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  • 51.
    Liu, Xianjie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Li, Fenghong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Interfacial electronic properties of pentacene tuned by a molecular monolayer of C-602009In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 80, no 11, p. 115401-1-115401-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fine-tuning charge injection barriers between organic materials and electrodes is critical to optimize organic electronic device performance. Here we demonstrate that by modifying gold substrates with a monolayer of fullerene, significant decrease in the hole-injection barrier into pentacene films can be achieved. The insertion of the fullerene monolayer modifies the interfacial dipole and produces an interface where the pentacene molecules form a standing-up orientation with their long axis parallel to the surface normal. The latter effect lowers the vertical ionization energy of the pentacene molecules at the interface as compared to the pentacene-on-Au case, as well as improves the pi-pi overlap between the pentacene molecules that will likely enhance the transport properties in corresponding devices.

  • 52.
    Lopez Cabezas, Ana
    et al.
    iPack VINN Excellence Center, School of Information and Communication Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden .
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Qiang
    iPack VINN Excellence Center, School of Information and Communication Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    iPack VINN Excellence Center, School of Information and Communication Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden .
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    iPack VINN Excellence Center, School of Information and Communication Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden .
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    iPack VINN Excellence Center, School of Information and Communication Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden and Solid-State Electronics, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Influence of Carbon Nanotubes on Thermal Stability of Water-Dispersible Nanofibrillar Polyaniline/Nanotube Composite2012In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 327-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant influence on the thermal stability of polyaniline (PANI) in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is reported. By means of in-situ rapid mixing approach, water-dispersible nanofibrillar PANI and composites, consisting of MWCNTs uniformly coated with PANI in the state of emeraldine salt, with a well-defined core-shell heterogeneous structure, were prepared. The de-protonation process in PANI occurs at a lower temperature under the presence of MWCNTs on the polyaniline composite upon thermal treatment. However, it is found that the presence of MWCNTs significantly enhances the thermal stability of PANIs backbone upon exposure to laser irradiation, which can be ascribed to the core-shell heterogeneous structure of the composite of MWCNTs and PANI, and the high thermal conductivity of MWCNTs.

  • 53.
    Malti, Abdellah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brooke, Robert
    University of S Australia, Australia.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    AcreoSwedish ICT, Sweden.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A substrate-free electrochromic device2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic displays based on conducting polymers offer higher contrast, are cheaper, faster, more durable, and easier to synthesize as well as to process than their non-polymeric counterparts. The field of organic electrochromics has made considerable strides in the last decade with the development of new materials and methods. Here, we present a cellulose composite combining PEDOT:PSS and TiO2 that is a free-standing electrochromic material. Owing to the excellent refractive properties of TiO2, this nanocomposite is white in the neutral state and, when reduced, turns blue resulting in a color contrast exceeding 30. The composite has a granular morphology and, as shown by AFM, an intermingling of TiO2 and PEDOT:PSS at the surface. Variation of TiO2 within the material led to a trade-off in optical and electrical properties. A proof of concept free-standing electrochromic device was fabricated by casting several layers, which was found to be stable over 100 cycles.

  • 54.
    Malti, Abdellah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Khan, Zia Ullah
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Hao
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA.
    Yao, Ylong
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA.
    Brill, Joseph W.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wåberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, and Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Enabling organic power electronics with a cellulose nano-scaffold2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploiting the nanoscale properties of certain materials enables the creation of new materials with a unique set of properties. Here, we report on an electronic (and ionic) conducting paper based on cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), which may be facilely processed into large three-dimensional geometries, while keeping unprecedented electronic and ionic conductivities of 140 S/cm and 20 mS/cm, respectively. This is achieved by cladding the CNF with PEDOT:PSS, and trapping an ion-transporting phase in the interstices between these nanofibrils. The unique properties of the resulting nanopaper composite have been used to demonstrate (electrochemical) transistors, supercapacitors and conductors resulting in exceptionally high device parameters, such as an associated transconductance, charge storage capacity and current level beyond 1 S, 1 F and 1 A, respectively.

  • 55.
    Malti, Abdellah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Innventia AB, Stockholm.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andreasen, Jens W
    Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Hao
    University of Kentucky, Lexington.
    Yao, Yulong
    University of Kentucky, Lexington.
    Brill, Joseph W
    University of Kentucky, Lexington.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An Organic Mixed Ion–Electron Conductor for Power Electronics2016In: Advanced Science, ISSN 2198-3844, article id 1500305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mixed ionic–electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio­phene):­poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting nanopaper are exploited in devices which exhibit record values for the charge storage capacitance (1F) in supercapacitors and transconductance (1S) in electrochemical transistors.

  • 56.
    Murib, M. S.
    et al.
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Yeap, W. S.
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Martens, D.
    Ghent University of INTEC, Belgium.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bienstman, P.
    Ghent University of INTEC, Belgium.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schoening, M. J.
    Aachen University of Appl Science, Germany.
    Michiels, L.
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Haenen, K.
    Hasselt University, Belgium; IMEC VZW, Belgium.
    Serpenguzel, A.
    Koc University, Turkey.
    Wagner, P.
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Photonic studies on polymer-coated sapphire-spheres: A model system for biological ligands2015In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 222, p. 212-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we show an optical biosensor concept, based on elastic light scattering from sapphire micro-spheres. Transmitted and elastic scattering intensity of the microspheres (radius 500 mu m, refractive index 1.77) on an optical fiber half coupler is analyzed at 1510 nm. The 0.43 nm angular mode spacing of the resonances is comparable to the angular mode spacing value estimated using the optical size of the microsphere. The spectral linewidths of the resonances are in the order of 0.01 am, which corresponds to quality factors of approximately 10(5). A polydopamine layer is used as a functionalizing agent on sapphire microspherical resonators in view of biosensor implementation. The varying layer thickness on the microsphere is determined as a function of the resonance wavelength shift. It is shown that polymer functionalization has a minor effect on the quality factor. This is a promising step toward the development of an optical biosensor. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 57.
    Nour, Eiman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Echresh, A.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Piezoelectric and opto-electrical properties of silver-doped ZnO nanorods synthesized by low temperature aqueous chemical method2015In: AIP Advances, ISSN 2158-3226, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 5, no 7, article id 077163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we have synthesized Zn1-xAgxO (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09) nanorods (NRs) via the hydrothermal method at low temperature on silicon substrate. The characterization and comparison between the different Zn1-xAgxO samples, indicated that an increasing Ag concentration from x = 0 to a maximum of x = 0.09; All samples show a preferred orientation of (002) direction with no observable change of morphology. As the quantity of the Ag dopant was changed, the transmittances, as well as the optical band gap were decreased. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data clearly indicate the presence of Ag in ZnO crystal lattice. A nanoindentation-based technique was used to measure the effective piezo-response of different concentrations of Ag for both direct and converse effects. The value of the piezoelectric coefficient (d(33)) as well as the piezo potential generated from the ZnO NRs and Zn1-xAgxO NRs was found to decrease with the increase of Ag fraction. The finding in this investigation reveals that Ag doped ZnO is not suitable for piezoelectric energy harvesting devices.

  • 58.
    Parvez, Khaled
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute Polymer Research, Germany .
    Wu, Zhong-Shuai
    Max Planck Institute Polymer Research, Germany .
    Li, Rongjin
    Max Planck Institute Polymer Research, Germany .
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Graf, Robert
    Max Planck Institute Polymer Research, Germany .
    Feng, Xinliang
    Max Planck Institute Polymer Research, Germany Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Peoples R China .
    Muellen, Klaus
    Max Planck Institute Polymer Research, Germany .
    Exfoliation of Graphite into Graphene in Aqueous Solutions of Inorganic Salts2014In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 136, no 16, p. 6083-6091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass production of high-quality graphene sheets is essential for their practical application in electronics, optoelectronics, composite materials, and energy-storage devices. Here we report a prompt electrochemical exfoliation of graphene sheets into aqueous solutions of different inorganic salts ((NH4)(2)SO4, Na2SO4, K2SO4, etc.). Exfoliation in these electrolytes leads to graphene with a high yield (greater than85%, less than= 3 layers), large lateral size (up to 44 mu m), low oxidation degree (a C/O ratio of 17.2), and a remarkable hole mobility of 310 cm(2) V-1 s(-1). Further, highly conductive graphene films (11 Omega sq(-1)) are readily fabricated on an A4-size paper by applying brush painting of a concentrated graphene ink (10 mg mL(-1), in N,N-dimethylformamide). All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors manufactured on the basis of such graphene films deliver a high area capacitance of 11.3 mF cm(-2) and an excellent rate capability of 5000 mV s(-1). The described electrochemical exfoliation shows great promise for the industrial-scale synthesis of high-quality graphene for numerous advanced applications.

  • 59.
    Pirhashemi, Mahsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran.
    Elhag, Sami
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elhadi Adam, Rania
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz
    University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    n–n ZnO–Ag2CrO4 heterojunction photoelectrodes with enhanced visible-light photoelectrochemical properties2019In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 9, no 14, p. 7992-8001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, ZnO nanorods (NRs) were hydrothermally grown on an Au-coated glass substrate at a relatively low temperature (90 °C), followed by the deposition of Ag2CrO4 particles via a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) route. The content of the Ag2CrO4 particles on ZnO NRs was controlled by changing the number of SILAR cycles. The fabricated ZnO–Ag2CrO4 heterojunction photoelectrodes were subjected to morphological, structural, compositional, and optical property analyses; their photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties were investigated under simulated solar light illumination. The photocurrent responses confirmed that the ability of the ZnO–Ag2CrO4 heterojunction photoelectrodes to separate the photo-generated electron–hole pairs is stronger than that of bare ZnO NRs. Impressively, the maximum photocurrent density of about 2.51 mA cm−2 at 1.23 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was measured for the prepared ZnO–Ag2CrO4 photoelectrode with 8 SILAR cycles (denoted as ZnO–Ag2CrO4-8), which exhibited about 3-fold photo-enhancement in the current density as compared to bare ZnO NRs (0.87 mA cm−2) under similar conditions. The improvement in photoactivity was attributed to the ideal band gap and high absorption coefficient of the Ag2CrO4 particles, which resulted in improved solar light absorption properties. Furthermore, an appropriate annealing treatment was proven to be an efficient process to increase the crystallinity of Ag2CrO4 particles deposited on ZnO NRs, which improved the charge transport characteristics of the ZnO–Ag2CrO4-8 photoelectrode annealed at 200 °C and increased the performance of the photoelectrode. The results achieved in the present work present new insights for designing n–n heterojunction photoelectrodes for efficient and cost-effective PEC applications and solar-to-fuel energ

  • 60.
    Rohringer, Philip
    et al.
    University of Vienna, Austria .
    Shi, Lei
    University of Vienna, Austria .
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yanagi, Kazuhiro
    Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan .
    Pichler, Thomas
    University of Vienna, Austria .
    Purification, separation and extraction of inner tubes from double-walled carbon nanotubes by tailoring density gradient ultracentrifugation using optical probes2014In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 74, p. 282-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the effect of varying sonication and centrifugation parameters on double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNT) by measuring optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) of the samples. We found that by using a low sonication intensity before applying density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU), only inner tube species with a diameter less than= 0.8 nm can be identified in absorption measurements. This is in stark contrast to the result after sonicating at higher intensities, where also bigger inner tubes can be found. Furthermore, by comparing PL properties of samples centrifugated either with or without a gradient medium, we found that applying DGU greatly enhances the PL intensity, whereas centrifugation at even higher speeds but without a gradient medium results in lower intensities. This can be explained by extraction of inner tubes from their host outer tubes in a two-stage process: the different shearing forces from the sonication treatments result in some DWCNT to be opened, whereas others stay uncut. A subsequent application of DGU leads to the extraction of the inner tubes or not if the host nanotube stayed uncut or no gradient medium was used. This work shows a pathway to avoid this phenomenon to unravel the intrinsic PL from inner tubes of DWCNT.

  • 61.
    Sehati, Parisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindell, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Lars Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy-Level Alignment at Metal-Organic and Organic-Organic Interfaces in Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells2010In: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, ISSN 1077-260X, E-ISSN 1558-4542, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 1718-1724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements in combination with the integer charge transfer (ICT) model is used to obtain the energy-level alignment diagrams for two common types of bulk-heterojunction solar cell devices based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) or poly(2-methoxy-5-(3,7 -dimethyloctyloxy)- 1,4-phenylene vinylene) as the donor polymer and (6,6)phenyl- C61-butric-acid as the acceptor molecule. A ground-state interface dipole at the donor/acceptor heterojunction is present for both systems, but the origin of the interface dipole differs, quadrupole-induced in the case of poly(2-methoxy-5-(3,7-dimethyl-octyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene), and ICT state based for poly(3-hexylthiophene). The presence of bound electron-hole charge carriers (CT states) and/or interface dipoles are expected to enhance exciton dissociation into free charge carriers, thus reducing the probability that charges become trapped by Coulomb forces at the interface followed by recombination.

  • 62.
    Shi, Shengwei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sun, Zhengyi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar
    CiC NanoGUNE Consolider, Spain .
    Graziosi, Patrizio
    CNR, Italy .
    Li, Xin
    Royal Institute Technology, Sweden .
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hueso, Luis
    CiC NanoGUNE Consolider, Spain .
    Dediu, Valentin A.
    CNR, Italy .
    Luo, Yi
    Royal Institute Technology, Sweden .
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hybrid Interface States and Spin Polarization at Ferromagnetic Metal-Organic Heterojunctions: Interface Engineering for Efficient Spin Injection in Organic Spintronics2014In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 24, no 30, p. 4812-4821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ferromagnetic metal-organic semiconductor (FM-OSC) hybrid interfaces have been shown to play an important role for spin injection in organic spintronics. Here, 11,11,12,12-tetracyanonaptho-2,6-quinodimethane (TNAP) is introduced as an interfacial layer in Co-OSCs heterojunctions with an aim to tune the spin injection. The Co/TNAP interface is investigated by use of X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/UPS), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). Hybrid interface states (HIS) are observed at Co/TNAP interfaces, resulting from chemical interactions between Co and TNAP. The energy level alignment at the Co/TNAP/OSCs interface is also obtained, and a reduction of the hole injection barrier is demonstrated. XMCD results confirm sizeable spin polarization at the Co/TNAP hybrid interface.

  • 63.
    Siang Yeap, Weng
    et al.
    Hasselt University, Belgium .
    Sharif Murib, Mohammed
    Hasselt University, Belgium .
    Cuypers, Wim
    Hasselt University, Belgium .
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    van Grinsven, Bart
    Hasselt University, Belgium Maastricht University, Netherlands .
    Ameloot, Marcel
    Hasselt University, Belgium .
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wagner, Patrick
    Hasselt University, Belgium IMEC VZW, Belgium .
    Maes, Wouter
    Hasselt University, Belgium IMEC VZW, Belgium .
    Haenen, Ken
    Hasselt University, Belgium IMEC VZW, Belgium .
    Boron-Doped Diamond Functionalization by an Electrografting/Alkyne-Azide Click Chemistry Sequence2014In: CHEMELECTROCHEM, ISSN 2196-0216, Vol. 1, no 7, p. 1145-1154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A straightforward protocol for the covalent functionalization of boron-doped diamond electrodes with either ferrocene or single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is reported. The functionalization method is based on a combination of diazonium salt electrografting and click chemistry. An azide-terminated organic layer is first electrografted onto the diamond surface by electrochemical reduction of 4-azidophenyldiazonium chloride. The azidophenyl-modified surface then reacts rapidly and efficiently with molecules bearing a terminal alkyne moiety by means of Cu-1-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition. Covalent attachment of ferrocene moieties was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry, whereas impedance spectroscopy was applied for the characterization of the immobilized DNA.

  • 64.
    Sun, Zhengyi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shi, Shengwei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bao, Qinye
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Role of Thick-Lithium Fluoride Layer in Energy Level Alignment at Organic/Metal Interface: Unifying Effect on High Metallic Work Functions2015In: ADVANCED MATERIALS INTERFACES, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 1400527-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The function of approximate to 3-nm thick lithium fluoride (LiF) buffer layers in combination with high work function metal contacts such as coinage metals and ferromagnetic metals for use in organic electronics and spintronics is investigated. The energy level alignment at the organic/LiF/metal interface is systematically studied using photoelectron spectroscopy and the integer charge transfer model. The thick-LiF buffer layer is found to pin the Fermi level to approximate to 3.8 eV, regardless of the work function of the initial metal due to energy level bending in the LiF layer caused by depletion of defect states. At 3-nm thickness, the LiF buffer layer provides full coverage, and the organic semiconductor adlayers are found to physisorb with the consequence that the energy level alignment at the organic/LiF interface follows the integer charge transfer models predictions.

  • 65.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bubnova, Olga
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Optoelectronics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brooke, Robert
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes 5095, Australia.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Evans, Drew R.
    University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Australia.
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Acido-basic control of the thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)tosylate (PEDOT-Tos) thin films2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 3, p. 10616-10623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PEDOT-Tos is one of the conducting polymers that displays the most promising thermoelectric properties. Until now, it has been utterly difficult to control all the synthesis parameters and the morphology governing the thermoelectric properties. To improve our understanding of this material, we study the variation in the thermoelectric properties by a simple acido-basic treatment. The emphasis of this study is to elucidate the chemical changes induced by acid (HCl) or base (NaOH) treatment in PEDOT-Tos thin films using various spectroscopic and structural techniques. We could identify changes in the nanoscale morphology due to anion exchange between tosylate and Cl- or OH-. But, we identified that changing the pH leads to a tuning of the oxidation level of the polymer, which can explain the changes in thermoelectric properties. Hence, a simple acid-base treatment allows finding the optimum for the power factor in PEDOT-Tos thin films.

  • 66.
    Wang, Chuanfei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ni, Shaofei
    Department of Chemistry, South University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, China.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of water vapor and oxygen on non-fullerene small molecule acceptors2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 879-886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the rapid development of non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs), the efficiency of organic solar cells is steadily being improved. The stability of organic solar cells also is expected to be enhanced with the introduction of the NFAs, yet the stability of NFAs themselves have been less investigated to date. In this paper, the stability of a set of typical NFAs was studied in situ employing photoelectron spectroscopy. The studied molecules show higher resistance to water vapor and thermal stress compared to fullerenes. For water vapor exposure, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of NFAs undergoes only minor and reversible changes and the NFAs/substrate work function stays constant. Exposure to oxygen gas significantly modified the electronic structure of the NFAs and the effect was only partially reversible by annealing. However, the presence of water vapor was shown to slow down the degradation caused by oxygen. This is in stark contrast to fullerenes that undergo irreversible degradation upon water vapor exposure.

  • 67.
    Wang, Chuanfei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xu, Xiaofeng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Relationship of Ionization Potential and Oxidation Potential of Organic Semiconductor Films Used in Photovoltaics2018In: Solar RRL, ISSN 2367-198X, Vol. 2, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) are employed to measure energy levels for charge transport in organic semiconductor films. A series of classical molecules/polymers used in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells are deposited on platinum substrates/electrodes to form thin films and a linear relationship of vertical ionization potential (IP) measured by UPS and relative oxidation potential (Eox) obtained by CV is found, with a slope equal to unity. The intercept varies with the different reference redox couples and repeated potential sweep numbers during experiment processes. The relationship provides for an easy conversion of values obtained by the two techniques and correlates well with device parameters. The precision in the CV-derived IP values is not sufficient, however, to enable precise design of energy level alignment at heterojunction and the approach does not improve upon the current ?best practice? for obtaining donor ionization potential?acceptor electron affinity gaps at heterojunctions.

  • 68.
    Wang, Chuanfei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Wei
    Division of Chemical Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Meng, Xiangyi
    State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Genene, Zewdneh
    Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Xu, Xiaofeng
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Yartsev, Arkady
    Division of Chemical Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ma, Wei
    State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Wang, Ergang
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ternary Organic Solar Cells with Minimum Voltage Losses2017In: Advanced Energy Materials, ISSN 1614-6840, Vol. 7, no 21, article id 1700390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new strategy for designing ternary solar cells is reported in this paper. A low-bandgap polymer named PTB7-Th and a high-bandgap polymer named PBDTTS-FTAZ sharing the same bulk ionization potential and interface positive integer charge transfer energy while featuring complementary absorption spectra are selected. They are used to fabricate efficient ternary solar cells, where the hole can be transported freely between the two donor polymers and collected by the electrode as in one broadband low bandgap polymer. Furthermore, the fullerene acceptor is chosen so that the energy of the positive integer charge transfer state of the two donor polymers is equal to the energy of negative integer charge transfer state of the fullerene, enabling enhanced dissociation of all polymer donor and fullerene acceptor excitons and suppressed bimolecular and trap assistant recombination. The two donor polymers feature good miscibility and energy transfer from high-bandgap polymer of PBDTTS-FTAZ to low-bandgap polymer of PTB7-Th, which contribute to enhanced performance of the ternary solar cell.

  • 69.
    Wijeratne, Kosala
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brooke, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bulk electronic transport impacts on electron transfer at conducting polymer electrode-electrolyte interfaces.2018In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, no 7, p. 11899-11904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemistry is an old but still flourishing field of research due to the importance of the efficiency and kinetics of electrochemical reactions in industrial processes and (bio-)electrochemical devices. The heterogeneous electron transfer from an electrode to a reactant in the solution has been well studied for metal, semiconductor, metal oxide, and carbon electrodes. For those electrode materials, there is little correlation between the electronic transport within the electrode material and the electron transfer occurring at the interface between the electrode and the solution. Here, we investigate the heterogeneous electron transfer between a conducting polymer electrode and a redox couple in an electrolyte. As a benchmark system, we use poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and the Ferro/ferricyanide redox couple in an aqueous electrolyte. We discovered a strong correlation between the electronic transport within the PEDOT electrode and the rate of electron transfer to the organometallic molecules in solution. We attribute this to a percolation-based charge transport within the polymer electrode directly involved in the electron transfer. We show the impact of this finding by optimizing an electrochemical thermogalvanic cell that transforms a heat flux into electrical power. The power generated by the cell increased by four orders of magnitude on changing the morphology and conductivity of the polymer electrode. As all conducting polymers are recognized to have percolation transport, we believe that this is a general phenomenon for this family of conductors.

  • 70.
    Wu, Zhong-Shuai
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute Polymer Research, Germany .
    Parvez, Khaled
    Max Planck Institute Polymer Research, Germany .
    Winter, Andreas
    University of Bielefeld, Germany .
    Vieker, Henning
    University of Bielefeld, Germany .
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Han, Sheng
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Peoples R China .
    Turchanin, Andrey
    University of Bielefeld, Germany .
    Feng, Xinliang
    Max Planck Institute Polymer Research, Germany Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Peoples R China .
    Muellen, Klaus
    Max Planck Institute Polymer Research, Germany .
    Layer-by-Layer Assembled Heteroatom-Doped Graphene Films with Ultrahigh Volumetric Capacitance and Rate Capability for Micro-Supercapacitors2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 26, p. 4552-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly uniform, ultrathin, layer-by-layer heteroatom (N, B) co-doped graphene films are fabricated for high-performance on-chip planar micro-supercapacitors with an ultrahigh volumetric capacitance of similar to 488 F cm(-3) and excellent rate capability due to the synergistic effect of nitrogen and boron co-doping.

  • 71.
    Xu, Weidong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing, China.
    Hu, Qi
    Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing, China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bao, Chunxiong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. International Collaborative Laboratory of 2D Materials for Optoelectronics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.
    Miao, Yanfeng
    Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing, China.
    Yuan, Zhongcheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Borzda, Tetiana
    Center for Nano Science and Technology @Polimi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Milan, Italy.
    Barker, Alex J.
    Center for Nano Science and Technology @Polimi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Milan, Italy.
    Tyukalova, Elizaveta
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore, Singapore.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kawecki, Maciej
    Laboratory for Nanoscale Materials Science, Empa, Dubendorf, Switzerland / Department of Physics, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Wang, Heyong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yan, Zhibo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, P. R. China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shi, Xiaobo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Wenjing
    International Collaborative Laboratory of 2D Materials for Optoelectronics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.
    Duchamp, Martial
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore, Singapore.
    Liu, Jun-Ming
    Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, P. R. China.
    Petrozza, Annamaria
    Center for Nano Science and Technology @Polimi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Milan, Italy.
    Wang, Jianpu
    Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing, China.
    Liu, Li-Min
    Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing, China / chool of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing, China .
    Huang, Wei
    ey Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing, China / Shaanxi Institute of Flexible Electronics (SIFE), Northwestern Polytechnical University (NPU), Xi’an, China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rational molecular passivation for high-performance perovskite light-emitting diodes2019In: Nature Photonics, ISSN 1749-4885, E-ISSN 1749-4893, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 418-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major efficiency limit for solution-processed perovskite optoelectronic devices, for example light-emitting diodes, is trap-mediated non-radiative losses. Defect passivation using organic molecules has been identified as an attractive approach to tackle this issue. However, implementation of this approach has been hindered by a lack of deep understanding of how the molecular structures influence the effectiveness of passivation. We show that the so far largely ignored hydrogen bonds play a critical role in affecting the passivation. By weakening the hydrogen bonding between the passivating functional moieties and the organic cation featuring in the perovskite, we significantly enhance the interaction with defect sites and minimize non-radiative recombination losses. Consequently, we achieve exceptionally high-performance near-infrared perovskite light-emitting diodes with a record external quantum efficiency of 21.6%. In addition, our passivated perovskite light-emitting diodes maintain a high external quantum efficiency of 20.1% and a wall-plug efficiency of 11.0% at a high current density of 200 mA cm−2, making them more attractive than the most efficient organic and quantum-dot light-emitting diodes at high excitations.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-03-25 16:05
  • 72.
    Xuan, Yu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Desbief, S.
    Service de Chimie des Matériaux Nouveaux, Université de Mons (UMONS), Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons, Belgium.
    Leclére, P.
    Service de Chimie des Matériaux Nouveaux, Université de Mons (UMONS), Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons, Belgium.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lazzaroni, R.
    Service de Chimie des Matériaux Nouveaux, Université de Mons (UMONS), Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons, Belgium.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cornil, .
    Service de Chimie des Matériaux Nouveaux, Université de Mons (UMONS), Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons, Belgium.
    Emin, D.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers: The case of poly(3-hexylthiophene)2010In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 82, no 11, p. 115454-115463Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Yang, Jianming
    et al.
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xiong, Shaobing
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Qu, Tianyi
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Yuexing
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    He, Xiaoxiao
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Guo, Xuewen
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Qiuhua
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Jinquan
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Jianhua
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    L, Yanqing I
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Duan, Chungang
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China; Shanxi Univ, Peoples R China.
    Tang, Jianxin
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bao, Qinye
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China; Shanxi Univ, Peoples R China.
    Extremely Low-Cost and Green Cellulose Passivating Perovskites for Stable and High-Performance Solar Cells2019In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 14, p. 13491-13498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fast evolution of metal halide perovskite solar cells has opened a new chapter in the field of renewable energy. High-quality perovskite films as the active layers are essential for both high efficiency and long-term stability. Here, the perovskite films with enlarged crystal grain size and decreased defect density are fabricated by introducing the extremely low-cost and green polymer, ethyl cellulose (EC), into the perovskite layer. The addition of EC triggers hydrogen bonding interactions between EC and the perovskite, passivating the charge defect traps at the grain boundaries. The long chain of EC further acts as a scaffold for the perovskite structure, eliminating the annealing-induced lattice strain during the film fabrication process. The resulting devices with the EC additive exhibit a remarkably enhanced average power conversion efficiency from 17.11 to 19.27% and an improvement of all device parameters. The hysteresis index is found to decrease by three times from 0.081 to 0.027, which is attributed to suppressed ion migration and surface charge trapping. In addition, the defect passivation by EC significantly improves the environmental stability of the perovskite films, yielding devices that retain 80% of their initial efficiency after 30 days in ambient air at 45% relative humidity, whereas the pristine devices without EC fully degrade. This work provides a low-cost and green avenue for passivating defects that improves both the efficiency and operational stability of perovskite solar cells.

  • 74.
    Yang, Li-Li
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhao, Qingxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yang, J H
    Institute of Condensed State Physics, Jilin Normal University, Siping, People's Republic of China.
    Effective Suppression of Surface Recombination in ZnO Nanorods Arrays during the Growth Process2010In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 1904-1910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO nanorods arrays are respectively prepared under different vapor pressures with opening (OZN) or sealing (SZN) of the beaker. The results from time-resolved photoluminescence measurements indicate that sealing the beaker during the growth process can effectively suppress the surface recombination of ZnO nanorods, and the suppression effect is even better than a 500 degrees C post-thermal treatment or OZN samples. The results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal that the main reason for this phenomenon is that the surfaces of the SZN samples are attached by groups related to NH3 instead of the main surface recombination centers such as OH and groups in the OZN samples. The ammonia surface treatment on both OZN and SZN samples further testifies that the absorption of the groups related to NH3 does not contribute to the surface recombination on the ZnO nanorods.

  • 75.
    Yang, Li-Li
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Institute of Condensed State Physics, Jilin Normal University, Siping, People's Republic of China.
    Zhao, Qingxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yang, J H
    Institute of Condensed State Physics, Jilin Normal University, Siping, People's Republic of China.
    Origin of the surface recombination centers in ZnO nanorods arrays by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy2010In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 256, no 11, p. 3592-3597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface composition of as-grown and annealed ZnO nanorods arrays (ZNAs) grown by a two-step chemical bath deposition method has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS confirms the presence of OH bonds and specific chemisorbed oxygen on the surface of ZNAs, as well as H bonds on (1 0 (1) over bar 0) surfaces which has been first time observed in the XPS spectra. The experimental results indicated that the OH and H bonds play the dominant role in facilitating surface recombination but specific chemisorbed oxygen also likely affect the surface recombination. Annealing can largely remove the OH and H bonds and transform the composition of the other chemisorbed oxygen at the surface to more closely resemble that of high temperature grown ZNAs, all of which suppresses surface recombination according to time-resolved photoluminescence measurements.

  • 76.
    Yeap, W. S.
    et al.
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Bevk, D.
    Hasselt University, Belgium; IMOMEC, Diepenbeek, Belgium .
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krysova, H.
    Academy of Sciences of The Czech Republic, Prague 8, Czech Republic .
    Pasquarelli, A.
    University of Ulm, Germany.
    Vanderzande, D.
    Hasselt University, Belgium; IMOMEC, Diepenbeek, Belgium .
    Lutsen, L.
    Hasselt University, Belgium; IMOMEC, Diepenbeek, Belgium .
    Kavan, L.
    Academy of Sciences of The Czech Republic, Prague 8, Czech Republic .
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Maes, W.
    Hasselt University, Belgium; IMOMEC, Diepenbeek, Belgium .
    Haenen, K.
    Hasselt University, Belgium; IMOMEC, Diepenbeek, Belgium .
    Correction: Diamond functionalization with lighth-arvesting molecular wires: improved surface coverage by optimized Suzuki cross-coupling conditions (vol 4, pg 42044, 2014)2014In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 4, no 92, p. 50678-50678Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 77.
    Yeap, W. S.
    et al.
    Hasselt University, Belgium .
    Bevk, D.
    Hasselt University, Belgium; IMEC vzw, IMOMEC, Diepenbeek, Belgium.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krysova, H.
    J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Prague, Czech Republic .
    Pasquarelli, A.
    University of Ulm, Germany.
    Vanderzande, D.
    Hasselt University, Belgium; IMEC vzw, IMOMEC, Diepenbeek, Belgium.
    Lutsen, L.
    Hasselt University, Belgium; IMEC vzw, IMOMEC, Diepenbeek, Belgium.
    Kavan, L.
    J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Prague, Czech Republic .
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Maes, W.
    Hasselt University, Belgium; IMEC vzw, IMOMEC, Diepenbeek, Belgium.
    Haenen, K.
    Hasselt University, Belgium; IMEC vzw, IMOMEC, Diepenbeek, Belgium.
    Diamond functionalization with light-harvesting molecular wires: improved surface coverage by optimized Suzuki cross-coupling conditions2014In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 4, no 79, p. 42044-42053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Donor-acceptor type light-harvesting molecular wires are covalently attached to a boron-doped diamond surface via a combination of diazonium electrografting and Suzuki cross-coupling. For the Suzuki reaction, various catalytic systems are compared with respect to their imposed surface coverage. Combining 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2,6-dimethoxybiphenyl (SPhos) and Pd(0), the diamond coverage improves considerably (by 98%) as compared to the standard tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (Pd(PPh3)(4)) catalyst. As the energy levels between the molecular chromophores and the diamond film align well, the sophisticated functionalized diamond surfaces present a first step towards the development of fully carbon-based devices for light to electricity conversion.

  • 78.
    Yeap, W.S.
    et al.
    Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium.
    Liu, X.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bevk, D.
    Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium.
    Pasquarelli, A.
    University of Ulm, Germany .
    Lutsen, L.
    IMEC VZW, Diepenbeek, Belgium.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Maes, W.
    Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium.
    Haenen, K.
    Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium.
    Functionalization of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond with N3 dye molecules2014In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 6, no 13, p. 10322-10329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    N3 dye molecules [cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2-bipyridyl-4,4-dicarboxylato)ruthenium(II)] are covalently attached to boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B:NCD) thin films through a combination of coupling chemistries, i.e., diazonium, Suzuki, and EDC-NHS. X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy are used to verify the covalent bonding of the dye on the B:NCD surface (compared to a hydrogen-terminated reference). The spectroscopic results confirm the presence of a dense N3 chromophore layer, and the positions of the frontier orbitals of the dye relative to the band edge of the B:NCD thin film are inferred as well. Proof-of-concept photoelectrochemical measurements show a strong increase in the photocurrent compared to non-dye-functionalized B:NCD films. This study opens up the possibility of applying N3-sensitized B:NCD thin films as hole conductors in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  • 79.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmström, Erik
    Instituto de Física, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile) and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM (USA).
    Lizarraga, Raquel
    Instituto de Física, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile) and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM (USA).
    Eriksson, Olle
    Department of Physics and Materials Science Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden).
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Li, Fenghong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlegrim, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stafström, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Efficient Spin Injection Through Exchange Coupling at Organic Semiconductor/Ferromagnet Heterojunctions2010In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 22, no 14, p. 1626-1630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The schematic visualization of the Alq(3) molecule on the Fe substrate with the optimized geometry at lowest total energy. When the Alq(3) molecule is relaxed on the surface, only two of the wings are lying down on the Fe surface, and the third wing remains perpendicular to the surface, showing a strong hybridization occurance.

  • 80.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlegrim, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Li, Fenghong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergenti, I
    CNR, Italy.
    Graziosi, P
    CNR, Italy.
    Dediu, V
    CNR, Italy.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The role of aluminum oxide buffer layer in organic spin-valves performance2009In: APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, ISSN 0003-6951, Vol. 94, no 5, p. 053301-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic structures of the 8-hydroxyquinoline-aluminum (Alq(3))/Al2O3/Co interfaces were studied by photoelectron spectroscopy. A strong interface dipole was observed, which leads to a reduction in the electron injection barrier. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra further indicate that the Al2O3 buffer layer prevents the chemical interaction between Alq(3) molecules and Co atoms. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism results demonstrate that a Co layer deposited on an Al2O3 buffered Alq(3) layer shows better magnetic ordering in the interface region than directly deposited Co, which suggests a better performance of spin valves with such a buffer layer. This is consistent with the recent results from [Dediu , Phys. Rev. B 78, 115203 (2008)].

  • 81.
    Zhybak, Mykhailo T.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv, 03680, Ukraine .
    Vagin, Mikhail Yu.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    ACREO Swedish ICT, -601 74, Norrköping, SE, Sweden .
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dempsey, Eithne
    Centre for Research in Electroanalytical Technologies, Department of Science, Institute of Technology Tallaght, Tallaght, Dublin, Ireland .
    Turner, Anthony P. F.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Korpan, Yaroslav I.
    Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv, 03680, Ukraine .
    Direct detection of ammonium ion by means of oxygen electrocatalysis at a copper-polyaniline composite on a screen-printed electrode.2016In: Microchimica Acta, ISSN 0026-3672, E-ISSN 1436-5073, Vol. 183, no 6, p. 1981-1987Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel electrocatalytic material for oxygen reduction, based on polyaniline in combinationwith copper, was developed and utilised for the direct voltammetric quantification of ammonium ions. Consecutive electrode modification by electrodeposited copper, a Nafion membrane and electropolymerised polyaniline resulted in an electrocatalytic composite material which the retained conductivity at neutral pH. Ammonia complex formation with Cu (I) caused the appearance of oxygen electrocatalysis, which was observed as an increase in cathodic current. This Faradaic phenomenon offered the advantage of direct voltammetric detection and was utilised for ammonium electroanalysis. The developed quantification protocol was applied for ammonium assay in human serum and compared with the routine approach for clinical analysis.

  • 82.
    Zuo, Guangzheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    High Seebeck Coefficient in Mixtures of Conjugated Polymers2018In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 28, no 15, article id 1703280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A universal method to obtain record?high electronic Seebeck coefficients is demonstrated while preserving reasonable conductivities in doped blends of organic semiconductors through rational design of the density of states (DOSs). A polymer semiconductor with a shallow highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level?poly(3?hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is mixed with materials with a deeper HOMO (PTB7, TQ1) to form binary blends of the type P3HTx:B1?x (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) that is p?type doped by F4TCNQ. For B = PTB7, a Seebeck coefficient S = 1100 µV K?1 with conductivity σ = 0.3 S m?1 at x = 0.10 is achieved, while for B = TQ1, S = 2000 µV K?1 and σ = 0.03 S m?1 at x = 0.05 is found. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations with parameters based on experiments show good agreement with the experimental results, confirming the intended mechanism. The simulations are used to derive a design rule for parameter tuning. These results can become relevant for low?power, low?cost applications like (providing power to) autonomous sensors, in which a high Seebeck coefficient translates directly to a proportionally reduced number of legs in the thermogenerator, and hence in reduced fabrication cost and complexity.

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