: Kemikalieinspektionen: 9 November, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 62.
    McLachlan,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breivik, K.
    Brown, T.
    Czub,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wania, F.
    Screening for potential contaminants in Arctic food chains: Application of a linked non-steady state chemical fate and bioaccumulation model2007In: 9th Cefic LRI Annual Workshop, Brussels, Belgium.: 8 November, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 63.
    McLachlan,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Czub,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Undeman,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    ACC-HUMAN related modeling activities at ITM2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 64.
    McLachlan,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Holmström,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Reth, M.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    (2007): Riverine discharge of perfluorinated carboxylic acids in Europe2007In: SETAC 17:th Annual Meeting in Europe, Porto, Portugal: 20-24 May, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 65.
    McLachlan,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Holmström,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Reth, M.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Discharge of perfluorinated carboxylic acid from major European rivers2007In: EMCON2007 International Conferance 'Analysis of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment', York, England.: 7-9 March, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 66.
    McLachlan,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Holmström,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Reth, M.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Riverine Discharge of Perfluorinated Carboxylates from the European Continent2007In: Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 41, p. 7260-7265Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 67.
    McLachlan,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wania, F.
    Combining multimedia fate models and bioaccumulation models to predict exposure to POPs2007In: Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Commitee, Third Meeting.: 20 November, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 68.
    McLachlan, M
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Arnot, J.
    MacLeod, M.
    McKone, T.E.
    Wania, F.
    Cowan-Ellsberry, C.
    Using Fate and Exposure Models in the Evaluation of Potential POPs.2008In: 29th Annual Meeting of SETAC North America: Tampa, 16-20 November, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 69.
    McLachlan, M
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Czub, G
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    MacLeod, M.
    Arnot, J.
    Bioaccumulation from a multimedia perspective – elucidating the relative importance of partitioning properties and metabolism.2008In: 29th Annual Meeting of SETAC North America: Tampa, 16-20 November, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Can the Stockholm convention address the spectrum of chemicals currently under regulatory scrutiny? Advocating a more prominent role for modeling in POP screening assessment2018In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 32-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frameworks for chemical regulation are based on the science at the time they were written. Today some regulations are being applied to a much broader spectrum of chemicals than we had knowledge of when the regulations were written. This entails a risk that the regulations are being used outside of their chemical application domain. This question is explored using the POP screening assessment in the Stockholm convention, which was developed 20 years ago. Using perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) as an example, it is shown that the assessment can lead to false negative conclusions. A second case study using octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) illustrates that there is also a risk of false positives. The risk for false negative classification of PFAAs is due to the inclusion of a screening criterion - bioaccumulation - that is not a requirement for adverse effects of chemicals in remote regions. For D4 the risk of false positive classification stems from the four screening criteria (persistence, bioaccumulation, long-range transport, and adverse effects) applying to different environmental media/compartments. The major lesson is that applying the POP screening procedure to the broad spectrum of chemicals in modern commerce will require that we rely less on the individual screening criteria and more on the comparison of estimated exposure and the thresholds for effects stipulated in Annex D, paragraph 2 of the convention. Models have an important role to play in this context and should become more strongly integrated into the POP screening process. Environmental significance This paper illustrates some limitations of the Stockholm convention, one of the most important tools for regulation of chemicals at the global scale. It shows that the criteria to screen for new POPs can lead to false negative and false positive conclusions when applied to chemicals that lie outside of the chemical domain of the screening procedure. This problem is clearly attributed to breaking down the complex processes of chemical transport, fate and exposure into simple indicators, a strategy which cannot be successful across a wide spectrum of chemicals. Integrated transport, fate and exposure models are advocated as a solution.

  • 71.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Felizeter, Sebastian
    Klein, Michael
    Kotthoff, Matthias
    De Voogt, Pim
    Fate of a perfluoroalkyl acid mixture in an agricultural soil studied in lysimeters2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 223, p. 180-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are environmental contaminants of concern in both food and drinking water. PFAA fate in agricultural soil is an important determinant of PFAA contamination of groundwater and crops. The fate of C4-C14 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and two perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in an agricultural soil was studied in a field lysimeter experiment. Soil was spiked with PFAAs at four different levels and crops were planted. PFAA concentrations in soil were measured at the beginning and end of the growing season. Lysimeter drainage water was collected and analysed. The concentrations of all PFAAs decreased in the surface soil during the growing season, with the decrease being negatively correlated with the number of fluorinated carbons in the PFAA molecule. PFAA transfer to the drainage water was also negatively correlated with the number of fluorinated carbons. For the C11-C14 PFCAs most of the decrease in soil concentration was attributed to the formation of non-extractable residues. For the remaining PFAAs leaching was the dominant removal process. Leaching was concentration dependent, with more rapid removal from the soils spiked with higher PFAA levels. Model simulations based on measured K-d values under-predicted removal by leaching. This was attributed to mixture effects that reduced PFAA sorption to soil.

  • 72.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kierkegaard, Amelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hansen, Kaj M.
    van Egmond, Roger
    Christensen, Jesper H.
    Skjoth, Carsten A.
    Concentrations and Fate of Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D-5) in the Atmosphere2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 14, p. 5365-5370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D-5) is a volatile compound used in personal care products that is released to the atmosphere in large quantities. Although D-5 is currently under consideration for regulation, there have been no field investigations of its atmospheric fate. We employed a recently developed, quality assured method to measure D-5 concentration in ambient air at a rural site in Sweden. The samples were collected with daily resolution between January and June 2009. The 05 concentration ranged from 0.3 to 9 ng m(-3), which is 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than previous reports. The measured data were compared with D-5 concentrations predicted using an atmospheric circulation model that included both OH radical and D-5 chemistry. The model was parametrized using emissions estimates and physical chemical properties determined in laboratory experiments. There was good agreement between the measured and modeled D-5 concentrations. The results show that D-5 is clearly subject to long-range atmospheric transport, but that it is also effectively removed from the atmosphere via phototransformation. Atmospheric deposition has little influence on the atmospheric fate. The good agreement between the model predictions and the field observations indicates that there is a good understanding of the major factors governing D-5 concentrations in the atmosphere.

  • 73.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kierkegaard, Amelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Radke, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sobek, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Arnot, Jon A.
    Brown, Trevor N.
    Wania, Frank
    Breivik, Knut
    Xu, Shihe
    Using Model-Based Screening to Help Discover Unknown Environmental Contaminants2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 13, p. 7264-7271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Of the tens of thousands of chemicals in use, only a small fraction have been analyzed in environmental samples. To effectively identify environmental contaminants, methods to prioritize chemicals for analytical method development are required. We used a high-throughput model of chemical emissions, fate, and bioaccumulation to identify chemicals likely to have high concentrations in specific environmental media, and we prioritized these for target analysis. This model-based screening was applied to 215 organosilicon chemicals culled from industrial chemical production statistics. The model-based screening prioritized several recognized organosilicon contaminants and generated hypotheses leading to the selection of three chemicals that have not previously been identified as potential environmental contaminants for target analysis. Trace analytical methods were developed, and the chemicals were analyzed in air, sewage sludge, and sediment. All three substances were found to be environmental contaminants. Phenyl-tris(trimethylsiloxy)silane was present in all samples analyzed, with concentrations of similar to 50 pg m(-3) in Stockholm air and similar to 0.5 ng g(-1) dw in sediment from the Stockholm archipelago. Tris(trifluoropropyl)trimethyl-cyclotrisiloxane and tetrakis(trifluoropropyl)tetramethyl-cyclotetrasiloxane were found in sediments from Lake Mjosa at similar to 1 ng g(-1) dw. The discovery of three novel environmental contaminants shows that models can be useful for prioritizing chemicals for exploratory assessment.

  • 74.
    McLachlan, Michael S
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Precipitation scavenging of particle-bound contaminants: A case study of PCDD/Fs2009In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 43, no 38, p. 6084-6090Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Precipitation scavenging of particles is a major mechanism for atmospheric deposition of organic contaminants, but there have been few field studies. We studied precipitation scavenging of PCDD/Fs with the aim of deepening understanding of environmental variables influencing this process. Bulk deposition of PCDD/Fs and their concentrations in ambient air measured at a background site in Sweden were used to calculate precipitation scavenging ratios. Contrary to expectations, increasing scavenging ratios with decreasing degree of chlorination of the PCDD/F congeners were observed when the particle-associated PCDD/F concentrations in air were used for the calculation. This was attributed to differences in temperature and thereby in the gas - particle partitioning of the PCDD/Fs between ground level and clouds where much of the particle scavenging occurs. When the particle-associated PCDD/F concentrations were recalculated for a 10-20 degrees C lower temperature, the scavenging ratios of the different PCDD/F congeners were similar. Hence differences between ground level and in-cloud temperature should be considered when calculating scavenging ratios from field observations and when modeling this process. The scavenging ratios averaged similar to 200 000, with lower values when the particle-associated PCDD/F concentration in air was lower. The soot concentration in air was a good predictor of bulk deposition of PCDD/Fs.

  • 75.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Undeman, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Zhao, Fangyuan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Predicting global scale exposure of humans to PCB 153 from historical emissions2018In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 747-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicting human exposure to an environmental contaminant based on its emissions is one of the great challenges of environmental chemistry. It has been done successfully on a local or regional scale for some persistent organic pollutants. Here we assess whether it can be done at a global scale, using PCB 153 as a test chemical. The global multimedia fate model BETR Global and the human exposure model ACC-HUMAN were employed to predict the concentration of PCB 153 in human milk for 56 countries around the world from a global historical emissions scenario. The modeled concentrations were compared with measurements in pooled human milk samples from the UNEP/WHO Global Monitoring Plan. The modeled and measured concentrations were highly correlated (r = 0.76, p < 0.0001), and the concentrations were predicted within a factor of 4 for 49 of 78 observations. Modeled concentrations of PCB 153 in human milk were higher than measurements for some European countries, which may reflect weaknesses in the assumptions made for food sourcing and an underestimation of the rate of decrease of concentrations in air during the last decades. Conversely, modeled concentrations were lower than measurements in West African countries, and more work is needed to characterize exposure vectors in this region.

  • 76.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Zou, Hongyan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Tianjin Normal University, China.
    Gouin, Todd
    Using Benchmarking To Strengthen the Assessment of Persistence2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 4-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical persistence is a key property for assessing chemical risk and chemical hazard. Current methods for evaluating persistence are based on laboratory tests. The relationship between the laboratory based estimates and persistence in the environment is often unclear, in which case the current methods for evaluating persistence can be questioned. Chemical benchmarking opens new possibilities to measure persistence in the field. In this paper we explore how the benchmarking approach can be applied in both the laboratory and the field to deepen our understanding of chemical persistence in the environment and create a firmer scientific basis for laboratory to field extrapolation of persistence test results.

  • 77.
    McLachlan, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Zou, Hongyan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Using benchmarking to strengthen the assessment of persistenceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical persistence is a key property for assessing chemical risk and chemical hazard. Current methods for evaluating persistence are questionable, since the relationship between conditions in the environment and conditions in the laboratory tests employed to evaluate persistence is often unclear. Chemical benchmarking opens new possibilities to measure persistence in the field. In this paper we explore how the benchmarking approach can be applied in both the laboratory and the field to deepen our understanding of chemical persistence in the environment and create a solid scientific basis for laboratory to field extrapolation of persistence test results.

  • 78. Muir, D.
    et al.
    Klecka, G.
    Boethling, R.
    Snape, J.
    Jones, K.
    Scheringer, M.
    Escher, B.
    Nichols, J.
    Weisbrod, A. V.
    Woodburn, K.
    Gobas, F.
    de Wolf, W.
    Cowan-Ellsberry, C.
    McLachlan, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Holoubek, I.
    Swackhamer, D.
    Dohmen, P.
    Solomon, K.
    van Wijk, D.
    Chenier, R.
    Bridges, J.
    Eisenreich, S.
    Tarazona, J.
    Results of the SETAC workshop on science-based guidance for the evaluation and identification of PBTs and POPs2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 79. Muir, D.
    et al.
    Klecka, G.
    Boethling, R.
    Snape, J.
    Jones, K.
    Scheringer, M.
    Escher, B.
    Nichols, J.
    Weisbrod, A. V.
    Woodburn, K.
    Gobas, F.
    de Wolf, W.
    Cowan-Ellsberry, C.
    McLachlan, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Holoubek, I.
    Swackhamer, D.
    Dohmen, P.
    Solomon, K..R.
    van Wijk, D.
    Chenier, R.
    Bridges, J.
    Eisenreich, S.
    Tarazona, J.
    Results of the SETAC workshop on science-based guidance for the evaluation and identification of PBTs and POPs2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Norström,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Czub,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thorne, P.S.
    Hornbuckle, K.C.
    Discernment of Dietary and Inhalation Exposure to PCBs from Congener Profiles in Blood. ACS Division of Environmental Chemistry, Boston,2007In: ACS National Meeting, ACS Division of Environmental Chemistry, Boston.: 19-23 August, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 81. Norström, K.
    et al.
    Czub, G
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thorne, P.S.
    Hornbuckle, K.C.
    Do PCB congener profiles differ in humans depending on the route of exposure? – A model assessment using ACC-HUMAN.2008In: The 5th PCB Workshop: Iowa City, 18-22 May, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 82. Norström, K.
    et al.
    Czub, G
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thorne, P.S.
    Hu, D.
    External exposure and bioaccumulation of PPCBs in humans living in a contaminated urban environment.2008In: 29th Annual Meeting of SETAC North America: Tampa, 16-20 November, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 83. Norström, Karin
    et al.
    Czub, Gertje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hu, Dingfei
    Thorne, Peter S
    Hornbuckle, Keri C
    External exposure and bioaccumulation of PCBs in humans living in a contaminated urban environment.2010In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 855-861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are exposed to different mixtures of PCBs depending on the route of exposure. In this study we investigated the potential contribution of inhalation to the overall human exposure to PCBs in an urban area. For this purpose, the mechanistically based, non-steady state bioaccumulation model ACC-HUMAN was applied to predict the PCB body burden in an adult living in the Midwestern United States who eats a typical North American diet and inhales air contaminated with PCBs. Dietary exposure was estimated using measured data for eighteen PCB congeners in different food groups (fish, meat and egg, dairy products). Two scenarios for inhalation exposure were evaluated: one using air concentrations measured in Chicago, and a second using air measurements in a remote area on Lake Michigan, Sleeping Bear Dunes. The model predicted that exposure via inhalation increases the accumulated mass of PCBs in the body by up to 30% for lower chlorinated congeners, while diet is by far the dominant source of exposure for those PCB congeners that accumulate most in humans.

  • 84. Ossiander, L.
    et al.
    Reichenberg, F.
    McLachlan, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Mayer, P.
    Immersed solid phase micro extraction to measure chemical activity of lipophilic organic contaminants in fatty tissue samples.2008In: Chemosphere, Vol. 71, p. 1502-1510Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Persson, Linn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Confronting Unknown Planetary Boundary Threats from Chemical Pollution2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 22, p. 12619-12622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rockström et al. proposed a set of planetary boundaries that delimitate a “safe operating space for humanity”. One of the planetary boundaries is determined by “chemical pollution”, however no clear definition was provided. Here, we propose that there is no single chemical pollution planetary boundary, but rather that many planetary boundary issues governed by chemical pollution exist. We identify three conditions that must be simultaneously met for chemical pollution to pose a planetary boundary threat. We then discuss approaches to identify chemicals that could fulfill those conditions, and outline a proactive hazard identification strategy that considers long-range transport and the reversibility of chemical pollution.

  • 86.
    Plassmann, M
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, U
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Analysis and environmental fate of semifluorinated n-alkanes in cold regions – A project description.2008In: 1st International Workshop Fluorinated Surfactants: New Developments: Idstein, 26-28 June, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Plassmann, Merle M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Meyer, Torsten
    Lei Duan, Ying
    Wania, Frank
    McLachlan, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Theoretical and Experimental Simulation of the Fate of Semifluorinated n-Alkanes during Snowmelt2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1086-931X, E-ISSN 1520-6912, Vol. 44, no 17, p. 6692-6697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semifluorinated n-alkanes (SFAs) are highly fluorinated anthropogenic chemicals that are released into the environment through their use in ski waxes. Nothing is known about their environmental partitioning in general and their fate during snowmelt in particular. Properties were estimated for a range of SFAs with different chain lengths and degrees of fluorination using the SPARC calculator and poly parameter linear free energy relationships (ppLFERs). The calculations resulted in very low water solubility and vapor pressures and, consequently, high log KOW and log KOA values. Artificially produced snow in a cold room was spiked with a range of SFAs and subsequently melted with infrared lamps. Melt water, particles, and air samples taken during melting were analyzed. Both calculations and experiments showed that SFAs used in ski waxes will bind to particles or snow grain surfaces during snowmelt and thus are predicted to end up on the soil surface in skiing areas.

  • 88. Plassmann, Merle M.
    et al.
    Meyer, Torsten
    Lei, Ying Duan
    Wania, Frank
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Laboratory Studies on the Fate of Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylates and Sulfonates during Snowmelt2011In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, no 16, p. 6872-6878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are anthropogenic chemicals that occur in snow from both remote and source regions. Experiments were conducted to determine how PFAAs are released from a melting snowpack. Different PFAAs eluted from the snowpack at different times, those with short chains eluting early, those with long chains eluting late. The concentrations in the meltwater of PFAAs with medium chain lengths of 6 to 9 perfluorinated carbon atoms first increased and then decreased during the melt period. Such a peak elution had not been previously observed for any other chemicals. The specific snow surface area (SSA) influenced this elution type, with peak concentrations occurring earlier in a snowpack with lower SSA. Model simulations suggested that the snow surface decrease during the melt alone was insufficient to explain the observations. It was ruled out that the calcium concentration affected PFAA sorption to the snow surface in a similar way as sorption to sediments. Adsorption coefficients of PFAAs to the snow surface were estimated by fitting the measured and modeled elution profiles.

  • 89.
    Plassmann, Merle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Meyer, Torsten
    Lei Duan, Ying
    Wania, Frank
    McLachlan, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Laboratory studies on the fate of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates during snow meltArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 90. Reth, M.
    et al.
    McLachlan,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Nilsson, Douglas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Broman,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Quantifying the ocean-to-atmosphere transfer of perfluorinated chemicals via sea spray2007In: SETAC 17:th Annual Meeting in Europe, Porto, Portugal: 20-24 May, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 91.
    Reth, Margot
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Broman, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Nilsson, Douglas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Water-to-air transfer of perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates in a sea spray simulator2011In: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 381-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One hypothesis for the origin of perfluorinated alkyl acids, their salts and conjugate bases (here collectively termed PFAAs) in the atmosphere is transfer from the surface ocean by sea spray, the mechanistic explanation being that the surface active properties of PFAAs result in their enrichment on the surface of bursting bubbles. The water-to-air transfer of C(6)-C(14) perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and C(6), C(8) and C(10) perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs) was studied in a laboratory scale sea spray simulator containing tap water spiked with PFCAs and PFSAs. The sequestration of the PFAAs out of bulk water and to the air-water surface was shown to increase exponentially with the length of the perfluorinated alkyl chain. Volatilisation of the PFAAs from an aqueous solution in the absence of spray resulted in less than 1% transfer to the atmosphere during the experiment. In the presence of spray the transfer rate from water to air increased by up to 1360 times. The enhancement was dependent on the PFAA chain length, with the C(6) carboxylate showing an enhancement of a factor of 37, the C(7) carboxylate an enhancement of 320, whereas for all remaining PFAAs the enhancement exceeded 450 with the exception of the C(14) carboxylate (106).

  • 92.
    Ricklund, N.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kierkegaard, A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    An international survey of decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) and decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) in sewage sludge samples2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 73, no 11, p. 1799-1804Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Ricklund, N
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kierkegaard, A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Decabromodiphenyl ethane in sewage sludge – A global survey.2008In: 29th Annual Meeting of SETAC North America: Tampa, 16-20 November, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 94.
    Ricklund, N
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kierkegaard, A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Decabromodiphenyl ethane in sewage sludge – A global survey2008In: Svenskt-norskt miljökemiskt möte: Sigtuna, Sverige, 22-24 September, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Ricklund, N.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kierkegaard, A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, M. S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Leonards, P. E. G.
    Bioaccumulation of decabromodiphenyl ethane (dbdpe) in the Western Scheldt estuaryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Decabromodiphenyl ethane (dbdpe) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR) with both a similar chemical structure and similar technical applications to a chemical of recognized environmental concern, decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE). Bioaccumulation has been one of the most controversial issues in the risk assessment of decaBDE, but it has not been measured for dbdpe. During the last several years, dbdpe has been detected in a variety of biota, which suggests that it is bioavailable. In this work, dbdpe was analyzed together with decaBDE in a benthic and pelagic food web in the Western Scheldt estuary, an environment known to be contaminated with the two BFRs. The biota-sediment accumulation factors for benthic invertebrates were low (0.0008-0.005) for both chemicals. This weak bioaccumulation into the lowest trophic levels of the food web may have been due to a poor bioavailability of the BFRs into the estuary. Both chemicals were transferred up through the food web, but biodilution was observed, not biomagnification (BMFs 0.2-0.8). The bioaccumulation behavior of dbdpe was similar to that of decaBDE.

  • 96.
    Ricklund, N.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kierkegaard, A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wahlberg, C.
    Mass balance of decabromodiphenyl ethane and decabromodiphenyl ether in a WWTP2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 389-394Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 97.
    Ricklund, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kierkegaard, Amelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Levels and potential sources of decabromodiphenyl ethane (dbdpe) and decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) in lake sediment and marine sediment in Sweden2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 1987-1991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decabromodiphenyl ethane (dbdpe) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR) used as a replacement for the structurally similar decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE), which is a regulated environmental contaminant of concern. Dbdpe has been found in indoor dust, sewage sludge, sediment and biota, but little is known about its occurrence and distribution in the environment. In this paper, sediment was analyzed from 11 isolated Swedish lakes and along a transect running from central Stockholm through the Stockholm archipelago to the open Baltic Sea. Dbdpe was present in all samples. In lake sediment, the levels ranged from 0.23 to 11 ng/g d.wt. and were very similar to the levels of decaBDE (0.48-11 ng/g d.wt.). Since the lakes have no known point sources of BFRs, their presence in the sediments provides evidence for long range atmospheric transport and deposition. In the marine sediment, the dbdpe and decaBDE levels decreased by a factor of 20-50 over 40 km from the inner harbor to the outer archipelago. There the dbdpe and decaBDE levels were similar to the levels in nearby isolated lakes. The results indicate that contamination of the Swedish environment with dbdpe has already approached that of decaBDE, and that this contamination is primarily occurring via the atmosphere.

  • 98.
    Ricklund, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kierkegaard, Amelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wahlberg, Cajsa
    Mass balance of decabromodiphenyl ethane and decabromodiphenyl ether in a WWTP.2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 389-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The additive flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) has been identified in the environment, but little is known about its environmental behaviour. It is structurally similar to decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE), making it conceivable that it may also become an environmental contaminant of concern. In this study a mass balance of deBDethane and decaBDE was undertaken in a modern WWTP in Stockholm serving 7.05x10(5) inhabitants. Flow proportional samples of plant influent and effluent as well as daily grab samples of digested sludge were collected during two 7-day periods. All samples were analyzed with GC/HRMS using isotope labelled internal standards. The mean mass flows of deBDethane and decaBDE to the WWTP were 6.0 g per day and 55 g per day, respectively. Of this, less than 1% of both BFRs left the WWTP via the effluent, while the bulk was sequestered into the digested sludge, where the mean concentrations of deBDethane and decaBDE were 81 and 800 ng g(-1)d.wt., respectively. It is concluded that the transfer efficiency of deBDethane from the technosphere to the environment via WWTPs is similar to that of decaBDE.

  • 99. Schwesig, D.
    et al.
    Borchers, U.
    Chancerelle, L.
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Goksoy, A.
    Lamoree, M.
    Leonards, P.
    Leverett, D.
    McLachlan,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Poulsen, V.
    Robinson, R.
    Silharova, K.
    Tolgyessy, P.
    Tutundijan, R.
    Westwood, D.
    Development of Harmonized Protocols for Method Validation for Monitoring and Bio-Monitoring of Emerging Pollutants. Poster.2007In: WFD-conferance: 12-14 mars, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 100.
    Sellström, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Egebäck,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    The atmosphere as a source of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea2007In: SETAC Europe 17th Annual Meeting: 20-24 May 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
123 51 - 100 of 117
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