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  • 51.
    Chen, B
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Bestetti, G
    Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Day, RM
    Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    The synthesis and screening of a combinatorial peptide library for affinity ligands for glycosylated haemoglobin1998In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 13, no 08-jul, p. 779-785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the synthesis and screening of a combinatorial peptide library for new affinity ligands for glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), which is an important indicator of diabetes control. The new ligands are suitable for large-scale synthesis and overcome the disadvantages of antibodies (unstable and expensive to produce etc.), while remaining as efficient as antibodies in binding to the analyte. The library consisted of 262 144 hexapeptides synthesised using the one-bead-one-compound technique. The hexapeptides attached onto beads were screened with glycosylated haemoglobin HbA(1c). The structures of the peptides exhibiting high affinity were characterised by Edman microsequencing. Computer modelling simulation of one of the lead sequences has shown that this class of ligand has a high affinity and specificity for glycosylated haemoglobin. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

  • 52.
    Chen, BN
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; .
    Piletsky, S
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Molecular recognition: Design of "keys"2002In: Combinatorial chemistry & high throughput screening, ISSN 1386-2073, E-ISSN 1875-5402, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 409-427Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular recognition between molecules is one of the most fundamental processes in biology and chemistry. The recognition process is largely driven by non-covalent forces such as hydrogen bonding, electrostatics, van der Waals forces, pi-pi interactions, and conformational energy. The complementarity between the receptor and substrate is very similar to the "lock and key" function, first described by Emil Fischer over 100 years ago, - the lock being the molecular receptor such as a protein or enzyme and the key being the substrate such as a drug, that is recognized to give a defined receptor-substrate complex. This review focuses on the design of specific ligand systems as "Keys" to enable the induced fit of these keys into the target macromolecules, protein/enzyme (Locks) with particular emphasis on protein recognition.

  • 53.
    Cheung Mak, Wing
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kwan Yee, Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Orban, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics.
    Lee, Chyan-Jang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Surface-Engineered Contact Lens as an Advanced Theranostic Platform for Modulation and Detection of Viral Infection2015In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 7, no 45, p. 25487-25494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated an entirely new concept of a wearable theranostic device in the form of a contact lens (theranostic lens) with a dual-functional hybrid surface to modulate and detect a pathogenic attack, using a the corneal HSV serotype-1 (HSV-1) model. The theranostic lenses were constructed using a facile layer-by-layer surface engineering technique, keeping the theranostic lenses with good surface wettability, optically transparency, and nontoxic toward human corneal epithelial cells. The theranostic lenses were used to capture and concentrate inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), which is upregulated during HSV-1 reactivation, for sensitive, noninvasive diagnostics. The theranostic lens also incorporated an antiviral coating to serve as a first line of defense to protect patients against disease. Our strategy tackles major problems in tear diagnostics that are mainly associated with the sampling of a relatively small volume of fluid and the low concentration of biomarkers. The theranostic lenses show effective anti-HSV-1 activity and good analytical performance for the detection of IL-1a, with a limit of detection of 1.43 pg mL(-1) and a wide linear range covering the clinically relevant region. This work offers a new paradigm for wearable noninvasive healthcare devices combining diagnosis and protection against disease, while supporting patient compliance. We believe that this approach holds immense promise as a next-generation point-of-care and decentralized diagnostic/theranostic platform for a range of biomarkers.

  • 54.
    Chianella, I
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Bedford MK45 4DT, England; .
    Lotierzo, M
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Bedford MK45 4DT, England; .
    Piletsky, SA
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Bedford MK45 4DT, England; .
    Tothill, IE
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Bedford MK45 4DT, England; .
    Chen, BN
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Bedford MK45 4DT, England; .
    Karim, K
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Bedford MK45 4DT, England; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Rational design of a polymer specific for microcystin-LR using a computational approach2002In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 1288-1293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A computational approach for the design of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) specific for Cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR is presented. By using molecular modeling software, a virtual library of functional monomers was designed and screened against the target toxin, employed as a template. The monomers giving the highest binding energy were selected and used in a simulated annealing (molecular dynamics) process to investigate their interaction with the template. The stoichiomettic ratio observed from the simulated annealing study was used in MIP preparation for microcystin-LR. The monomers were copolymerized with a cross-linker in the presence of the template. A control (blank) polymer was prepared under the same conditions but in the absence of template. A competitive assay with microcystin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate was optimized and used to evaluate the affinity and cross-reactivity of the polymer. The performance of the artificial receptor was compared to the performance of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against the toxin. The results indicate that imprinted polymer has affinity and sensitivity comparable to those of polyclonal antibodies (die detection limit for microcystin-LR using the MIP-based assay was found to be 0.1 mug L-1), while superior chemical and thermal stabilities were obtained. Moreover, cross-reactivity to other toxin analogues was very low for the imprinted polymer, in contrast to the results achieved for antibodies. It is anticipated that the polymer designed could be used in assays, sensors, and solid-phase extraction.

  • 55.
    Chianella, I
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; .
    Piletsky, SA
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; .
    Tothill, IE
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; .
    Chen, B
    Cranfield University, Institute Biosci and Technology, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    MIP-based solid phase extraction cartridges combined with MIP-based sensors for the detection of microcystin-LR2003In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 18, no 03-feb, p. 119-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microsystin-LR is one of the most widespread and dangerous toxins produced by the freshwater Cyanobacteria. The contamination of water supplies with microcystin-LR has been reported in several areas around the world and the development of an easy-to-use, rapid, robust and inexpensive sensor for this toxin is urgently required. In this work an artificial receptor for microcystin-LR was synthesised using the technique of molecular imprinting. The composition of the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was optimised using computer modelling. The synthesised polymer was used both as a material for solid-phase extraction (SPE) and as a sensing element in a piezoelectric sensor. Using the combination of SPE followed by detection with a piezoelectric sensor the minimum detectable amount of toxin was 0.35 nM. The use of MIP-SPE provided up to 1000 fold preconcentration, which was more than sufficient for achieving the required detection limit for microcystin-LR in drinking water (I nM). This work is the first example where the same MIP receptor has been used successfully for both SPE and the corresponding sensor. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 56.
    COLBY, J
    et al.
    UNIV NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE,SCH MED,DEPT MICROBIOL,NEWCASTLE TYNE NE1 7RU,TYNE and WEAR,ENGLAND; CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    WILLIAMS, E
    UNIV NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE,SCH MED,DEPT MICROBIOL,NEWCASTLE TYNE NE1 7RU,TYNE and WEAR,ENGLAND; CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    APPLICATIONS OF CO-UTILIZING MICROORGANISMS1985In: Trends in Biotechnology, ISSN 0167-7799, E-ISSN 1879-3096, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 12-17Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 57.
    COUGHLAN, MP
    et al.
    DALGETY UK LTD,CTR RES and TECHNOL,CAMBRIDGE CB1 2JN,ENGLAND; CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,DIV BIOELECTR,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    KIERSTAN, MPJ
    DALGETY UK LTD,CTR RES and TECHNOL,CAMBRIDGE CB1 2JN,ENGLAND; CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,DIV BIOELECTR,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    BORDER, PM
    DALGETY UK LTD,CTR RES and TECHNOL,CAMBRIDGE CB1 2JN,ENGLAND; CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,DIV BIOELECTR,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    ANALYTICAL APPLICATIONS OF IMMOBILIZED PROTEINS AND CELLS1988In: Journal of Microbiological Methods, ISSN 0167-7012, E-ISSN 1872-8359, Vol. 8, no 02-janArticle, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 58.
    D. Black, Robert
    et al.
    Sicel Technology Inc, Morrisville, NC 27560 USA;.
    M. Reichert, William
    Duke University, Department Biomed Engn, Durham, NC 27708 USA.
    P. F. Turner, Anthony
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Introduction for the special issue of the sensors journal: In vivo sensors for medicine2008In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 8, no 02-jan, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 59.
    DAVIS, G
    et al.
    UNIV OXFORD,ORGAN CHEM LAB,OXFORD OX1 3QR,ENGLAND; CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    HILL, HAO
    UNIV OXFORD,ORGAN CHEM LAB,OXFORD OX1 3QR,ENGLAND; CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    ASTON, WJ
    UNIV OXFORD,ORGAN CHEM LAB,OXFORD OX1 3QR,ENGLAND; CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    HIGGINS, IJ
    UNIV OXFORD,ORGAN CHEM LAB,OXFORD OX1 3QR,ENGLAND; CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    BIOELECTROCHEMICAL FUEL-CELL AND SENSOR BASED ON A QUINOPROTEIN, ALCOHOL-DEHYDROGENASE1983In: Enzyme and microbial technology, ISSN 0141-0229, E-ISSN 1879-0909, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 383-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 60.
    DCOSTA, EJ
    et al.
    ; .
    HIGGINS, IJ
    ; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    QUINOPROTEIN GLUCOSE-DEHYDROGENASE AND ITS APPLICATION IN AN AMPEROMETRIC GLUCOSE SENSOR1986In: BIOSENSORS, ISSN 0265-928X, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 71-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 61.
    Dennison, M. J.
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Bedford, UK.
    Turner, Anthony P. F.
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Biosensors for environmental monitoring1995In: Biotechnology Advances, ISSN 0734-9750, E-ISSN 1873-1899, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-12Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing environmental legislation which controls the release and the levels of certain chemicals in the environment has created a need for reliable monitoring of these substances in air, soil and especially water. Conventional analytical techniques, although highly precise, suffer from the disadvantages of high cost, the need for trained personnel and the fact that they are mostly laboratory bound. Biosensors because of their specificity, fast response times, low cost, portability, ease of use and a continuous real time signal, can present distinct advantages in certain cases. Their biological base makes them ideal for toxicological measurements which are suited for health and safety applications. Over the last 3–4 years there has been an increase in the number of publications concerning biosensors for environmental monitoring, especially in the field of pesticide measurements.

  • 62.
    Dennison, MJ
    et al.
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    Hall, JM
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Direct monitoring of formaldehyde vapour and detection of ethanol vapour using dehydrogenase-based biosensors1996In: The Analyst, ISSN 0003-2654, E-ISSN 1364-5528, Vol. 121, no 12, p. 1769-1773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosensors capable of directly detecting low levels of formaldehyde and ethanol vapour were constructed, Both biosensors are based on dehydrogenase enzymes which produce reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as part of the oxidation of formaldehyde and ethanol, The enzymes were immobilized in a reverse micelle medium which did not dehydrate significantly over time, and allowed direct gas-phase monitoring, A screen-printed electrode was used as transducer. Formaldehyde and ethanol vapour partitioned into the reverse micelle media, where it was acted upon by the relevant enzyme, Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide was oxidized at the working electrode at a potential of 800 mV versus an Ag/AgCl reference electrode, Formaldehyde could be measured over the concentration range 1 ppb-1.3 ppm and ethanol could be detected over the range 50-250 ppm.

  • 63.
    DENNISON, MJ
    et al.
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    HALL, JM
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    GAS-PHASE MICROBIOSENSOR FOR MONITORING PHENOL VAPOR AT PPB LEVELS1995In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 67, no 21, p. 3922-3927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A microbiosensor capable of measuring very low levels of phenol vapor directly in the gas phase has been constructed. The microbiosensor is based on the enzyme polyphenol oxidase, which catalyzes the oxidation of phenols to catechols and then to quinones, Polyphenol oxidase was immobilized in a glycerol-based gel which did not dehydrate significantly over time. An interdigitated microelectrode array was used as transducer. Phenol vapor partitioned into the glycerol gel, where it was enzymatically oxidized to quinone. Signal amplification was achieved by redox recycling of the quinone/catechol couple, This redox recycling produced a biosensor capable of measuring phenol vapor concentrations of 30 ppb. The biosensor produced a constant signal after 5 days of continuous use at room temperature and has potential application in the held of health and safety monitoring, where its ease of use, selectivity, and realtime monitoring would provide personnel with accurate data.

  • 64.
    DICKS, JM
    et al.
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,DIV BIOELECTRON,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    ASTON, WJ
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,DIV BIOELECTRON,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    DAVIS, G
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,DIV BIOELECTRON,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    MEDIATED AMPEROMETRIC BIOSENSORS FOR D-GALACTOSE, GLYCOLATE AND L-AMINO-ACIDS BASED ON A FERROCENE-MODIFIED CARBON PASTE ELECTRODE1986In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 182, p. 103-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 65.
    DICKS, JM
    et al.
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; TOKYO INST TECHNOL,RESOURCE UTILISAT RES LAB,MIDORI KU,YOKOHAMA,KANAGAWA 227,JAPAN; .
    CARDOSI, MF
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; TOKYO INST TECHNOL,RESOURCE UTILISAT RES LAB,MIDORI KU,YOKOHAMA,KANAGAWA 227,JAPAN; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    KARUBE, I
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; TOKYO INST TECHNOL,RESOURCE UTILISAT RES LAB,MIDORI KU,YOKOHAMA,KANAGAWA 227,JAPAN; .
    THE APPLICATION OF FERROCENE-MODIFIED N-TYPE SILICON IN GLUCOSE BIOSENSORS1993In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 5, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the application of ferrocene-modified n-type silicon electrodes to the anaerobic redox catalysis of glucose oxidase. The electrodes are modified with ferrocene either directly, by using (1,1-ferrocenediyl)dichlorosilane, or via an underlying polypyrrole film. Light-activated catalytic waves are detected in both cases in the presence of glucose oxidase and glucose, thereby demonstrating rapid heterogeneous kinetics between the covalently immobilized mediator and glucose oxidase. A glucose-sensitive electrode is made by simple adsorption of glucose oxidase from an aqueous buffered solution into the surface film.

  • 66.
    DICKS, JM
    et al.
    MEITEC CORP,DEPT ENGN DEV,NAKA KU,NAGOYA 460,JAPAN; UNIV TOKYO,ADV SCI and TECHNOL RES CTR,TOKYO 153,JAPAN; TOKYO INST TECHNOL,RESOURCES UTILISAT RES LAB,YOKOHAMA,KANAGAWA 227,JAPAN; .
    HATTORI, S
    MEITEC CORP,DEPT ENGN DEV,NAKA KU,NAGOYA 460,JAPAN; UNIV TOKYO,ADV SCI and TECHNOL RES CTR,TOKYO 153,JAPAN; TOKYO INST TECHNOL,RESOURCES UTILISAT RES LAB,YOKOHAMA,KANAGAWA 227,JAPAN; .
    KARUBE, I
    MEITEC CORP,DEPT ENGN DEV,NAKA KU,NAGOYA 460,JAPAN; UNIV TOKYO,ADV SCI and TECHNOL RES CTR,TOKYO 153,JAPAN; TOKYO INST TECHNOL,RESOURCES UTILISAT RES LAB,YOKOHAMA,KANAGAWA 227,JAPAN; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    YOKOZAWA, T
    MEITEC CORP,DEPT ENGN DEV,NAKA KU,NAGOYA 460,JAPAN; UNIV TOKYO,ADV SCI and TECHNOL RES CTR,TOKYO 153,JAPAN; TOKYO INST TECHNOL,RESOURCES UTILISAT RES LAB,YOKOHAMA,KANAGAWA 227,JAPAN; .
    FERROCENE MODIFIED POLYPYRROLE WITH IMMOBILIZED GLUCOSE-OXIDASE AND ITS APPLICATION IN AMPEROMETRIC GLUCOSE MICROBIOSENSORS1989In: Annales de Biologie Clinique, ISSN 0003-3898, E-ISSN 1950-6112, Vol. 47, no 10, p. 607-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 67.
    Downs, Mark E.A.
    et al.
    Cranfield Institute of Technology, UK.
    Warner, Philip J.
    Cranfield Institute of Technology, UK.
    Turner, Anthony
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Fothergill, John C.
    University of Leicester, UK.
    Optical and electrochemical detection of DNA1988In: Biomaterials, ISSN 0142-9612, E-ISSN 1878-5905, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 66-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing demand for the production of a DNA biosensor with applications in medicine, the food industry, agriculture, veterinary science and environmental science. In this paper we describe methods for the optical and electrochemical detection of DNA using the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) and glucose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.4). We have used bis-methylacridinium nitrate and luminol for the optical detection of DNA using a purpose built, inexpensive luminometer. Using this system detection limits of 10−11g of plasmid DNA have been observed. Electrochemical detection of DNA was carried out by the use of a fluoride ion selective electrode and stripping voltametry. DNA was detected down to 1 (10−9 − 10−10g of DNA by the enzymatic release of halogen ions from organohalogen compounds.

  • 68.
    Dutta, K.
    et al.
    University Calcutta, Department Polymer Science and Technology, Calcutta 700009, W Bengal, India.
    Bhattacharyay, D.
    University Calcutta, Department Polymer Science and Technology, Calcutta .
    Mukherjee, A.
    Jadavpur University, Department Chemistry Engn, Calcutta 700032, India.
    J. Setford, S.
    Cranfield University, Cranfield Hlth, Silsoe MK45 4DT, Beds, England.
    P. F. Turner, A.
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Sarkar, P.
    University Calcutta, Department Polymer Science and Technology, Calcutta 700009, W Bengal, India.
    Detection of pesticide by polymeric enzyme electrodes2008In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 556-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) containing immobilized acetylcholine esterase (AChE) enzyme were used for the electrochemical determination of organophosphorous (OP) and carbamate pesticides. The extent of AChE deactivation by the pesticide was determined in the presence of acetylcholine (AChCl) substrate. The unique nature of this approach lies in the enzyme immobilization procedure in which AChE was attached to the SPE by in situ bulk polymerization of acrylamide to ensure efficient adherence within the membrane with minimal losses in enzyme activity. Responses were observed for the pesticides Monocrotophos, Malathion, Metasystox and Lannate over the concentration range 0-10 ppb (mu g L-1). (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 69.
    ERASIN, BR
    et al.
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,BEDFORD MK43 0AL,ENGLAND; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    WHEATLEY, AD
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,BEDFORD MK43 0AL,ENGLAND; .
    A FIXED-FILM BIOASSAY FOR THE DETECTION OF MICROPOLLUTANTS TOXIC TO ANAEROBIC SLUDGES1994In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 298, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Micropollutants in waste water streams can be a serious problem for the anaerobic digestion process. A short-term acute bioassay system is described for testing the effects of new and potentially toxic compounds on anaerobic digestion processes. Change in methanogenic activity was used as the monitored process parameter and the performance of intoxicated inocula was compared to activity prior to adding test compounds and to the activity of a parallel control assay. The performance of the bioassay was tested with chlorinated solvents and heavy metals. Trichloroethane caused a 50% reduction in methanogenic activity at 7 mg/l assay. The performance of suspended and fixed biomass assays were compared; the suspended growth was found to be five times more sensitive to trichloroethane. There was no clear inhibition with the heavy metals even at the highest concentration used (up to 750 mg Cu/l). The duration of assay was found to be an important parameter in the evaluation of anaerobic toxicity.

  • 70.
    Fathollahzadeh, Marjam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. College of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Gava Zang, Zanjan, Iran.
    Tyagi, Manav
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemical and Optical Sensor Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Haghighi,, B
    Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dynamic gates based on polypyrrole for microfluidic bioanalytical applications2016In: Biosensors 2016 – The World Congress on Biosensors, Gothenburg, Sweden, 25-27 May 2016, Elsevier, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 71. Felini, Usisipho
    et al.
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Iwuoha, Emanuel
    University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palladium telluride quantum dots and cytochrome P450 biosensor for the detection of breast cancer drug – tamoxifen.2015In: Sweden-Japan Seminar on Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology – SJS-Nano, Linköping, Sweden, 10-11 March 2015., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Stockholm. , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tamoxifen is an oral non-steroidal anti-estrogen drug used in the prevention and treatment of all stages of breast cancer. This drug acts by competing with estrogen for binding to the estrogen receptor (ER) and reduces the transcription of estrogen dependent genes. However, approximately 30-50% of ER-positive breast cancer patients either fail to respond or eventually become resistant to tamoxifen resulting in a serious clinical challenge in breast cancer management. This, therefore, calls for new selective and sensitive methods for evaluating individual’s metabolic activities of the drug ensuring in this way reliable dosing of the drug. This paper presents a biosensor system based on the combination of thioglycolic acid-capped palladium telluride (TGA-PdTe) quantum dots (QDs) and cytochrome P450-3A4 or 2D6 (CYP3A4 or CYP2D6) enzymes for the determination of tamoxifen. Preliminary FTIR and UVs studies of the QDs confirmed the presence of the capping agent via the specific COOH and CH2 signature bands; furthermore the adsorption band at ca. 330 nm and the corresponding band gap energy, Eg, value is 3.47 eV (within the Eg value for QDs particles) confirmed the successful synthesis of the TGA-PdTe QDs. Differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) electroanalysis using the Au|Cyst|TGA-PdTeQDs|CYP3A4 (or CYP2D6) biosensor systems indicated a clear catalytic cathodic peak at -0.35 V for the tamoxifen biotransformation reaction; this signal was used, in this work, as the biosensor analytical response. The developed biosensor presented a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.98 and 2.5 ng/mL, for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 based biosensors, respectively. These are lower than tamoxifen’s maximum steady state plasma concentration (Cmax 40 ng/L) value; these performances make the proposed biosensor a promising platform for monitoring the drug in patients.

  • 72.
    Fischer, U.
    et al.
    Institüt für Diabetes “Gerhard Katsch” der Ernst—Moritz—Arndt Universität Greifswald, Karlsburg, Germany.
    Alcock, S.
    Cranfield Biotechnology Centre, Cranfield University, UK.
    Turner, Anthony P. F.
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Assessment of devices for in vivo monitoring of chemical species1995In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 10, no 5, p. xxiii-xxxArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Fragkou, Vasiliki
    et al.
    Cranfield University, England .
    Ge, Yi
    Cranfield University, England .
    Steiner, Greg
    Pelikan Technology GmbH and Co KG, Germany .
    Freeman, Dom
    Pelikan Technology Inc, CA 94303 USA .
    Bartetzko, Norbert
    Pelikan Technology GmbH and Co KG, Germany .
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Correction: Determination of the Real Surface Area of a Screen-Printed Electrode by Chronocoulometry (vol 7, pg 6214, 2012) in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTROCHEMICAL SCIENCE, vol 9, issue 2, pg 1033-10332014In: International Journal of Electrochemical Science, ISSN 1452-3981, E-ISSN 1452-3981, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 1033-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 74.
    Fragkou, Vasiliki
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, UK.
    Ge, Yi
    Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, UK.
    Steiner, Greg
    Pelikan Technologies GmbH and Co KG, Munster, Germany.
    Freeman, Dom
    Pelikan Technologies, Palo Alto, USA .
    Bartetzko, Norbert
    Pelikan Technologies GmbH and Co KG, Munster, Germany.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Determination of the Real Surface Area of a Screen-Printed Electrode by Chronocoulometry2012In: International Journal of Electrochemical Science, ISSN 1452-3981, E-ISSN 1452-3981, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 6214-6220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple and effective method applying chronocoulometry and cyclic voltammetry to the determination of the real surface area of a screen-printed electrode, for the first time, is reported. The method is based on the Anson plot and the standard addition method. This method could greatly facilitate determination of the real surface area of commercial screen-printed electrodes, which still remains underdeveloped despite the critical importance of quality control in this industry.

  • 75.
    Fragkou, Vasiliki
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedford, UK.
    Turner, Anthony
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Commercial Biosensors for Diabetes2008In: Handbook of Optical Sensing of Glucose in Biological Fluids and Tissues / [ed] Valery V. Tuchin, CRC Press, 2008, p. 41-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although noninvasive, continuous monitoring of glucose concentration in blood and tissues is one of the most challenging areas in medicine, a wide range of optical techniques has recently been designed to help develop robust noninvasive methods for glucose sensing. For the first time in book form, the Handbook of Optical Sensing of Glucose in Biological Fluids and Tissues analyzes trends in noninvasive optical glucose sensing and discusses its impact on tissue optical properties.

    This handbook presents methods that improve the accuracy in glucose prediction based on infrared absorption spectroscopy, recent studies on the influence of acute hyperglycemia on cerebral blood flow, and the correlation between diabetes and the thermo-optical response of human skin. It examines skin glucose monitoring by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), fluorescence-based glucose biosensors, and a photonic crystal contact lens sensor. The contributors also explore problems of polarimetric glucose sensing in transparent and turbid tissues as well as offer a high-resolution optical technique for noninvasive, continuous, and accurate blood glucose monitoring and glucose diffusion measurement.

    Written by world-renowned experts in biomedical optics and biophotonics, this book gives a complete, state-of-the-art treatise on the design and applications of noninvasive optical methods and instruments for glucose sensing.

  • 76.
    Fredj, Zina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Sousse, Higher Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology of Sousse, GREENS-ISSAT, Cité Ettafala, 4003 Ibn Khaldoun Sousse, Tunisia.
    Azzouzi, Sawsen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Sousse, Higher Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology of Sousse, GREENS-ISSAT, Cité Ettafala, 4003 Ibn Khaldoun Sousse, Tunisia.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ali, Mounir, Ben
    University of Sousse, Higher Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology of Sousse, GREENS-ISSAT, Cité Ettafala, 4003 Ibn Khaldoun Sousse, Tunisia.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Neutravidin biosensor for direct capture of dual-functional biotin-molecular beacon-AuNP probe for sensitive voltammetric detection of microRNA2017In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 248, p. 8p. 77-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated a new approach using a neutravidin-based biosensor combined with a dual-function gold nanoparticle (AuNP) biolabel, for simple and sensitive detection of microRNA-21 (miRNA-21). The selectivity of the biosensor is provided by the intrinsic properties of the dual-functional biotin-MB-AuNP label. The assay procedure is relatively simple, exploiting a one-pot assay concept where the affinity capture of the miRNA-21/dual-functional biotin-MB-AuNP complex, via the strong biotin-neutravidin supramolecular interaction, and simultaneous detection of the captured AuNPs label with stripping voltammetry, is performed in a single step. This electrochemical miRNA biosensor could detect miRNA-21 with limit of detection of 0.1×10less thansuperscriptgreater than−12less than/superscriptgreater than and a dynamic range from 0.5×10less thansuperscriptgreater than−12less than/superscriptgreater than to 1.0×10less thansuperscriptgreater than−9less than/superscriptgreater thanM. The performance of the miRNA-21biosensor was further improved after silver deposition onto the AuNPs, delivering an enhanced detection limit of 4.0×10less thansuperscriptgreater than−15less than/superscriptgreater thanM of miRNA-21, and an extremely wide analytic dynamic range from 10×10less thansuperscriptgreater than−15less than/superscriptgreater than to 1×10less thansuperscriptgreater than−9less than/superscriptgreater thanM (5 orders of magnitude). This exceptionally broad dynamic range demonstrates the advantage of the one-pot assay approach with direct capture of the dual functional biotin-MB-AuNP via the strong biotin-neutravidin supramolecular interaction. Furthermore, we demonstrated the detection of miRNA-21 in spiked serum at clinically relevant concentrations. The miRNA biosensor displayed excellent analytical performance for the detection of miRNA and could provide a powerful and convenient tool for biomedical research and applications in cancer diagnostics.

  • 77.
    Ge, Yi
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Bedford MK45 4DT, England.
    P. F. Turner, Anthony
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Too large to fit? Recent developments in macromolecular imprinting2008In: Trends in Biotechnology, ISSN 0167-7799, E-ISSN 1879-3096, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 218-224Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular imprinting involves the synthesis of polymers in the presence of a template to produce complementary binding sites with specific recognition ability. The technique has been successfully applied as a measurement and separation technology, producing a uniquely robust and antibody-like polymeric material. Low molecular weight molecules have been extensively exploited as imprint templates, leading to significant achievements in solid-phase extraction, sensing and enzyme-like catalysis. By contrast, macromolecular imprinting remains underdeveloped, principally because of the lack of binding site accessibility. In this review, we focus on the most recent developments in this area, not only covering the widespread use of biological macro-templates but also highlighting the emerging use of synthetic macro-templates, such as dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers.

  • 78.
    Ge, Yi
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, UK.
    Turner, Anthony P. F.
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Molecularly Imprinted Sorbent Assays: Recent Developments and Applications2009In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 15, no 33, p. 8100-8107Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular imprinting has attracted considerable attention, because it offers the tantalising prospect of specific antibody-mimicking recognition and binding sites, coupled with several distinct advantages such as excellent stability, ease of preparation and low cost. In this Minireview, recent progress in molecularly imprinted sorbent assays is discussed, with a particular emphasis on the most significant developments and applications over the last few years.

  • 79.
    Ghosh, Tanushree
    et al.
    University of Calcutta, India.
    Sarkar, Priyabrata
    University of Calcutta, India.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A novel third generation uric acid biosensor using uricase electro-activated with ferrocene on a Nafion coated glassy carbon electrode2015In: Bioelectrochemistry, ISSN 1567-5394, E-ISSN 1878-562X, Vol. 102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new uric acid biosensor was constructed using ferrocene (Fc) induced electro-activated uricase (UOx) deposited within Nation (Naf) on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Electro-activation of UOx was successfully achieved by cyclic voltammetry through the electrostatic interaction of Fc with Trp residues within the hydrophobic pockets in UOx. The Naf/UOx/Fc composite was characterised by AFM, FTIR and EDX to ensure proper immobilisation. The interaction of Fc with the enzyme was analysed by Trp fluorescence spectroscopy and the alpha-helicity of the protein was measured by CD spectropolarimetry. The charge transfer resistance (R-ct), calculated from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, for the modified sensor was lowered (1.39 k Omega) and the enzyme efficiency was enhanced by more than two fold as a result of Fc incorporation. Cyclic voltammetty, differential pulse voltammetty and amperometry all demonstrated the excellent response of the Naf/UOx/Fc/GCE biosensor to uric acid. The sensor system generated a linear response over a range of 500 nM to 600 mu M UA, with a sensitivity and limit of detection of 1.78 mu A mu M-1 and 230 nM, respectively. The heterogeneous rate constant (k(s)) for UA oxidation was much higher for Naf/UOx/Fc/GCE (1.0 x 10(-4) cm s(-1)) than for Naf/UOx/GCE (8.2 x 10(-5) cm s(-1)). Real samples, i.e. human blood, were tested for serum UA and the sensor yielded accurate results at a 95% confidence limit. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 80.
    Ghosh, Tanushree
    et al.
    University of Calcutta, India.
    Sarkar, Priyabrata
    University of Calcutta, India.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Disposable uric acid biosensor by bacterial crude uricase enzyme modified screen printed electrode2015In: Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, ISSN 0019-4522, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 127-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uric acid is the primary end product from purine derivatives in human metabolism. Excessive production of uric acid may lead to gout, hyperuricemia and kidney disorder: Different analytical methods for uric acid such as Colorimetry, commercial enzyme electrode and commercially available uric acid kit are used widely. The main purpose of this research was to develop,a screen printed electrode based uric acid biosensor using gelatin immobilized uricase enzyme extracted from Comamonas sp. BTUA. The enzyme catalyzed oxidation of uric acid in presence of oxygen, producing allantoin and hydrogen peroxide. The linearity of the standard curve in the concentration ranges from 5.94 x 10(-6) to 4.75 x 10(-4) molar was satisfactory and could be used for the quantitative determination of uric acid in human serum samples. The limit of detection (LOD) was 2.26 mu M and sensitivity was evaluated as 3.31 nA mu M-1 of uric acid. One Modified electrode could be used for six measurements with 95%. accuracy up to 25 days. The developed biosensor was easy to use, inexpensive, sensitive and reliable.

  • 81. Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kuralay, Feliz
    Uzun, Lokman
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Use of Phenylboronic Acid Derivatives in Molecular Imprinting of Whole Bacterial Cells2015In: 2nd International Congress on Biosensors – BiosensorTR2015, 10-12 June 2015, Izmir, Turkey., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of novel, rapid and inexpensive methods for the detection of bacteria will be beneficial in many fields including food and water safety, biosecurity, bioprocess control and clinical diagnostics. Of the possible alternatives, biosensors offer great potential to replace or complement traditional culture-based detection methods, which are time consuming, expensive and need equipped laboratories and trained staff.

     

    Molecularly-imprinted polymers (MIPs) are bio-inspired artificial receptors that are finding increasing use in biosensors. Unlike bio-receptors, they are more stable, inexpensive and easy to produce. Although imprinting of chemical and biological molecules has been very well studied, there is limited work on the imprinting of whole bacterial cells.  

    Bacterial cells are well-known to present several sugar compounds on their outer surface. In this paper, we explore the reversible interaction between boronic groups and diols for the development of highly specific MIPs for intact bacterial cells. 3-aminophenylboronic acid-based MIPs, for the detection of Staphylococcus epidermidis, were fabricated via chronoamperometric methods and   SEM images were used to verify the successful capturing and releasing of the whole bacterial cells. Successful capture and easy release of the bacterial cells, via a competitive approach, was demonstrated. Furthermore, the usefulness of this imprinting process for the specific detection of Staphylococcus epidermidis versus non-target bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, was also demonstrated by the use of impedance spectroscopy measurements of bacterial binding to MIPs and NIPs (non-imprinted polymers) electrodes.

  • 82.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    ATR-FTIR: a simple and rapid tool for bacterial resistance detection2015In: Conference on Advanced Vibrational Spectroscopy - ICAVS, Vienna, Austria, 12- 17 July 2015., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modulated Smart Material Surfaces for Bacterial Differentiation.2015In: Sweden-Japan Seminar on Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology – SJS-Nano, Linköping, Sweden, 10-11 March 2015., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Stockholm. , 2015, p. 30-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel rapid method for bacterial differentiation is explored based on the specific adhesion pattern of bacterial strains to tunable polymer surfaces. These preliminary investigations lay the foundation for the development of an electronically tunable array of sensors that will provide patterns of information that feed into computational recognition algorithms to enable swift diffentiation of bacterial species. Different types of counter ions were used to electrochemically fabricate dissimilar polypyrrole (PPy) films with diverse physicochemical properties such as hydrophobicity, thickness and roughness. These were then modulated into three different oxidation states in each case.  The dissimilar sets of conducting polymers were exposed to a number of different bacterial strains. Generally, the number of cells of a particular bacterial strain that adhered varied when exposed to dissimilar polymer surfaces, due to the effects of the surface properties of the polymer on bacterial attachment. Similarly, the number of cells that adhered varied with different bacterial strains exposed to the same surface, reflecting the different surface properties of the bacteria. Five different bacterial strains, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Alcaligenes faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, were seeded onto various PPy surfaces. By analysis of the fluorescent microscope images, the number of bacterial cell adhered to each surface were evaluated. Principal Component Analysis showed that all had their own specific adhesion pattern with respect to the set of applied PPy areas.  Hence, these strains could be discriminated by this simple, label-free method. In summary, this provides a proof-of-concept for using specific adhesion properties of bacterial strains in conjunction with tunable polymer arrays and pattern recognition as a method for rapid bacterial identification in situ.

  • 84.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phenylboronic acid-functionalised electrode interface for whole bacterial cell imprinting2016In: Biosensors 2016 – The World Congress on Biosensors, Gothenburg, Sweden, 25-27 May 2016, Elsevier, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polymer Arrays as a Novel Bio-sensing Method for Bacterial Detection2014In: 24th Anniversary World Congress on Biosensors – Biosensors 2014, Elsevier, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel and cost-effective recognition method for rapid bacterial detection is reported. Rapid bacterial detection is a challenge for the food and pharmaceutical industries as well as in clinical diagnostics. There is a great necessity for replacement of conventional detection methods by new rapid alternatives. Identifying microorganisms based on their specific adhesive properties to different surfaces could lead to a fast diagnostic and novel bacterial detection tool. An array of conducting polymers, which have diverse physicochemical properties like hydrophobicity, thickness and roughness, have been designed and developed for use as the recognition element in a bacterial biosensor that can distinguish bacterial strains. Electrochemically synthesised polypyrrole was doped with different counter ions in order to fabricate bacterial recognition elements. Mid-exponential phase bacterial cells were exposed to the polymers for a fixed time and the adhering cells were stained by ethidium bromide and counted using a fluorescent microscope. The results show both that the number of adhesive bacterial cells of E. coli on each polymer surface is different and that this adhesive pattern is unique for the bacterial strains tested: A. faecalis and D. proteolyticus, show different adhesive patterns in similar experiments. The results showed that with only a few different polymers, it was possible to reliably discriminate an E. coli strain from three other bacterial strains. This forms the basis for an array-type device comprising a variety of dissimilar polymers to differentiate a broad range of bacterial strains. We expect the array, in combination with an appropriate transducer and pattern-recognition software, to provide a convenient and inexpensive biosensing device able to rapidly and specifically detect bacterial strains and also to have potential applications in whole-cell biosensors.

  • 86. Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tunable Conjugated Polymers for Bacterial Differentiation2015In: 4th International Conference on Bio-Sensing Technology, 10-13 May 2015, Lisbon, Portugal., Elsevier, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel rapid method for bacterial differentiation is explored based on the specific adhesion pattern of bacteria to tunable polymer surfaces. Different types of counter ions were used to electrochemically fabricate dissimilar polypyrrole (PPy) films with diverse physicochemical properties such as hydrophobicity, thickness and roughness. In order to expand the number of individual sensors in the array, three different redox states (as fabricated, oxidised and reduced) of each PPy film were also employed. These dissimilar PPy surfaces were exposed to five different bacteria, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Alcaligenes faecalis, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia marcescens, , which were seeded onto the various PPy surfaces. Fluorescent microscope images were taken and used to quantify the number of cells adhering to the surfaces.  Generally, the number of cells of a particular bacterial strain that adhered varied when exposed to dissimilar polymer surfaces, due to the effects of the surface properties of the polymer on bacterial attachment. Similarly, the number of cells that adhered varied with different bacteria exposed to the same surface, reflecting the different surface properties of the bacteria. Statistical analysis and principal component analysis showed that all had their own specific adhesion pattern with respect to the array of PPy surfaces. Hence, these bacteria could be discriminated by this simple label-free method. In summary, this provides a proof-of-concept for using specific adhesion properties of bacterial in conjunction with tunable polymer arrays and pattern recognition as a method for rapid bacterial identification in situ.

  • 87.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kuralay, Filiz
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Ordu University, Ordu, Turkey.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Acreo Swedish ACT AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrochemical bacterial detection using poly(3-aminophenylboronic acid)-based imprinted polymer.2017In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 93, p. 87-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosensors can deliver the rapid bacterial detection that is needed in many fields including food safety, clinical diagnostics, biosafety and biosecurity. Whole-cell imprinted polymers have the potential to be applied as recognition elements in biosensors for selective bacterial detection. In this paper, we report on the use of 3-aminophenylboronic acid (3-APBA) for the electrochemical fabrication of a cell-imprinted polymer (CIP). The use of a monomer bearing a boronic acid group, with its ability to specifically interact with cis-diol, allowed the formation of a polymeric network presenting both morphological and chemical recognition abilities. A particularly beneficial feature of the proposed approach is the reversibility of the cis-diol-boronic group complex, which facilitates easy release of the captured bacterial cells and subsequent regeneration of the CIP. Staphylococcus epidermidis was used as the model target bacteria for the CIP and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was explored for the label-free detection of the target bacteria. The modified electrodes showed a linear response over the range of 103–107 cfu/mL. A selectivity study also showed that the CIP could discriminate its target from non-target bacteria having similar shape. The CIPs had high affinity and specificity for bacterial detection and provided a switchable interface for easy removal of bacterial cell.

  • 88.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics.
    Padiolleau, Laurence
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Cranfield University, England.
    Chen, Xi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Dundee, Scotland.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sheikhzadeh, Elham
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Doping Polypyrrole Films with 4-N-Pentylphenylboronic Acid to Enhance Affinity towards Bacteria and Dopamine2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 11, article id e0166548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we demonstrate the use of a functional dopant as a fast and simple way to tune the chemical affinity and selectivity of polypyrrole films. More specifically, a boronic-functionalised dopant, 4-N-Pentylphenylboronic Acid (PBA), was used to provide to polypyrrole films with enhanced affinity towards diols. In order to prove the proposed concept, two model systems were explored: (i) the capture and the electrochemical detection of dopamine and (ii) the adhesion of bacteria onto surfaces. The chemisensor, based on overoxidised polypyrrole boronic doped film, was shown to have the ability to capture and retain dopamine, thus improving its detection; furthermore the chemisensor showed better sensitivity in comparison with overoxidised perchlorate doped films. The adhesion of bacteria, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae, onto the boric doped polypyrrole film was also tested. The presence of the boronic group in the polypyrrole film was shown to favour the adhesion of sugar-rich bacterial cells when compared with a control film (Dodecyl benzenesulfonate (DBS) doped film) with similar morphological and physical properties. The presented single step synthesis approach is simple and fast, does not require the development and synthesis of functional monomers, and can be easily expanded to the electrochemical, and possibly chemical, fabrication of novel functional surfaces and interfaces with inherent pre-defined sensing and chemical properties.

  • 89.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tunable conjugated polymers for bacterial differentiation2016In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 222, p. 839-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel rapid method for bacterial differentiation is explored based on the specific adhesion pattern of bacterial strains to tunable polymer surfaces. Different types of counter ions were used to electrochemically fabricate dissimilar polypyrrole (PPy) films with diverse physicochemical properties such as hydrophobicity, thickness and roughness. These were then modulated into three different oxidation states in each case. The dissimilar sets of conducting polymers were exposed to five different bacterial strains, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Alcaligenes faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. By analysis of the fluorescent microscope images, the number of bacterial cells adhered to each surface were evaluated. Generally, the number of cells of a particular bacterial strain that adhered varied when exposed to dissimilar polymer surfaces, due to the effects of the surface properties of the polymer on bacterial attachment. Similarly, the number of cells that adhered varied with different bacterial strains exposed to the same surface, reflecting the different surface properties of the bacteria. Principal component analysis showed that each strain of bacteria had its own specific adhesion pattern. Hence, they could be discriminated by this simple, label-free method based on tunable polymer arrays combined with pattern recognition. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 90.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tuning the surface properties of polypyrrole films for modulating bacterial adhesion.2016In: Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 1022-1352, E-ISSN 1521-3935, Vol. 217, no 10, p. 1128-1135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tuning the physical–chemical properties of polypyrrole (PPy) opens up potentially exciting new applications, especially in the area of bacterial adhesion. Polypyrrole is electrochemically synthesized under various conditions and the physical properties of the films and their effects on bacterial adhesion are characterized. Five types of dopants—chloride (Cl), perchlorate (ClO4), p-toluene-sulfonate (ToS), dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS), and poly sodium styrene sulfonate (PSS)—are used to fabricate PPy films at two different constant potentials (0.500 and 0.850 V) with and without Fe3+. Their thickness, roughness, and wettability are measured. The adhesion tendency of Escherichia coli, as a model bacterium, to the four polymers is studied. E. coli shows greater adhesion tendency to the hydrophobic, rough surface of PPy-DBS, and less adhesion tendency to the smooth and hydrophilic surface of PPy-PSS. The results facilitate the choice of appropriate electropolymerization conditions to modulate bacterial adhesion.

  • 91.
    HALL, GF
    et al.
    ; .
    BEST, DJ
    ; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    AMPEROMETRIC ENZYME ELECTRODE FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PHENOLS IN CHLOROFORM1988In: Enzyme and microbial technology, ISSN 0141-0229, E-ISSN 1879-0909, Vol. 10, no 9, p. 543-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 92.
    HALL, GF
    et al.
    ; .
    BEST, DJ
    ; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    THE DETERMINATION OF P-CRESOL IN CHLOROFORM WITH AN ENZYME ELECTRODE USED IN THE ORGANIC-PHASE1988In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 213, no 02-jan, p. 113-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 93.
    HALL, GF
    et al.
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    AN ORGANIC-PHASE ENZYME ELECTRODE FOR CHOLESTEROL1991In: Analytical Letters, ISSN 0003-2719, E-ISSN 1532-236X, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 1375-1388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An enzyme electrode is described for the determination of cholesterol dissolved in chloroform/hexane (1:1). The enzyme electrode is shown to be applicable to the determination of cholesterol in samples of butter and margarine.

  • 94.
    HALL, GF
    et al.
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,CRANFIELD MK43 OAL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    ELECTRON-TRANSFER FROM DIAPHORASE IN WATER TRITON X-100 BUTYL ACETATE MICROEMULSION1994In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 217-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transfer of electrons from an enzyme in a microemulsion system to a glassy carbon electrode, via mediators of different solubilities, is demonstrated. A bienzymic reaction is carried out in a microemulsion formed by the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 in butyl acetate. The enzymes used are alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) and diaphorase (EC 1.8.1.4). ADH catalyzes the conversion of primary alcohols to aldehydes with the concomitant reduction of its cofactor. nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD-) to NADH. Diaphorase reoxidizes NADH and can utilize a variety of molecules as an electron acceptor. It is demonstrated that these may be water soluble or solvent soluble.

  • 95.
    Hart, AL
    et al.
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; HORTRES,BATSHELAR RES CTR,PALMERSTON NORTH,NEW ZEALAND; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Hopcroft, D
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; HORTRES,BATSHELAR RES CTR,PALMERSTON NORTH,NEW ZEALAND; .
    On the use of screen- and ink-jet printing to produce amperometric enzyme electrodes for lactate1996In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 263-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prototype electrochemical lactate electrodes based on lactate oxidase were produced by screen-printing and application of membranes by dip-coating or ink-jet printing. The link between enzyme and electrode was made by electro-deposition of platinum onto graphite pads. The linear range of the sensors was small; up to 2 mM lactate. Electrodes retained their activity when stored dry; activity remained high for 244 days. The properties of the electrodes indicate that screen- and ink-jet printing are feasible techniques for the machine production of lactate sensors.

  • 96.
    Hatamie, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. NED University of Engn and Technology, Pakistan.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sadollah Khani, Azar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zargar, Behrooz
    Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Bano, Sumaira
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zinc Oxide Nanostructure-Modified Textile and Its Application to Biosensing, Photocatalysis, and as Antibacterial Material2015In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 31, no 39, p. 10913-10921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, one-dimensional nanostructures with different morphologies (such as nanowires, nanorods (NRs), and nanotubes) have become the focus of intensive research, because of their unique properties with potential applications. Among them, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials has been found to be highly attractive, because of the remarkable potential for applications in many different areas such as solar cells, sensors, piezoelectric devices, photodiode devices, sun screens, antireflection coatings, and photocatalysis. Here, we present an innovative approach to create a new modified textile by direct in situ growth of vertically aligned one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NRs onto textile surfaces, which can serve with potential for biosensing, photocatalysis, and antibacterial applications. ZnO NRs were grown by using a simple aqueous chemical growth method. Results from analyses such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the ZnO NRs were dispersed over the entire surface of the textile. We have demonstrated the following applications of these multifunctional textiles: (1) as a flexible working electrode for the detection of aldicarb (ALD) pesticide, (2) as a photo catalyst for the degradation of organic molecules (i.e., Methylene Blue and Congo Red), and (3) as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli. The ZnO-based textile exhibited excellent photocatalytic and antibacterial activities, and it showed a promising sensing response. The combination of sensing, photo catalysis, and antibacterial properties provided by the ZnO NRs brings us closer to the concept of smart textiles for wearable sensing without a deodorant and antibacterial control. Perhaps the best known of the products that is available in markets for such purposes are textiles with silver nanoparticles. Our modified textile is thus providing acceptable antibacterial properties, compared to available commercial modified textiles.

  • 97.
    HENDRY, SP
    et al.
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; UNIV WITWATERSRAND,DEPT CHEM,JOHANNESBURG 2001,SOUTH AFRICA; .
    CARDOSI, MF
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; UNIV WITWATERSRAND,DEPT CHEM,JOHANNESBURG 2001,SOUTH AFRICA; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    NEUSE, EW
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; UNIV WITWATERSRAND,DEPT CHEM,JOHANNESBURG 2001,SOUTH AFRICA; .
    POLYFERROCENES AS MEDIATORS IN AMPEROMETRIC BIOSENSORS FOR GLUCOSE1993In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 281, no 3, p. 453-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the first successful application of polymeric ferrocenes as mediators in amperometric biosensors. The results have implications for the design of stable biosensors and bioelectronic devices involving electron transfer from oxidoreductases to electrode surfaces. The behaviour of two ferrocene polymers in enzyme electrodes was explored and a distinctive pH profile was noted. It is suggested that changes in either the enzyme conformation or the polymer in response to hydrogen ion concentration may explain the difference in behaviour between monomeric and polymeric ferrocenes.

  • 98.
    HENDRY, SP
    et al.
    ; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    A GLUCOSE SENSOR UTILIZING TETRACYANOQUINODIMETHANE AS A MEDIATOR1988In: Hormone and Metabolic Research, ISSN 0018-5043, E-ISSN 1439-4286, Vol. 20, p. 37-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 99.
    Hill, H. A. O
    et al.
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Higgins, I. J
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Turner, Anthony
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Ferrocene-based glucose enzyme electrode1985In: Implantable Sensors For Closed-loop Prosthetic Systems / [ed] Wen H. Ko, Mount Kisco, New York: Ed. Wen. H. Ko , 1985, p. 189-195Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 100.
    Hobson, NS
    et al.
    ; .
    Tothill, I
    ; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Microbial detection1996In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 455-477Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a widespread need for commercial instrumentation for the rapid and inexpensive detection of microbial contamination of food, industrial waste water and clinical samples. A large number of detection methods have been developed utilizing the optical, electrochemical, biochemical and physical properties of microorganisms. The need for a device which can produce a rapid, accurate, sensitive, real-time analysis for clinical, industrial and environmental applications has led to considerable progress being achieved in recent years in the development of biosensors for microbial detection. This intense research has resulted in the commercialization of several instruments. Techniques used for the quantification of microorganisms are reviewed under the general categories of non-bioelectrochemical and bioelectrochemical methods.

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