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  • 51.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Social Work. Karolinska Institutet.
    Correlates and predictors of loneliness in old age: Evidence from Sweden and England2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to identify factors associated with loneliness in older people if effective policies and strategies to prevent and reduce loneliness are to be developed. In this presentation two studies that identify factors associated with loneliness in old age are reported. Strengths and weaknesses of the studies, which differ in design and focus, shed light on issues of importance for future studies on loneliness.

    The first study was based on data from two waves of SWEOLD, a Swedish longitudinal national survey study (N=613). It aimed to examine the extent to which older people (70+) report feelings of loneliness with a focus on changes in loneliness over time, and on factors predicting loneliness in women and men, respectively. This study showed that older people moved in and out of loneliness over time, but there was a general increase in loneliness as they aged. It also identified gender differences in both incidence and risk factors.

    The second study was based on data from the Barnsley Social Exclusion in Old Age Study, an English cross-sectional community survey (N=1255), and aimed to identify risk factors for social and emotional loneliness in older people (65+). This study identified different, as well as shared, risk factors for social and emotional loneliness, thereby providing further empirical support for the conceptual separation of emotional and social loneliness.

    Taken together, these studies demonstrate the importance of: 1) longitudinal research in order to determine risk factors for loneliness; 2) considering women and men separately; and 3) looking at social and emotional loneliness separately. These approaches in combination will aid the development of effective interventions to reduce loneliness in the older population and to ensure those interventions are targeted at the appropriate groups.

  • 52.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    De äldre och ensamheten2013In: Äldre i Centrum, ISSN 1653-3585, no 1, p. 46-46Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 53.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Loneliness in old age2011In: IAGG VII European Congress, Bologna, Italien, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Social exclusion has been defined as “a process whereby certain individuals are pushed at the edge of society and prevented from participating fully” (Council of the European Union, 2004: 8). Loneliness is a central aspect of social exclusion, which has been found to be detrimental to physical and mental health. Objectives: This paper presents data from the second, quantitative phase of a study examining how and to what extent older people are socially excluded, factors leading to social exclusion, and how social exclusion can be prevented/reduced. This presentation will focus on the data on loneliness. Methods: A questionnaire survey was undertaken, administered face-to-face with a random sample of 1,255 older people, half of whom lived in former industrial areas and half in rural areas. The study was conducted in Barnsley Metropolitan Borough, England. Among the many variables measured in the survey, loneliness was measured using a scale developed by de Jong-Gierveld and Kamphuis (1985). Results: Forty-six percent of the respondents experienced some level of loneliness, i.e. they were either moderately (38%), severely (5%) or very severely (3%) lonely. There was no significant difference between former industrial and rural areas regarding prevalence of loneliness, but, emotional loneliness was more common in former industrial areas than in rural areas. There was no significant association between loneliness (emotional, social, total) and length of stay at current address, area of residence, or gender. Amongst respondents aged 80 years or older, the proportion of lonely people was 55%, compared to 42% of those under the age of 80. This association is explained by civil status, as the level of loneliness amongst widows was 56% compared to 38% amongst non-widows, and when controlling for widowhood, there was no significant association between loneliness and age. There was also an association between loneliness and living alone. Conclusions: Loneliness becomes more common as people age, but should be understood as a consequence of becoming a widow and living alone rather than ageing per se.

  • 54.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Older people’s perspectives on the causes of social exclusion2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Risk för ensamhet2013In: Äldre i Centrum, ISSN 1653-3585, no 3, p. 20-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 56.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Social exclusion and care receipt in old age2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Äldreomsorg i utveckling mot välfärdspluralism2013In: Socialgerontologi / [ed] Lars Andersson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 2, p. 221-248Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Äldreomsorgen i England2009In: Metoder och nyckeltal för uppföljning av äldreomsorg i Danmark, Norge, England och Kanada / [ed] Dahlberg, Lena; Dahlberg, Lena; Karp, Anita; Meinow, Bettina; Wånell, Sven Erik, Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen , 2009, p. 67-90Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work. Karolinska Institutet.
    Agahi, Neda
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lonelier than ever?: Loneliness of older people over two decades2018In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 75, p. 96-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To live with feelings of loneliness has negative implications for quality of life, health and survival. This study aimed to examine changes in loneliness among older people, both with regard to prevalence rates, and socio-demographic, social and health-related correlates of loneliness. This study had a repeated cross-sectional design and was based on the nationally representative Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD). Analyses of trends in loneliness covered the years 1992, 2002, 2004, 2011 and 2014, and included people aged 77 years or older (n=2 572). Analyses of correlates of loneliness covered 2004 and 2014, and included people aged 70 years or older (n=1 962). Logistic regression analyses were conducted with findings presented as average marginal effects. Contrary to what is often assumed, there has been no increase in loneliness among older people over time (1992-2014). Regression analyses for 2004 and 2014 showed that social and health-related correlates were more strongly associated with loneliness than socio-demographic correlates. Psychological distress was most strongly associated with loneliness, followed by widowhood. Most associations between the correlates and loneliness were stable over time.

  • 60.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Agahi, Neda
    Karolinska Institutet & Stockholms universitet.
    Schön, Pär
    Karolinska Institutet & Stockholms universitet.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Karolinska Institutet & Stockholms universitet.
    Planned and unplanned hospital admissions and their relationship with social factors: Findings from a national, prospective study of people aged 76 years or older2018In: Health Services Research, ISSN 0017-9124, E-ISSN 1475-6773, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 4248-4267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To examine the relationship between social factors and planned and unplanned hospital admissions among older people.

    Data Sources/Study Setting

    2011 data from the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD) and data from the Swedish National Patient Register until December 31, 2012.

    Study Design

    The study had a prospective design. Data were analyzed via Cox proportional hazard regressions with variables entered as blocks (social factors, sociodemographic and ability factors, health factors).

    Data Collection

    Data were collected via interviews with people aged 76+ (n = 931).

    Principal Findings

    Living in institutions was negatively associated with planned admissions (hazard ratio (HR): 0.29; confidence interval (CI): 0.09–0.88), while being in receipt of home help was positively associated with unplanned admissions (HR: 1.57; CI: 1.15–2.14). Low levels of social contacts and social activity predicted unplanned admissions in bivariate analyses only. Higher ability to deal with public authorities was positively associated with planned admissions (HR: 1.77; CI: 1.13–2.78) and negatively associated with unplanned admissions, although the latter association was only significant in the bivariate analysis.

    Conclusions

    Hospital admissions are not only due to health problems but are also influenced by the social care situation and by the ability to deal with public authorities.

  • 61.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Andersson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Karolinska Institutet & Stockholms universitet.
    Long-term influences on loneliness: Results of a nationally representative study with follow-up after 20 years2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Andersson, Lars
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Karolinska Institutet & Stockholms Universitet.
    Long-term predictors of loneliness in later life: Results from two longitudinal national studies2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Andersson, Lars
    Linköping University.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Karolinska Institutet & Stockholms universitet.
    Long-term predictors of loneliness in old age: Results of a 20-year national study2018In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 190-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: There is a general lack of longitudinal research on loneliness in old age. Drawing on life course theory and the convoy model, this study aimed to examine whether there is an association between loneliness in old age and social engagement 20 years earlier.

    Method: Data from the nationally representative Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (2002 and 2011 data collection waves) and the Swedish Level of Living Survey (1981 and 1991 data collection waves) were used, including 823 individuals with an average age of 82.4 years at follow-up.

    Results: Each form of social engagement in old age was associated with the same form of social engagement 20 years earlier. Close forms of social engagement were negatively associated with loneliness in old age; as were more distant forms of social engagement, but only when they were considered solely in old age.

    Conclusion: Patterns of social engagement in old age were established at least 20 years earlier. Close forms of social engagement are long-term predictors of loneliness, although current social engagement tended to be more influential on loneliness. The study underlines the importance of interventions targeted at close relationships that can provide social support in old age.

  • 64.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Andersson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet.
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Karolinska Institutet ; Stockholms universitet.
    Predictors of loneliness among older women and men in Sweden: A national longitudinal study2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine the extent to which older women and men (70+) report feelings of loneliness with a focus on: a) changes in reported loneliness as people age, and b) which factors predict loneliness.

    Methods: Data from the 2004 and 2011 waves of SWEOLD, a longitudinal national survey study, was used. The prediction of loneliness in 2011 by data collected in 2004 was examined in three logistic regression models for the total sample (n=587), for women and for men.

    Results: Older people moved in and out of frequent loneliness over time, but there was a general increase in loneliness as they aged. Recent widowhood and depression increment were associated with loneliness in both women and men. Loneliness, widowhood, depression and mobility problems measured in 2004 predicted loneliness uniquely in women in 2011; whereas low level of education and social contact reduction predicted loneliness uniquely in men.

    Discussion: Loneliness is not always a stable condition, demonstrating the importance of longitudinal research. Gender differences in incidence and predictors make it important to look at women and men separately both when researching loneliness and when targeting interventions to prevent or reduce loneliness in older people.

  • 65.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work. Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lars
    National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden.
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Predictors of loneliness among older women and men in Sweden: A national longitudinal study2015In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 409-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Longitudinal research on loneliness in old age has rarely considered loneliness separately for men and women, despite gender differences in life experiences. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which older women and men (70C) report feelings of loneliness with a focus on: (a) changes in reported loneliness as people age, and (b) which factors predict loneliness.

    Method: Data from the 2004 and 2011 waves of SWEOLD, a longitudinal national survey, was used (n D 587). The prediction of loneliness in 2011 by variables measured in 2004 and 20042011 variable change scores was examined in three logistic regression models: total sample, women and men. Variables in the models included: gender, age, education, mobility problems, depression, widowhood and social contacts.

    Results: Older people moved into and out of frequent loneliness over time, although there was a general increase in loneliness with age. Loneliness at baseline, depression increment and recent widowhood were significant predictors of loneliness in all three multivariable models. Widowhood, depression, mobility problems and mobility reduction predicted loneliness uniquely in the model for women; while low level of social contacts and social contact reduction predicted loneliness uniquely in the model for men.

    Conclusion: This study challenges the notion that feelings of loneliness in old age are stable. It also identifies important gender differences in prevalence and predictors of loneliness. Knowledge about such differences is crucial for the development of effective policy and interventions to combat loneliness in later life.

  • 66.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work. Karolinska institutet.
    Berndt, Hanna
    Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm Universitet.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Karolinska Institutet & Stockholms universitet.
    Schön, Pär
    Receipt of formal and informal help with specific care tasks among older people living in their own home: National trends over two decades2018In: Social Policy & Administration, ISSN 0144-5596, E-ISSN 1467-9515, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 91-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is seen as a typical example of a social-democratic welfare regime, with universal and generous welfare policies. However, in the last decades, there have been substantial reductions in the Swedish provision of care for older people. This study aimed to examine trends in sources of care-receipt in older people (77+) living in their own home and with a perceived need of help with two specific tasks: house cleaning or food shopping. Trends in care-receipt were examined in relation to gender, living alone, having children and socioeconomic position. Data from the 1992, 2002 and 2011 data collection waves of the national study SWEOLD was used. Response rates varied between 86 and 95 per cent, and the sample represents the population well. Trends and differences between groups were explored in bivariate and logistic regression analyses. There was a reduction in formal care-receipt regarding house cleaning and food shopping over the study period. It was more common for women than men to receive formal care, and more common for men than women to receive informal care. Reductions in formal care have affected older women more than older men. Still, living alone was the most influential factor in care-receipt, associated with a greater likelihood of formal care-receipt and a lower likelihood of informal care-receipt. It can be concluded that public responsibility for care is becoming more narrowly defined in Sweden, and that more responsibility for care is placed on persons in need of care and their families.

  • 67.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Berndt, Hanna
    Karolinska Institutet & Stockholms universitet.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Karolinska Institutet & Stockholms universitet.
    Schön, Pär
    Karolinska Institutet & Stockholms universitet.
    Sweden’s changing welfare mix over two decades: Trends in care for community-based older people with perceived need2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Bowers-Brown, Tamsin
    Older people’s perspectives on the causes of social exclusion2009In: 19th IAGG World Congress of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Paris, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This paper presents data from a study examining how and to what extent older people are socially excluded, factors leading to social exclusion, and how social exclusion can be prevented/reduced. The data is drawn from the first qualitative phase of the study that explores the factors that older people report as causing social exclusion. Methods and materials: Older people were recruited within each of the five districts of Barnsley Metropolitan Borough, England, via networks established by Age Concern. All individuals recruited within a given district formed the membership of a focus group, with each of the five groups meeting on two separate occasions. A total of 40 older people participated. Discussions were guided by a topic schedule and analysed using the framework method. Results: Being active was seen as important for life satisfaction by all participants. However, not all participants were able to achieve a satisfactory level of activity and some reported being isolated and lonely. Contributing factors to low levels of activity were identified as depression, low self confidence and caring responsibilities. A minority of participants argued that lack of activity was the individual’s own fault. Analysis identified factors linked to social exclusion in general: deterioration in community spirit; fear of crime; life changing events such as retirement and widowhood; frailty; poor finances; transport; and accessibility including the physical environment. Conclusion: There was a consensus among older people that being active is central to preventing social exclusion. The data suggest a model of social exclusion in which many of the factors identified as related to social exclusion may act on an individual’s quality of life primarily through their effects on social activity levels. This model will be tested in the next stage of the study, a questionnaire survey of 1,200 older people in Barnsley.

  • 69.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Bowers-Brown, Tamsin
    Burton, Maria
    Social exclusion amongst older people in former industrial areas2011Report (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Bruhn, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Marusarz, Marika
    Ersta Sköndal Högskola.
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Turunen, Päivi
    Linköpings universitet.
    Socialt deltagande och tillgång till service: Upplevda hinder och hur de kan reduceras2012Report (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Frank, Amanda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Naseer, Mahwish
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Systematic review of longitudinal risk factors for loneliness among older adults2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    McCaig, Colin
    Becoming A Practitioner-Researcher2010In: Practical Research and Evaluation: A Start-to-Finish Guide for Practitioners / [ed] Dahlberg, Lena; McCaig, Colin, London: SAGE , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    McCaig, Colin
    Introduction to research and evaluation basics2010In: Practical Research and Evaluation: A Start-to-Finish Guide for Practitioners / [ed] Dahlberg, Lena; McCaig, Colin, London: SAGE , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    McCaig, Colin
    Practical Research and Evaluation: A Start-to-Finish Guide for Practitioners2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Practical Research and Evaluation is a handbook of social science research methods for practitioner-researchers. It enables readers to carry out research projects and evaluations; commission research and evaluation projects; and better understand research/evaluation reports. The book offers step-by-step guidance to different research approaches, both qualitative (for example interviews and focus groups) and quantitative (for example surveys). It encompasses recent developments such as Internet-based literature reviews, online surveys and tools for questionnaire design. The book covers the entire research/evaluation process: basic concepts; planning and design; proposal development and commissioning; ethical issues; execution; and dissemination. Practical Research and Evaluation will be particularly valuable for people who may have limited research experience or training, including people working for the public sector and voluntary organisations, academics, and undergraduate and postgraduate students. It is accessible, uses non-technical language, employs practice-based examples, and provides practical tips, checklists and suggested further reading throughout.

  • 75.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Correlates of social and emotional loneliness in older people: evidence from an English community study2014In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 504-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Loneliness is an important influence on quality of life in old age, and has been conceptualised as consisting of two dimensions, social and emotional. This paper describes analyses that sought to produce models of social and emotional loneliness in older people, using demographic, psychological and health, and social variables.

    Method: Older people (aged 65+, N=1255) from the Barnsley metropolitan area of the United Kingdom were recruited randomly from within a stratified sampling frame, and received a questionnaire-based interview (response rate: 68.1%). The questionnaire contained items and scales on demographic, psychological and health and social characteristics, and a validated measure of loneliness that assesses both social and emotional loneliness.

    Results: Of the respondents, 7.7% were found to be severely or very severely lonely, while another 38.3% were moderately lonely. Social and Emotional Loneliness shared 19.36% variance. Being male, being widowed, low well-being, low self-esteem, low income comfort, low contact with family, low contact with friends, low Activity, low Perceived Community Integration, and receipt of community care were significant predictors of Social Loneliness (R=.50, R2=.25, F(18, 979)=18.17, p<.001). Being widowed, low well-being, low self-esteem, high activity restriction, low income comfort, and non-receipt of informal care were significant predictors of Emotional Loneliness (R=.55, R2=.30, F(18, 973)=23.00, p<.001).

    Conclusion:  This study provides further empirical support for the conceptual separation of emotional and social loneliness. Consequently, policy on loneliness in older people should be directed to developing a range of divergent intervention strategies if both emotional and social loneliness are to be reduced.

  • 76.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Living on the edge: Social exclusion and the receipt of informal care in older people2016In: Journal of Aging Research, ISSN 2090-2204, E-ISSN 2090-2212, p. 1-10, article id 6373101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older people have been identified as being at risk of social exclusion. However, despite the fact that care is commonly required in later life and the majority of that care provided by informal carers, a connection between social exclusion and informal care-receipt has rarely been considered. The aim of this study was to examine how informal care-receipt is related to social exclusion.

    A face-to-face questionnaire survey on social exclusion and informal care-receipt was carried out among older people (n=1255) living in Barnsley, United Kingdom. Multivariable analyses examined the association between social exclusion and categories of informal care-receipt: care receiver; assurance receiver; non-receiver with no need; non-receiver with need.

    Compared to being a non-receiver with no need participants were more likely to be a care receiver or assurance receiver if they had higher levels of social exclusion. The highest level of social exclusion, however, was found in non-receivers with need. Despite a lack of informal care and support, formal practical support and personal care was also low in this latter group. Findings are discussed in relation to the conceptualisation of care-receipt and how contact with medical services could be an opportunity for identification and appropriate referral of non-receivers with need.

  • 77.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Psychological, health and social predictors of emotional and social loneliness in older people2013In: Proceedings of the 20th IAGG World Congress of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Seoul, Korea, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Loneliness in old age has been shown to have negative outcomes such as mortality, physical and mental health problems, and reduced activity levels. To reduce loneliness in older people, factors associated with loneliness and open to intervention must be identified.

    Methods: Older people (aged 65+, N=1255) from the United Kingdom received a questionnaire-based interview (response rate: 66.0%). The questionnaire covered items on demographic, psychological, health and social characteristics. It also contained the de Jong-Gierveld Loneliness Scale (de Jong-Gierveld & Kamphuis, 1985), measuring Emotional and Social Loneliness.

    Findings: Eight percent of the respondents were found to be severely or very severely lonely, while another 38% were moderately lonely. Being female, widowed, low well-being, low self-esteem, high activity restriction, and high concern about personal finances were significant predictors of Emotional Loneliness (F(17, 976)=25.59, R2=.31, p<.001).  Being female, widowed, low well-being, low self-esteem, high concern about personal finances, low contact with family, low contact with friends, low engagement, and low perceived community integration were significant predictors of Social Loneliness (F(17, 982)=19.63, R2=.25, p<.001).

    Discussion:  This study provides empirical evidence for conceptual separation of emotional and social loneliness. Consequently, different targets for intervention are required in order to reduce emotional and social loneliness respectively, although psychological intervention has the potential to reduce both. 

    Background: Loneliness in old age has been shown to have negative outcomes such as mortality, physical and mental health problems, and reduced activity levels. To reduce loneliness in older people, factors associated with loneliness and open to intervention must be identified.

    Methods: Older people (aged 65+, N=1255) from the United Kingdom received a questionnaire-based interview (response rate: 66.0%). The questionnaire covered items on demographic, psychological, health and social characteristics. It also contained the de Jong-Gierveld Loneliness Scale (de Jong-Gierveld & Kamphuis, 1985), measuring Emotional and Social Loneliness.

    Findings: Eight percent of the respondents were found to be severely or very severely lonely, while another 38% were moderately lonely. Being female, widowed, low well-being, low self-esteem, high activity restriction, and high concern about personal finances were significant predictors of Emotional Loneliness (F(17, 976)=25.59, R2=.31, p<.001).  Being female, widowed, low well-being, low self-esteem, high concern about personal finances, low contact with family, low contact with friends, low engagement, and low perceived community integration were significant predictors of Social Loneliness (F(17, 982)=19.63, R2=.25, p<.001).

    Discussion:  This study provides empirical evidence for conceptual separation of emotional and social loneliness. Consequently, different targets for intervention are required in order to reduce emotional and social loneliness respectively, although psychological intervention has the potential to reduce both. 

  • 78.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Social exclusion and well-being among older adults in rural and urban areas2018In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 79, p. 176-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social exclusion (SE) is a process that limits participation in society across life domains, and is associated with poor quality of life. Neighbourhood exclusion has been identified as particularly important for older adults. This paper examines the association between SE and well-being in older adults from urban and rural areas, focusing on neighbourhood exclusion.

    Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey design with a stratified sampling frame, participants (aged 65+) from rural (n=628) and urban (n=627) areas of Barnsley, United Kingdom, completed a questionnaire containing indicators of five SE domains: civic activity, material resources, social relationships, services and neighbourhood. Sequential linear regression models were developed for 1) total sample; 2) rural areas; and 3) urban areas, with well-being regressed on SE indicators after controlling for self-reported health.

    Results: SE indicators explained 13.4% of the variance in well-being in the total sample (of which neighbourhood exclusion explained 1.2%); corresponding figures for the rural model were 13.8% (3.8%) and for the urban model 18.0% (1.7%); the addition of neighbourhood exclusion significantly improved all three models.  Five SE indicators were significant in the rural model, compared with seven in the urban model, with four common to both.

    Discussion: Neighbourhood exclusion explained more variance in well-being in rural than urban areas, whereas exclusion from services explained more variance in urban than rural areas. Area characteristics and the role of neighbourhood should be considered in policy initiatives to reduce SE and promote well-being.

  • 79.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Fritzell, Johan
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Trends in social exclusion among older women and men in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social exclusion is a framework for understanding the complexity of disadvantage across various domains of life such as material resources, social relations, civic activities and services. Reviews have identified a lack of gender perspective in social exclusion research. This paper will introduce the framework of social exclusion, and examine trends over time in the levels of social exclusion across different life domains for older women and men in Sweden.

    Methods: Data on indicators of social exclusion were analysed from respondents aged 76+ years who participated in the 1992, 2002 and 2011 waves of the nationally representative Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD).

    Results: There was evidence of a gender different in exclusion from material resources and civic activities, from which women were more often excluded than men. Regardless of gender there were improvements in access to material resources, such as owning a house/apartment.  Social contacts (visiting or being visited by friends) decreased over time, while engagement in cultural activities and going to restaurants increased.

    Conclusions: Trends in social exclusion in older adults over the last 20 years are dependent on the domain considered. Over a range of indicators, older women were more vulnerable to exclusion than men, which needs to be taken into account in policy to combat exclusion.

  • 80.
    Dahlberg, Therese
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Kardell, Elin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Beviljad hemtjänst: En jämförelse mellan två kommuner2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore what home care services were granted to older residents of two municipalities in Dalarna in 2016, and whether there were differences between the municipalities in the level of services. A random sample of 64 cases from each municipality’s database was drawn, allowing for descriptive analysis of services granted and bivariate analysis of associations with municipality and age, gender, and living arrangements of cases. The results showed that the municipalities offered similar home care services, but that the level of services granted differed significantly between municipalities. Municipality moderated the relationships between age, gender, and living arrangements of cases, and between the level of "serviceinsatser" and both age and living arrangements. Social activity service was granted more to older people in one municipality but to younger people in the other municipality. The results are discussed in relation to institutional theory and interpreted as due to conforming forces and local organization.

  • 81.
    Dahlqvist Jönsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Region Halland.
    Sandlund, Mikael
    Umeå Universitet.
    Schön, Ulla-Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    The meaning of Shared decision making for persons with long-term mental illness2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Dahlqvist-Jönsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Region of Halland; Halmstad University.
    Schön, Ulla-Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Rosenberg, David
    Umeå University.
    Sandlund, Mikael
    Umeå University.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University.
    Service users’ experiences of participation in decision making in mental health services2015In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 688-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service user participation in decision making is considered an essential component of recovery-oriented mental health services. Despite the potential of shared decision making to impact service users knowledge and positively influence their experience of decisional conflict, there is a lack of qualitative research on how participation in decision making is promoted from the perspective of psychiatric service users. In order to develop concrete methods that facilitate shared decision making, there is a need for increased knowledge regarding the users' own perspective. The aim of this study was to explore users' experiences of participation in decisions in mental health services in Sweden, and the kinds of support that may promote participation. Constructivist Grounded Theory (CGT) was utilized to analyse group and individual interviews with 20 users with experience of serious mental illness. The core category that emerged in the analysis described a ‘struggle to be perceived as a competent and equal person’ while three related categories including being the underdog, being controlled and being omitted described the difficulties of participating in decisions. The data analysis resulted in a model that describes internal and external conditions that influence the promotion of participation in decision making. The findings offer new insights from a user perspective and these can be utilized to develop and investigate concrete methods in order to promote user's participation in decisions.

  • 83.
    Delibasic, Amina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Foroughi, Michelle
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Sköldberg, Mikaela
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Boendestöd - en insats som leder till större självständighet: Politikers synpunkter gällande boendestöd och avgifter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the study was to investigate housing support from a politician’s perspective and why some municipalities chose to introduce a fee for the housing support. Qualitative data collection methods were used in the form of semi-structured telephone interviews with politicians in different municipalities in Sweden. The data collected were analyzed with thematic analysis and divided into four main themes: independence, home help assistance, fees for assistance and support free of charge. The theoretical frame was empowerment theory. The results showed that all municipalities agree that housing support is important in the individual's life and contributes to increased independence. The result showed further that that the municipalities' reasoning differs very much concerning the fees. Some municipalities consider that the municipality's economy is of significant importance when introducing the fees while some considers that the economy has no significance.

  • 84. Di Rosa, Mirko
    et al.
    Kofahl, Christopher
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Bien, Barbara
    Lamura, Giovanni
    Prouskas, Costis
    Döhner, Hanneli
    Mnich, Eva
    A typology of caregiving situations and service use in family carers of older people in six European countries: The EUROFAMCARE study2011In: GeroPsych, ISSN 1662-9647, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 5-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the EUROFAMCARE study findings, examining a typology of care situations for family carers of older people, and the interplay of carers with social and health services. Despite the complexity of family caregiving situations across Europe, our analyses determined the existence of seven “caregiving situations,” varying on a range of critical indicators. Our study also describes the availability and use of different support services for carers and care receivers, and carers’ preferences for the characteristics of support services. Our findings have relevance for policy initiatives in Europe, where limited resources need to be more equitably distributed and services should be targeted to caregiving situations reflecting the greatest need, and organized to reflect the preferences of family carers.

  • 85.
    Djuse, Åsa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Nordqvist, Lovisa
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Att möta dubbel problematik: En kvantitativ studie om våldsutsatta kvinnor med missbruksellerberoendeproblematik utifrån missbrukshandläggaresperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most women with substance-abuse problems are also subjected to violence, constituting a

    serious societal challenge. The social support they receive has been found insufficient and a

    need to strengthen knowledge/skills within social services has been highlighted. Using Christies

    (1986) ’ideal victim’ theory as a framework, the purpose of this study was to describe social

    workers self-perceived competence in relation to female clients subjected to violence, and to

    explore their attitudes regarding women with substance-abuse problems. Social workers

    managing female substance-abuse cases were recruited from all municipalities of Dalecarlia,

    Sweden. The study was conducted based on a quantitative approach and questionnaires were

    used for data collection. Participants’ responses indicated that the majority perceived their

    competence to be good. Furthermore, participants tended to endorse non-ideal victim

    descriptors of women with substance-abuse problems, and while the largest proportion (47,4%)

    agreed with the statement that violence should be considered secondary to substance-abuse, a

    similar proportion (42,1%) disagreed. These findings suggested that inadequate competence

    within social services does not serve as an explanation for the insufficient social support.

    Instead the study highlights attitudes and organizational conditions within social services in

    relation to the women.

  • 86.
    Efendic, Elvira
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Fahlin, Lovisa
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Biståndshandläggaren och samvetsstressen: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of our study was to examine the experience of work-related stress of conscience within social workers. We aimed to identify what stress of conscience is for the professional group social workers, whose work include exercise of public authority, and what specifically causes stress of conscience in their work. We conducted six qualitative interviews with social workers whose profession includes exercise of public authority. The result shows that all the respondents experience stress of conscience as they describe themselves having difficulties to cope with their bad conscience, thus leading to negative stress symptoms, both mentally and physically. The interviewees described, however, the experience of stress of conscience in various degrees which were categorized: constant presence of stress of conscience, presence of stress of conscience in specific situations, and conscious suppression of stress of conscious. The result further shows that stress of conscious can be created by the demands and expectations that the organisation, clients and their relatives, as well as the social workers have, if they are experienced as overwhelming and conflicting. Our study indicates that there is a need for further research regarding stress of conscience within social workers.

  • 87.
    Eilegård Wallin, Alexandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Udo, Camilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola.
    Lövgren, Malin
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola.
    Cancer-bereaved siblings advice to peers: A nationwide follow-up survey2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Eilegård Wallin, Alexandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Udo, Camilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke Högskola.
    Lövgren, Malin
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke Högskola.
    Cancer-bereaved siblings' advice to peers: a nationwide follow-up survey2019In: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this nationwide survey was to explore, based on an open-ended question, cancer-bereaved siblings’ advice to peers with a brother or sister with cancer. Half of the advice related to being with the ill sibling and cherishing the time together. Other advice related to the value of communicating about the situation, letting go of guilt, and living life as usual. The results highlight the importance of health care professionals, family, and others facilitating for siblings to spend time together and communicate openly.

  • 89.
    Elf, Marie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Nordin, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Von Koch, Lena
    Wijk, Helle
    Designing for person-centered care in older people’s residential facilities2011In: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, Vol. 23, no Suppl. 1, p. 270-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 90.
    Elf, Marie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska Institutet; Chalmers University of Technology.
    Nordin, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska Institutet.
    Wijk, Helle
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    A systematic review of the psychometric properties of instruments for assessing the quality of the physical environment in healthcare2017In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 73, no 12, p. 2796-2816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To identify instruments measuring the quality of the physical healthcare environment, describe their psychometric properties.

    BACKGROUND: The physical healthcare environment is regarded as a quality factor for healthcare. To facilitate evidence-based design there is a need for valid and usable instruments that can evaluate the design of the healthcare environment.

    DESIGN: Systematic psychometric review.

    DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search in Medline, CINAHL, Psychinfo, Avery index and reference lists of eligible papers (1990-2016).

    REVIEW METHOD: COSMIN guidelines were used to evaluate psychometric data reported.

    RESULTS: Twenty-three instruments were included. Most of the instruments are intended for for healthcare environments related to the care of older people. Many of the instruments were old, lacked strong, contemporary theoretical foundations, varied in the extent to which they had been used in empirical studies and in the degree to which their validity and reliability had been evaluated.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although we found many instruments for measuring the quality of the physical healthcare environment, none met all of our criteria for robustness. Of the instruments, The Multiphasic environmental assessment procedure, The Professional environment assessment protocol and The therapeutic environment screening have been used and tested most frequently. The Perceived hospital quality indicators is user centred and combine aspects of the physical and social environment. The Sheffield care environment assessment matrix has potential as it is comprehensive developed using a theoretical framework that has the needs of older people at the centre. However, further psychometric and user-evaluation of the instrument is required. 

  • 91.
    Elf, Marie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Nordin, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Wijk, Helle
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Development of an instrument measuring the quality of residential care facilities for older people2016In: The 23rd Nordic Congress of Gerontology, 19-22 June 2016, in Tampere, Finland, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. To validate the Swedish version of the Sheffield Care Environment Assessment Matrix (S-SCEAM). The instrument’s items measure environmental elements important for supporting the needs of older people, and conceptualized within eight domains.

    Methods. Item relevance was assessed by a group of experts and measured using content validity index (CVI). Test-retest and inter-rater reliability tests were performed.  The domain structure was assessed by the inter-rater agreement of a second group of experts, and measured using Fleiss kappa.

    Results. All items attained a CVI above 0.78, the suggested criteria for excellent content validity. Test-retest reliability showed high stability (96% and 95% for two independent raters respectively), and inter-rater reliability demonstrated high levels of agreement (95% and 94% on two separate rating occasions). Kappa values were very good for test-retest (κ = 0.903 and 0.869) and inter-rater reliability (κ = 0.851 and 0.832). Domain structure was good,  Fleiss’ kappa was 0.63 (range 0.45 to 0.75).   

    Conclusion. The S-SCEAM of 210 items and eight domains showed good content validity and construct validity. The instrument is suggested for use in measuring of the quality of the physical environment in residential care facilities for older persons.

  • 92.
    Elvhage, Gudrun
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Liedgren, Pernilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    They call me "Mum"2013In: Becoming a social worker: Narratives from Around the World / [ed] Cree, Vivianne, Edinburgh: Routledge, 2013, p. 70-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a book about social workers and social work. It tells the story of the journey into and through social work of people from around the world living and working in social work today. We hear what has brought them into social work and what has kept them in it since. Their lively accounts demonstrate that commitment and passion remain at the heart of social work today. This new edition of Becoming a Social Worker is made up of entirely new stories. It describes what it is like to be a social worker in a range of different practice settings in different countries. While many of the narratives are from practitioners and educators who either grew up in, or came as adults to, the UK, half of the narratives explores the experiences of social workers and educators working in different parts of the world in countries as diverse as Australia and New Zealand, India and Bangladesh, Ireland, Sweden and Eastern Europe, Nigeria, the USA and Canada. The book ends with a commentary, which argues that social work is truly a global profession.Some of the contributors will be recognised as those who have played a key part in shaping social work over the years and they provide valuable insights into how the profession has developed over time. Other contributors, less well known but no less interesting, give a vivid account of the challenges that social work education and practice face, and the shared values that underpin social work wherever it is located. Social work is a demanding and difficult job that goes largely unseen within society. We only ever hear about social work and social workers when something goes wrong and a vulnerable adult or child is hurt. Becoming a Social Worker sets out to change that - to make social work visible, so that those considering a career in the caring professions across the world can make an informed choice about whether social work is the career for them.

  • 93.
    Engh, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Att få ett jobb har betytt mycket: En kvalitativ brukarutvärdering av Krami2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this qualitative user evaluation, users from the Krami-programme in Borlänge have been interviewed on what they consider to have been positive changes in their social situation after participating in the programme. The respondents also point out factors in the programme that have supported these changes. The method consisted of interviews with five men who have undergone the Krami programme.

    The results show that Krami primarily helps the users to get an employment which results in the repeal of criminogenic factors. This plays an important part in the positive change of the users self-esteem, which tends to lead towards ”unlabeling” of the individual as “criminal”.

    The study also indicates other factors in the program that the users found helpful in their process of change highlighting the interaction between authorities, the approach of the Krami- staff and also the common rules that the participants has to agree upon. The users also poins out the importance of ones own motivation for changes to take place. 

  • 94.
    Englund, Emla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Sandström, Frida
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Röster från ett bostadsområde i Sverige: En kvalitativ studie om boendes egna upplevelser av att bo i ett såkallat utsatt område2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate residents own experience of living in Tjärna ängar and examine the notions they have about how outsiders think of Tjärna ängar to see if these notions affect the residents. The study is a qualitative study in which semi-structured interviews were used. The material has been analyzed from three different theoretical perspectives, territorial stigmatization, established and outsiders and the media. The result showed that the image of the area Tjärna ängar differ between the residents and the community. The residents experience the neighborhood as safe while the community sees it as disordered. The residents think that a major factor in the creation of the image that exists in the community is what media reports about the neighborhood. Furthermore the result showed that the neighborhood Tjärna ängar are subject to a territorial stigmatization.

  • 95.
    Enochsson Pålebo, Mariah
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Österberg, Hanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Det handlar om anknytning: En kvalitativ studie om socialsekreterares resonemang om anknytningens betydelse för en gynnsam utveckling2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to receive a rapt understanding of how child-welfare officer’s reasons about the meaning of attachment theory, from the child´s best, in placements of a child. The aim was also to examine the possibilities child-welfare officer´s feel they have to work with the child´s best and attachment in focus. The study has a qualitative approach and the empirical material is collected thru semi-structured interviews. The theoretical framework used is attachment theory, the child´s best and street-level bureaucracy. The result of the study shows that child-welfare officers have equivalent knowledge, experiences and thoughts about the meaning of attachment theory for a favorable development in foster children. The study concludes is that more knowledge about attachment theory is necessary and child-welfare officers demands methods to better assess attachment patterns in children. The child-welfare officers express frustration when they talk about matters in the "grey area" and situations where different perspectives clashes and the child´s best end up in the background.

  • 96.
    Ericson, Jenny
    et al.
    Uppsala University; Centre for Clinical Research Dalarna, Falun; Department of Paediatrics, Falu Hospital.
    Flacking, Renée
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Udo, Camilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Mothers' experiences of a telephone-based breastfeeding support intervention after discharge from neonatal intensive care units - a mixed-method study2017In: International Breastfeeding Journal, ISSN 1746-4358, E-ISSN 1746-4358, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: After discharge from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), many mothers of preterm infants (gestational age<37 weeks) experience a lack of support for breastfeeding. An intervention study was designed to evaluate the effects of proactive (a daily telephone call initiated by a member of a breastfeeding support team) and/or reactive (mothers could call the breastfeeding support team) telephone based breastfeeding support for mothers after discharge from the NICU. The mothers in the intervention group had access to both proactive and reactive support; the mothers in the control group only had access to reactive support. The aim of this study was to explore the mothers' experiences of the proactive and reactive telephone support.

    Methods: This study was a qualitatively driven, mixed-method evaluation using three data sources: questionnaires with qualitative open-ended questions, visual analogue scales and telephone interviews. In total, 365 mothers contributed data for this study. The qualitative data were analysed with an inductive thematic network analysis, while the quantitative data were analysed with Student's t-test and the chi-square test.

    Results: Proactive support contributed to greater satisfaction and involvement in breastfeeding support. The mothers who received proactive support reported that they felt strengthened, supported and secure, as a result of the continuous care provided by staff who were knowledgeable and experienced (i.e., in breastfeeding and preterm infants), which resulted in the global theme 'Empowered by proactive support'. The mothers who received reactive support experienced contradictory feelings; some felt secure because they had the opportunity to call for support, whereas others found it difficult to decide when and if they should use the service, which resulted in the global theme; 'Duality of reactive support'.

    Conclusion: There were positive aspects of both proactive (i.e., greater satisfaction and feelings of empowerment) and reactive support (i.e., the opportunity to call for support); however, the provision of reactive support alone may be inadequate for those with the greatest need for support as they are the least likely to access it.

  • 97.
    Eriksson, Sara
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    "Man känner sig ju lite grann som en spelpjäs" : Ett klientperspektiv på samverkansmöten inom Socialtjänsten2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a qualitative study aimed to gain a deeper understanding of a client´s participation in collaboration meetings. Four clients that get interventions from the Social services have been interviewed with a semi-structured interview. After the intake of empirical data it has been made a content analysis.

    The research shows that a collaboration meeting is built out of social processes that can either create participation of the client or obstruct it. The study also shows that there are power differences in collaboration meetings and that these must be made visible continuously in order to create a more equal discussion. It has also emerged that there are factors at an individual, group and structural level which hinders or promotes client participation.

  • 98.
    Fagerberg, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Lydnadsmodus på socialtjänsten: En operationalisering av funktionell dumhet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study's aim was to apply Paulsen’s (2017) model of functional stupidity as a form of organizational compliance to a social work context. A questionnaire was developed with 20 Likert items that operationalised Paulsen's ten “stupidity rationales”, together with a measure of work satisfaction, and distributed to social workers in six municipalities (N=73). Results show that most stupidity rationale items were endorsed by a majority of participants, with the “despair” mode of compliance most strongly endorsed. Bivariate and internal consistency reliability analysis indicated that Paulsen's model was a good fit to the data, while multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the model of functional stupidity explained 30 percent variance in work satisfaction, with “authoritarian” and "cynicism" modes as significant predictors in the model. The study suggests that Paulsen's model of functional stupidity has potential value for increasing our understand of how social workers' cope with the demands of their work.

  • 99.
    Fahlvik, Ida
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Simonsson Lindberg, Siri
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Det gäller att hålla huvudet kallt och hjärtat varmt: En studie om socialarbetares upplevelser av rollkonflikt och makt i socialt arbete2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a social worker, you need to think with a cool head while having a warm heart. Driven by

    a will to help, but faced with laws and regulations that can lead to conflicts between the

    professional and governing body. This study has been put in place to examine this

    relationship from the social workers point of view. This qualitative study aims to examine

    social workers experiences of power in “the authority role” and how that power affect “the

    helper role” within social work. We also want to investigate how these roles affect in meeting

    with the client. In order to understand the social workers experiences semi-structured

    interviews were made with workers within this department. The main focus was to exam how

    the specified roles affect the meeting with clients. Factors examined are: The relationship,

    conflicts, management and power between the roles. In the analysis of the result, the concepts

    of pastoral power and caring power have been used, and thus lift the social workers view of

    power and help. The study shows that all informants experienced contradictions between the

    roles and that the balance between power and help is complex. However, the study also shows

    that the subject is relatively unreflected by the social workers.

  • 100.
    Fjellfeldt, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Implementing a new mental health policy in Sweden2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sweden faces increasing problems related to mental ill-health. To address this problem, the government recently launched a new mental health policy to cover mental health issues in general.

    Purpose of study: This study aimed to explore the implementation process of the new mental health policy.

    Methods/Theory: A case study was conducted in which national governance and regional response constituted the main elements of the case. A period of 4 years was chosen. In all, 68 national and regional key documents were selected for the analysis. Theories of implementation processes and governance strategies were used to enhance the understanding of the data.

    Findings: The implementation process showed the following the distinctive features: 1) a broad range of target groups were addressed from persons at risk of mental ill-health to persons suffering from severe mental illness; 2) the whole spectra from preventive interventions to treatment interventions were included; 3) the mental health of children and youth was prioritized; and 4) the character of the governance gradually shifted over time from an open to a more targeted approach. A major difficulty associated with the implementation process was the lack of options to systematically follow-up government policy efforts.

    Conclusion: The broad definition of mental health care and support meant there were regional variations in the prioritizing of groups, as well as regional variations on the working methods used.

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