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  • 51.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå Technical University.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Luleå Technical University.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå Technical University.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Gated maturity assessment - Supporting Gate Review Decisions with Knowledge Maturity Assessment2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In aeronautics industry today, companies collaborate closely in virtual enterprises to develop products and solutions that are more integrated and more complex, and that aims to target larger responsibilities regarding the product life-cycle. On top of this, lead-time and development costs needs to be reduced.<br/>The 7 Day Proposal (7DP) is the conceptual name of a framework wherein a customized proposal is produced by a virtual enterprise consortium within seven days from a received request for proposal. This is substantially shorter than what is current practice today and implies that new methods, tools and ways of working are needed. Today, in offer processes, time is lost because of insufficient, or immature, available information and knowledge at gate reviews when decisions are due, causing time consuming iterations. <br/>The Gated Maturity Assessment (GMA) concept is intended to help reduce these costly iterations by targeting the ambiguity at these gate reviews in order to reduce the uncertainty in decision base. <br/>Other frameworks using maturity include Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) and the Capability Maturity Model (CMM). TRL is an artefact-focused framework developed by NASA to assess space technology maturity. CMM is a process-focused framework for assessing organisations' software development process capability (maturity). <br/>The GMA is a concept for assessing the maturity of the knowledge that goes into a gate review (i.e. a decision document). The GMA is intended to support decision makers by assuring confidence in these decision points and thereby reducing the number of iterations, hereby reducing lead-time and increases the quality of the process.<br/>This paper reports on the development of the GMA concept from the 7DP use case, and also the development of a support tool intended for use in the 7DP process. <br/>Essentially, the 7DP process is a stage-gate process like many corporate product development processes with a number of decision gates. Therefore there is a future wish to move towards an engineering design context with this concept. <br/>The work is part of the 70 million € European project VIVACE where GMA is part of a Knowledge Enabled Engineering solution to the 7DP use case.

  • 52. Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Larsson, Tobias
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Gated maturity assessment: supporting gate review decision documents with maturity of knowledge assessment2008In: CIRP Design Conference 2008: April 7 - 9, 2008, Enschede / [ed] Fred J. A. M. van Houten, Enschede: Laboratory of Design, Production and Management, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Univ. of Twente , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In aeronautics industry today, companies collaborate closely in virtual enterprises to develop products and solutions that are more integrated and more complex, and that aims to target larger responsibilities regarding the product life-cycle. On top of this, lead-time and development costs needs to be reduced.The 7 Day Proposal (7DP) is the conceptual name of a framework wherein a customized proposal is produced by a virtual enterprise consortium within seven days from a received request for proposal. This is substantially shorter than what is current practice today and implies that new methods, tools and ways of working are needed. Today, in offer processes, time is lost because of insufficient, or immature, available information and knowledge at gate reviews when decisions are due, causing time consuming iterations. The Gated Maturity Assessment (GMA) concept is intended to help reduce these costly iterations by targeting the ambiguity at these gate reviews in order to reduce the uncertainty in decision base. Other frameworks using maturity include Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) and the Capability Maturity Model (CMM). TRL is an artefact-focused framework developed by NASA to assess space technology maturity. CMM is a process-focused framework for assessing organisations' software development process capability (maturity). The GMA is a concept for assessing the maturity of the knowledge that goes into a gate review (i.e. a decision document). The GMA is intended to support decision makers by assuring confidence in these decision points and thereby reducing the number of iterations, hereby reducing lead-time and increases the quality of the process.This paper reports on the development of the GMA concept from the 7DP use case, and also the development of a support tool intended for use in the 7DP process. Essentially, the 7DP process is a stage-gate process like many corporate product development processes with a number of decision gates. Therefore there is a future wish to move towards an engineering design context with this concept. The work is part of the 70 million € European project VIVACE where GMA is part of a Knowledge Enabled Engineering solution to the 7DP use case.

  • 53.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Tatipala, Sravan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Product-Service Systems for Functional Offering of Automotive Fixtures: Using Design Automation as Enabler2017In: Procedia CIRP: 9th CIRP Conference on Industrial Product/Service-Systems (IPSS), Copenhagen, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 64, p. 411-416Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In production of automotive components, control-measuring is an important activity to assure that geometries meet expected tolerances. This is done via randomly taking parts out of production for control-measuring in a fixture. This fixture is both a tedious and repetitive product to design and configure. The aim of this paper is therefore to present an approach to adopt a design automation strategy towards supporting the configuration of fixtures and to discuss opportunities for moving towards a Product-Service System-paradigm in this domain. This paper reports on a development of a design automation demonstrator to configure fixtures for control-measuring. The demonstrator has been developed in a commercial CAD-environment and will be deployed through a web-based interface. The paper concludes with a discussion on PSS-opportunities and how to drive this with a Knowledge-Based Engineering-modelling approach. 

  • 54.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Assessment of team based innovation in a Product Service System development process2011In: Research into Design: Supporting Sustainable Product Development / [ed] Amaresh Chakrabarti, Bangalore, India, 2011, Vol. 3, p. 711-718Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is often measured based on how the product performs on the market. This makes it difficult tomeasure the performance of a team since the time to develop a product may take several years. In this paperwe show the importance of creating a common ground and facilitation in a team, two aspects that is not easymeasure, but should be assessed. We also discuss innovation on three interrelated organizational levels, theoperational, which is the development team and in focus in this paper, the managerial and the strategic level.We found that companies need indicators to measure and/or assess performance on all three levels and thatmore research is needed to find the inter-links between the levels to prescribe measures and assessment points.

  • 55.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bergström, Mattias
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Exploring challenges for innovation-driven virtual enterprises2009In: Research into Design: Supporting multiple facets of product development / [ed] Amaresh Chakrabarti, Singapore: Research Publishing Services, 2009, Vol. 2, p. 568-575Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have suggested virtual enterprises (VEs) as a promising new form of organization. VEs are created to gain several benefits, for example, risk-and-revenue sharing, entering new markets, etc. However, in this study we focus on increasing the innovation in the VE consortiums. Based on past experience and knowledge from related fields, we argue that VE consortiums in the Swedish industry are rare. Thus, this study highlights and explores the challenges, particularly four areas: networking capability, information and communication technology (ICT) usage, knowledge engineering, and team based innovation. These areas contribute to the facilitation of VE creation and its effective operation. Each of these areas is discussed and propositions are formed which will guide the future research. Finally, we have discussed the concept of innovation driven virtual enterprise that combines open innovation ideology with the virtual enterprise concept.

  • 56.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    How are knowledge and information evaluated?: decision making in stage-gate processes2009In: Design has never been this cool : ICED 09, the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 24 - 27 August 2009, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA ; proceedings volume / [ed] Margareta Norell Bergendahl, Martin Grimheden, Larry Leifer, Stanford, CA, USA, 2009, Vol. 17, p. 195-206, article id 342Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In stage-gate processes decisions are made based on the knowledge and information developed during the preceding phase. The purpose of this study is to explore the state-of-practice in industry regarding the assessment of knowledge and information at gates. The result indicates that gate reviews relate mainly to assessments of technical performance and function. Relatively little attention is given to assess the quality of the knowledge base, making it difficult to identify outdated, irrelevant and non-applicable information and knowledge. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in the decision-making process, as reviewers ask for the design rationale and further evidence of what has been done and why. However, evaluating such knowledge is currently a poorly understood aspect of gate reviews. It is concluded that even though the specific focus of such meetings is not on the evaluation of knowledge and information, the opportunity to work towards a better support of such activities is promising, especially since the respondents perceive the benefits that come from an increased attention to assessments of both the explicit and tacit knowledge base used in gate reviews.

  • 57.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Larsson, Andreas
    How are knowledge and information evaluated?: decision making in stage-gate processes2009In: Design has never been this cool: ICED 09, the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 24 - 27 August 2009, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA ; proceedings volume / [ed] Margareta Norell Bergendahl; Martin Grimheden; Larry Leifer, Design Research Society, 2009, Vol. 1: Design processes, p. 195-206Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Stage-Gate processes decisions are made based on the knowledge and information developed during the preceding phase. The purpose of this study is to explore the current state-of-practice in industry regarding the assessment of knowledge and information at gate. The result indicates that gate reviews relates mainly to assessments of technical performance and function. Relatively little attention is given to assess the quality of the knowledge base, making it difficult to identify outdated, irrelevant and non-applicable information and knowledge. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in the decision making process, as reviewers ask for design rationale and further evidence of what has been done, and why. However, evaluating such knowledge is currently a poorly understood aspect of gate reviews. Conclusions drawn is that, although the specific focus of such meetings is not the evaluation of knowledge and information, there is a promising opportunity to work towards a better support of such activities, especially since the respondents perceive benefits coming from an increased attention to assessments of both the explicit and tacit knowledge base used in gate reviews.

  • 58.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Wall, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Panarotto, Massimo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Maturity of models in a multi-model decision support system2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED / [ed] Salustri F.,Skec S.,Maier A.M.,Kim H.,Kokkolaras M.,Oehmen J.,Fadel G.,Van der Loos M., The Design Society, 2017, Vol. 6, p. 237-246, article id DS87-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce uncertainty in decisions, engineers experiment with models, such as, exploring what-if scenarios, and thus increase knowledge. Still, because modelling is an idealisation of reality, there is often substantial uncertainty involved, and this decision makers less confident to lean onto models alone when making decisions. The aim of this paper is to conceptualize a design support for improving confidence and validity in models, by communicating uncertainties from modelling and simulation to relevant stakeholders. The paper reports on empirical data from a research profile workshop. The findings illustrate the importance of communicating uncertainties from models between relevant stakeholders in order to drive action. The paper then presents an approach to visualize model maturity levels as well as impact levels in relation to one or several aggregated models. With this approach, focus can move to discuss the knowledge about the knowledge that is created from modelling, and to facilitate discussions on a meta-level about the modelling and simulation. This is exemplified by a test scenario where a multi-disciplinary modelling and simulation of an asphalt roller is presented.

  • 59.
    Johansson, Pär
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Perceptions of and challenges with knowledge sharing: enterprise collaboration in a virtual aeronautical enterprise2011In: Impacting society through engineering design: ICED 11 København, the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design / [ed] Steve J Culley, Ben J Hicks, Tim C McAloone, Tim J Howard, W Chen, Glasgow, UK: The Design Society, 2011, Vol. 18, p. 332-341Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how knowledge is managed and shared within product development in an enterprise collaboration context in the aerospace manufacturing industry.

    This paper is based on a qualitative survey that was sent to seven companies in the European aerospace manufacturing industry, focusing on how they perceive knowledge sharing, and on common problems and challenges with knowledge sharing.

    Lack of trust and fear of losing competitive advantage is identified as a problem area. Further, information and communication technology is seen as an important enabler. In this area it is found that it is important to develop strategies for knowledge sharing in collaboration with business developers, engineering, and IT architects from various organizations in the extended enterprise.

  • 60.
    Johansson, Pär
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Perceptions of and challenges with knowledge sharing: enterprise collaboration in a virtual aeronautical enterprise2011In: Impacting society through engineering design: ICED 11 København, the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 15th - 18th August 2011, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen, Denmark ; proceedings volumes / [ed] Steve J Culley; Ben J Hicks; Tim C McAloone; Tim J Howard; W Chen, Design Research Society, 2011, Vol. 6 : Design information and knowledge, p. 332-341Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how knowledge is managed and shared within product development in an enterprise collaboration context in the aerospace manufacturing industry.This paper is based on a qualitative survey that was sent to seven companies in the European aerospace manufacturing industry, focusing on how they perceive knowledge sharing, and on common problems and challenges with knowledge sharing.Lack of trust and fear of losing competitive advantage is identified as a problem area. Further, information and communication technology is seen as an important enabler. In this area it is found that it is important to develop strategies for knowledge sharing in collaboration with business developers, engineering, and IT architects from various organizations in the extended enterprise.

  • 61.
    Johansson, Pär
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Take the knowledge path to support knowledge management in product/service systems2010In: Industrial product-service systems (IPS²): proceedings of the 2nd CIRP IPS² Conference / [ed] Tomohiko Sakao, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010, Vol. 2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product/Service-Systems (PSS) strategies are a part of an overall movement towards a service-based society that is increasingly knowledge and information based. Knowledge sharing for cross-company innovation and development projects has been recognized as troublesome, since disparate knowledge domains must be brought together in a cohesive way to support both creativity and innovations. Stage-Gate process models are widely used in collaborative development projects but they do not suggest how to assess the degree of understanding of the produced information and the results in projects. A successful assessment of knowledge should be used for designing the next development steps in form of work methods and tools. This paper describes an approach for supporting Knowledge Management and Knowledge Sharing in the development of PSS. Finally, a concept for supporting knowledge assessment is proposed, based on designing and visualizing knowledge paths.

  • 62. Johansson, Pär
    et al.
    Johansson, Christian
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Take the knowledge path to support knowledge management in product/service systems2010In: Industrial product-service systems (IPS²): proceedings of the 2nd CIRP IPS² Conference [2010, Linköping, 14-15 April] / [ed] Tomohiko Sakao, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product/Service-Systems (PSS) strategies are a part of an overall movement towards a service-based society that is increasingly knowledge and information based. Knowledge sharing for cross-company innovation and development projects has been recognized as troublesome, since disparate knowledge domains must be brought together in a cohesive way to support both creativity and innovations. Stage-Gate process models are widely used in collaborative development projects but they do not suggest how to assess the degree of understanding of the produced information and the results in projects. A successful assessment of knowledge should be used for designing the next development steps in form of work methods and tools. This paper describes an approach for supporting Knowledge Management and Knowledge Sharing in the development of PSS. Finally, a concept for supporting knowledge assessment is proposed, based on designing and visualizing knowledge paths.

  • 63. Karlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Törlind, Peter
    Johansson, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Managing Rejected Ideas from Projects— A Way to Avoid Idea Cemeteries2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An often neglected topic in idea management research is the continuity and stability of current idea management practices. This study addresses this topic by following a hand-over of ideas from a project to the line organization in a company. Moreover, idea portfolios are proposed and empirically explored as a means of managing and further developing these ideas. This particular idea-capturing scheme is believed to incorporate both codification and personalization approaches in the management of ideas. Twenty-one (21) semi-structured interviews, as well as observations, were conducted during a year, both before and during the implementation of idea portfolios at the company. Results from the study show the importance of considering the recipient of a codification effort in order for codification to become a constructive element rather than a barrier. Another finding is that different stages of maturity and levels of activity should be handled when managing ideas. Therefore, an idea portfolio is something of a hybrid between an idea bank and a register of on-going activities. Managing ideas in a transparent way was also shown to have its pros and cons. Increased transparency can both provide enhanced legitimacy for working with an idea, and increase the accountability of an idea, and can therefore be perceived as an obstacle. Finally, the shared responsibility of an idea that is the consequence of working with an idea portfolio can make the line manager something of an “accomplice”. This in turn helps in propelling the development of the idea forward.

  • 64.
    Kastensson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Decision-making in gates: based on formal basis or gut feeling?2011In: International Journal of Technology Intelligence and Planning (IJTIP), ISSN 1740-2832, E-ISSN 1740-2840, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 140-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies continuously deal with development of innovations. Many of these are cancelled on the way, in gate meetings. This paper investigates why technologies are cancelled, and on which basis managers make decisions. The paper is based on a study from the automotive industry with interviews with different stakeholders in the gates. The most common reasons for stopping projects were time, cost and technology readiness. Gut feeling is found to be an important factor when evaluating projects. This paper concludes that managers need to understand the role of intuition and query for this subjective information in addition to objective measures.

  • 65.
    Kastensson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Decision-making in gates: based on formal basis or gut feeling?2011In: International Journal of Technology Intelligence and Planning (IJTIP), ISSN 1740-2832, E-ISSN 1740-2840, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 140-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies continuously deal with development of innovations. Many of these are cancelled on the way, in gate meetings. This paper investigates why technologies are cancelled, and on which basis managers make decisions. The paper is based on a study from the automotive industry with interviews with different stakeholders in the gates. The most common reasons for stopping projects were time, cost and technology readiness. Gut feeling is found to be an important factor when evaluating projects. This paper concludes that managers need to understand the role of intuition and query for this subjective information in addition to objective measures.

  • 66. Larsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Bertoni, Marco
    Johansson, Christian
    Chirumalla, Koteshwar
    Project: CRESCENDO - Collaborative and Robust Engineering using Simulation Capability Enabling Next Design Optimisation2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The IMG4 project CRESCENDO addresses the Vision 2020 objectives for the aeronautical industry by contributing significantly to the fulfilment of three specific targets of the aeronautical industry’s Strategic Research Agenda. CRESCENDO will develop the foundations for the Behavioural Digital Aircraft (BDA),taking experience and results from VIVACE, and integrating these into a federative system and building the BDA on top of them. Main components of the BDA are: the Model Store, the Simulation Factory, the Quality Laboratory, and the Enterprise Collaboration Capabilities. It will be validated through use cases and test cases concerning “Power Plant Integration”, “Energy Aircraft”, “Thermal Aircraft” and “Value Generation” design problems and viewpoints during the preliminary design, detailed design, and test and certification phases of a generic aircraft product life-cycle. The BDA will become the new backbone for the simulation world, just as the Digital Mock-up (DMU) is today for the Product Life-cycle Management (PLM) world. This is considered a challenging area for research and innovation for the next decade. Hence, the CRESCENDO results will provide the aeronautics supply chain with the means to realistically manage and mature the virtual product in the extended/virtual enterprise with all of the requested functionality and components in each phase of the product engineering life cycle. CRESCENDO will make its approach available to the aeronautics supply chain via existing networks, information dissemination, training and technology transfer actions. The project will last three years and be organised into six subprojects: four technical and business-oriented subprojects, one “Enabling Capabilities” subproject which will deliver the BDA and a sixth subproject, responsible for consortium management and innovation issues. CRESCENDO will bring together 59 partners from industry, research institutes, universities and technology providers

  • 67. Larsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bergström, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, External, LTU Business AB.
    Johansson, Christian
    Johansson, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Karlsson, Stig
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Håkansson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Project: PIEp - Product Innovation Engineering Programme2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    PROJEKTSAMMANFATTNINGPIEp, Product Innovation Engineering Program är ett nationellt program som syftar till att stärka förmågan till innovativ produkt- och affärsutveckling. PIEp spänner över fältet från teori till praktik, från forskning om innovationssystem till proaktivt arbete för att stärka innovationskraft och därigenom uppnå en systemförändring inom forskning, utbildning och utveckling. PIEp skall pågå under tio år, 2007-2016 och engagera flera av Sveriges lärosäten och forskningsinstitut involverade i innovation och produktutveckling. PIEp leds och administreras vid KTH i partnerskap med Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Högskolan i Jönköping, Designhögskolan vid Umeå Universitet, Centrum för Teknik, Medicin och Hälsa, Luleå Tekniska Universitet, samt en rad företag och organisationer.

  • 68. Larsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Johansson, Christian
    Isaksson, Ola
    Project: VIVACE - Value Improvement Through a Virtual Aeronautical Collaborative Enterprise2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    VIVACE is an Aeronautical Collaborative Design Environment with associated Processes, Models and Methods. This environment will help to design an aircraft and its engines as a whole, providing to the aeronautics supply chain in an extended enterprise, virtual products with all requested functionality and components in each phase of the product engineering life cycle

  • 69.
    Lugnet, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Johansson, Christian
    Larsson, Tobias
    Project: Fuel Efficient Transmission Technology Concepts: Design Methodology2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The need to reduce our consumption of fossil fuels is a major factor influencing governments and industry and decisions being made for future investments. In this vein, Volvo Construction Equipment AB has identified a new transmission technology which has been shown to offer a substantial saving in fuel consumption. The aim of this proposed project is to provide support towards achieving the objective of bringing this new transmission technology to the market as quickly as possible.

  • 70.
    Nergård, Henrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Andersson, Petter
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Concept automation and decision support in a functional product development perspective2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71. Nergård, Henrik
    et al.
    Andersson, Petter
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Concept automation and decision support in a functional product development perspective2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional product development is dedicated to, primarily, concept development, where the development of hardware components and services meet in a global, distributed business oriented process. The focus is set on knowledge based,information driven and simulation support in a life cycle perspective to enable the design of a total offer. This focus, in combination with the industries’ need to reduce cost by shorten product development lead time, results in a need for methods and tools for managing requirements from the whole products life cycle, including aftermarket parameters, for instance maintenance, recycling, operation etc. This paper aims to describe knowledge based methods and tools and how they can support functional product development.Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) (Stokes, 2001) is an engineering method that enables creation of and changes to the product definition, tightly linked with the geometry model. Knowledge is captured trough various sources such as design specifications, standard documentation, optimization routines etc. The methodology is used in both small feature applications as well as larger models where sub-applications can be included to form a more complex generative model. Sandberg, et al.(2005) describes an application to design flanges that automatically executes rules based on thestandard specifications where parameters are adjusting the design for standard sizes to minimize the number of different standard components used in the design, this in order to satisfy customer aftermarket requirement for serviceability. Boart, et al. (2006) describes a method to automatically update a derived context model including the mesh that is based on engineering experience from earlier analysis on a component level. This enables CFD-, Weld-, and life cycle-, analysis and simulation for decision support in a functional product perspective. Knowledge based applications combined and implemented as subapplications form a more complex generic model, capable of topological changes and inheritance of "intelligence" from sub applications.In the Aero engine business the aftermarket can have time spans of up to 30 years, thus aftermarket parameters such as maintenance, recycling, operation, education, services etc. and the knowledge from their design processes need to be available in the early product development stage so that the designer can take aftermarket issues into account when designing the product or total offer. When feeding back downstream knowledge there is a bit of uncertainty inherent; how well known is it? Are all parameters known? Knowing where there is uncertainty and the magnitude of the uncertainty enables designers to take corrective action regarding the uncertainty and thus reduce risk. This is where the measurement of maturity can be used as a way to assess this knowledge. Maturity is about knowing with which certainty a parameter has a specific value.KBE, the methodology and applications support Functional Product Development in the sense that it brings awareness to the designer of downstream processes and also enables simulation and evaluation of design decision impact on the product life-cycle. Finding important aftermarket parameters that affect the total offer and incorporating them into the early stages of the design needs to be investigated to ensure maturity and consistency with the design.

  • 72. Nergård, Henrik
    et al.
    Johansson, Christian
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå Technical University.
    Supporting decision making with agent-based modelling and simulation2008In: Proceedings of the 10th International Design Conference, Design 2008, University of Zagreb , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In aeronautics today, manufacturers make extensive use of modelling and simulation capabilities with the purpose to design and evaluate specific engineering tasks and related parameters. The objective with these activities is to further reduce cost, lead-time and increase quality to strive for greater competitiveness, market share and sustainability. In recent years, aeronautics have shown interest in the concept of providing a Total Offer (TO) or selling a Functional Product (FP) [Alonso-Rasgado et al, 2004] (a.k.a. Product Service System (PSS) [Matzen et al, 2005]). The functional product, consisting of both hardware and service components developed simultaneously, provided as a function to the customers, calls for a different approach in the development process, i.e. a Functional Product Development (FPD) process [Nergård et al, 2006]. The main reason for this is the perspective of the product’s life cycle. Instead of components being sold to and owned by the customer, the hardware and service provided as FP implies that ownership and thus the risk remains with the manufacturer throughout the life cycle of the provided function. In order to reduce the risk, and make use of the possibilities for continuous product development and remanufacturing, companies are moving towards making more use of modelling and simulation capabilities not only for the design but also in order to decide whether to offer the product as a FP or as a traditional hardware product. Modelling and simulation methods such as Computer Aided Design (CAD), Finite Element Analysis (FEA), multi-body dynamics (MBS) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are relatively mature and extensively used in most product development projects in aeronautics as design and development support tools. As these methods are maturing, they are integrated in support tools for engineers, such as Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) applications to a larger extent. However, these support tools are still used for the design and verification of specific engineering activities. This perspective supports design on a micro (individual activities) level, while on a macro level, with a holistic perspective of the product development process (PDP), the individual PD-activates can be seen as building blocks of the total system. Although it is possible to use these Knowledge Engineering (KE) applications to model the overall macro-level PD-process there are some issues that makes them less suitable. The level of detail in KE applications is not interesting in a macro-level model where the behaviour and interaction between applications, people, and resources are more interesting. The time each iteration takes has also to be considered, due to the fact that a model that takes hours to simulate is not suitable for use in a macro-level model where the simulation is run over longer model time intervals. Agent-based modelling [Sichman et al, 1998] is an approach where agents (i.e. micro level activities) are utilised to build a system (i.e. process) bottom-up by modelling the behaviour and interaction of the agents in a certain environment. This approach seems to be suitable from a macro level perspective, as information about PD-activities can be included in the agent’s behaviour. The objective of this paper is to discuss agent based modelling and simulation as decision support in functional product development, and to show example of the approach.

  • 73. Nergård, Henrik
    et al.
    Johansson, Christian
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Supporting decision making with agent-based modelling and simulation2008In: Design 2008: 10th International Design Conference, May 19-22, 2008, Dubrovnik, Croatia / [ed] Dorian Marjanovic; Mario Storga; Neven Pavkovic; Nenad Bojcetic, Zagreb: University of Zagreb , 2008, p. 1191-1198Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presented paper discusses using an agent based modelling and simulation approach to create dynamic models of actual product development activities. The modelled activities are created with the purpose to realise a decision support tool used in a Functional Product Development scenario. The decision support tool is called a Total Offer Readiness Level (TORL) and is used to assess whether the product development process is mature enough to be used in the development of a Total Offer providing only the function to the end user. The area of application and an example implementation has been developed and is shown with the purpose to highlight opportunities.

  • 74.
    Nergård, Henrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Solvang, Björn
    The Arctic University of Norway.
    Deng Solvang, Wei
    The Arctic University of Norway.
    Kärkkäinen, Jouko
    Centria.
    Pieskä, Sakari
    Centria.
    Rättyä, Jani
    Centria.
    Current status and upcoming needs in SME’s in Northern regions of Finland, Norway and Sweden: Technologies, personnel, market and ICT in the business process2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The results written in this document comes from a questionnaire that was sent out within the Interreg IV A Nord project Digital integrated Manufacturing. Partners in the project are CENTRIA Research and Development (Lead partner), Finland, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden and Narvik University College, Norway. The project is financed and supported by the European Commission via Europeiska regionala utvecklingsfonden, Länsstyrelsen Norrbotten, Luleå University of Technology, Lapin Liito, CENTRIA Research and Development, Innovasjon Norge, Troms fylkeskommune, Narvik University College and Nordland Fylkeskommune.The projects purpose is to increase the competence and skills of employees in manufacturing Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME’s) so that they can improve their global competitiveness within their area of expertise. The project aims to approach this by demonstrating and using new technologies and methods throughout the entire business chain.The Projects primary target groups are the employees within the SME’s in the Interreg IV A Nord area which includes the following region in Norway, Finland and Sweden; Lapplands landskap, Mellersta Österbottens landskap, Norra Österbottens landskap, Norrbottens län, Västerbottens län (Skellefteå, Norsjö, Malå and Sorsele kommuner), Finnmark fylkeskommune, Troms fylkeskommune and Nordland fylkeskommuneThe project contained 4 work packages and this report contains the results from Work Package 1: Current status and upcoming DIM-needs amongst SME’s. One task within this work package was to conduct a questionnaire. The purpose with the questionnaire was to get fundamental knowledge and information from manufacturing companies within the Interreg IV A Nord region regarding the following topics:• General company information and current status• Products and Design and production process• Information and Communication Technologies• Business partner relationships• CompetitionSome conclusions from the questionnaire indicate that companies that answered the questionnaire want to maintain their business and make it grow. Regarding DIM technologies some companies have implemented certain methods, tools, machines to a larger extent than others. The companies state that they are more interested in employing personnel with technical skills (both professional and academic degrees) than personnel with economy skills. Robotics was seen as one area of improvement.

  • 75.
    Nergård, Henrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Solvang, Bjørn
    Narvik University College, 8505 Narvik, Norway.
    Solvang, Wei Deng
    Narvik University College, 8505 Narvik, Norway.
    Kärkkäinen, Jouko
    CENTRIA Research and Development, Central Ostrobothnia University of Applied Sciences.
    Pieskä, Sakari
    CENTRIA Research and Development, Central Ostrobothnia University of Applied Sciences.
    Rättyä, Jani
    CENTRIA Research and Development, Central Ostrobothnia University of Applied Sciences.
    Current status and upcoming needs in SME’s in Northern regions of Finland, Norway and Sweden: Technologies, personnel, market and ICT in the business process2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The results written in this document comes from a questionnaire that was sent out within the Interreg IV A Nord project Digital integrated Manufacturing. Partners in the project are CENTRIA Research and Development (Lead partner), Finland, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden and Narvik University College, Norway. The project is financed and supported by the European Commission via Europeiska regionala utvecklingsfonden, Länsstyrelsen Norrbotten, Luleå University of Technology, Lapin Liito, CENTRIA Research and Development, Innovasjon Norge, Troms fylkeskommune, Narvik University College and Nordland Fylkeskommune.The projects purpose is to increase the competence and skills of employees in manufacturing Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME’s) so that they can improve their global competitiveness within their area of expertise. The project aims to approach this by demonstrating and using new technologies and methods throughout the entire business chain.The Projects primary target groups are the employees within the SME’s in the Interreg IV A Nord area which includes the following region in Norway, Finland and Sweden; Lapplands landskap, Mellersta Österbottens landskap, Norra Österbottens landskap, Norrbottens län, Västerbottens län (Skellefteå, Norsjö, Malå and Sorsele kommuner), Finnmark fylkeskommune, Troms fylkeskommune and Nordland fylkeskommuneThe project contained 4 work packages and this report contains the results from Work Package 1: Current status and upcoming DIM-needs amongst SME’s. One task within this work package was to conduct a questionnaire. The purpose with the questionnaire was to get fundamental knowledge and information from manufacturing companies within the Interreg IV A Nord region regarding the following topics:• General company information and current status• Products and Design and production process• Information and Communication Technologies• Business partner relationships• CompetitionSome conclusions from the questionnaire indicate that companies that answered the questionnaire want to maintain their business and make it grow. Regarding DIM technologies some companies have implemented certain methods, tools, machines to a larger extent than others. The companies state that they are more interested in employing personnel with technical skills (both professional and academic degrees) than personnel with economy skills. Robotics was seen as one area of improvement.

  • 76.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Johansson, Christian
    Bergström, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Exploring challenges for innovation-driven virtual enterprises2009In: Research into Design: Supporting multiple facets of product development / [ed] Amaresh Chakrabarti, Singapore: Research Publishing Services, 2009, p. 568-575Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have suggested virtual enterprises (VEs) as a promising new form of organization. VEs are created to gain several benefits, for example, risk-and-revenue sharing, entering new markets, etc. However, in this study we focus on increasing the innovation in the VE consortiums. Based on past experience and knowledge from related fields, we argue that VE consortiums in the Swedish industry are rare. Thus, this study highlights and explores the challenges, particularly four areas: networking capability, information and communication technology (ICT) usage, knowledge engineering, and team based innovation. These areas contribute to the facilitation of VE creation and its effective operation. Each of these areas is discussed and propositions are formed which will guide the future research. Finally, we have discussed the concept of innovation driven virtual enterprise that combines open innovation ideology with the virtual enterprise concept.

  • 77. Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Implementation of open innovation practices in Swedish manufacturing industry2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of open innovation has quickly gained interest of both practitioners and researches. However, there is a lack on studies on this research topic. Thus, the main purpose of the study is to get a deeper understanding of how can large firms can implement open innovation practices. This purpose will be achieved by first, understanding the current innovation process and second, focus on critical aspects such as, partners, capabilities, and role of SMEs which can be important for implementing open innovation practices. The study is based on qualitative data from two companies from Swedish manufacturing industry. The results show that both companies don’t fully practice open innovation approach. Moreover, partnering with customers and universities are highly preferred compared to having suppliers involved in the development process. The ability to absorb external knowledge and gain from inter-firm relationships were vital for effective open innovation practices. Finally, role of SMEs in the open innovation practices large firms was not clearly visible.

  • 78.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Implementation of open innovation practices in Swedish manufacturing industry2009In: Design has never been this cool: ICED 09, the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 24 - 27 August 2009, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA ; proceedings volume / [ed] Margareta Norell Bergendahl; Martin Grimheden; Larry Leifer, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2009, Vol. 1: Design processes, p. 435-446Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Ruvald, Ryan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    A role for physical prototyping in Product-Service System design: Case study in construction equipment2019In: Proceedia CIRP / [ed] George Q Huang, Ting Qu, Matthias Thürer, Suxiu Xu, Mohamed Khalgui, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 83, p. 358-362Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a case study methodology to exploring an ambitious experimental combination of a construction equipment manufacturer’s products tailored to provide exponential increases in efficiency and reductions in CO2. The products and system represent a relevant example of new technology being the foundation upon which a functional offering IPSS can be designed. The researcher constructed a scaled down functional experiential prototype reflecting a full scale experimental all electric quarry site in under operation outside of Goteborg, Sweden. The prototype site represented the primary equipment and system functionality, to act as a boundary object around which relevant stakeholders both internal and external could share the vision of an electric autonomous future. This was confirmed via observation at an event where the scale site was used for this purpose and verified with follow up interviews to dig deeper into the impact this tangible representation could have in increasing the perceived viability of the full scale technology’s potential on display thousands of miles from the event.

  • 80.
    Ruvald, Ryan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Frank, Martin
    Volvo Construction Equipment, SWE.
    Johansson, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Data Mining through Early Experience Prototyping: A step towards Data Driven Product Service System Design2018In: IFAC PAPERSONLINE, Elsevier, 2018, Vol. 51, no 11, p. 1095-1100, article id 11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is ripe for disruption through innovative solutions that provide added productivity. Equipment manufacturers are attempting to disrupt their industry with investments in autonomy, electrification and product-service system business models. Designing solutions that will operate in completely new systems or modify an existing complex system require new approaches to address the uncertainty of system impacts. An iterative approach can help tackle ambiguity through cyclical validation of design decisions. Data mining in each cycle adds a quantitative dimension to the rationale of decision making, but data is sparse and difficult to collect in parallel with design of theoretical product-service systems operating in future scenarios. This can be combated using experiential prototyping techniques to design flexible infrastructure that supports contextualized data gathering in a variety of focused design sprints using Design, Build and Test approach. The intricacy of designing innovative solutions to increase productivity in the construction industry can be untangled by framing aspects of the problem in small sprints and testing them in a contextualized setting built to generate functional data to drive design.

  • 81.
    Tatipala, Sravan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Pilthammar, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Volvo Cars.
    Sigvant, Mats
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Volvo Cars.
    Wall, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Introductory study of sheet metal forming simulations to evaluate process robustness2018In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2018, Vol. 418, article id 012111Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to control quality of a part is gaining increased importance with desires to achieve zero-defect manufacturing. Two significant factors affecting process robustness in production of deep drawn automotive parts are variations in material properties of the blanks and the tribology conditions of the process. It is imperative to understand how these factors influence the forming process in order to control the quality of a formed part. This paper presents a preliminary investigation on the front door inner of a Volvo XC90 using a simulation-based approach. The simulations investigate how variation of material and lubrication properties affect the numerical predictions of part quality. To create a realistic lubrication profile in simulations, data of pre-lube lubrication amount, which is measured from the blanking line, is used. Friction models with localized friction conditions are created using TriboForm and is incorporated into the simulations. Finally, the Autoform-Sigmaplus software module is used to create and vary parameters related to material and lubrication properties within a user defined range. On comparing and analysing the numerical investigation results, it is observed that a correlation between the lubrication profile and the predicted part quality exists. However, variation in material properties seems to have a low influence on the predicted part quality. The paper concludes by discussing the relevance of such investigations for improved part quality and proposing suggestions for future work.

  • 82.
    Tatipala, Sravan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Suddapalli, Nikshep Reddy
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Pilthammar, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Sigvant, Mats
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Simulation-Driven Design Approach for Design and Optimization of Blankholder2017In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS), Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2017, Vol. 896, article id 012045Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable design of stamping dies is desired for efficient and safe production. The design of stamping dies are today mostly based on casting feasibility, although it can also be based on criteria for fatigue, stiffness, safety, economy. Current work presents an approach that is built on Simulation Driven Design, enabling Design Optimization to address this issue. A structural finite element model of a stamping die, used to produce doors for Volvo V70/S80 car models, is studied. This die had developed cracks during its usage. To understand the behaviour of stress distribution in the stamping die, structural analysis of the die is conducted and critical regions with high stresses are identified. The results from structural FE-models are compared with analytical calculations pertaining to fatigue properties of the material. To arrive at an optimum design with increased stiffness and lifetime, topology and free-shape optimization are performed. In the optimization routine, identified critical regions of the die are set as design variables. Other optimization variables are set to maintain manufacturability of the resultant stamping die. Thereafter a CAD model is built based on geometrical results from topology and free-shape optimizations. Then the CAD model is subjected to structural analysis to visualize the new stress distribution. This process is iterated until a satisfactory result is obtained. The final results show reduction in stress levels by 70% with a more homogeneous distribution. Even though mass of the die is increased by 17 %, overall, a stiffer die with better lifetime is obtained. Finally, by reflecting on the entire process, a coordinated approach to handle such situations efficiently is presented.

  • 83.
    Tatipala, Sravan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Wall, Johan
    Johansson, Christian
    Sigvant, Mats
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Volvo Cars.
    Data-driven modelling in the era of Industry 4.0: A case study of friction modelling in sheet metal forming simulations2018In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1063 (2018) 012135, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2018, Vol. 1063Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With growing demands on quality of produced parts, concepts like zero-defect manufacturing are gaining increasing importance. As one of the means to achieve this, industries strive to attain the ability to control product/process parameters through connected manufacturing technologies and model-based control systems that utilize process/machine data for predicting optimum system conditions without human intervention. Present work demonstrates an automated approach to process in-line measured data of tribology conditions and incorporate it within sheet metal forming (SMF) simulations to enhance the prediction accuracy while reducing overall modelling effort. The automated procedure is realized using a client-server model with an in-house developed application as the server and numerical computing platform/commercial CAD software as clients. Firstly, the server launches the computing platform for processing measured data from the production line. Based on this analysis, the client then executes CAD software for modifying the blank model thereby enabling assignment of localized friction conditions. Finally, the modified blank geometry and accompanied friction values is incorporated into SMF simulations. The presented procedure reduces time required for setting up SMF simulations as well as improves the prediction accuracy. In addition to outlining suggestions for future work, paper concludes by discussing the importance of the presented procedure and its significance in the context of Industry 4.0.

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