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  • 51.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Halvarsson, Agneta
    Kock, Henrik
    Lindskog, Pernilla
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Work environment in Swedish Lean implementations2014In: Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management - XI, 2014, p. -660Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean Production has spread from industry to the public sector and administration, and is now the dominating change concept in Sweden. The influence of Lean on the work environment has been debated. However, both positive and negative work environment consequences have been reported in different studies and in different contexts. The aim of this presentation is to describe consequences for the work environment following Lean implementations and to further knowledge about conditions that influence the work environment.

  • 52.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI).
    Hansson, Bo
    Karlqvist, Lena
    Lindbeck, Lars
    Neumann, Patrick
    Arbetsmiljöarbete och effekter: En kunskapsöversikt2006In: Arbete och Hälsa, ISSN 0346-7821, Vol. 17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Karltun, Johan
    Ten years of experience from interactive ergonomics projects2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 4862-4865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights experiences from ergonomics projects, applying an interactive research approach. The aim of this paper is to summarise experiences from seven interactive ergonomics projects with the aim to improve ergonomics and organizational performance jointly. Results from these seven projects were analysed with a model for assessing sustainable change, including the factors active ownership, professional management, competent project leadership, and involved participants. All factors were found giving support to impact and sustainability of the change projects. However, the role of the researcher is difficult and demanding.

  • 54.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Karltun, Johan
    Jönköpings Tekniska Högskola.
    Vogel, Kjerstin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    ”Hälsa, produktivitet och kvalitet vid arbete med kniv – en interventionsstudie”, dnr 120158: Slutrapport till AFA Försäkring2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 55.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Karltun, Johan
    Jönköpings Tekniska Högskola.
    Vogel, Kjerstin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Interactive research and HTO as an industry development model2014In: Human Factors in Organizational design and Management - Xi Nordiv Ergonomics Society Annual Conference, Copenhagen 2014 / [ed] Broberg, Fallentin, Hasle, Jensen, Kabel, Larsen, Weller, 2014, p. 337-342Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Meat cutting has since long shown high frequencies of work-related disorders and injuries. The meat cutting industry initiated an interactive research project to assist the companies in creating a better work environment considering also the profitability. After an initial diagnosis, a broad strategy was formed and four mixed groups focusing personal development, technological developments, work organization and work environment started working. The results from these further initiated focused studies that were performed in close interaction with the industry. During the four year project a continuous reduction of usculoskeletal disorder problems in the industry and other substantial effects were observed.

  • 56.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    Sorting and disposing of waste at recycling centres: A users perspective2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 355-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates Swedish recycling centres from the users' perspective. The aim was to describe the characteristics and experiences of the users and their activities when sorting and disposing of waste, and to identify improvements for the users. The typical recycling centre user is a recently retired man, living in a house with a garden, having travelled 5 km alone in his own car. The users requested longer opening hours and better information available at home and at the recycling centre. The major difficulty for the users is to understand which fraction their waste belongs to, and consequently into which container they should throw it. The most important sources of sorting information, in addition to experience from earlier visits, are signs and asking the personnel. Although the service at recycling centres is perceived positively by a majority of users. substantial improvements can still be made, and a number of such suggestions are given.

  • 57.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI).
    Kvist, Joanna
    Carlsson, Anna
    Näsström, Eva
    Rahm, Malin
    Muscle load on the neck for welders2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI).
    Larsson, Kerstin
    Improving working conditions for mail carriers by the use of vehicles2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI).
    Lindbeck, Lars
    Riquelme, Patricio
    Törnström, Linda
    Arbetsmiljöarbete med företagsbaserade modeller: Effekter av belastningsergonomiska insatser2007Report (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Petersen, Jostein
    Elg, Mattias
    Bolling, Andreas
    Interactive research for production and work development2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactive research performed as a collaborative approach in conjunction with organizations is considered a new and promising alternative to other research approaches. The purpose of this paper is to describe how interactive research could be used in the interaction between researchers and organizations when running projects to develop production systems and work performed in these systems. It also aims to identify advantages and disadvantages when applying interactive research. Two long term interactive research projects, organised in collaboration with the partnership of Helix Vinn Excellence Centre at Linköping University were performed and data were collected from documentation of interactive seminars, from notes and from interviews with key actors. Interactive research offers several advantages in comparison with traditional research approaches, foremost higher practitioner involvement and validation opportunities of the results. There are also several difficulties, foremost the need of extensive resources and competencies for the research. The overall experiences from participating practitioners were that they considered that the discussions had been useful, stimulating and interesting, and that the fast feedback from data collection was appreciated. One crucial issue is to what extent this interactive research approach may contribute to high quality research, or to what extent the pressure from the practitioners for actionable practical results will take over.

  • 61.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Rolfö, Linda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Slutrapport: Projektering och planering av nya arbetsmiljöer2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 62.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Rose, Linda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    A network organisation supporting innovative product design2009In: Organising Work for Innovation and Growth: Experiences and efforts in ten companies / [ed] Marianne Döös, Lena Wilhelmson, Stockholm: Vinnova , 2009, p. 129-143Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Lean: en möjlighet till effektivitet och innovation2012In: Lean och innovationsförmåga – hinder, möjligheter och kunskapsluckor, 2012, p. 53-59Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Yeow, P.H.P.
    Integrating Ergonomics and Quality Concepts2015In: Evaluation of Human Work / [ed] Wilson, J.R & Sharples, S, Taylor & Francis, 2015, 4, p. 931-956Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book chapter presents an overview of the relationship between ergonomics and quality. It also proposes a framework to integrate ergonomics concepts with quality concepts. The literature reviewed confirms that there is a strong mutual relationship between ergonomics and quality, and that ergonomics deficiencies lead to quality deficiencies. Further, the implementation of quality improvements often lead to better work conditions and better ergonomics. There are many compatibilities and similarities between the two knowledge fields. The framework describes how of quality and ergonomics concepts may be complementary or contradictory, and offers a new perspective for quality and ergonomics practitioners to integrate ergonomics with an organisation’s quality functions.

  • 65. Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Li, Nan
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI).
    The diffusion of lean production: A literature study2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 66. Engkvist, I. L.
    et al.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Krook, J.
    Björkman, M.
    Sundin, E.
    Svensson, R.
    Eklund, M.
    Joint investigation of working conditions, environmental and system performance at recycling centres: Development of instruments and their usage2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 336-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling is a new and developing industry, which has only been researched to a limited extent. This article describes the development and use of instruments for data collection within a multidisciplinary research programme "Recycling centres in Sweden - working conditions, environmental and system performance". The overall purpose of the programme was to form a basis for improving the function of recycling centres with respect to these three perspectives and the disciplines of: ergonomics, safety, external environment, and production systems. A total of 10 instruments were developed for collecting data from employees, managers and visitors at recycling centres. including one instrument for observing visitors. Validation tests were performed in several steps. This, along with the quality of the collected data, and experience from the data collection, showed that the instruments and methodology used were valid and suitable for their purpose.

  • 67.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Eklund, Jögen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Krook, J.
    Björkman, M.
    Sundin, E.
    Perspectives on recycling centres and future developments2016In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 57, no SI, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this paper is to draw combined, all-embracing conclusions based on a long-term multidisciplinary research programme on recycling centres in Sweden, focussing on working conditions, environment and system performance. A second aim is to give recommendations for their development of new and existing recycling centres and to discuss implications for the future design and organisation. Several opportunities for improvement of recycling centres were identified, such as design, layout, ease with which users could sort their waste, the work environment, conflicting needs and goals within the industry, and industrialisation. Combining all results from the research, which consisted of different disciplinary aspects, made it possible to analyse and elucidate their interrelations. Waste sorting quality was recognized as the most prominent improvement field in the recycling centre system. The research identified the importance of involving stakeholders with different perspectives when planning a recycling centre in order to get functionality and high performance. Practical proposals of how to plan and build recycling centres are given in a detailed checklist.

  • 68. Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI).
    The Programme “Recycling centres in Sweden": Working conditions, environmental and system performance2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Work environment at state-of-the-art recycling centres2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling centres have a key role in the recycling branch. It is important that the waste is disposed in the right container to avoid pollution of the fraction. The layout of the facilities as well as the employees at the recycling centres are important to secure good sorting quality. There is a high frequency of injuries among the employees. The aim of the present study is to compare the work environment at the two new built recycling centres with improved layout, with other recycling centres in Sweden. The study population comprised all employees at 42 older recycling centres, totally 122 persons and 300 visitors, and 8 employees, and 41 visitors at two new built recycling centres. Questionnaires were used for data collection. More visitors at the two new recycling centres assessed it easy to find the right container for their waste and high quality of service compared to the first study. The employees at the new recycling centres assessed their physical tiredness lower, compared to employees at the older recycling centres. The employees had the highest risk for an injury was when picking up wrongly sorted waste and when packing manually in cages. There is still some need for improvement, especially concerning lifting and transfer equipment at the new recycling centres

  • 70.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Återvinningscentraler: Idag och i morgon2008In: Återvinningscentralen: Sorteringsplats, arbetsplats, mötesplats / [ed] Engkvist I-L, Linköping: LiU Tryck , 2008Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 71. Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI).
    Björkman, Mats
    Eklund, Mats
    Employees at recycling centres in Sweden: Risks and working conditions2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 72. Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI).
    Björkman, Mats
    Eklund, Mats
    Recycling centres: A new workplace2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 73. Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI).
    Björkman, Mats
    Eklund, Mats
    Utmaningar inom återvinningsbranschen: En förstudie av problem- och utvecklingsområden vid återvinningscentraler och relaterade verksamheter2004Report (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Mats
    Krook, Joakim
    Björkman, Mats
    Sundin, Erik
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    Planera, utforma och driva en återvinningscentral2009Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 75.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Svensson, R.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Reported occupational injuries at Swedish recycling centres - based on official statistics2011In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 357-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish recycling centres are manned facilities for waste collection. There is no special category in the official injury statistics for employees at recycling centres, which precludes a straightforward analysis of reported occupational injuries. This study aimed at identifying the frequency of reported accidents and diseases and the type of events that contribute to such injuries at recycling centres, based on official injury statistics. The employees were identified as being affected by more than three to five times as many accidents compared with the total workforce in Sweden. The reported accidents had occurred during a wide range of situations, but most frequently during manual handling of waste. Reported work-related diseases were mostly associated with musculoskeletal disorders, mainly due to heavy lifting. A more detailed classification of sanitation professions and workplaces in the official injury statistics would facilitate future studies of injuries in a specific professional category, e.g. employees at recycling centres. Suggestions for prevention are given. Statement of Relevance: The present article describes all reported work accidents and diseases among employees at recycling centres from 1992 to February 2005. It also highlights the problem of identifying new working groups in the official statistics and gives advice for a detailed classification to facilitate such future studies of injuries.

  • 76.
    Favero, Federico
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Glimme, S
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Teär Fahnerhjelm, K
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Kunskapsöversikt: Syn och belysning för äldre i arbetslivet2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 77.
    Glimme, S
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Törnquist, A L
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nylén, Per
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Teär Fahnerhjelm, K
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lighting and task analysis in an eye hospital.2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lighting is crucial in visually demanding activities and essential for a good visual environment. Access to daylight is important for health, wellbeing, production, and patient safety. The purpose of the present project is to design innovative multifunction examination rooms for the planning of a new eye hospital. The specific aims of the current study were to evaluate existing lighting conditions in examination rooms, to identify the tasks undertaken by eye care professionals, and how they relate to lighting. Lighting conditions in three such rooms and task analyses of three ophthalmologists’ work are presented. The mean illumination levels and the equability of illumination were inadequate. Even if there was access to daylight through windows existed, this possibility was rarely used. Task analyses showed that a significant percentage of the time was devoted to examining the patients (44 %), reading and writing or prescribing drops (23%), in medical records. The lighting was adjusted several times between full and dim illumination during contact with patients. There is substantial potential to improve the lighting conditions.

  • 78. Halvarsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Svensson, L
    Brännmark, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Kock, H
    Lindskog, Pernilla
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Lean production: an institutional and organizational perspective on two national programs2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Halvarsson Lundkvist, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lindskog, Pernilla
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Ståhl, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Andersson, Karin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Melin, Martin
    Management Martin Melin AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Barth, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Conditions Enabling Development in National Lean Programmes2016In: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, ISSN 0143-7739, E-ISSN 1472-5347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to identify work practices and activities at programme and local levels which constitute conditions that enable development in workplace development programmes (WPDPs). These are introduced by public agencies as change agents that provide the resources for local organizational change. Design/methodology/approach – The study constituted separate interactive research projects in three WPDPs conducted through a total of 256 interviews and documentation from meetings. The findings were compared in a qualitative content analysis. Findings – The outcomes of development processes in the programmes and local Lean implementation are enabled by the interplay of three conditions: a) organized learning activities with the stakeholders involved, b) key stakeholders’ active ownership and c) support for employee participation. The three conditions thus support programme management in leading the programme development processes. Research limitations/implications - The findings operationalize broad theoretical concepts. However, the research projects involved were not originally designed for this comparative study, which created some difficulties when performing the analysis. The longitudinal design and vast amount of data partly compensate for this. Practical implications – This knowledge will be helpful in the formation of new WPDPs that support local organizational development and for those who lead such processes. Originality/value – The novelty of the findings is the operationalization of broad theoretical concepts, such as the conditions that support development programmes. Moreover, this article shows a set of work practices and activities that management may be used in organizing WPDPs.

  • 80. Hemphala, Hillevi
    et al.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Vision ergonomics at recycling centres2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 368-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All municipalities in Sweden offer their inhabitants a service for disposing of large-size and hazardous waste at local recycling centres. Opening hours at these centres include hours of darkness. The aims of this study were to 1) describe user and employee experiences of lighting and signs at Swedish recycling centres, 2) measure and assess the lighting system at the two recently built recycling centres in Linkoping and to assess the legibility and visibility of the signs used and 3) propose recommendations regarding lighting and signs for recycling centres. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess experiences of employees and users, and light measurements were performed. By observing users, activities with different visual demands at different areas within the recycling centres were identified. Based on the literature, standards and stakeholder experiences, recommendations regarding lighting systems and sign design, illuminance, luminance and uniformity are proposed for recycling centres.

  • 81. Hemphälä, H.
    et al.
    Nylén, Per
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Optimal correction in spectacles: Intervention effects on eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort among postal workers2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 329-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The static posture of postal workers when sorting mail can lead to musculoskeletal discomfort. Research has shown a connection between eyestrain and upper-body musculoskeletal discomfort in general, including postal workers. A previous study of postal workers found that most of those with eye strain were in need of a new correction in their existing spectacles.

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate intervention effects on eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort with new spectacles for postal workers.

    METHODS: Postal workers subjectively reported eyestrain, musculoskeletal discomfort and their opinions of the visual environment via questionnaires pre- and post-intervention. After an eye examination the postal workers were divided into two groups: those who needed new spectacles and those who did not.

    RESULTS: Those who needed new spectacles showed a higher prevalence of eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort pre-intervention. Post-intervention, the postal workers rated their vision better and the average eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort decreased for both groups. These workers also experienced a decrease in discomfort on the left (static) side of the neck while sorting mail.

    CONCLUSION: An intervention providing the optimal correction reduces eyestrain and decreases musculoskeletal discomfort, especially from the neck.

  • 82. Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    A visual ergonomics intervention in mail sorting facilities: Effects on eyes, muscles and productivity2012In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 217-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual requirements are high when sorting mail. The purpose of this visual ergonomics intervention study was to evaluate the visual environment in mail sorting facilities and to explore opportunities for improving the work situation by reducing visual strain, improving the visual work environment and reducing mail sorting time. Twenty-seven postmen/women participated in a pre-intervention study, which included questionnaires on their experiences of light, visual ergonomics, health, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Measurements of lighting conditions and productivity were also performed along with eye examinations of the postmen/women. The results from the pre-intervention study showed that the postmen/women who suffered from eyestrain had a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and sorted slower, than those without eyestrain. Illuminance and illuminance uniformity improved as a result of the intervention. The two post-intervention follow-ups showed a higher prevalence of MSD among the postmen/women with eyestrain than among those without. The previous differences in sorting time for employees with and without eyestrain disappeared. After the intervention, the postmen/women felt better in general, experienced less work induced stress, and considered that the total general lighting had improved. The most pronounced decreases in eyestrain, MSD, and mail sorting time were seen among the younger participants of the group.

  • 83. Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Hansson, Gert-Åke
    Dahlqvist, Camilla
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Visual ergonomics interventions in mail sorting facilities2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 3433-3437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was performed between 2004 and 2011 at mail sorting facilities in Sweden. During this time, different interventions were performed. The first was a lighting intervention that had a positive impact on the postal workers, especially those with eyestrain. A new lighting system also improved the illuminance and gave better light distribution. The second intervention involved new personal spectacles for the postal workers who needed them and this had a positive effect on eyestrain. The third intervention involved a specific type of sorting spectacles for the postal workers who already used progressive lenses privately. The reading distances that the postal workers had while sorting the mail was inverted to the distances in their regular progressive lenses. The new sorting spectacles had a positive effect on head postures and on muscular activity.

  • 84. Karlsson, Stig
    et al.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Rose, Linda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Design processes2009In: Work and technology on human terms / [ed] M Bogard et al, Prevent , 2009Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 85. Karlsson, Stig
    et al.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Rose, Linda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Odenrick, Per
    Utvecklingsprocesser2008In: Arbete och teknik på människans villkor / [ed] M Bogard et al, Prevent , 2008Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 86. Karltun, Anette
    et al.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Interactive research promoting a systems perspective in improving the work situation of 15,000 postmen2008In: Proceedings of the Nordic Ergonomics Society Annual Conference NES 2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 87. Karltun, Anette
    et al.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    Lindbeck, Lars
    Developing a systems view of butchers' problematic work situation2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Karltun, Anette
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Karltun, Johan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Berglund, Martina
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    HTO - A complementary ergonomics approach2017In: APPLIED ERGONOMICS, ISSN 0003-6870, Vol. 59, p. 182-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of human factors and ergonomics constitutes a strong potential in systems analysis, design and improvement. However, it is difficult to communicate its potential value. This paper addresses how the human-technology-organization (HTO) concept can be defined and supports the understanding, communication and development of the systems' character and potential of human factors and ergonomics. Empirical examples from the authors' experiences of working with the HTO concept in R&D and teaching are illustrated, including its usefulness as: 1) a conceptual model; 2) an analysis framework; 3) a meta methodology; 4) a pedagogical tool; and 5) a design tool. The use of HTO provides guidance on how the system can be designed to better support health, individual and systems performance. It is further suggested that there is a strong potential for developing the theory, applications and methodological aspects of HTO.

  • 89.
    Karltun, Anette
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Karltun, Johan
    Dep. of Industrial Engineering and Management, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Berglund, Martina
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). Linköping University, Sweden.
    HTO: a complementary ergonomics perspective2014In: Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management - XI, 2014, p. 355-360Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the broad field of ergonomics and human factors provides a strong potential in systems analysis, design and improvement, the focus risks being perceived unclear for different stakeholders. This paper addresses how focusing the interactions between Humans, Technology and Organization by using the HTO concept contributes to the understanding, communication and use of systems thinking inherent in the discipline of Ergonomics and Human Factors. The authors’ experiences illustrate how the use of the HTO concept in various industries and in academic teaching gives advantages regarding interactions, communicativeness, attractiveness, activity and pedagogical benefits.

  • 90. Karltun, J.
    et al.
    Vogel, Kjerstin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Bergstrand, M.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Maintaining knife sharpness in industrial meat cutting: A matter of knife or meat cutter ability2016In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 56, p. 92-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knife sharpness is imperative in meat cutting. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of knife blade steel quality with meat cutters' individual ability to maintain the cutting edge sharp in an industrial production setting. Twelve meat cutters in two different companies using three different knives during normal production were studied in this quasi-experimental study. Methods included were measuring knife cutting force before and after knife use, time knives were used, ratings of sharpness and discomfort and interviews. Results showed that the meat cutters' skill of maintaining sharpness during work had a much larger effect on knife sharpness during work than the knife steel differences. The ability was also related to feelings of discomfort and to physical exertion. It was found that meat cutters using more knives were more likely to suffer from discomfort in the upper limbs, which is a risk for developing MSD.

  • 91.
    Karltun, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköpings Tekniska Högskola.
    Vogel, Kjerstin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Bergstrand, M.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Maintaining knife sharpness in industrial meat cutting: A matter of knife or meat cutter abilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Lind, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Rose, Linda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    A practitioner model for assessing manual lifting and lowering operations: included in the RAMP tool2015In: The 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recently developed model intended to be used by practitioners and ergonomists in themanufacturing and logistics industry for assessment of physical ergonomic risks related to manuallifting and lowering operations is presented. The model is constructed using the revised NIOSH liftingequation (RNLE) as a basis, but it has been modified to enhance its usability, regarding (1)simplifications of the existing factors in the RNLE, (2) adding new factors and (3) a more conservativejudgment of lifts performed at low and high vertical heights. In addition, a survey regarding theusability of the new lifting model including twenty-two ergonomists/physiotherapists is presented,

  • 93.
    Lindskog, Pernilla
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Hemphälä, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Lean in healthcare:: Engagement in development, job satisfaction or exhaustion?2016In: Journal of Hospital Administration, ISSN 1927-6990, E-ISSN 1927-7008, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 91-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conclusions about implementing the management concept lean in healthcare are contradictory and longitudinal studies are scarce. In particular, little is known of how working conditions contribute to the sustainability of lean in healthcare. The aim of this article is to identify to what extent lean tools (visual follow-up boards, standardised work, 5S [housekeeping], and value stream mapping [VSM]) promote working conditions for employees and managers in healthcare organisations (outcomes: engagement in development, job satisfaction and exhaustion), while considering the context (i.e., job resources and job demands) and aspects of the implementation process. A longitudinal quantitative study was conducted that involved employees and managers in two hospitals and one municipality (n = 448). Applying the job demands-resources model, multiple linear regression models were used. VSM, standardised work and 5S promoted employees and managers’ working conditions when supported by job resources. When no support was provided, visual follow-up boards were inhibiting employees and managers’ job satisfaction. VSM and standardised work were seen as central lean tools. In this sample, the application of lean cannot be considered sustainable as employees and managers’ working conditions deteriorated under the implementation of lean.

  • 94.
    Lindskog, Pernilla
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Vänje, Annika
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Törnkvist, Å.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sustainable Lean in psychiatry?: Assessment through socio-technical principles2016In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 53-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to identify conditions affecting sustainability of Lean implementations in Swedish psychiatric healthcare, from a socio-technical perspective. Design/methodology/approach – Longitudinal focus group interviews were conducted with 24 first-line managers within Swedish psychiatric healthcare. The analysis was made using Cherns’ ten socio-technical principles and a framework for sustainable development work in healthcare. Findings – The most critical socio-technical principles for a sustainable Lean implementation were boundary location; power and authority; and compatibility. At hospital level, socio-technical principles were inhibited by the weak ownership of the Lean implementation. However, strong ownership at division level meant the same principles were supported. Unclear goals made follow-ups difficult which had negative effects on the learning processes in the Lean implementation. The role and responsibility of first-line managers were unclear in that they perceived they lacked power and authority resulting in negative effects on the participation – an important sustainability concept. Originality/value – Empirically based papers assessing Lean implementations in psychiatry are rare. This study is a contribution to the research area of sustainable Lean implementations in healthcare. The practical implication of this study is that decision makers, senior managers, first-line managers and psychiatrists can be supported in reaching sustainable implementations of Lean.

  • 95. Medin, Jennie
    et al.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Nordlund, Anders
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University.
    Organisational change, job strain and increased risk of stroke: A pilot study2008In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 443-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The objective of this pilot study was to explore whether organisational change and work-related stress, as measured by the Job Content Questionnaire, were associated with first-ever stroke among working people aged 30-65. Methods: In a case-control study a total of 65 consecutive cases, aged 30-65 years of age, with first-ever stroke were recruited from four hospitals in Sweden during 2000-2002. During the same period, 103 random population controls in the same age interval were recruited. Data on job-related stress and traditional medical risk factors were collected by a questionnaire. Results: In the multivariate analyses, organisational change (OR 3.38) increased the likelihood of stroke, while experiencing an active job (OR 0.37) decreased the likelihood of stroke. Regarding risk factors outside work, age (OR 1.11), low physical activity (OR 5.21), low education (OR 2.48) and family history of stroke (OR 2.59) were associated with increased likelihood of stroke. Conclusion: This study suggests an association between organisational change, work-related stress and stroke. The likelihood of stroke was lower for people in active job situations.

  • 96. Medin, Jennie
    et al.
    Nordlund, Anders
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI).
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Axelsso, Olav
    Organisational change, job strain, effort reward and increased risk of stroke: A case control study2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 97. Neumann, Patrick
    et al.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Hansson, Bo
    Lindbeck, Lars
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    On Effect Assessment in Work Environment Interventions: A Literature Overview and Methodological Reflection2010In: Industrial Engineering Publications and ResearchArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite many positive case studies our overview of the work environment intervention (WEI) research literature finds mixed results. There is support for the profitability of WEI investments such as training and personnel policies at the organisational level but less clear results for disorder reductions. The financial benefits of WEIs were greater for performance gains than for reduced sickness costs. Multifactor interventions are widely seen as key to successful intervention but are difficult to evaluate and unused in experimental studies. Review inclusion criteria excluding studies with good interventions but non-experimental evaluations, pose a quality criteria selection bias. Difficulties in proving WEI effectiveness may depend on views of what constitutes good scientific quality. WEI effects are clear in some cases but are difficult to show in others. Evaluation poses methodological challenges that contribute to the lack of clear evidence for WEI effectiveness. There is a need for more practical multifactor WEIs and non-experimental evaluation strategies suited to today’s complex systems.

    RELEVANCE: Ergonomists and managers should understand that the problems in 'proving' the effectiveness of ergonomics are related to perceptions of what constitutes proof. Progress in the practise of ergonomics should recognise the difficulty of organisational change, the weaknesses of experimental traditions, and the need for multifactor interventions that reach deep into the work process to maximise impact. Isolating effects is difficult but this does not mean no effects exist.

  • 98. Neumann, W. P.
    et al.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Hansson, B.
    Lindbeck, Lars
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Effect assessment in work environment interventions: A methodological reflection2010In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 130-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses a number of issues for work environment intervention (WEI) researchers in light of the mixed results reported in the literature. If researchers emphasise study quality over intervention quality, reviews that exclude case studies with high quality and multifactorial interventions may be vulnerable to 'quality criteria selection bias'. Learning from 'failed' interventions is inhibited by both publication bias and reporting lengths that limit information on relevant contextual and implementation factors. The authors argue for the need to develop evaluation approaches consistent with the complexity of multifactorial WEIs that: a) are owned by and aimed at the whole organisation; and b) include intervention in early design stages where potential impact is highest. Context variety, complexity and instability in and around organisations suggest that attention might usefully shift from generalisable 'proof of effectiveness' to a more nuanced identification of intervention elements and the situations in which they are more likely to work as intended. Statement of Relevance: This paper considers ergonomics interventions from perspectives of what constitutes quality and 'proofo. It points to limitations of traditional experimental intervention designs and argues that the complexity of organisational change, and the need for multifactorial interventions that reach deep into work processes for greater impact, should be recognised.

  • 99.
    Nylén, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Favero, Federico
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Glimne, S.
    Fahnehjelm, K. Tear
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Vision, light and aging: A literature overview on older-age workers2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 399-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In many western countries individuals will need to continue their professional careers beyond the current retirement age. This requires adaptation of the working conditions to compensate for age related visual changes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to compile and structure knowledge concerning age related changes in visual and non-visual functions among older-age workers and to describe in what way these changes relate to light and work performance. METHOD: An overview of the literature was performed in PubMed and EMBASE concerning visual changes among elderly people, light, visual ergonomics and consequences at work. RESULTS: Visual conditions and lighting design have an impact on work performance in those over age 65 even if there are few studies available. Natural age related changes in the eyes or ocular diseases can result in reduced visual function and performance. Moreover, evidence of the importance of light and dark rhythms for circadian regulation is mounting; there are indications that the older-age population might need specific attention related to this issue. Finally, visual deteriorations might also, secondarily, induce strained postures and musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and injury. CONCLUSION: Age-related changes in the eyes and also ocular diseases among older-age people have an impact on well-being and work performance, and therefore call for reconsideration of their working conditions. Knowledge about how visual functions, light and ocular diseases is needed for work design and preventive actions.

  • 100.
    Nyman, Teresia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Larsson, Ida
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Rose, Linda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    "Utvärdering av BuildSafe": Ett digitalt system för säkerhetsarbete i byggbranschen2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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