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  • 51.
    Keselman, Henrich
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Osvaldsson Cromdal, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kullgard, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Responding to mentalization invitations in psychotherapy sessions: A conversation analysis approach2018In: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 654-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Increase in the capacity to mentalize has been proposed to be an important mechanism of change in psychotherapy. However, mentalization has primarily been studied as an individual skill that people either possess or lack, rather than as an interactional phenomenon. 

    Method: In this study, excerpts from three different sessions in a therapy that aimed at increasing the patients mentalizing capacity were identified and studied using conversation analysis. 

    Results: The analysis indicated that resistance to mentalizing may not only be due to lack of capacity but also may be seen as a linguistic resource in which this resistance demonstrates precisely the ability to mentalize. 

    Conclusions: Consequences for psychotherapy practice and process research are discussed.

  • 52.
    Kullgard, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Möller, Clara
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reflective functioning in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) – preliminary findings of a comparison between reflective functioning (RF) in general and OCD-specific reflective functioning2013In: Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, ISSN 0266-8734, E-ISSN 1474-9734, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 154-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several scales for rating the reflective function (RF) in different psychiatric syndromes (symptom-specific reflective function [SRF]) have been developed. In this study, the validity of a rating instrument for measuring obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)-specific RF (OCD-SRF) was assessed. The study was conducted at two outpatient psychiatric facilities. A total of 18 women and 12 men were interviewed with adult attachment interview and the OCD–SRF interview. The patients also rated their symptoms on a self-rating scale (Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale [Y-BOCS]). The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the levels of RF in general and SRF. No correlations between Y-BOCS and RF or SRF were found. Illustrations of ratings are presented. The difference between RF and SRF, the relationship between SRF and symptom checklists, and a relational perspective on symptoms in OCD were discussed.

  • 53.
    Lech, Börje
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology.
    Holmqvist , Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Consciousness about own and others affects: A study of the validity of a revised version of the Affect Consciousness Interview2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 515-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consciousness about own and others affects: A study of the validity of a revised version of the Affect Consciousness Interview.

    This study presents a modified version of the affect consciousness interview (Monsen, Eilertsen, Melgard & Odegard, 1996), intended to capture the individuals affective consciousness. The aim of the modified version - The Affect Consciousness Interview - Revised (ACI-R) - is to measure consciousness about own and others affects. Three groups of patients (with eating disorder, relational and social problems or stress-related problems), and one non-clinical group were included in the study (N = 95). The results indicated that it was possible to achieve adequate interrater reliability, that the scores correlated meaningfully with other measures of mental functioning, and that the interview discriminated between different clinical groups and non-clinical participants. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that the ACI-R is a promising instrument and that it should be explored further in order to study the organization of self-experiences and the ability to be emotionally present in interactions with others.

  • 54.
    Lech, Börje
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Affect Consciousness and Adult AttachmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of affect consciousness refers to the ability to perceive, reflect upon, express and respond to one’s own or other individuals’ affective experiences. The aim of this study was to investigate how affect consciousness and adult attachment are related. Three clinical groups (eating disorders, relational problems, and stress-related problems), and one non-clinical group (total N = 82) completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire and were interviewed using the Affect Consciousness Interview – Self/Other. Results showed associations between high affect consciousness and secure attachment, and between low affect  consciousness and insecure attachment. Moreover, attachment style was predicted by consciousness about others’ and own affects in general, and specifically by consciousness about others’ anger and guilt, and by own joy. Affect consciousness as a potential dimension or moderator of attachment merits further investigation.

  • 55.
    Lech, Börje
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The influence of the patient‟s affect consciousness on the early treatment processManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several predictors of the quality of the therapeutic relationship have been studied, but the influence of patient‟s affect consciousness has not sufficiently analyzed. In this study, the relationship between the patient‟s affect consciousness and her experiences of the early therapeutic relationship was analysed. Affect consciousness was understood to imply awareness and tolerance of one‟s own and others‟ affective reactions and consciousness about the verbal and non-verbal expression of one‟s own and others‟ affects. Fifty-three female patients and 32 therapists took part in the study. Thirty-five patients had eating disorders, eight patients had relational problems and ten patients had stress related problems. It was hypothesized that feelings towards the therapist would be more influenced by the patient‟s affect consciousness than the alliance. The results showed that the patients‟ affect consciousness, especially consciousness about shame and fear, had significant associations with the patients‟ positive feelings towards the therapist at the three first sessions. A regression analysis indicated that warm and positive feelings towards the therapist were accounted for by the patient‟s consciousness about his or her own affects, even when previous alliance ratings were controlled for. Cold feelings at the third session, on the other hand, were associated with the patient‟s previous alliance ratings but not with the patient‟s affect consciousness. The results suggest that the patient‟s affect consciousness has importance for positive feelings towards the therapist, but negative feelings are primarily influenced by previous problems in the alliance. It would probably enhance the treatment process to work with the patients‟ affect consciousness.

  • 56.
    Lech, Börje
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Affect consciousness and eating disorders. Short term stability and subgroup characteristics2012In: European eating disorders review, ISSN 1072-4133, E-ISSN 1099-0968, Vol. 20, no 1, p. e50-e55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyse differences in observer rated affect consciousness (AC) between subgroups of patients diagnosed with eating disorders (N=44; 30 with anorexia nervosa and 14 with bulimia nervosa), and a non-clinical group (N=40). Another aim was to study the short-term stability of AC over 1011 weeks of treatment and its relation to self-reported eating pathology and general psychopathology. A moderate short-term stability of AC was found but the levels were not correlated with eating pathology or psychopathology. No differences between the two diagnostic categories were found, but the eating disorder group as whole had significantly lower AC compared with a non-eating disorder reference group. AC seems to be a moderately stable ability that differentiates patients diagnosed with eating disorders from a non-clinical population. However, AC is not related to symptoms of eating disorder or general psychiatric symptoms in this group of patients.

  • 57.
    Lejoonclou, Annika
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Nilsson, Doris
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Variants of Potentially Traumatizing Life Events in Eating Disorder patients2014In: Psychological Trauma, ISSN 1942-9681, E-ISSN 1942-969X, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 661-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although many studies have found associations between trauma and eating disorders, it is important to study associations between the whole spectrum of potentially traumatic experiences and eating disorders. This study examined to what extent noninterpersonal traumas, interpersonal traumas, and adverse childhood circumstances were reported in a sample of patients with eating disorders, comparing this with ratings in a nonclinical group. Differences in trauma experiences between the different eating disorder diagnosis groups were assessed, and associations between trauma experiences and the reported severity of eating disturbance were analyzed. Fifty patients with eating disorders and a group of adolescent girls and young women (N = 245) without known psychological problems completed a self-report trauma-history questionnaire: the Linköping Youth Life Experience Scale. The eating disorder group also answered the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. For several specific traumas, the eating disorder group had experienced a significantly larger number of potentially traumatizing events. With regard to the number of different traumas, the results were more equivocal; more experiences of adverse childhood circumstances and repeated traumas were reported in the eating disorder group, but more noninterpersonal traumas were reported in the nonclinical group. The number of adverse childhood experiences and repeated traumas was associated with the presence of eating disorders in outpatient adolescents and young women. The frequency and type of potentially traumatizing events need to be clearly assessed for these patients, placing particular focus on repeated traumas. Treatment may be improved through a focus on traumatic experiences in order to resolve the eating problems.

  • 58.
    Lingiardi, Vittorio
    et al.
    University of Roma La Sapienza, Italy.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Safran, Jeremy D.
    New School Social Research, NY 10011 USA.
    RELATIONAL TURN AND PSYCHOTHERAPY RESEARCH2016In: Contemporary psychoanalysis, ISSN 0010-7530, E-ISSN 2330-9091, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 275-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychoanalytic authors have traditionally been skeptical of nomothetic studies, in which group averages obscure the uniqueness of individual cases. Several relational psychoanalytic authors have expressed more pronounced skepticism, affirming, for example, that given the uniqueness of each therapist-patient dyad, systematic empirical research is particularly problematic. In this article we highlight the potential synergy between relational thinking and todays psychotherapy research, by exploring some of the ways in which the work of relational authors has influenced relational psychotherapy research, shifting the focus of study from validation of the models of treatment to the study of the clinical variables such as: countertransference, therapist empathy, self-disclosure, rupture and resolution in therapeutic alliance, intersubjective negotiation, and the patient-therapist attachment relationship. In conclusion, the aim of this article is to facilitate the dialogue between relational psychoanalysis and the field of psychotherapy research, by exploring ways in which these two different worlds can reciprocally stimulate and enrich one another.

  • 59.
    Mauritzson, Margareta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergendahl Odby, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsson, Doris
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    The Fog Is Lifting; Veils of Mist Come and Go: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of the Experiences of Six Women Recovering From Pathological Dissociation2015In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 45-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to illuminate experiences of the process of recovering from pathological dissociation. The study used data from interviews with six female participants diagnosed with pathological dissociative disturbances. All the women had a history of having been sexually abused. Data were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Two main themes emerged in the analysis: social and relational change and self in movement. The themes mirror the interplay in the recovery process that took place both intrapsychically and with regard to the relational interplay between self and other significant people. The recovery process was dependent on an incipient sense of security in relational interaction, and this process was hindered by insecurity and ambivalence in relationships. Each patient’s relationship with her therapist also played a crucial role for the participants.

  • 60.
    Mechler, Jakob
    et al.
    Stockholms Lans Landsting, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Deteriorated and unchanged patients in psychological treatment in Swedish primary care and psychiatry2016In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 16-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite substantial effect sizes for psychological therapy among different diagnosis groups and in different treatment contexts, many studies show that a large proportion of patients do not attain reliable improvement and a substantial portion are worse off after treatment. Previous studies suggest that patients in psychiatry may have worse outcome than patients in primary care. Aims: In this practice-based study of psychological treatment in Swedish primary care and adult psychiatry, the proportions of patients who did not improve and who deteriorated were assessed. Methods: Proportions of reliably improved, unchanged, and reliably deteriorated patients among 840 patients in primary care and 317 patients in specialist psychiatry were assessed by self-ratings using the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM). Results: More than half of the patients did not change reliably. About 2% of the patients in primary care and 7% in psychiatry deteriorated. Multilevel analyses of the data from primary care indicated that there were no therapist effects. Conclusions: The results emphasize the importance of monitoring treatment continuously in order to increase results for patients who do not improve.

  • 61.
    Möller, Clara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmqvist Larsson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    MENTALIZING IN YOUNG OFFENDERS2014In: Psychoanalytic psychology, ISSN 0736-9735, E-ISSN 1939-1331, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 84-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to prevent relapse into criminality, it is important to understand what precedes criminal behavior. Two earlier studies found deficits in mentalizing ability to be related to violent and criminal actions. Mentalizing refers to the ability to make human behavior predictable and meaningful by inferring mental states (thoughts, feelings, etc.) as explaining behavior. In this study, mentalizing ability was assessed by rating 42 Adult Attachment Interviews with young male offenders with the Reflective Functioning (RF) scale. In addition, specific mentalizing ability about their crimes was assessed, as well as psychopathy traits (Psychopathy Checklist, Screening Version [PCL: SV]) and alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale [TAS]). Results suggest impaired mentalizing in criminal offenders. Examples of anti- and prementalizing reasoning about crimes are presented. RF scores were not correlated with the PCL:SV or TAS.

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  • 62.
    Nilsson, Doris
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Self-reported attachment style, trauma exposure and dissociative symptoms among adolescents2011In: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 579-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether self-reported attachment style (measuring avoidance and anxiety) among adolescents was associated with dissociative symptoms, in addition to self-reported potentially traumatic experiences. A group consisting of 462 adolescents completed three self-assessment questionnaires: Linkoping Youth Life Experience Scale (LYLES), Experiences in Close Relationships, modified version (ECR) and Dissociation Questionnaire Sweden (Dis-Q-Sweden). Self-reported attachment style had a stronger association with dissociative symptoms than self reported traumas. It was also found that scores on a dissociation questionnaire correlated strongly with scores on self-reported attachment style in adolescence. Discussion concerns reasons why self-reported attachment style is an important factor that may influence dissociative symptoms during adolescence.

  • 63.
    Nilsson, Doris
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Lejonclou, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Jonsson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Somatoform dissociation among Swedish adolescents and young adults: The psychometric properties of the Swedish versions of the SDQ-20 and SDQ-52015In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 152-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Somatoform dissociation is supposed to be a vital aspect of the general concept of dissociation. The Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire-20 (SDQ-20) and the brief version SDQ-5 are self-report instruments constructed to identify somatic dissociation. Aim: In the present study, the psychometric qualities of the Swedish version of the SDQ-20 and its brief version, the SDQ-5, were examined among adolescents and young adults. Reliability and concurrent validity were investigated. Methods: A total of 512 adolescents and young adults participated in the study: 461 adolescents from a non-clinical sample and 50 adolescents and young adults from a clinical eating disorder outpatient unit. They completed the self-report instruments the SDQ-20, the SDQ-5 (part of SDQ-20), the Linköping Youth Life Experience Scale (LYLES, a trauma history scale) and the Dissociation Questionnaire-Sweden (Dis-Q-Sweden). Results: Both internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the Swedish version of SDQ-20 were good in both the non-clinical (α = 0.83) and the clinical groups (α = 0.84); the reliability for the SDQ-5 was, however, lower (non-clinical α = 0.50, clinical α = 0.64). Significant differences were found between the clinical and non-clinical groups on both somatoform and psychoform dissociation. Correlations between the Dis-Q-Sweden, SDQ-20 and SDQ-5 were generally high. The criterion and convergent validity was acceptable for both scales but somewhat better for SDQ-20 than for SDQ-5. Conclusion: The advantage with both the SDQ-20 and the SDQ-5 is that they are short questionnaires, but the results suggests that SDQ-20 is preferable based on the higher-quality psychometric properties of the SDQ-20.

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  • 64.
    Nilsson, Doris
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Lejoonclou, Annika
    Region Östergötland.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Psychoform and somatoform dissociation among individuals with eating disorders2020In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study analyzed the prevalence of psychoform and somatoform dissociation among individuals with the whole spectrum of eating disorder diagnoses and compared it with ratings from a non-clinical group. The relationship between dissociation and severity of eating disturbance was examined as well as differences between the eating disorder diagnosis groups in extent of dissociation. The validity of a new structural dissociation interview suitable for eating disorder patients was analyzed.

    Method: Sixty individuals with eating disorder completed three self-report questionnaires: Dissociation Questionnaire Sweden, Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. The ratings were compared with the scores in a female non-clinical group (N = 245). Twenty patients with eating disorder diagnoses were interviewed with the Interview for Dissociative Disorders and Trauma Related Symptoms. The validity of the interview was tested by comparing the ratings on the interview subscales with the scores on the Dissociation questionnaires and the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire.

    Results: Participants with eating disorders reported a higher extent of both psychoform and somatoform dissociation compared with the non-clinical individuals. Analyses also showed a correlation between degree of dissociation and severity of eating disorder symptoms. No differences in dissociation were found between the ED subgroups. Participants reporting more dissociation got higher ratings on the interview, indicating convergent validity.

    Discussion: Eating disorders seem to be associated with presence and severity of dissociative symptoms. The extent of dissociation needs to be assessed for these individuals as treatment may benefit from a focus on such symptoms in order to increase its effect.

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  • 65.
    Nissen-Lie, Helene A.
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Goldberg, Simon B.
    University of Wisconsin Madison, WI USA.
    Hoyt, William T.
    University of Wisconsin Madison, WI USA.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nielsen, Stevan Lars
    Brigham Young University, UT 84602 USA.
    Wampold, Bruce E.
    University of Wisconsin Madison, WI USA; Modum Bad Psychiat Centre, Norway.
    Are Therapists Uniformly Effective Across Patient Outcome Domains? A Study on Therapist Effectiveness in Two Different Treatment Contexts2016In: Journal of counseling psychology, ISSN 0022-0167, E-ISSN 1939-2168, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 367-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As established in several studies, therapists differ in effectiveness. A vital research task now is to understand what characterizes more or less effective therapists, and investigate whether this differential effectiveness systematically depends on client factors, such as the type of mental health problem. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether therapists are universally effective across patient outcome domains reflecting different areas of mental health functioning. Data were obtained from 2 sites: the Research Consortium of Counseling and Psychological Services in Higher Education (N = 5,828) in the United States and from primary and secondary care units (N = 616) in Sweden. Outcome domains were assessed via the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (Lambert et al., 2004) and the CORE-OM (Evans et al., 2002). Multilevel models with observations nested within patients were used to derive a reliable estimate for each patients change (which we call a multilevel growth d) based on all reported assessment points. Next, 2 multilevel confirmatory factor analytic models were fit in which these effect sizes (multilevel ds) for the 3 subscales of the OQ-45 (Study 1) and 6 subscales of CORE-OM (Study 2) were indicators of 1 common latent factor at the therapist level. In both data sets, such a model, reflecting a global therapist effectiveness factor, yielded large factor loadings and excellent model fit. Results suggest that therapists effective (or ineffective) within one outcome domain are also effective within another outcome domain. Tentatively, therapist effectiveness can thus be conceived of as a global construct.

  • 66.
    Philips, Björn
    et al.
    Beroendecentrum, Stockholm.
    Holmqvist, RolfLinköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vad är verksamt i psykoterapi?2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad är det som gör att olika former av psykoterapi fungerar och är till hjälp för patienten? Vilka är de verksamma principerna eller mekanismerna som driver på den positiva förändringen? I denna bok diskuterar en grupp författare vad teori, forskning och klinisk erfarenhet säger om detta inom olika psykoterapeutiska inriktningar och deras respektive behandlingsmetodik. Boken tar också upp vad patienter själva tycker är till hjälp i deras terapier samt i vilken utsträckning faktorer hos patienten, terapeuten och behandlingsrelationen bidrar till psykoterapins utfall.

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  • 67.
    Stiwne, Dan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Clinical and Social Psychology.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Psychological dilemmas of PBL. Learning from a full scale implementation of PBL in a MSc Psychology programme.1996In: Nordisk Förening för Pedagogisk Forskning,1996, 1996Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Söderberg, Anna Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Elfors, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmqvist Larsson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Emotional availability in psychotherapy: The usefulness and validity of the Emotional Availability Scales for analyzing the psychotherapeutic relationship2014In: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 91-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess whether a modified version of the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS), created to assess interaction quality between parents and children, could be applied to psychotherapy sessions and whether emotional availability (EA), as assessed by the modified EAS-T, was associated with client- and therapist-rated working alliance. EAS-T was used to assess 42 sessions from 16 therapies. The therapies came from the LURIPP project, comparing IPT with BRT for depressed clients. The results showed that sessions could be reliably rated with EAS-T. Most rating scales had acceptable variance. The clients perception of task alliance was associated with several of the EA subscales (sensitivity, nonhostility, responsiveness) assessed over therapies, whereas the perception of bond was associated with Structure on EAS.

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