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  • 51.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Klang, Nina
    Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Professionalism, governance and inclusive education: A total population study of Swedish special needs educators2019In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 559-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research shows that special needs educators (SNEs) have had problems defining their occupational roles and jurisdiction, particularly regarding inclusive education. There are two occupational groups of SNEs in Sweden, namely special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) and special education teachers. In this paper, we use the collective name SNEs to refer to both groups. Here, results from a total population study of Swedish SNEs are presented (N = 3367, response rate 75%). The aim is to explore differences in SNEs’ interpretation of school difficulties and if these differences are influenced by SNEs’ employment in different parts of the school organisation. Statistical cluster-analysis was used to categorise SNEs into five distinct groups based on how they view the problems of pupils in school difficulties. Key concepts employed in the analysis are, primarily organisational vs occupational governance in relation to professional jurisdiction. Findings suggest that SNEs are less unanimous in their views of school problems, than prior research indicates. The variance is partly due to where they work in the school organisation, but we also find indications that different groups of SNEs experience different forms of governance with regard to their professionalism. The results are important due to the scope of the data and method of analysis as well as the illustrated variance of professional values and situations of SNEs and the potential consequences for the development of inclusive education.

  • 52.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Högskolan Dalarna, Sweden.
    Klang, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Mälardalens högskola, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalens högskola, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Malmö högskola.
    Speciella yrken? Specialpedagogers och speciallärares arbete och utbildning2015Report (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Högskolan Dalarna, Sweden.
    Klang, Nina
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Speciella yrken? Specialpedagogers och speciallärares arbete och utbildning2015Report (Other academic)
  • 54. Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Klang, Nina
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Nilholm, Claes
    Speciella yrken?: Specialpedagogers och speciallärares arbete och utbildning2015Report (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Högskolan Dalarna.
    Möllås, Gunvie
    Jönköping University.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Uppsala universitet.
    Ideas about occupational roles and inclusive practices among special needs educators and support teachers in Sweden2017In: Educational review (Birmingham), ISSN 0013-1911, E-ISSN 1465-3397, ISSN ISSN 0013-1911, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 490-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Special needs educators (SNEs) and their counterparts are expected to play a significant role in schools’ work towards inclusive practices. Studies do, however, indicate a rather diversified picture regarding the occupational groups assigned to work with special support and their workroles, within and between different countries. In Sweden, one can differentiate between two such occupational groups, SNEs with qualifications in special educational needs at advanced level and support teachers (SuTs) with varying teacher education and education in special educational needs. The aims of this article are to investigate the occurrence of SNEs and SuTs within the compulsory school system in 10 municipalities in Sweden and the occupational roles of those SNEs and SuTs in relation to the inclusion agenda. A questionnaire was sent out in 2012 to all SNEs and SuTs in 10 municipalities (n = 511, response rate 61.6%). Main results indicate that: (a) there is wide variation between municipalities regarding the extent to which SNEs or SuTs are assigned to work with special support; (b) the characteristics of the occupational role of SNEs are more in line with inclusive practices than those of the role of SuTs; (c) there is consensus between the two occupational groups regarding what they think should characterize the occupational role of SNEs; (d) SNEs consider, more than do the SuTs themselves, that the role of SuTs should be more in line with that of a “traditional special-education teacher”. Results are discussed in relation to Thomas Skrtic’s theoretical accounts of inclusive education and Andrew Abbott’s notion of jurisdictional control.

  • 56.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Malmö högskola.
    Voices of special educators in Sweden: a total population study.2015In: Educational research (Windsor. Print), ISSN 0013-1881, E-ISSN 1469-5847, ISSN 0013-1881, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 287-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are two occupational groups in Sweden that are expected to have significant impact on educational work related to children in need of special support. These two groups are special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) and special education teachers. In this paper, we use the collective name ‘special educators’ to refer to both groups. Special educators are expected to have specific knowledge regarding the identification of, and work with, school difficulties. However, there is noticeably little research concerning these occupational groups. This study was undertaken in order to further our knowledge about special educators’ work.

    Purpose: The overall purpose of the present paper is to provide a first overview of special educators’ work. The paper investigates these special educators’ perceptions of their occupational role, of their preparedness for the role and of how their role is practised. The paper also illuminates questions about SENCOs’ and special education teachers’ knowledge and values as well as the grounds for the occupational groups to claim special expertise related to the identification of, and work with, school diffi- culties.

    Design and method: A questionnaire was sent out in 2012 to all SENCOs and special education teachers in Sweden who received their degree from 2001 onwards and in accordance with the Swedish examination acts of 2001, 2007 and 2008 (N = 4252, 75% response rate).

    Results: According to the results, special educators state that they are well prepared to work with some tasks, such as counselling, leading development work and teaching children/pupils individually or in groups. Concurrently, there are tasks that the groups are educated for (e.g. school-development work), which they seldom practise in their daily work.

    Conclusions: Primarily using reasoning concerning jurisdictional control, we discuss SENCOs’ and special education teachers’ authority to claim special expertise in relation to certain kinds of work, clients and knowledge and thus, their chances of gaining full jurisdictional control in the field of special education.

  • 57.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Högskolan Dalarna, Sweden.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Sweden.
    Voices of special educators in Sweden: a total-population study2015In: Educational research (Windsor. Print), ISSN 0013-1881, E-ISSN 1469-5847, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 287-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are two occupational groups in Sweden that are expected to have significant impact on educational work related to children in need of special support. These two groups are special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) and special education teachers. In this paper, we use the collective name special educators' to refer to both groups. Special educators are expected to have specific knowledge regarding the identification of, and work with, school difficulties. However, there is noticeably little research concerning these occupational groups. This study was undertaken in order to further our knowledge about special educators' work.Purpose: The overall purpose of the present paper is to provide a first overview of special educators' work. The paper investigates these special educators' perceptions of their occupational role, of their preparedness for the role and of how their role is practised. The paper also illuminates questions about SENCOs' and special education teachers' knowledge and values as well as the grounds for the occupational groups to claim special expertise related to the identification of, and work with, school difficulties.Design and method: A questionnaire was sent out in 2012 to all SENCOs and special education teachers in Sweden who received their degree from 2001 onwards and in accordance with the Swedish examination acts of 2001, 2007 and 2008 (N=4252, 75% response rate).Results: According to the results, special educators state that they are well prepared to work with some tasks, such as counselling, leading development work and teaching children/pupils individually or in groups. Concurrently, there are tasks that the groups are educated for (e.g. school-development work), which they seldom practise in their daily work.Conclusions: Primarily using reasoning concerning jurisdictional control, we discuss SENCOs' and special education teachers' authority to claim special expertise in relation to certain kinds of work, clients and knowledge and thus, their chances of gaining full jurisdictional control in the field of special education.

  • 58.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Luttropp, Agneta
    Åman, Kerstin
    Country report Sweden2008In: Early Childhood Education in Inclusive Settings - Erstausgabe: Basis, Background and Framework of Inclusive Early Education in Five European Countries (France, Germany, Hungary, Portugal and Sweden),, Siegen: Comenius/ECEIS , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Luttropp, Agneta
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Åman, Kerstin
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Country report Sweden2008In: Early Childhood Education in Inclusive Settings - Erstausgabe: Basis, Background and Framework of Inclusive Early Education in Five European Countries (France, Germany, Hungary, Portugal and Sweden),, Siegen: Comenius/ECEIS , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Challenging Traditions?: Pupils in Need of Special Support in Swedish Independent Schools2012In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 262-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This article presents the general situation for pupils in need of special support (PNSS) within the Swedish independent compulsory schools. The analysis is based upon a survey of all independent schools in Sweden. Results show that the amount of PNSS is lower in independent schools than in municipal schools and that a deficit perspective seems to be common regarding explanations of school problems. There is, however, great diversity among the schools. Conclusions are that the challenge of independent schools to the traditional way of conceiving education, regarding school choice, seems to be more effective less for some other groups of pupils than for PNSS and that there are few signs that independent schools challenge traditions in work with PNSS in municipal schools.

  • 61.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Malmö Högskola, Sweden.
    Challenging Traditions?: Pupils in Need of Special Support in Swedish Independent Schools2012In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 262-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the general situation for pupils in need of special support (PNSS) within the Swedish independent compulsory schools. The analysis is based upon a survey of all independent schools in Sweden. Results show that the amount of PNSS is lower in independent schools than in municipal schools and that a deficit perspective seems to be common regarding explanations of school problems. There is, however, great diversity among the schools. Conclusions are that the challenge of independent schools to the traditional way of conceiving education, regarding school choice, seems to be more effective less for some other groups of pupils than for PNSS and that there are few signs that independent schools challenge traditions in work with PNSS in municipal schools.

  • 62. Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Nilholm, Claes
    Challenging Traditions?: Pupils in Need of Special Support in Swedish Independent Schools2012In: Nordic Studies in Education, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 262-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the general situation for pupils in need of special support (PNSS) within the Swedish independent compulsory schools. The analysis is based upon a survey of all independent schools in Sweden. Results show that the amount of PNSS is lower in independent schools than in municipal schools and that a deficit perspective seems to be common regarding explanations of school problems. There is, however, great diversity among the schools. Conclusions are that the challenge of independent schools to the traditional way of conceiving education, regarding school choice, seems to be more effective less for some other groups of pupils than for PNSS and that there are few signs that independent schools challenge traditions in work with PNSS in municipal schools.

  • 63.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Malmqvist, Johan
    Nilholm, Claes
    Local school ideologies and inclusion: The case of Swedish independent schools2013In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 49-63Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Malmqvist, Johan
    Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle, Malmö högskola.
    Local school ideologies and inclusion: the case of Swedish independent schools2013In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 49-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the development of a framework for the classification of local school ideologies in relation to inclusion that provides a tool for classifying the general educational direction as well as work with pupils in need of special support of individual schools. The framework defines different aspects of local school ideology in terms of values related to the societal level, school level and individual level of the education system. The paper also reports on a study exploring variations among Swedish independent schools, concerning local school ideology using the framework as a theoretical tool. In this qualitative analysis, eight schools were selected from results of a questionnaire to all Swedish independent schools (return rate 79.5%) for further analysis based on interviews with different categories of school personnel, parents and pupils. Five different patterns of local school ideologies were found more or less in line with values of inclusion, e.g. the holistic-inclusive and the market-oriented-exclusive. Results are discussed in relation to the multiple and sometimes competing objectives that every school has to deal with and make priorities between. Implications for pupils in need of special support in a school system rapidly undergoing marketisation are finally discussed.

  • 65.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Nilholm, C.
    Malmö University,.
    A continuing need for conceptual analysis into research on inclusive education: Response to commentators2014In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 295-296Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Nilholm, C
    L'éducacion inclusive en Suède . Idées, politiques et pratiques2009In: La nouvelle revue de l'adaptation et de la scolarisationArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Nilholm, C
    L’éducaction inclusive en Suède: Idées, politiques et pratiques2009In: La nouvelle revue de l’adaptation et de la scolarisationArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Malmö University.
    A continuing need for conceptual analysis into research on inclusive education: Response to commentators2014In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 295-296Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Malmö University.
    Conceptual diversities and empirical shortcomings - a critical analysis of research on inclusive education2014In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 265-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to critically analyse research about inclusive education.Prior reviews and the outcome of a recent search of databases are analysedwith regard to (a) how inclusion is defined and (b) what empirical knowledgethere is regarding factors that make schools and classrooms more inclusive. Ourpoint of departure is that we regard inclusion as an idea about what school systems,schools and classrooms should accomplish, and as such, an expression ofan educational philosophy. Four different understandings of inclusive educationwere found: (a) inclusion as the placement of pupils with disabilities in mainstreamclassrooms, (b) inclusion as meeting the social/academic needs of pupilswith disabilities, (c) inclusion as meeting the social/academic needs of all pupilsand (d) inclusion as creation of communities. Under a strict definition of inclusiveeducation, hardly any research was found which reliably identified factorsthat give rise to inclusive processes. The outcome of our analyses are discussedfrom the perspective that different understandings of inclusion should be seen, toa large extent, as expressions of different views of what schools should accomplish.We also propose that some of the adherents to inclusion as creation ofcommunities can be placed in the grand educational tradition reaching back toDewey that tries to establish new ideals for school systems in a society in whichindividualism is perhaps the main ideology. The main conclusions are that theoperative meaning of inclusion in reviews and empirical research should bemuch more clearly defined and that new types of studies are needed.

  • 70.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Conceptual diversities and empirical shortcomings - a critical analysis of research on inclusive education2014In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 265-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to critically analyse research about inclusive education. Prior reviews and the outcome of a recent search of databases are analysed with regard to (a) how inclusion is defined and (b) what empirical knowledge there is regarding factors that make schools and classrooms more inclusive. Our point of departure is that we regard inclusion as an idea about what school systems, schools and classrooms should accomplish, and as such, an expression of an educational philosophy. Four different understandings of inclusive education were found: (a) inclusion as the placement of pupils with disabilities in mainstream classrooms, (b) inclusion as meeting the social/academic needs of pupils with disabilities, (c) inclusion as meeting the social/academic needs of all pupils and (d) inclusion as creation of communities. Under a strict definition of inclusive education, hardly any research was found which reliably identified factors that give rise to inclusive processes. The outcome of our analyses are discussed from the perspective that different understandings of inclusion should be seen, to a large extent, as expressions of different views of what schools should accomplish. We also propose that some of the adherents to inclusion as creation of communities can be placed in the grand educational tradition reaching back to Dewey that tries to establish new ideals for school systems in a society in which individualism is perhaps the main ideology. The main conclusions are that the operative meaning of inclusion in reviews and empirical research should be much more clearly defined and that new types of studies are needed.

  • 71.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Den sociala situationen för barn och elever i svårigheter som undervisas i reguljära klasser och förskolegrupper: En systematisk forskningsöversikt2015In: Delrapport från SKOLFORSK-projektet: Tre forskningsöversikter inom området specialpedagogik/inkludering, Vetenskapsrådet , 2015, p. 1-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Sweden.
    Den sociala situationen för barn och elever i svårigheter som undervisas i reguljära klasser och förskolegrupper: En systematisk forskningsöversikt2015In: Delrapport från SKOLFORSK-projektet: Tre forskningsöversikter inom området specialpedagogik/inkludering., Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2015, p. 1-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Inkluderande undervisning - vad kan man lära av forskningen2013Book (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle, Malmö högskola.
    Inkluderande undervisning - vad kan man lära av forskningen2013Book (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Om smygrepresentativitet i pedagogiska avhandlingar2009In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 136-142Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation Jönköping.
    Om smygrepresentativitet i pedagogiska avhandlingar2009In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 136-142Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Recension av Camilla Brörup Dyssegaard, Michael Sörgaard Larsen & Neriman Tiftikci C.: Effekt av paedagogisk insatts ved inklusion of born med saerlig behov i grundskolen2013In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 137-143Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Fakulteten för lärande och samhälle, Malmö högskola.
    Recension av Camilla Brörup Dyssegaard, Michael Sörgaard Larsen & Neriman Tiftikci C.: Effekt av paedagogisk insatts ved inklusion of born med saerlig behov i grundskolen2013In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 137-143Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Karlsson, Kristina
    Inclusive education in Sweden?: A critical analysis2011In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 541-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When it comes to pupils in need of special support and pupils with disabilities, Sweden's compulsory school system is sometimes considered a one-track system. This article analyses and critically discusses current policy and practices at various levels of Sweden's compulsory school system for these pupils. The analysis traces three themes at the national and municipal levels: (1) values and goals; (2) organisation and placement of pupils; and (3) importance of categories in obtaining support. A rather complex picture emerges from this analysis. Several conclusions are made: (1) state policies leave a lot of room for interpretation at the municipal and school levels, and this results in an extensive variation; (2) Swedish state policy is not as inclusive as is often stated; (3) celebration of difference seems to be hard to achieve; (4) learning goals can be a double-edged sword with regard to inclusion; and (5) most pupils appear to enjoy participation in school, and in an international perspective, Swedish classrooms seem to be largely democratic.

  • 80.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    Linköpings universitet.
    Inclusive education in Sweden?: A critical analysis2011In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 541-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When it comes to pupils in need of special support and pupils with disabilities, Sweden's compulsory school system is sometimes considered a one-track system. This article analyses and critically discusses current policy and practices at various levels of Sweden's compulsory school system for these pupils. The analysis traces three themes at the national and municipal levels: (1) values and goals; (2) organisation and placement of pupils; and (3) importance of categories in obtaining support. A rather complex picture emerges from this analysis. Several conclusions are made: (1) state policies leave a lot of room for interpretation at the municipal and school levels, and this results in an extensive variation; (2) Swedish state policy is not as inclusive as is often stated; (3) celebration of difference seems to be hard to achieve; (4) learning goals can be a double-edged sword with regard to inclusion; and (5) most pupils appear to enjoy participation in school, and in an international perspective, Swedish classrooms seem to be largely democratic

  • 81.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Inclusive education in Sweden: Past, present and future issues2012In: Bildning för alla: En pedagogisk utmaning, Kristianstad: Kristianstad University Press , 2012, p. 161-174Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Inclusive education in Sweden: Past, present and future issues2012In: Bildning för alla: En pedagogisk utmaning / [ed] Barow, Thomas ; Östlund, Daniel, Kristianstad: Kristianstad University Press , 2012, p. 161-174Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 83. Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Inclusive education in Sweden: Past, present and future issues2012In: Bildning för alla: En pedagogisk utmaning / [ed] Barow, Thomas; Östlund ,Daniel, Kristianstad University Press , 2012, p. 161-174Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Klang, Nina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Gustafson, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Möllås, Gunvie
    Nilholm, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Enacting the role of special needs educator: six Swedish case studies2017In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 391-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing focus on inclusion, special needs educators (SNEs) are now expected to share responsibility for pupils with teacher colleagues and to lead school development, but it is a challenge to enact this role in schools. The aim of the study was to explore how professional roles of Swedish SNEs are enacted in local school contexts. From a survey of SNEs in 10 Swedish municipalities, six participants whose work tasks were expected to correspond to the degree ordinances for their university training were chosen. The participants were followed at work, and data were collected through observation of the participants at work, participants’ diaries and interviews with the participants, their teacher colleagues and their school principals. The analysis involved both quantitative and qualitative methods. First, based on the researchers’ observations of the participants at work, categories of SNEs’ tasks were discerned, and the amount of time devoted to those categories of tasks was summarised. Second, case study narratives of the SNEs’ work were constructed to describe how the participants, their teacher colleagues and their school principals view the SNE role and to describe how the work is enacted in various school contexts. The results revealed seven categories of work tasks practised to varying degrees by the six SNEs. The case study narratives exposed large variation in how the SNEs conceptualised their role and how it evolved in relation to local school contexts. The results of the study are discussed with regard to the role of the SNE in relation to policies of inclusion. 

  • 85.
    Klang, Nina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Gustafsson, Katarina
    Uppsala universitet.
    Möllås, Gunvie
    Jönköping university.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Uppsala universitet.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Enacting the role of special needs educator: six Swedish case studies2017In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 391-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing focus on inclusion, special needs educators (SNEs) are now expected to share responsibility for pupils with teacher colleagues and to lead school development, but it is a challenge to enact this role in schools. The aim of the study was to explore how professional roles of Swedish SNEs are enacted in local school contexts. From a survey of SNEs in 10 Swedish municipalities, six participants whose work tasks were expected to correspond to the degree ordinances for their university training were chosen. The participants were followed at work, and data were collected through observation of the participants at work, participants’ diaries and interviews with the participants, their teacher colleagues and their school principals. The analysis involved both quantitative and qualitative methods. First, based on the researchers’ observations of the participants at work, categories of SNEs’ tasks were discerned, and the amount of time devoted to those categories of tasks was summarised. Second, case study narratives of the SNEs’ work were constructed to describe how the participants, their teacher colleagues and their school principals view the SNE role and to describe how the work is enacted in various school contexts. The results revealed seven categories of work tasks practised to varying degrees by the six SNEs. The case study narratives exposed large variation in how the SNEs conceptualised their role and how it evolved in relation to local school contexts. The results of the study are discussed with regard to the role of the SNE in relation to policies of inclusion.

  • 86.
    Klang, Nina
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden..
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Educ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nilholm, Claes
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Educ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hansson, Susanne
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education. Univ Karlstad, Dept Educ Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Bengtsson, Karin
    Univ Karlstad, Dept Educ Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Instructional Practices for Pupils with an Intellectual Disability in Mainstream and Special Educational Settings2019In: International journal of disability, development and education, ISSN 1034-912X, E-ISSN 1465-346XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inclusion agenda has influenced education systems around the world, resulting in better access to mainstream education for pupils with special educational needs (SEN). While numerous studies have compared outcomes of pupils with SEN in mainstream and special educational settings, research on the specific characteristics of these settings remains scarce. In this study a survey was conducted with teachers of pupils with an intellectual disability in mainstream (N?=?254) and special educational settings (N?=?392) in Sweden to investigate differences in instructional practices between these settings. The results showed that teachers? in the two settings devoted approximately similar amount of time to learner- centred and teacher-centred activities respectively, which slightly more focus on teacher-centred activities in both settings. The results of a Mann-Whitney U-test revealed that teachers in mainstream educational settings, in comparison with teachers in special educational settings, reported significantly higher expectations of pupils? performance but lower focus on supporting pupils? social participation. Support of pupils? social participation may be an important characteristic of special educational settings, and there is a need to further explore how knowledge of teacher practices in special educational settings may be used to support pupil?s social participation in mainstream settings.

  • 87.
    Magnusson, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet.
    Contextualizing inclusive education in educatinal policy: the case of Sweden2019In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 67-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we regard inclusive education as a policy phenomenon that contains a range of ideas about the purpose of education, the content of education and the organization of education. As a political ideal expressed in policy, inclusive education competes with other political ideals regarding education, for instance economic discourses that prioritize effectivity and attainment as educational goals. Thus, inclusive education has to be realized in contexts where available options for action are restricted by several and often contradictory educational policies on different levels of the education system. We argue that while research and debate about inclusive education are important, both are insufficient without analyses of the context of national educational policy. Any interpretation of inclusive education is necessarily situated in a general education policy, and measures of what ‘inclusive schools’ are dependent upon for instance, political interpretation(s) of inclusive education, resource allocation and political discourse on both local and national educational level. Here, we will provide support for this argument through presentation of both research on inclusive education, an alignment of prior analyses of Swedish national education policies and our own analyses of government statements.

  • 88.
    Magnusson, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Malardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Nilholm, Claes
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Varying access to professional, special educational support: A total population comparison of special educators in Swedish independent and municipal schools2018In: Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, ISSN 1471-3802, E-ISSN 1471-3802, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 225-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Independent schools are securely established in the Swedish education system. Prior research shows they generally have fewer pupils in need of support and lower proportions of special educators. Here, results are presented from a total population study of Swedish special educators (n=4252) examined after 2001. The aim was to explore and compare the occupational situations of special educators working in Swedish municipal and independent schools. This is done by studying their occupational situations and the values they express regarding identification of - and work with - special support. The results show that while the respondents are demographically similar and express similar values, they have very different occupational situations. Those employed in independent schools have fewer years' experience as special educators, are more often employed part-time than full-time and are more likely to hold other positions in schools (such as head teacher) than those employed in municipal schools. The results further illustrate different organisational approaches towards special educational support. Apparent is that independent schools offer professional special educational resources to a lower degree and utilise them differently. This is likely to influence the situation of pupils in need of support, and has consequences for the image of the Swedish education system.

  • 89.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    An amalgam of ideals: images of inclusion in the Salamanca Statement2019In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, Vol. 23, no 7-8, p. 677-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Salamanca Statement is a primary point of departure in research and policy on inclusive education. However, several problems have surfaced in the 25 years since its publication. In particular, several different interpretations of the concept of inclusive education and its enactment in practice have arisen. For instance, the definition of the pupil groups in focus varies greatly. There are also varying definitions of the importance of pupil-placement, when it comes to organisation of inclusive education. Using a theoretical framework combining Bacchi’s [1999. Women, Policy and Politics. The Construction of Policy Problems. London: Sage Publications] poststructural policy-analysis and concepts from Popkewitz [2009. “Curriculum Study, Curriculum History, and Curriculum Theory: The Reason of Reason.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 41 (3): 301–319. doi:10.1080/00220270902777021], this article illustrates that The Salamanca Statement allows for a variety of interpretations of inclusion. As a policy-concept, inclusion encompasses an amalgam of political ideals, including welfare-state ideals where education is viewed as a public-good, as well as market-ideals of education as a private-good. Policies of inclusion also define the desired citizen, through categories of disadvantaged children, the ones excluded but to be included for their own good as well as for the good of the future society. The conclusions are that researchers and policy-makers should elucidate what they mean by inclusion with for instance moral- and practical arguments rather than vague references to The Salamanca Statement.

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  • 90.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Inclusive education and school choice: Lessons from Sweden2020In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 25-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While school choice and marketisation have been studied extensively, some areas remain under-researched, for instance, the consequences of choice for the development of inclusive education. The aim of this article is to illustrate the consequences of school choice for inclusive education, as it relates to special education, using Sweden as a case study. The Swedish education system is often raised as inclusive in an international perspective. However, school segregation has been increasing in terms of attainment and pupils´ socio-economic-, and immigration backgrounds, groups that are over-represented among SEN-pupils and under-represented among pupils that exercise school choice. This summary of research indicates that the increased segregation in the education system also regards special education. There is a clustering of SEN-pupils at schools with particular profiles and a lower proportion at other types of schools, resources for special educational support are less accessible at independent schools, and school choice is not as open to SEN-pupils as other pupils. These are disconcerting results for an education system renowned for being inclusive.

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  • 91. Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Representations of special support: Independent schools’ descriptions of special educational provision2016In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 155-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important argument for the introduction of school choice in Sweden, was that independent schools would be a source for innovation. But do independent schools follow traditional patterns of special education, or do they aim for alternative organisational solutions, approaching inclusive education? Here, results from a total population questionnaire of the Swedish independent schools (N = 686; response rate = 79%) are presented. Four hundred written responses to two open-ended questions were received. The responses covered topics such as resource allocation, school descriptions and good practice. Themes and categories were condensed using qualitative content analysis and the results are theorised in terms of special educational perspectives and inclusive education. Results show examples of alternative and inclusive approaches, as well as examples of traditional understanding and organisation of special support within the field. The idea of market competition as a force of innovation is not supported in this material. Marketing and niching of schools can contribute to a less inclusive education system. More research that is both large scale and contextual is needed to understand further how schools cope with contradicting educational ideals and policy when competing for pupils.

  • 92. Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Traditions and Challenges: Special Support in Swedish Independent Compulsory Schools2015Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has two overarching aims. The first is to generate further knowledge about Swedish independent schools, specifically regarding the organisation and provision of special support and how these relate to special educational traditions and inclusive education. This is conducted through four empirical studies, utilising data gathered in two total population survey studies. The first survey was a total population study of Swedish independent compulsory schools (N = 686, response rate = 79%), and results from this study are presented in articles I, II and IV. Article III presents results derived from a total population survey of special pedagogues (SENCOs) and special education teachers in Sweden educated according to the degree ordinances of 2001, 2007 and 2008 (N = 4252, response rate = 75%). Article I contains a general description of special education issues in the total population of independent schools. Article II continues with comparisons of these issues in different groups of independent compulsory schools. Article III studies differences in organisational prioritisations regarding special support and special educators in municipal and independent schools. Finally, article IV presents qualitative content analysis of over 400 responses regarding special support at independent schools. The second overarching aim of the thesis is to further develop the discussions initiated in the articles about how special education and inclusive education can be understood in light of the education reforms that introduced the independent schools. A critical theoretical analysis and contextualization of the empirical results from the articles is conducted to explain and describe the consequences of the new (market) education paradigm. Results show that, generally, the independent schools have not challenged special educational traditions to a significant degree. Rather, traditional conceptions, explanations and organisational measures are reproduced, and in some cases enhanced, by market mechanisms. However, there are great differences between the different types of schools with regard to both their perspectives on special education and their organisational approaches. There are also indications that the principle of choice is limited for this pupil group as compared to some other groups. Additionally, the increasing clustering of pupils in need of special support at certain schools replicates a system with special schools. In this case, market mechanisms are contributing to a system that is in contradiction to the idea of an inclusive school system. The theoretical interpretation of the results suggests that Skrtic’s theory can largely explain the empirical patterns found. However, his theory gives rise to different predictions or potential scenarios depending on what parts of his theory are underscored. Moreover, his theory must be complemented with additional perspectives to more fully account for diversity within the results, particularly as the results indicate that discourses/paradigms of special education and inclusive education often occur simultaneously and can thus be seen as expressions of practices taking place in a complex social and political environment. Keywords: Special education; inclusion; school choice; education reform; independent schools; compulso-ry schools; pupils in need of special support, SENCOs; special education teachers; critical pragmatism; Thomas M. Skrtic

  • 93.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Perimeters of, and challenges to, the jurisdiction of Swedish special educators: an exploration of free text responsesIn: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Special needs educators (SNEs) have important roles in many education systems. However, their roles are often poorly defined, and differ greatly both between and within education systems. Studies show that SNEs have diverse tasks, have problems defining their jurisdiction, and approach special support with different perspectives than other professions. Here, the aim is to explore what Swedish SNEs express regarding their occupational role and jurisdiction, utilising 676 free text responses to an open question in a total population survey. The results illustrate that SNEs often have to take on tasks they do not view as appropriate and that they often experience misunderstanding from head teachers and colleagues about their roles and tasks, and that they risk being replaced by other professions. Some explanations can be found in vague legal definitions of their jurisdiction and the necessity of adaption to the local school context. The results are interpreted using Abbott’s theory of jurisdiction and Evetts’ distinctions of professionalisation and professionalism. The study confirms results from prior research to a high degree but adds further nuance and dimensions to them with formulations from active professionals.

  • 94.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Malardalen Univ, Sch Educ Culture & Commun, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Educ Studies, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Perimeters of, and challenges to, the jurisdiction of Swedish special educators: an exploration of free text responses2019In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 257-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Special needs educators (SNEs) have important roles in many education systems. However, their roles are often poorly defined, and differ greatly both between and within education systems. Studies show that SNEs have diverse tasks, have problems defining their jurisdiction, and approach special support with different perspectives than other professions. Here, the aim is to explore what Swedish SNEs express regarding their occupational role and jurisdiction, utilising 676 free text responses to an open question in a total population survey. The results illustrate that SNEs often have to take on tasks they do not view as appropriate and that they often experience misunderstanding from head teachers and colleagues about their roles and tasks, and that they risk being replaced by other professions. Some explanations can be found in vague legal definitions of their jurisdiction and the necessity of adaption to the local school context. The results are interpreted using Abbott’s theory of jurisdiction and Evetts’ distinctions of professionalisation and professionalism. The study confirms results from prior research to a high degree but adds further nuance and dimensions to them with formulations from active professionals.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 95.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University; Uppsala University.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Perimeters of, and challenges to, the jurisdiction of Swedish special educators: an exploration of free text responses2019In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 257-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Special needs educators (SNEs) have important roles in many education systems. However, their roles are often poorly defined, and differ greatly both between and within education systems. Studies show that SNEs have diverse tasks, have problems defining their jurisdiction, and approach special support with different perspectives than other professions. Here, the aim is to explore what Swedish SNEs express regarding their occupational role and jurisdiction, utilising 676 free text responses to an open question in a total population survey. The results illustrate that SNEs often have to take on tasks they do not view as appropriate and that they often experience misunderstanding from head teachers and colleagues about their roles and tasks, and that they risk being replaced by other professions. Some explanations can be found in vague legal definitions of their jurisdiction and the necessity of adaption to the local school context. The results are interpreted using Abbott’s theory of jurisdiction and Evetts’ distinctions of professionalisation and professionalism. The study confirms results from prior research to a high degree but adds further nuance and dimensions to them with formulations from active professionals.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 96.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. School of Education, culture and communication, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden .
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Contextualizing inclusive education in educational policy: the case of Sweden2019In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 559-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we regard inclusive education as a policy phenomenon that contains a range ofideas about the purpose of education, the content of education and the organization ofeducation. As a political ideal expressed in policy, inclusive education competes with otherpolitical ideals regarding education, for instance economic discourses that prioritize effectivityand attainment as educational goals. Thus, inclusive education has to be realized in contextswhere available options for action are restricted by several and often contradictory educationalpolicies on different levels of the education system. We argue that while research anddebate about inclusive education are important, both are insufficient without analyses of thecontext of national educational policy. Any interpretation of inclusive education is necessarilysituated in a general education policy, and measures of what˜inclusive schools" aredependent upon for instance, political interpretation(s) of inclusive education, resourceallocation and political discourse on both local and national educational level. Here, we willprovide support for this argument through presentation of both research on inclusiveeducation, an alignment of prior analyses of Swedish national education policies and ourown analyses of government statements.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 97.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Nilholm, C.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society, Malmö, Sweden .
    Similar Situations? Special Needs in Different Groups of Independent Schools2015In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, ISSN 0031-3831, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 377-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores differences between different groups of Swedish independent schools' work with pupils in need of special support (PNSS). Data comes from a total population study of independent schools. Data is analyzed using six categories of profile that may affect the special educational values at the schools, and therefore the situation for PNSS. Additionally, the data is analyzed with regard to the school ownership structure. Results show that diagnosis is important for receiving support, despite contrary legislative intentions. The groups differ regarding proportions of PNSS (12-100%), incidence of refusals of admission (8-40%), and in the way they explain problems and organize support. Generally, there is little challenge to a deficit perspective in views on school difficulties and the organization of support; market rationality may be a contributing factor. There are more differences between educational profiles of schools than there are between types of school ownership.

  • 98.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Malmö högskola.
    Different Approaches to Special Educational Support?: Special Educators in Swedish Independent and Municipal schoolsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The independent schools have become securely established in the Swedish education system as tokens of school choice and educational innovation. Prior research has shown that they generally have fewer pupils in need of support and lower proportions of special educators. Here, results are presented from a total population survey study of Swedish special educators (n=4252) educated according to degree ordinances from 2001 and onwards. The aim of this paper is to explore prerequisites of special educational work in Swedish independent schools and municipal schools in terms of: a) the occurrence of these special educators and their occupational situations, and b) what specific values they express regarding identification and work with school problems.

    Results show that while the respondents are demographically similar and express similar values, they have very different occupational situations. Those employed in independent schools often have shorter experience as special educators, are more often employed part time than full time and have other occupational positions to a higher degree, for instance as head teachers, than those employed in municipal schools.

    The results can be seen as indicators of different approaches towards special educational needs and the special educational work. Apparent is that independent schools offer these special educational resources to a much lower degree and utilize them differently. This is likely to influence the current situation of pupils. It can also be interpreted as an indicator of innovative approaches to special education at the independent schools that do employ special educators.

  • 99. Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Nilholm, Claes
    Similar Situations?: Special Needs in Different Groups of Independent Schools2014In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 377-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores differences between different groups of Swedish independent schools’ work with pupils in need of special support (PNSS). Data comes from a total population study of independent schools. Data is analyzed using six categories of profile that may affect the special educational values at the schools, and therefore the situation for PNSS. Additionally, the data is analyzed with regard to the school ownership structure. Results show that diagnosis is important for receiving support, despite contrary legislative intentions. The groups differ regarding proportions of PNSS (12-100%), incidence of refusals of admission (8-40%), and in the way they explain problems and organize support. Generally, there is little challenge to a deficit perspective in views on school difficulties and the organization of support; market rationality may be a contributing factor. There are more differences between educational profiles of schools than there are between types of school ownership.

  • 100.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Malmö universitet.
    Similar Situations?: Special Needs in Different Groups of Independent Schools2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 377-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores differences between different groups of Swedish independent schools’ work with pupils in need of special support (PNSS). Data comes from a total population study of independent schools. Data is analyzed using six categories of profile that may affect the special educational values at the schools, and therefore the situation for PNSS. Additionally, the data is analyzed with regard to the school ownership structure. Results show that diagnosis is important for receiving support, despite contrary legislative intentions. The groups differ regarding proportions of PNSS (12–100%), incidence of refusals of admission (8–40%), and in the way they explain problems and organize support. Generally, there is little challenge to a deficit perspective in views on school difficulties and the organization of support; market rationality may be a contributing factor. There are more differences between educational profiles of schools than there are between types of school ownership.

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