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  • 51.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Jansson, Anders A.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Past and Future Challenges for Railway Research and the Role of a Systems Perspective2019In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume VII: Ergonomics in Design, Design for All, Activity Theories for Work Analysis and Design, Affective Design / [ed] Sebastiano Bagnara, Riccardo Tartaglia, Sara Albolino, Thomas Alexander, Yushi Fujita, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 1737-1746Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational train traffic is dependent on an efficient traffic plan monitored and executed by the traffic controllers, the proficient maneuvering of the trains by the train drivers, and on the interaction, communication, and coordination between these two work roles. The railway research community, and the branch of industry itself, has called for an integrated systems perspective for the whole train traffic system to achieve an efficient performance. As human-human and human-technology interactions are natural parts of the socio-technical system of train traffic, the aim of this paper is to provide illustrative examples for why a systems perspective is needed for the future of railway research. Furthermore, we present the theoretical framework of distributed cognition (DCog) as a necessary addition to the theoretical and methodological toolbox of the Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF&E) discipline. To realize efficient and coordinated processes involved in organizing and executing operational train traffic, the paper proposes that the DCog framework should be implemented in the train traffic domain as a viable approach forward.

  • 52.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Jansson, Anders A.
    Uppsala University.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The coordination between train traffic controllers and train drivers: a distributed cognition perspective on railway2019In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 417-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there has long been a call for a holistic systems perspective to better understand real work in the complex domain of railway traffic, prior research has not strongly emphasised the socio-technical perspective. In operational railway traffic, the successful planning and execution of the traffic are the product of the socio-technical system comprised by both train drivers and traffic controllers. This paper presents a study inspired by cognitive ethnography with the aim to characterise the coordinating activities that are conducted by train traffic controllers and train drivers in the work practices of the socio-technical system of Swedish railway. The theoretical framework of distributed cognition (DCog) is used as a conceptual and analytical tool to make sense of the complex railway domain and the best practices as they are developed and performed “in the wild”. The analysis reveals a pattern of collaboration and coordination of actions among the workers and we introduce the concept of enacted actionable practices as a key concern for understanding how a successfully executed railway traffic emerges as a property of the socio-technical system. The implications for future railway research are briefly discussed.

  • 53.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Distributed Cognition in Manufacturing: Collaborative Assembly Work2016In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXX / [ed] Yee Mey Goh, Keith Case, IOS Press, 2016, p. 243-248Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive science is becoming increasingly central within humanfactors and ergonomics (HF&E) and there has long been a call for a more systemicperspective in the area with a somewhat broader unit of analysis. This paperpresents a case study applying the theoretical framework of distributed cognition(DCog), which shows how DCog would offer a more complete understanding ofmanufacturing within its greater context, including the social, cultural, andmaterial surroundings. This paper aims to characterize and analyse dock assemblyof forest machines as a complex socio-technical system from a DCog perspective;focusing on the creation of enacted landscapes in this particular setting. The paperalso exemplifies benefits of using the DCog framework in the manufacturingdomain as a way of grasping the assembly workers’ tacit competence and skills.

  • 54.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Interruptions in the wild: portraying the handling of interruptions in manufacturing from a distributed cognition lens2017In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 85-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study examining interruptionsin the wild by portraying the handling of interruptionsin manufacturing from a distributed cognitionlens. By studying how interruptions occur and are handledin the daily activities of a work team at a large foundry forcasting heavy diesel engines, we highlight situations whenthe propagation, transformation, and representation ofinformation are not supported by prescribed work processesand propose recommendations for how this can beamended. The study was conducted by several visits to theaforementioned factory with cognitive ethnography as thebasis for the data collection. The focus was on identifyinginterruptions and analysing these through a distributedcognition framework as an initial step towards studyinginterruptions in a manufacturing environment. The keyfindings include the identification of three, previouslyundefined, types of interruptions and the conclusion thatinterruptions do indeed affect the distributed workload ofthe socio-technical system and thus the overall productionperformance at the casting line.

  • 55.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Information Technology, Visual Information and Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Tool use and collaborative work of dock assembly in practice2017In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 164-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to deepen the understanding of the intrinsic interactions andinterplay between humans, tools, and environment from a systemsperspective, research in the wild (RITW) approaches have gainedtraction during recent decades as they provide a higher ecologicalvalidity of findings. This paper presents a RITW study, investigatinghow assembly, in this case dock assembly of forwarders, was donein practice. As our theoretical foundation, we used the framework ofdistributed cognition, which is one of the main pillars of RITW. Thefindings are presented in narrative form, describing and highlightingthat the workers achieve an efficient production outcome by beingintegral parts of the whole production process and doing so throughcoordination of activities benefitting the shared goal of the distributedsocio-technical system.

  • 56.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Towards an increased degree of usability work in organizations2015In: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, p. 5739-5746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that there is a substantial gap between usability research and practice where UCD approaches are rarelyapplied in practice due to arguments regarding the intricate nature of its methods and techniques. This paper presents an actionresearch study designed to investigate and analyze the potentials for an increased degree of UCD activities in the earlydevelopment phases of advanced information systems technology. The results demonstrate that there is a large interest inusability but that organizational priority and competence is often lacking. Instead one relies heavily on questionable conceptssuch as „trained professionals‟ to excuse the low effort towards usability. Based on the results, six recommendations forimproved usability work in R&D organizations are presented, focusing on the importance of prioritization of, and education inusability work.

  • 57.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Effects of Visualizing Missing Data: An Empirical Evaluation2014In: 18th International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV) / [ed] Ebad Banissi, Mark W. McK. Bannatyne, Francis T. Marchese, Muhammad Sarfraz, Anna Ursyn, Gilles Venturini, Theodor G. Wyeld, Urska Cvek, Marjan Trutschl, Georges Grinstein, Vladimir Geroimenko, Sarah Kenderdine & Fatma Bouali, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 132-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an empirical study that evaluates the effects of visualizing missing data on decision-making tasks. A comparison between three visualization techniques: (1) emptiness, (2) fuzziness, and (3) emptiness plus explanation, revealed that the latter technique induced significantly higher degree of decision-confidence than the visualization technique fuzziness. Moreover, emptiness plus explanation yield the highest number of risky choices of the three. This result suggests that uncertainty visualization techniques affect the decision-maker and the decisionconfidence. Additionally, the results indicate a possible relation between the degree of decision-confidence and the decision-maker's displayed risk behavior.

  • 58.
    Antonucci, Alessandro
    et al.
    Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence (IDSIA), Lugano, Switzerland.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Sundgren, David
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Decision Making with Hierarchical Credal Sets2014In: Information Processing and Management of Uncertainty in Knowledge-Based Systems: 15th International Conference, IPMU 2014, Montpellier, France, July 15-19, 2014, Proceedings, Part III / [ed] Anne Laurent, Oliver Strauss Oliver, Bernadette Bouchon-Meunier, Ronald R. Yager, Springer, 2014, p. 456-465Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Armengol, Eva
    et al.
    CSIC - Spanish Council for Scientific Research, IIIA - Artificial Intelligence Research Institute, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Generalization-Based k-Anonymization2015In: Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: 12th International Conference, MDAI 2015, Skövde, Sweden, September 21–23, 2015: Proceedings / [ed] Vicenç Torra & Yasuo Narukawa, Springer, 2015, p. 207-218Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microaggregation is an anonymization technique consistingon partitioning the data into clusters no smaller thankelements andthen replacing the whole cluster by its prototypical representant. Mostof microaggregation techniques work on numerical attributes. However,many data sets are described by heterogeneous types of data, i.e., nu-merical and categorical attributes. In this paper we propose a new mi-croaggregation method for achieving a compliantk-anonymous maskedfile for categorical microdata based on generalization. The goal is to builda generalized description satisfied by at leastkdomain objects and toreplace these domain objects by the description. The way to constructthat generalization is similar that the one used in growing decision trees.Records that cannot be generalized satisfactorily are discarded, thereforesome information is lost. In the experiments we performed we prove thatthe new approach gives good results.

  • 60.
    Armengol, Eva
    et al.
    IIIA - Artificial Intelligence Research Institute, CSIC - Spanish Council for Scientific Research, Catalonia, Spain.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Partial Domain Theories for Privacy2016In: Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: 13th International Conference, MDAI 2016 Sant Julià de Lòria, Andorra, September 19–21, 2016, Proceedings, Springer, 2016, p. 217-226Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generalization and Suppression are two of the most used techniques to achieve k-anonymity. However, the generalization concept is also used in machine learning to obtain domain models useful for the classification task, and the suppression is the way to achieve such generalization. In this paper we want to address the anonymization of data preserving the classification task. What we propose is to use machine learning methods to obtain partial domain theories formed by partial descriptions of classes. Differently than in machine learning, we impose that such descriptions be as specific as possible, i.e., formed by the maximum number of attributes. This is achieved by suppressing some values of some records. In our method, we suppress only a particular value of an attribute in only a subset of records, that is, we use local suppression. This avoids one of the problems of global suppression that is the loss of more information than necessary.

  • 61.
    Arweström Jansson, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Axelsson, AntonDepartment of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.Andreasson, RebeccaDepartment of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.Billing, ErikUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Proceedings of the 13th Swecog conference2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Asplund, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    E-procurement beyond the buyer cost perspective2010In: Proceedings of the 22nd NOFOMA Conference: Logistics and Supply Chain Management in a Globalised Economy / [ed] Jan Stentoft Arlbjørn, University of Southern Denmark , 2010, p. 483-498Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to provide and argue for a comprehensive view of e-procurement that involves both the buyer and suppliers and that goes beyond looking at mere cost reductions on the buyer side. More specifically, the paper describes benefits and barriers of implementing e-procurement solutions for both buyers and suppliers.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on a literature review combined with a case study. The case is a public organization in Sweden, which prepares to implement an e-procurement solution. Interviews were also conducted with a selection of suppliers to the case organization.

    Findings: In e-procurement literature, drivers and barriers are often viewed only from the perspective of a buying organization. Benefits are mainly cost-related for the buying organization, while barriers often include suppliers. It is proposed that benefits and barriers should include both buyers and suppliers. The literature review and the case study findings form the basis for further investigation into this problem area.

    Research limitations/implications: This study focuses on a public organization in Sweden. Yet, it could have implications for many public or private organizations considering implementing e-procurement systems.

    Practical implications: This research suggest that organizations to a greater extent should take the supplier´s side into account when implementing e-procurement solutions.

    Originality/Value: The study highlights a full cycle view on e-procurement taking both buyer and supplier into account.

  • 63.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Al-Falahi, Kanna
    College of Information Technology, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.
    Wangchuk, Tshering
    Royal Institute of Management, Thimphu, Bhutan.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A fuzzy logic approach to influence maximization in social networks2019In: Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, ISSN 1868-5137, E-ISSN 1868-5145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within a community, social relationships are paramount to profile individuals’ conduct. For instance, an individual within a social network might be compelled to embrace a behaviour that his/her companion has recently adopted. Such social attitude is labelled social influence, which assesses the extent by which an individual’s social neighbourhood adopt that individual’s behaviour. We suggest an original approach to influence maximization using a fuzzy-logic based model, which combines influence-weights associated with historical logs of the social network users, and their favourable location in the network. Our approach uses a two-phases process to maximise influence diffusion. First, we harness the complexity of the problem by partitioning the network into significantly-enriched community-structures, which we then use as modules to locate the most influential nodes across the entire network. These key users are determined relatively to a fuzzy-logic based technique that identifies the most influential users, out of which the seed-set candidates to diffuse a behaviour or an innovation are extracted following the allocated budget for the influence campaign. This way to deal with influence propagation in social networks, is different from previous models, which do not compare structural and behavioural attributes among members of the network. The performance results show the validity of the proposed partitioning-approach of a social network into communities, and its contribution to “activate” a higher number of nodes overall. Our experimental study involves both empirical and real contemporary social-networks, whereby a smaller seed set of key users, is shown to scale influence to the high-end compared to some renowned techniques, which employ a larger seed set of key users and yet they influence less nodes in the social network.

  • 64.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Chou, Chien
    Institute of Education, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan.
    Digital Citizenship: Innovations in Education, Practice, and Pedagogy2018In: Educational Technology & Society, ISSN 1176-3647, E-ISSN 1436-4522, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 3p. 152-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are still disparities in technology-access despite economic pressures and widespread promises to overcome them. The induced digital gap defines the degree of digital citizenship for which, unified policies have yet to be drawn at various educational levels to reduce that gap. The quest for a broad participation to develop digital citizenship competencies needs further investigations into innovative educational approaches, pedagogical methods, and routine practices that foster digital literacy, and narrows the digital divide. This special issue accumulates original theoretical and empirical research contributions across contemporary digital citizenship perspectives. The final selection of the papers explores digital citizenship concepts such as ethics, digital literacy and participation, in various contexts to develop opportunities for a wider engagement in social actions. The international perspectives of contributing authors shed lights on digital citizenship prospects across unique contexts among different nations. 

  • 65.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ding, Jianguo
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Jeusfeld, Manfred A.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Internet of Things Approach to Cloud-Based Smart Car Parking2016In: The 7th International Conference on Emerging Ubiquitous Systems and Pervasive Networks (EUSPN 2016)/The 6th International Conference on Current and Future Trends of Information and Communication Technologies in Healthcare (ICTH-2016)/Affiliated Workshops / [ed] Elhadi Shakshuki, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 98, p. 193-198Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns for parking are becoming imminent to best support the urban core. These persistent parking problems could be turned into new opportunities, brought by current trends in meeting the globally connected continuum. This paper reveals a work-in- progress to capitalize on private land properties for parking, in order to relieve stress on public agencies, create new sources of revenue, and enlist new entities in the intermediary market. These intermediaries, labelled as Parking Service Providers (or PSPs) play a broker role through advertising parking lots on a shared cloud platform. To streamline these business collaborations and related processes, physical parking lots are augmented with Internet connectivity allowing cloud-provided applications to congregate these lots into a larger inventory. The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm expands the scope of cloud-based intelligent car parking services in smart cities, with novel applications that better regulate car-parking related traffic. This paper presents a work-in-progress agenda that contributes to new business solutions and state-of-the-art research impacts. We reveal a multi- layered system of PSP-business model through interdisciplinary research blocks where original results are expected to be made at each layer.

  • 66.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ding, Jianguo
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Jeusfeld, Manfred
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Yuning, Jiang
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brax, Christoffer
    CombiTech AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    CombiTech AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Cyber-Threat Intelligence Architecture for Smart-Grid Critical Infrastructures Protection2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructures (CIs) are becoming increasingly sophisticated with embedded cyber-physical systems (CPSs) that provide managerial automation and autonomic controls. Yet these advances expose CI components to new cyber-threats, leading to a chain of dysfunctionalities with catastrophic socio-economical implications. We propose a comprehensive architectural model to support the development of incident management tools that provide situation-awareness and cyber-threats intelligence for CI protection, with a special focus on smart-grid CI. The goal is to unleash forensic data from CPS-based CIs to perform some predictive analytics. In doing so, we use some AI (Artificial Intelligence) paradigms for both data collection, threat detection, and cascade-effects prediction. 

  • 67.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Open Source Collaboration Tools and Organisational Learning: On Adopting EtherPad in Small Companies2016In: Proceedings of FLOSSEdu: FLOSS education and computational thinking workshop. Open Source Systems Conference 2016. Gothenburg, Sweden., 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisations could benefit from the improvements in collaborative learning and increased control gained by the use of open source software. EtherPad enables simultaneous updates on a shared document from remotely located participants. We discuss the adoption life-cycle of this open source tool in the context of a strategic intervention, with a focus on a learning agenda to guide the installation and configuration processes, and to reduce the learning curve involved in the adoption experience.

  • 68.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Jiang, Yuning
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Jeusfeld, Manfred A.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ding, Jianguo
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Combitech.
    Haglund, Daniel
    Combitech.
    Lindström, Björn
    Combitech.
    Cyber-threat analysis for Cyber-Physical Systems: Technical report for Package 4, Activity 3 of ELVIRA project2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart grid employs ICT infrastructure and network connectivity to optimize efficiency and deliver new functionalities. This evolu- tion is associated with an increased risk for cybersecurity threats that may hamper smart grid operations. Power utility providers need tools for assessing risk of prevailing cyberthreats over ICT infrastructures. The need for frameworks to guide the develop- ment of these tools is essential to define and reveal vulnerability analysis indicators. We propose a data-driven approach for design- ing testbeds to evaluate the vulnerability of cyberphysical systems against cyberthreats. The proposed framework uses data reported from multiple components of cyberphysical system architecture layers, including physical, control, and cyber layers. At the phys- ical layer, we consider component inventory and related physi- cal flows. At the control level, we consider control data, such as SCADA data flows in industrial and critical infrastructure control systems. Finally, at the cyber layer level, we consider existing secu- rity and monitoring data from cyber-incident event management tools, which are increasingly embedded into the control fabrics of cyberphysical systems.

  • 69.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Jiang, Yuning
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ding, Jianguo
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Jeusfeld, Manfred
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andler, Sten
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Nero, Eva
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Haglund, Daniel
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Multi-agent Systems for Power Grid Monitoring: Technical report for Package 4.1 of ELVIRA project2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document reports a technical description of ELVIRA project results obtained as part of Work- package 4.1 entitled “Multi-agent systems for power Grid monitoring”. ELVIRA project is a collaboration between researchers in School of IT at University of Skövde and Combitech Technical Consulting Company in Sweden, with the aim to design, develop and test a testbed simulator for critical infrastructures cybersecurity. This report outlines intelligent approaches that continuously analyze data flows generated by Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, which monitor contemporary power grid infrastructures. However, cybersecurity threats and security mechanisms cannot be analyzed and tested on actual systems, and thus testbed simulators are necessary to assess vulnerabilities and evaluate the infrastructure resilience against cyberattacks. This report suggests an agent-based model to simulate SCADA- like cyber-components behaviour when facing cyber-infection in order to experiment and test intelligent mitigation mechanisms. 

  • 70.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Stylianos, Sergis
    University of Piraeus, Athens, Greece.
    Demetrios, Sampson
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiason, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Cyberphysical Learning Approach for Digital Smart Citizenship Competence Development2017In: WWW '17: Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on World Wide Web Companion, ACM Digital Library, 2017, p. 397-405Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart Cities have emerged as a global concept that argues for the effective exploitation of digital technologies to drive sustainable innovation and well-being for citizens. Despite the large investments being placed on Smart City infrastructure, however, there is still very scarce attention on the new learning approaches that will be needed for cultivating Digital Smart Citizenship competences, namely the competences which will be needed by the citizens and workforce of such cities for exploiting the digital technologies in creative and innovative ways for driving financial and societal sustainability. In this context, this paper introduces cyberphysical learning as an overarching model of cultivating Digital Smart Citizenship competences by exploiting the potential of Internet of Things technologies and social media, in order to create authentic blended and augmented learning experiences.

  • 71.
    Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Bremer Institut für Produktion und Logistik, Germany.
    Stanescu, Ioana
    Carol I National Defence University, Romania.
    Arnab, Sylvester
    Disruptive Media Learning Lab, Coventry University, UK.
    Moreno Ger, Pablo
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Lim, Theodore
    Herriot-Watt University, UK.
    Serrano-Laguna, Angel
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Lameras, Petros
    Serious Games Institute, Coventry University, UK.
    Hendrix, Maurice
    School of Science and Technology, University of Northampton, UK.
    Kiili, Kristian
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Ninaus, Manuel
    University of Graz, Austria.
    de Freitas, Sara
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Mazzetti, Alessandro
    Gruppo SIGLA S.r.l, Italy.
    Dahlbom, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Degano, Cristiana
    Gruppo SIGLA S.r.l, Italy.
    Learning Analytics Architecture to Scaffold Learning Experience through Technology-based Methods2015In: International Journal of Serious Games, ISSN 2384-8766, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 29-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge of delivering personalized learning experiences is often increased by the size of classrooms and online learning communities. Serious Games (SGs) are increasingly recognized for their potential to improve education. However, the issues related to their development and their level of effectiveness can be seriously affected when brought too rapidly into growing online learning communities. Deeper insights into how the students are playing is needed to deliver a comprehensive and intelligent learning framework that facilitates better understanding of learners' knowledge, effective assessment of their progress and continuous evaluation and optimization of the environments in which they learn. This paper discusses current SOTA and aims to explore the potential in the use of games and learning analytics towards scaffolding and supporting teaching and learning experience. The conceptual model (ecosystem and architecture) discussed in this paper aims to highlight the key considerations that may advance the current state of learning analytics, adaptive learning and SGs, by leveraging SGs as an suitable medium for gathering data and performing adaptations.

  • 72.
    Babar, Muhammad Ali
    et al.
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, Brian
    Lero, University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Ågerfalk, Pär J.
    Lero, University of Limerick, Ireland / Uppsala University.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thiel, Steffen
    Lero, University of Limerick, Ireland.
    On the Importance of Sound Architectural Practices in the Use of OSS in Software Product Lines2007In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Open Source Software and Product Lines (OSSPL 2007), collocated with the 11th International Software Product Line Conference (SPLC 2007), Kyoto, Japan, September 10-14, 2007 / [ed] Frank van der Linden, Björn Lundell, Cosi , 2007, p. 25-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software Product Line (SPL) and Open Source Software (OSS) haveemerged as successful modes of developing software. Although they appear todiffer in terms of development principles and processes, researchers andpractitioners have been increasingly emphasising the need to achieve synergiesby exploiting the ever growing repositories of OSS components for developingSPLs. While there have been calls for the SPL community to accelerate thewidespread use of OSS in SPL, less attention has been paid to how OSScommunities could increase the use of OSS components in SPL. Sincearchitectural issues are considered critical in the SPL community, we proposethat an increased attention on architectural aspects of OSS components mayprovide the confidence that organizations need in order for them to choose anduse OSS components in SPL. We identify a number of architectural practiceswhich are followed by the SPL community and discuss the possibilities for andpotential benefits of incorporating those practices in OSS developmentprocesses.

  • 73.
    Babar, Muhammad Ali
    et al.
    Lero, Ireland.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    van der Linden, Frank
    Philips Healthcare, Netherlands.
    A Joint Workshop of QACOS and OSSPL2009In: Open source ecosystems: Diverse communities interacting / [ed] Cornelia Boldyreff, Kevin Crowston, Björn Lundell, Anthony I. Wasserman, Springer, 2009, p. 357-358Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74. Babar, Muhammad Ali
    et al.
    Lundell, BjörnUniversity of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.van der Linden, Frank
    QACOS-OSSPL 2009: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop on Quality and Architectural Concerns in Open Source Software (QACOS) and Open Source Software and Product Lines (OSSPL)2009Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 75. Babar, Muhammad Ali
    et al.
    Matinlassi, MariLundell, BjörnUniversity of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Quality and Architectural Concerns in Open Source Software (QACOS 2008)2008Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ambulansträningscenter: Förstudie prehospitalt tränings- och simuleringscenter för Västra Götaland2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna förstudie presenterar förutsättningar och vision för ett ambulansträningscenter i Skövde. Förstudien är genomförd i samarbete mellan Högskolan i Skövde (Institutionen för kommunikation och information och Institutionen för vård och natur) och Ambulanssjukvårdens stabsenhet vid Skaraborgs sjukhus. Visionen för Ambulansträningscenter Skövde är ett simulatorträningscenter med inriktning mot prehospital sjukvård. Träningskonceptet integrerar vårdkedjan från omhändertagande på olycksplats till avlämning på akutmottagning så att hela processen tränas. Dessutom integreras flera aspekter av insatsen så att utryckningskörning, kommunikation, medicinskt omhändertagande, omvårdnad och teamsamarbete tränas samtidigt.

  • 77.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Carlén, Urban
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Tactical Incident Commander - an Online Training Game for Incident Commander Training2011In: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Game Based Learning (ECGBL 2011) / [ed] D. Gouscos, M. Meimaris, Academic Conferences Limited, 2011, p. 9-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an online training game for incident commanders to enact and create incident scenarios. The incident commander is the person in command on site when a rescue team is dispatched to a fire emergency. The challenge we are addressing in this work is to design a game and a game-based training process which can be used to support the change of work practice of fire fighters to become incident commanders (i.e. taking on a new professional role). The incident commander training game consists of two integrated parts: the IT artifact and the usage process. The two are integrated to provide necessary support for incident commander training via distance learning. The game is online and comprises three modules: The scenario player; the scenario creator, and; the log tool. The game and its pedagogical usage procedure are based on the theories of communities of practice and experiential learning. The novelty of this application lies in the combination of pedagogical theory and a specifically designed game. In comparison to other games for accident management training, the possibility for domain experts lacking of game design skills to create scenarios is an essential feature. Furthermore, the underlying fire simulation renders better "replayability" than a strictly branched scenario as the scenario creation is actually more of a process of setting conditions for the scenario than predicting each action of the player.

  • 78.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Slijper, Angelique
    Department of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Svensson, Karin
    Department of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Poucette, Jesper
    Ågårdsskogens Primary Care Centre, Skaraborg Primary Care, Lidköping, Sweden.
    Stibrant Sunnerhagen, Katharina
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Section for Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Evaluation of usefulness of the Elinor console for home-based stroke rehabilitation2011In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference in Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games 2011) / [ed] Fotis Liarokapis, Anastasios Doulamis, Vassilios Vescoukis, IEEE Computer Society, 2011, p. 98-103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual rehabilitation has emerged as a promising tool over the last decade. However the field is diverse and there is no unified understanding of the concept and in which situations it should be used. The most common usage context is a rehabilitation clinic but there is an urge to offer motivating virtual rehabilitation to be used in the homes of patients. The main drive for using such systems is to enhance motivation by introducing an interesting challenge and an element of fun. This paper describes and evaluates the feasibility of Elinor, a gamebased system for stroke rehabilitation in the home.

    The Elinor prototype has been positively evaluated with respect to its usability, user acceptance and motivational factors. This paper reports on the initial findings concerning the rehabilitation effect of Elinor. No persons suffered any serious adverse effects from training. We had positive results with respect to the assessment of motor and process skills (AMPS). Even though these improvements were not significant they are still positive enough to motivate future work. The self-reported improvements in the motor activity logs (MAL) also motivate future work.

  • 79.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Slijper, Angelique
    Skaraborg Hospital, Department of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Skövde, Sweden.
    Svensson, Karin
    Skaraborg Hospital, Department of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Skövde, Sweden.
    Poucette, Jesper
    Skaraborg Primary Care, Ågårdsskogens Primary Care Centre, Lidköping, Sweden.
    Stibrant Sunnerhagen, Katharina
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Section for Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Games on prescription!: Evaluation of the Elinor console for home-based stroke rehabilitation2013In: Transactions on Edutainment IX / [ed] Zhigeng Pan, Adrian David Cheok, Wolfgang Müller, Fotis Liarokapis, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 49-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the feasibility of Elinor, a game-based system for stroke rehabilitation in the home. The Elinor prototype has been positively evaluated with respect to its usability, user acceptance and motivational factors as well as its rehabilitation effect. This paper reports the findings from the whole project. To summarize the results, we find that game factors can be used to enhance motivation for rehabilitation. We had positive results with respect to many of the rehabilitation measurements employed. For example, the assessment of motor and process skills was positive as were also the self-reported improvements in daily activities. Furthermore, it seems that an increased self-efficacy with respect to the belief that the treatment can have an effect is positive and expected to increase motivation to undergo necessary rehabilitation. The usability and perceived usefulness of the system were also positively evaluated and the subjects expressed a positive attitude towards the system as well as a belief in its usefulness. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 80.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Developing games for non-leisure contexts: Identification of challenges and research gaps2017In: 2017 9th International Conference on Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications (VS-Games): Proceedings / [ed] F. Liarokapis et al., IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, 2017, p. 15-22, article id 8055806Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of games in non-leisure contexts is referred to as serious games. The tradition of using games for purposes beyond entertainment goes back a long time before digital games. However, with the advent of digital games, serious games development has become an issue of both game design and technology development in various combinations. This paper presents a literature review of what types of topics are studied in the realm of serious games development, and contrasts the results with challenges and problems expressed by a panel of developers and researchers in serious games and gamification to identify research gaps. Our findings indicate a lack of research on the actual usage situations of serious games. It seems that the phase of organizational deployment and use is most often overseen. Furthermore, we identified a lack of client/customer perspective in most research on the development of gamified solutions.

  • 81.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Enhancing Immersion with Contextualized Scenarios: Role-playing in prehospital care training2015In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications / [ed] Per Backlund, Henrik Engström & Fotis Liarokapis, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 167-170Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Danielsson, Magnus
    Västra Götalandsregionen.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås.
    The S.A.R.E.K Simulation Environment: Technical description of a flexible training environment for prehospital care.2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a technical description of the result of the S.A.R.E.K (Simulation – Ambulance – Research – Education - Kinship) collaboration project and the Sim2020 project. The projects are collaborations between researchers in healthcare and IT, and prehospital care practitioners, with the aim to design, develop and test a contextualized simulation environment for prehospital care. We built a simulation environment representing the full depth and width of a prehospital care process. Breadth refers to including all phases of a prehospital mission, from dispatch to handover; while depth refers to detailed representations and recreation of artefacts, information and context for each of these phases. This report outlines the details of the overall design, all equipment and practical solutions used to create this.  

    Apart from the installation which is described in this report we have also developed methods and carried out a variety of tests and experiments which are reported elsewhere. The focus of this report is the system and its components.

  • 83.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, HenrikUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.Liarokapis, FotisMasaryk University, Czech Republic.
    VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 84.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Heldal, Ilona
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Collaboration Patterns in Mixed Reality Environments for a New Emergency Training Center2013In: Proceedings UKSim-AMSS Seventh European Modelling Symposium on Computer Modelling and Simulation EMS2013, IEEE Computer Society, 2013, p. 483-488Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Training actors from public safety agencies (PSA), e.g. emergency medical services, fire departments, police departments involves different technologies and communication and collaboration activities. New technologies promise better support, not only for training, but also for logging relevant information for future analysis and learning. However, choosing the right technologies, defining proper set-ups for the training activities, and identifying premises for long-term use of technical facilities is both difficult and time consuming. Applying earlier lessons from evaluating work in Virtual Environments (VEs) [1], our aim is to develop a better understanding of the impact of new technologies by identifying collaboration patterns influencing training. Collaboration is examined via social, technical, and task related interaction, distinguishable in the different phases of training, from starting an alarm to ending the emergency activities. Our main results illustrate the benefits of (1) building scenarios, and training whole activity chains for certain rescue or other emergency activities, (2) using simulations for better understanding physical places, the task, and (3) distinguishing technical, social and task focused characteristics for factors influencing emergency focused collaboration. Moreover, the results also contribute to understanding the benefits of considering specific simulation technologies when training for emergency and rescue activities.

  • 85.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Hendrix, Maurice
    Serious Games Institute, Coventry University, UK.
    Educational Games: Are They Worth the Effort?2013In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games 2013), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. CFP1338G-ART-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade educational games have become more and more popular. There are many games specifically designed as educational games, as well as a number of entertainment games that have been successfully used for educational purposes. The EduGameLab project aims to stimulate the use of games in the classroom. This paper presents a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of game-based learning and focuses specifically on empirical evidence on the effectiveness of using games in education in the last decade. Moreover, the study focuses on usage in formalized school contexts, i.e. pre-school, elementary school, secondary school, high school and higher education. As secondary aims we also assess whether there are any clear methodological trends and whether a link could be found between the outcome of empirical studies and the evaluator being a stakeholder in the game development.

  • 86.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Scacchi, Walt
    Workshop – Open Source Software for Computer Games and Virtual Worlds: Practice and Future2010In: Open Source Software: New Horizons, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, p. 419-420Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Scacchi, Walt
    Workshop – Serious Games and Open Source: Practice and Futures2009In: Open Source Ecosystems: Diverse Communities Interacting, Springer, 2009, p. 361-362Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Breaking Out of the Bubble Putting Simulation Into Context to Increase Immersion and Performance2018In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 642-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Simulation based training with full-size mannequins is a prominent means of training within the healthcare sector. Prehospital missions include all parts of the healthcare process which take place before a patient is handed over to the receiving hospital. This implies that the context for prehospital care is varied and potentially challenging or dangerous in several ways. In this article we present a study which explores immersion and performance by emergency medical services (EMS) professionals in in a training situation which takes the specifics of prehospital interventions into account.

    Methods. The study was carried out as a field experiment at an ambulance unit. The experiment was designed to compare the differences between two types of medical scenarios: basic and contextualized. We analyzed the levels of immersion throughout the scenarios and then team performance was evaluated by independent experts. Both analyses were made by observing video recordings from multiple camera angles with a custom made analysis tool.

    Results. Our results show that the contextualization of a medical scenario increases both immersion as measured by the Immersion Score Rating Instrument (ISRI) and team performance as measured by the Global Rating Scale (GRS). The overall ISRI score was higher in the contextualized condition as compared to the basic condition, with an average team wise difference of 2.94 (sd = 1.45). This difference is significant using a paired, two-tailed t-test (p<.001). The GRS score was higher for overall clinical performance in the contextualized scenario with an average team wise difference of 0.83 (sd = 0.83, p=.005).

    Conclusions. Full-size mannequin simulation based training for EMS professionals may be enhanced by contextualizing the medical scenarios. The main benefits are that the contextualized scenarios better take prehospital medical challenges into account and allow participants to perform better.

  • 89.
    Badidi, Elarbi
    et al.
    United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.
    Atif, Yacine
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Sheng, Michael Z.
    Macquarie University, New South Wales, Australia .
    Maheswaran, Muthucumaru
    McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    On Personalized Cloud Service Provisioning for Mobile Users Using Adaptive and Context-Aware Service Composition2018In: Computing, ISSN 0010-485X, E-ISSN 1436-5057, Vol. 101, no 4, p. 291-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud service providers typically compose their services from a number of elementary services, which are developed in- house or built by third-party providers. Personalization of composite services in mobile environments is an interesting and challenging issue to address, given the opportunity to factor-in diverse user preferences and the plethora of mobile devices at use in multiple contexts. This work proposes a framework to address personalization in mobile cloud-service provisioning. Service personalization and adaptation may be considered at different levels, including the user profile, the mobile device in use, the context of the user and the composition specification. The user’s mobile device and external services are typical sources of context information, used in our proposed algorithm to elicit context-aware services. The selection process is guided by quality-of-context (QoC) criteria that combine cloud-service provider requirements and user preferences. Hence, the paper proposes an integrated framework for enhancing personalized mobile cloud-services, based on a composition approach that adapts context information using a common model of service metadata specification.

  • 90.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Visual Data Analysis2019In: Data science in Practice / [ed] Alan Said, Vicenç Torra, Springer, 2019, p. 133-155Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data Science offers a set of powerful approaches for making new discoveries from large and complex data sets. It combines aspects of mathematics, statistics, machine learning, etc. to turn vast amounts of data into new insights and knowledge. However, the sole use of automatic data science techniques for large amounts of complex data limits the human user’s possibilities in the discovery process, since the user is estranged from the process of data exploration. This chapter describes the importance of Information Visualization (InfoVis) and visual analytics (VA) within data science and how interactive visualization can be used to support analysis and decision-making, empowering and complementing data science methods. Moreover, we review perceptual and cognitive aspects, together with design and evaluation methodologies for InfoVis and VA.

  • 91.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Havsol, Jesper
    AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karpefors, Martin
    AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Mathiason, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Short Text Topic Modeling to Identify Trends on Wearable Bio-sensors in Different Media Types2019In: Proceedings - 6th International Symposium on Computational and Business Intelligence, ISCBI 2018, IEEE Computer Society, 2019, p. 89-93Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technology and techniques for bio-sensors are rapidly evolving. Accordingly, there is significant business interest to identify upcoming technologies and new targets for the near future. Text information from internet reflects much of the recent information and public interests that help to understand the trend of a certain field. Thus, we utilize Dirichlet process topic modeling on different media sources containing short text (e.g., blogs, news) which is able to self-adapt the learned topic space to the data. We share the observations from the domain experts on the results derived from topic modeling on wearable biosensors from multiple media sources over more than eight years. We analyze the topics on wearable devices, forecast and market analysis, and bio-sensing techniques found from our method. 

  • 92.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde .
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde.
    Identifying Root Cause and Derived Effects in Causal Relationships2017In: Human Interface and the Management of Information: Information, Knowledge and Interaction Design: 19th International Conference, HCI International 2017, Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 9–14, 2017, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Sakae Yamamoto, Springer, 2017, p. 22-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on identifying factors that influence the process of finding a root cause and a derived effect in causal node-link graphs with associated strength and significance depictions. We discuss in detail the factors that seem to be involved in identifying a global cause and effect based on the analysis of the results of an online user study with 44 participants, who used both sequential and non-sequential graph layouts. In summary, the results show that participants show geodesic-path tendencies when selecting causes and derived effects, and that context matters, i.e., participant’s own beliefs, experiences and knowledge might influence graph interpretation.

  • 93.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Understanding Indirect Causal Relationships in Node-Link Graphs2017In: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 411-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To find correlations and cause and effect relationships in multivariate data sets is central in many data analysis problems. A common way of representing causal relations among variables is to use node-link diagrams, where nodes depict variables and edges show relationships between them. When performing a causal analysis, analysts may be biased by the position of collected evidences, especially when they are at the top of a list. This is of crucial importance since finding a root cause or a derived effect, and searching for causal chains of inferences are essential analytic tasks when investigating causal relationships. In this paper, we examine whether sequential ordering influences understanding of indirect causal relationships and whether it improves readability of multi-attribute causal diagrams. Moreover, we see how people reason to identify a root cause or a derived effect. The results of our design study show that sequential ordering does not play a crucial role when analyzing causal relationships, but many connections from/to a variable and higher strength/certainty values may influence the process of finding a root cause and a derived effect.

  • 94.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Mellin, Jonas
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Ståhl, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Complex Data Analysis2019In: Data science in Practice / [ed] Alan Said, Vicenç Torra, Springer, 2019, p. 157-169Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data science applications often need to deal with data that does not fit into the standard entity-attribute-value model. In this chapter we discuss three of these other types of data. We discuss texts, images and graphs. The importance of social media is one of the reason for the interest on graphs as they are a way to represent social networks and, in general, any type of interaction between people. In this chapter we present examples of tools that can be used to extract information and, thus, analyze these three types of data. In particular, we discuss topic modeling using a hierarchical statistical model as a way to extract relevant topics from texts, image analysis using convolutional neural networks, and measures and visual methods to summarize information from graphs.

  • 95.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ventocilla, Elio
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Evaluating Multi-Attributes on Cause and Effect Relationship Visualization2017In: Proceedings of the 12th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications (VISIGRAPP 2017): Volumne 3: IVAPP / [ed] Alexandru Telea, Jose Braz, Lars Linsen, SciTePress, 2017, p. 64-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings about visual representations of cause and effect relationship's direction, strength, and uncertainty based on an online user study. While previous researches focus on accuracy and few attributes, our empirical user study examines accuracy and the subjective ratings on three different attributes of a cause and effect relationship edge. The cause and effect direction was depicted by arrows and tapered lines; causal strength by hue, width, and a numeric value; and certainty by granularity, brightness, fuzziness, and a numeric value. Our findings point out that both arrows and tapered cues work well to represent causal direction. Depictions with width showed higher conjunct accuracy and were more preferred than that with hue. Depictions with brightness and fuzziness showed higher accuracy and were marked more understandable than granularity. In general, depictions with hue and granularity performed less accurately and were not preferred compared to the ones with numbers or with width and brightness.

  • 96.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ventocilla, Elio
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    On the Visualization of Discrete Non-additive Measures2018In: Aggregation Functions in Theory and in Practice AGOP 2017 / [ed] Torra V, Mesiar R, Baets B, Springer, 2018, p. 200-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-additive measures generalize additive measures, and have been utilized in several applications. They are used to represent different types of uncertainty and also to represent importance in data aggregation. As non-additive measures are set functions, the number of values to be considered grows exponentially. This makes difficult their definition but also their interpretation and understanding. In order to support understability, this paper explores the topic of visualizing discrete non-additive measures using node-link diagram representations.

  • 97.
    Bartlett, Madeleine
    et al.
    Centre for Robotics and Neural Systems (CRNS), University of Plymouth, Plymouth, United Kingdom.
    Edmunds, Charlotte E.R.
    Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom.
    Belpaeme, Tony
    Centre for Robotics and Neural Systems (CRNS), University of Plymouth, Plymouth, United Kingdom / ID Lab—imec, University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behavior, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Lemaignan, Séverin
    Bristol Robotics Lab, University of the West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    What Can You See?: Identifying Cues on Internal States From the Movements of Natural Social Interactions2019In: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 6, no 49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the field of Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) has seen an increasingdemand for technologies that can recognize and adapt to human behaviors and internalstates (e.g., emotions and intentions). Psychological research suggests that humanmovements are important for inferring internal states. There is, however, a need to betterunderstand what kind of information can be extracted from movement data, particularlyin unconstrained, natural interactions. The present study examines which internal statesand social constructs humans identify from movement in naturalistic social interactions.Participants either viewed clips of the full scene or processed versions of it displaying2D positional data. Then, they were asked to fill out questionnaires assessing their socialperception of the viewed material. We analyzed whether the full scene clips were moreinformative than the 2D positional data clips. First, we calculated the inter-rater agreementbetween participants in both conditions. Then, we employed machine learning classifiersto predict the internal states of the individuals in the videos based on the ratingsobtained. Although we found a higher inter-rater agreement for full scenes comparedto positional data, the level of agreement in the latter case was still above chance,thus demonstrating that the internal states and social constructs under study wereidentifiable in both conditions. A factor analysis run on participants’ responses showedthat participants identified the constructs interaction imbalance, interaction valence andengagement regardless of video condition. The machine learning classifiers achieveda similar performance in both conditions, again supporting the idea that movementalone carries relevant information. Overall, our results suggest it is reasonable to expecta machine learning algorithm, and consequently a robot, to successfully decode andclassify a range of internal states and social constructs using low-dimensional data (suchas the movements and poses of observed individuals) as input.

  • 98.
    Bellogín, Alejandro
    et al.
    Iniversidad Autńoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Said, Alan
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Information Retrieval and Recommender Systems2019In: Data Science in Practice / [ed] Alan Said, Vicenç Torra, Springer, 2019, p. 79-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter gives a brief introduction to what artificial intelligence is. We begin discussing some of the alternative definitions for artificial intelligence and introduce the four major areas of the field. Then, in subsequent sections we present these areas. They are problem solving and search, knowledge representation and knowledge-based systems, machine learning, and distributed artificial intelligence. The chapter follows with a discussion on some ethical dilemma we find in relation to artificial intelligence. A summary closes this chapter.

  • 99.
    Bellogín, Alejandro
    et al.
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Said, Alan
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Recommender Systems Evaluation2018In: Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining / [ed] Reda Alhajj, Jon Rokne, Springer, 2018, 2Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 100.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Game Development, Education & Incubation: A brief overview of Scandinavian game development, markets, education, and support structures2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This brief inventory and analysis of the state of Swedish, Danish and Norwegian game development aim to highlight past and current trends within the regions’ industries and supporting structures. In a short period of time, the situation for game developers has been severely altered as a result of the closure of big players and the rapid evolution of the marketplace. The industry in each country has been able to adapt to these changes well, and we’ve seen a dramatic industry expansion in the past couple of years as the main turbulence has subsided and new companies are given space and opportunity to establish themselves.

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