Change search
Refine search result
1234567 51 - 100 of 442
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 51.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Andersson, Lotta
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Larsson, M
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Olsson, Jonas
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Pers, Charlotta
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Modelling diffuse nutrient flow in eutrophication control scenarios2004In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 37-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Water Management Research Programme (VASTRA) focuses on the development and demonstration of tools for more efficient eutrophication control when implementing the EU water framework directive in Sweden. During the first half of the programme, models for nitrogen flow were developed, and at present, similar models for phosphorus are under construction (e.g. HBV-P). The programme is interdisciplinary, and scientists are collaborating in actor-games and focus group evaluations including scenario analysis. The scenarios modelled in VASTRA phase 1, show that (i) changed agricultural practices can be the most effective and-least expensive way to reduce nitrogen transport from land to, the sea; (ii) constructed agricultural wetlands may only have small impact on riverine nitrogen transport in some regions, due to natural hydrometeorological dynamics; (iii) removing planktivorous fish may be an efficient way of reducing the algal concentrations in lakes without the undesired side-effect of increased nutrient load to the down-stream river system. In VASTRA phase 11, one of the highlights will be interdisciplinary scenario-modelling of different measure strategies in a pilot catchment of southern Sweden (Ronne a).

  • 52.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Grahn, Gun
    SMHI.
    Roos, Elisabet
    SMHI.
    Sjöö, Allan
    SMHI.
    Modellerad kvävetransport, retention och källfördelning för södra Sverige1997Report (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Hjerdt, Niclas
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Artificially Induced Floods to Manage Forest Habitats Under Climate Change2018In: FRONTIERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 6, article id 102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 54. Arritt, Raymond W.
    et al.
    Rummukainen, Markku
    SMHI, Core Services.
    CHALLENGES IN REGIONAL-SCALE CLIMATE MODELING2011In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 365-368Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Asp, Magnus
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Berggreen-Clausen, Steve
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Berglöv, Gitte
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Björck, Emil
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Johnell, Anna
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Axén Mårtensson, Jenny
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Ohlsson, Alexandra
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Persson, Håkan
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Sjökvist, Elin
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Framtidsklimat i Stockholms län - enligt RCP-scenarier2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes todays and future climate in Stockholm County based on observations and climate modelling. Regional modelled RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios have been further downscaled to 4×4 km2 resolution. The results are presented as meteorological and hydrological indices based on statistically processed model data.

  • 56.
    Asp, Magnus
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Berggreen-Clausen, Steve
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Berglöv, Gitte
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Björck, Emil
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Johnell, Anna
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Axén Mårtensson, Jenny
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Ohlsson, Alexandra
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Persson, Håkan
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Sjökvist, Elin
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Framtidsklimat i Södermanlands län - enligt RCP-scenarier2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes todays and future climate in Södermanland County based on observations and climate modelling. Regional modelled RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios have been further downscaled to 4×4 km2 resolution. The results are presented as meteorological and hydrological indices based on statistically processed model data.

  • 57.
    Asp, Magnus
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Berggreen-Clausen, Steve
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Berglöv, Gitte
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Björck, Emil
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Johnell, Anna
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Axén Mårtensson, Jenny
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Ohlsson, Alexandra
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Persson, Håkan
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Sjökvist, Elin
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Framtidsklimat i Östergötlands län - enligt RCP-scenarier2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes todays and future climate in Östergötland County based on observations and climate modelling. Regional modelled RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios have been further downscaled to 4×4 km2 resolution. The results are presented as meteorological and hydrological indices based on statistically processed model data.

  • 58.
    Axe, Philip
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Hansson, Martin
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    The National Monitoring Programme in the Kattegat and Skagerrak2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate the development of the OSPAR eutrophication monitoring programme, this report presents the statistical strength of trends reported in the 2002 Common Procedure Report1. After correcting nutrient records to a reference salinity of 30 psu (to compensate for the effects of dilution), ortho-phosphate concentration exhibits a significant negative trend in the inshore Kattegat and Skagerrak. Significant decreases in silicate were observed in all areas. These changes caused changes in Redfield and other nutrient ratios. Indirect indicators of eutrophication (autumn, bottom oxygen concentration; growing-season chlorophyll-a concentration) exhibited significant trends. Chlorophyll-a concentration increased in the Skagerrak, while oxygen concentration decreased in all areas, apart from the inshore Kattegat.Spatial characteristics of the study area were tested using probability mapping. The Kattegat was found to be well represented by 8 divisions, while 4 areas were suitable Skagerrak.Changes in the current monitoring programme were not recommended. Increasing sampling frequency could interfere with the statistical independence of measurements – an assumption for the validity of trend calculations. Filling gaps in the existing time series improves the statistical significance of observed trends. This requires effective data exchange between monitoring institutions, and possibly data archaeology.

  • 59.
    Axe, Philip
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Lindow, Helma
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Hydrographic Conditions Around Offshore Banks2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report details the results of an investigation into hydrographic and hydrochemical conditions over ten offshore banks around the coast of south Sweden. Four of these banks are situated in the Kattegat. The remainder lie in the southern and western Baltic Proper. The investigation included field sampling, where each bank was visited on one occasion, and the temperature and salinity structure mapped while the concentrations of nutrients were measured. These data were analysed, and results compared and complemented with predictions from operational numerical models (for currents and waves). The banks are areas with strong horizontal gradients in temperature and salinity. They influence the large scale circulation, steering mean currents through the deeper water, resulting in the mean currents over the banks being weak. The influence of short term wind events are significant however, with intense, short-lived currents occurring over the banks. Nutrient concentrations in the waters above the banks were very similar to those in the adjacent basins. Immediately over the bottom however, silicate concentrations were often higher than at similar depths away from the banks. Similarly, oxygen saturation immediately above the bottom was frequently lower than in mid-water at the same depth. In the Kattegat, large areas are at risk from seasonal oxygen deficiency. The shallow nature of the banks however often means that they escape the worst impacts.

  • 60.
    Axe, Philip
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Wesslander, Karin
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Kronsell, Johan
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Confidence rating for OSPAR COMP2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the adoption of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the Water Framework Directive, EU Member States are obliged to achieve “Good” or “Good Environmental” Status within a certain time frame, or be obliged to take remedial action. There is therefore a need to quantify the quality of the monitoring programmes on which such status assessments are based, as a part of assessing the confidence in the status assessment. Within the framework of the OSPAR Convention on the Protection of the North East Atlantic, Germany and the Netherlands presented a suggestion for how such an assessment could be made. This report documents the application of this methodology to stations in the Swedish National Monitoring Programme within the OSPAR area, and also within the Sound, which may in future be included in the Greater North Sea region under the Marine Strategy Directive. The variability of eutrophication parameters with salinity was examined. In the Kattegat, inorganic nutrient variability was least at the highest salinities, suggesting that a reliable status assessment could be made more easily with data from this region, for example, rather than in the dynamic near coast region. Assessing the coverage of the existing monitoring programme, it was found that horizontal gradients in assessment parameters (generally seasonal averages) varied by less than about 30% between stations, which suggests that the programme has reasonable spatial coverage, though additional stations would improve matters. Looking at each station individually, the current vertical sampling resolution appears adequate for most parameters, apart from chlorophyll a and inorganic nutrients during the growing season. Temporal coverage is adequate for the total nutrient concentrations, but is insufficient for the inorganic nutrients and chlorophyll a, as well as for the deep water oxygen concentration in the Sound. The poor temporal coverage of chlorophyll a and inorganic nutrients could be relatively easily improved by the addition of a two channel (nitrate + nitrite, and orthophosphate) autoanalyser onto the existing ferrybox platforms in use in these waters. Addressing these problems using traditional measuring platforms and buoys would be more costly. The poor temporal coverage of chlorophyll a and inorganic nutrients could be relatively easily improved by the addition of a two channel (nitrate + nitrite, and orthophosphate) autoanalyser onto the existing ferrybox platforms in use in these waters. Addressing these problems using traditional measuring platforms and buoys would be more costly.

  • 61. Bailey, Helen
    et al.
    Fossette, Sabrina
    Bograd, Steven J.
    Shillinger, George L.
    Swithenbank, Alan M.
    Georges, Jean-Yves
    Gaspar, Philippe
    Strömberg, Patrik
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Paladino, Frank V.
    Spotila, James R.
    Block, Barbara A.
    Hays, Graeme C.
    Movement Patterns for a Critically Endangered Species, the Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), Linked to Foraging Success and Population Status2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 5, article id e36401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Foraging success for pelagic vertebrates may be revealed by horizontal and vertical movement patterns. We show markedly different patterns for leatherback turtles in the North Atlantic versus Eastern Pacific, which feed on gelatinous zooplankton that are only occasionally found in high densities. In the Atlantic, travel speed was characterized by two modes, indicative of high foraging success at low speeds (<15 km d(-1)) and transit at high speeds (20-45 km d(-1)). Only a single mode was evident in the Pacific, which occurred at speeds of 21 km d(-1) indicative of transit. The mean dive depth was more variable in relation to latitude but closer to the mean annual depth of the thermocline and nutricline for North Atlantic than Eastern Pacific turtles. The most parsimonious explanation for these findings is that Eastern Pacific turtles rarely achieve high foraging success. This is the first support for foraging behaviour differences between populations of this critically endangered species and suggests that longer periods searching for prey may be hindering population recovery in the Pacific while aiding population maintenance in the Atlantic.

  • 62. Baranizadeh, Elham
    et al.
    Murphy, Benjamin N.
    Julin, Jan
    Falahat, Saeed
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Reddington, Carly L.
    Arola, Antti
    Ahlm, Lars
    Mikkonen, Santtu
    Fountoukis, Christos
    Patoulias, David
    Minikin, Andreas
    Hamburger, Thomas
    Laaksonen, Ari
    Pandis, Spyros N.
    Vehkamaki, Hanna
    Lehtinen, Kari E. J.
    Riipinen, Ilona
    Implementation of state-of-the-art ternary new-particle formation scheme to the regional chemical transport model PMCAMx-UF in Europe2016In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 2741-2754Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 63. Barthelmie, R
    et al.
    Larsen, G
    Pryor, S
    Jorgensen, H
    Bergstrom, H
    Schlez, W
    Rados, K
    Lange, B
    Volund, P
    Neckelmann, S
    Mogensen, S
    Schepers, G
    Hegberg, T
    Folkerts, L
    Magnusson, Mikael
    SMHI, Core Services.
    ENDOW (Efficient development of offshore wind farms): Modelling wake and boundary layer interactions2004In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 225-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While experience gained through the offshore wind energy projects currently operating is valuable, a major uncertainty in estimating power production lies in the prediction of the dynamic links between the atmosphere and wind turbines in offshore regimes. The objective of the ENDOW project was to evaluate, enhance and interface wake and boundary layer models for utilization offshore. The project resulted in a significant advance in the state of the art in both wake and marine boundary layer models, leading to improved prediction of wind speed and turbulence profiles within large offshore wind farms. Use of new databases from existing offshore wind farms and detailed wake profiles collected using sodar provided a unique opportunity to undertake the first comprehensive evaluation of wake models in the offshore environment. The results of wake model performance in different wind speed, stability and roughness conditions relative to observations provided criteria for their improvement. Mesoscale model simulations were used to evaluate the impact of thermal flows, roughness and topography on offshore wind speeds. The model hierarchy developed under ENDOW forms the basis of design tools for use by wind energy developers and turbine manufacturers to optimize power output from offshore wind farms through minimized wake effects and optimal grid connections. The design tools are being built onto existing regional-scale models and wind farm design software which was developed with EU funding and is in use currently by wind energy developers. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.

  • 64.
    Bengtsson, Lisa
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Andrae, Ulf
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Aspelien, Trygve
    SMHI.
    Batrak, Yurii
    Calvo, Javier
    de Rooy, Wim
    Gleeson, Emily
    Hansen-Sass, Bent
    Homleid, Mariken
    Hortal, Mariano
    Ivarsson, Karl-Ivar
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lenderink, Geert
    Niemelza, Sami
    Nielsen, Kristian Pagh
    Onvlee, Jeanette
    Rontu, Laura
    SMHI.
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Santos Munoz, Daniel
    Subias, Alvaro
    Tijm, Sander
    Toll, Velle
    Yang, Xiaohua
    Koltzow, Morten Odegaard
    The HARMONIE-AROME Model Configuration in the ALADIN-HIRLAM NWP System2017In: Monthly Weather Review, ISSN 0027-0644, E-ISSN 1520-0493, Vol. 145, no 5, p. 1919-1935Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 65. Bennartz, R
    et al.
    Michelson, Daniel
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Correlation of precipitation estimates from spaceborne passive microwave sensors and weather radar imagery for BALTEX PIDCAP2003In: International Journal of Remote Sensing, ISSN 0143-1161, E-ISSN 1366-5901, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 723-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the evaluation of a-combined radar and passive microwave dataset obtained during the PIDCAP study of the Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX), where three-dimensional volumes of data from the Gotland radar were obtained timed according to the overpasses of the DMSP-satellites F10 and F13. Both satellites are 'equipped with a Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), suitable for precipitation retrievals. We compare radar precipitation estimates, convolved to the native resolution of the SSM/I, at different altitudes with polarization and scattering indices (S-85) derived from the SSM/I. For all 22 overpasses investigated here radar precipitation estimates at 3-4 km altitude correlate well with the SSM/I-derived S-85 (average correlation coefficient = 0.70). Although more directly linked to surface precipitation, polarization indices have been found to be less correlated with radar data, due to limitations inherent in the remote sensing of precipitation at higher latitudes. A stratification of the dataset into frontal and convective events revealed significant variations in these relationships for different types of precipitation events, thus reflecting different cloud microphysical processes associated with precipitation initialization. The relationship between S85 and radar rain estimates at higher altitudes varies considerably for different convective and frontal events. The sensitivity of S-85 to radar-derived rain rate ranges from 3.1 K mm(-1) h(-1) for a strong convective event to about 25 K mm(-1) h(-1) for the frontal and about 70 mm(-1) h(-1) for the small-scale convective events. For extrapolated surface precipitation estimates, sensitivities decrease to 14 mm(-1) h(-1) and 25 mm(-1) h(-1) for frontal and small-scale convective precipitation, respectively.

  • 66. Bennartz, R
    et al.
    Thoss, Anke
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Dybbroe, Adam
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Michelson, Daniel
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Precipitation analysis using the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit in support of nowcasting applications2002In: Meteorological Applications, ISSN 1350-4827, E-ISSN 1469-8080, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 177-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a method to remotely sense precipitation and classify its intensity over water, coasts and land surfaces. This method is intended to be used in an operational nowcasting environment. It is based on data obtained from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) onboard NOAA-15. Each observation is assigned a probability of belonging to four classes: precipitation-free, risk of precipitation, precipitation between 0.5 and 5 mm/h, and precipitation higher than 5 mm/h. Since the method is designed to work over different surface types, it relies mainly on the scattering signal of precipitation-sized ice particles received at high frequencies. For the calibration and validation of the method we use an eight-month dataset of combined weather radar and AMSU data obtained over the Baltic area. We compare results for the AMSU-B channels at 89 GHz and 150 GHz and find that the high frequency channel at 150 GHz allows for a much better discrimination of different types of precipitation than the 89 GHz channel. While precipitation-free areas, as well as heavily precipitating areas (> 5 mm/h), can be identified to high accuracy, the intermediate classes are more ambiguous. This stems from the ambiguity of the passive microwave observations as well as from the non-perfect matching of the different data sources and sub-optimal radar adjustment. In addition to a statistical assessment of the method's accuracy, we present case studies to demonstrate its capabilities to classify different types of precipitation and to work over highly structured, inhomogeneous surfaces.

  • 67.
    Bennartz, Ralf
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Thoss, Anke
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Dybbroe, Adam
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Michelson, Daniel
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Precipitation Analysis from AMSU (Nowcasting SAF)1999Report (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Berglöv, Gitte
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Asp, Magnus
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Berggreen-Clausen, Steve
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Björck, Emil
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Axén Mårtensson, Jenny
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Nylén, Linda
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Persson, Håkan
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Sjökvist, Elin
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Framtidsklimat i Kronobergs län - enligt RCP-scenarier2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes todays and future climate i Kronoberg County based on observations and climate modelling. Regional modelled RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios have been further downscaled to 4×4 km2 resolution. The results are presented as meteorological and hydrological indices based on statistically processed model data.

  • 69.
    Berglöv, Gitte
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Asp, Magnus
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Berggreen-Clausen, Steve
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Björck, Emil
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Axén Mårtensson, Jenny
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Nylén, Linda
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Persson, Håkan
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Sjökvist, Elin
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Framtidsklimat i Norrbottens län - enligt RCP-scenarier2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes todays and future climate in Norrbotten County based on observations and climate modelling. Regional modelled RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios have been further downscaled to 4×4 km2 resolution. The results are presented as meteorological and hydrological indices based on statistically processed model data.

  • 70.
    Berglöv, Gitte
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Asp, Magnus
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Berggreen-Clausen, Steve
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Björck, Emil
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Axén Mårtensson, Jenny
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Nylén, Linda
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Persson, Håkan
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Sjökvist, Elin
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Framtidsklimat i Västerbottens län - enligt RCP-scenarier2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes todays and future climate in Västerbotten County based on observations and climate modelling. Regional modelled RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios have been further downscaled to 4×4 km2 resolution. The results are presented as meteorological and hydrological indices based on statistically processed model data.

  • 71.
    Berglöv, Gitte
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Asp, Magnus
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Berggreen-Clausen, Steve
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Björck, Emil
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Axén Mårtensson, Jenny
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Nylén, Linda
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Persson, Håkan
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Sjökvist, Elin
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Framtidsklimat i Västra Götalands län - enligt RCP-scenarier2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes todays and future climate in Västra Götaland County based on observations and climate modelling. Regional modelled RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios have been further downscaled to 4×4 km2 resolution. The results are presented as meteorological and hydrological indices based on statistically processed model data.

  • 72.
    Bergstrand, Marie
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Asp, Sara-Sofia
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Nationwide hydrological statistics for Sweden with high resolution using the hydrological model S-HYPE2014In: HYDROLOGY RESEARCH, ISSN 1998-9563, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 349-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A first version of nationally covering hydrological statistics for Sweden based on the S-HYPE hydrological model for the period 1961-2010 is described. A key feature of the proposed method is that observed data are used as input wherever such data are available, and the model is used for interpolation in between stations. Short observation records are automatically extended by the use of the model. High flow statistics typically differed by about +/- 10% from observations. The corresponding number for low flow was about +/- 30%. High flow peaks were usually simulated slightly too low whereas low flows were too high. In a relative sense low flows were more uncertain than high flows. The mean flow was relatively certain. The annual maximum values were fitted to a Gumbel distribution, by the method of moments, for each subbasin. Flood statistics were then calculated up to a return period of 50 years. According to a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, less than 1% of the fitted distributions were rejected. Most rejections occurred in regulated systems, due to difficulties in simulating regulation strategies, but also due to uncertainties in the precipitation input in the mountainous region. Results at small scale are very uncertain. The proposed method is a cost-effective way of calculating hydrological statistics with high spatial resolution.

  • 73.
    Bergström, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Gustafson, Arne
    SIMULATION OF RUNOFF AND NITROGEN LEACHING FROM 2 FIELDS IN SOUTHERN SWEDEN1987In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 191-205Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Bergström, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Interpretation of runoff processes in hydrological modelling experience from the HBV approach2015In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 29, no 16, p. 3535-3545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of development and application of the Hydrologiska Byrans Vattenbalansavdelning hydrological model over a time period of more than 40years is reviewed and discussed. Emphasis is on the early modelling strategy and physical considerations based on contemporary research on runoff formation processes in the drainage basin. This includes areal considerations on the catchment scale, soil moisture and evapotranspiration and storages and discharge as represented by the response function of the model. The introduction of the concept of dynamic recharge and discharge areas is also addressed as well as the modelling of snow accumulation and melt. Some operational international experiences are also addressed. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 75. Bishop, Kevin
    et al.
    Beven, Keith
    Destouni, Georgia
    Abrahamsson, Katarina
    Andersson, Lotta
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Johnson, Richard K.
    Rodhe, Johan
    Hjerdt, Niclas
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Nature as the "Natural" Goal for Water Management: A Conversation2009In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 209-214Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goals for water-quality and ecosystem integrity are often defined relative to "natural" reference conditions in many water-management systems, including the European Union Water Framework Directive. This paper examines the difficulties created for water management by using "natural" as the goal. These difficulties are articulated from different perspectives in an informal (fictional) conversation that takes place after a workshop on reference conditions in water-resources management. The difficulties include defining the natural state and modeling how a system might be progressed toward the natural, as well as the feasibility and desirability of restoring a natural state. The paper also considers the appropriateness for developing countries to adopt the use of natural as the goal for water management. We conclude that failure to critically examine the complexities of having "natural" as the goal will compromise the ability to manage the issues that arise in real basins by not making the ambiguities associated with this "natural" goal explicit. This is unfortunate both for the western world that has embraced this model of "natural as the goal" and for the developing world in so far as they are encouraged to adopt this model.

  • 76. Bjork, Goran
    et al.
    Stranne, Christian
    Borenäs, Karin
    SMHI, Core Services.
    The Sensitivity of the Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Thickness and Its Dependence on the Surface Albedo Parameterization2013In: Journal of Climate, ISSN 0894-8755, E-ISSN 1520-0442, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 1355-1370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the response of sea ice thickness to changes in the external forcing is investigated and particularly how this response depends on the surface albedo formulation by means of a one-dimensional coupled ocean-ice-atmosphere model. The main focus is on the thickness response to the atmospheric heat advection F-wall, solar radiation F-SW, and amount of snow precipitation S-prec. Different albedo parameterization schemes [ECHAM5, CSIRO, and Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3)] representing albedos commonly used in global climate models are compared together with more simplified schemes. Using different albedo schemes with the same external forcing produces large differences in ice thickness. The ice thickness response is similar for all realistic albedo schemes with a nearly linear decrease with increasing F-wall in the perennial ice regime and with a steplike transition into seasonal ice when F-wall exceeds a certain threshold. This transition occurs at an annual-mean ice thickness of 1.7-2.0 m. Latitudinal differences in solar insolation generally leads to increasing ice thickness toward the North Pole. The snow response varies significantly depending on which albedo scheme is used. The ECHAM5 scheme yields thinner ice with S-prec, the CSIRO scheme gives ice thickness nearly independent of S-prec, and with the CCSM3 scheme the ice thickness decreases with S-prec. A general result is that the modeled ice cover is rather sensitive to positive perturbations of the external heat supply when it is close to the transition such that just a small increase of, for example, F-wall can force the ice cover into the seasonal regime.

  • 77. Blom, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Dekhla, Isabelle
    Schöld, Sofie
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Andersson, Mathias H.
    Svensson, Ola
    Amorim, M. Clara P.
    Continuous but not intermittent noise has a negative impact on mating success in a marine fish with paternal care2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 5494Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Bodin, Svante
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department.
    Fredriksson, Ulf
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Uncertainty in wind forecasting for wind power networks1980Report (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Borenäs, Karin
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Hietala, R.
    Laanearu, J.
    Lundberg, P.
    Some estimates of the Baltic deep-water transport through the Stolpe trench2007In: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 238-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The subsurface flow of high-saline water masses from the Bornholm Basin through the Stolpe Channel plays an important role for the renewal of the Baltic Central Basin deep waters. In order to determine whether rotating 11/2-layer hydraulic theory is an appropriate tool for describing this process, maximal-transport estimates based on climatological data from the Bornholm and Gdansk Basins have been established. These were found to deviate considerably from observational realities, and hence similar hydraulic considerations were also applied to more-or-less synoptic field data from a Finnish field campaign carried through in the mid-1980s. Also in this case significant differences were found between calculated transport capacity and observations. Since it furthermore was demonstrated that the characteristics of the observed cross-channel hydrographic structure could be explained using a frictional-balance model of the deep-water flow, it has been concluded that a hydraulic framework, although providing an upper bound of the transport, is of limited use when dealing with the Stolpe-Channel overflow. Although it cannot be excluded that the inflow is inviscid, but submaximal, it is more likely that the transport is governed by the combined effects of friction and wind forcing.

  • 80.
    Borenäs, Karin
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lake, Irene
    Lundberg, P A
    On the intermediate water masses of the Faroe-Bank Channel overflow2001In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 1904-1914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A review of available hydrographic data from the Faroe-Bank Channel indicates that North Icelandic/Arctic Intermediate water masses are present in the passage to a larger extent than was previously believed. The presently compiled statistics, including results on the seasonality, are discussed in relation to previous investigations. Finally, a high quality subset of the hydrographic data is used for an analysis of the alongchannel mixing of the intermediate water masses.

  • 81.
    Borenäs, Karin
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lundberg, P
    The Faroe-Bank channel deep-water overflow2004In: Deep-sea research. Part II, Topical studies in oceanography, ISSN 0967-0645, E-ISSN 1879-0100, Vol. 51, no 4-5, p. 335-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 1950s it was recognised that a considerable transport of water from the deeper reaches of the Norwegian Sea into the Atlantic takes place through the Faroe-Bank Channel, which thereby serves as an important source for the renewal of the North Atlantic Deep Water. Consequently, substantial efforts have, over the past decades, been dedicated towards quantifying the overflow as well as clarifying the underlying dynamics. In the present review, an attempt is made to summarise the main body of the observational results as well as some theoretical considerations regarding the dynamical mechanisms. The most prominent characteristic of the Faroe-Bank Channel overflow is that it is a persistent phenomenon with a yearly average deep-water (viz. T<5degreesC) transport of around 2 Sv. Using inviscid rotating hydraulics, the flow through the controlling section at the sill, furthermore, can be reasonably well predicted on the basis of upstream conditions in the Norwegian Sea. After passing the threshold the descending overflow plume is subject to intense mixing, a process very much in the focus of ongoing research. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 82.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Areella snöstudier1986Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den areella variationen hos ett snötäcke påverkas av mångafaktorer. De meteorologiska förhållandena - främst temperaturoch fuktighet - när snön faller, styr snöns ursprungligadensitet och djup. Vind under och efter snötillfället förflyttarsnön. Den ansamlas i svackor och längs hinder, texlängs skogsgränser, och eroderas på utsatta platser, såsomryggar. Snöförluster orsakade av smältning och avdunstningpåverkar även snöackumulationen.

  • 83.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Bestämning av optimalt klimatstationsnät för hydrologiska prognoser1987Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är lätt att avfärda dåliga prognosresultat med att klimatstationsnätet är för glest för att man skall kunna bestämma vinternederbörden korrekt. För att testa antalet behövliga temperatur- och nederbördsstationer för olika typer av områden har vi därför prövat att ändra antalet temperatur- resp. nederbördsstationer och studerat hur det påverkar simuleringarnas precision.Studien har finansierats av Vattenregleringsföretagens samarbetsorgan(VASO).

  • 84.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Core Services.
    GENERATION, TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF SUSPENDED AND DISSOLVED MATERIAL - EXAMPLES FROM SWEDISH RIVERS1990In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 72, no 3-4, p. 273-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition in river systems in Sweden are discussed. The database consists of observations from a research project and from the Swedish network for the measurement of sediment transport. Examples are given from measurements in small plots, and from river basins of different sizes and characteristics. Effects of hydrological regime, of deposition in lakes, and of geology and human impact are illustrated. It was found that observations of erosion losses in index plots cannot easily be extrapolated to large areas, and that trends of transport most likely reflect trends in runoff.

  • 85.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Human impacts and weather-dependent effects on water balance and water quality in some Swedish river basins1990Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The weather has a great effect on the water balance and, indirectly, affects water quality of river systems. At the same tirne, man-made changes in the Iandscape and other human activities have a great impact. To be able to distinguish the human irnpacts from the effects of natura! weather fluctuations we need observations and measurements but also analysis tools.

    In this thesis the PULSE and HBV hydrological models have been used as the analysis tools. Examples are given from forest management, in particular clearcuning, drainage and biomass increase, and from mining and agricultural activities. The models include conceptual descriptions of the most significant hydrological processes and are capable of coping with. weather-dependent fluctuations. Observed air temperature, precipitation and an estimate of the potential evapotranspiration are input data to the models.

    Simple hydrochemical and nitrogen leaching subroutines have been Iinked to the PULSE water balance model.These subroutines have been used to quantify weather-dependent and human effects on pH downstream from a mine tailings deposit and on nitrogen Ieaching from different non-point sources, especially from arable land.

    The applications illustrate the advantage of this type of model for analysis of man-made irnpacts and short-term climatological fluctuations. As the models are restricted to stationary conditions they cannot be used for forecasting of long-term changes due to changes in atmospheric deposition, land use or climate, unless the local effects of these changes are known. Other methods of analysing effects of man-made changes have also been tested, such as conventional comparative investigations, regression analysis and trend analysis. The use of these methods is exemplified by an analysis of human effects on erosion and sediment transport. It was found to be much more difficult to quantify effects with these sirnpler methods

  • 86.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Sedimenttransport i svenska vattendrag exempel från 1967-19941996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    "Sedimenttransport i svenska vattendrag exempel från 1967-1994" är framtagen inom Analysenheten på Affärsområde Samhälle vid SMHI.

    Många års mätning inom sedimenttransportnätet ligger till grunden för denna bearbetning.

    Månads- och årsvärden på halter och transporter finns bearbetade och lagrade för alla stationer. Dessa kan beställas från SMHI. I denna rapport redovisas delar av detta material.

  • 87.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Core Services.
    SIMULATION OF RUNOFF AND NITRATE TRANSPORT FROM MIXED BASINS IN SWEDEN1990In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 13-34Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Skogens inverkan på vattenbalansen1992Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Virkesmängden i Sveriges skogar har ökat under 1900-talet och i första hand beror det på ökad skogsproduktion. I södra Sverige har även skogsrnarksarealen ökat något. Eftersom träd tar upp vatten från marken, har det diskuterats om detta innebär att avdunstningen ökat och i sin tur avrinningen minskat. Frågan har analyserats dels genom beräkning av differensen mellan nederbörd (omräknad till areell och höjdkorrigerad nederbörd) och avrinning, dvs ett relativt mått på evapotranspirationen, för ett antal avrinningsområden i Sverige, och dels genom modellsimulering med HBVmodellen från 1930-talet och framåt.

    Differensberäkningen utifrån den uppmätta nederbörden och avrinningen visar att våta år medför inte bara hög avrinning utan även ofta något högre evapotranspiration än torra år. Man kan inte se några tydliga förändringar i evapotranspirationen i någon av de undersökta områdena mer än mindre upp- och nergångar, som troligen mest beror på klimatets fluktuationer.

    Indata till modellen är nederbörd och lufttemperatur. Modellen tar hand om de väderberoende fluktuationerna och gör det är lättare att skilja klimatförändringar från effekten av ändrad markanvändning. Inte heller den analysen visar några klara trender i evapotranspirationen och avrinningen. Eventuella förändringar försvinner i det brus som uppstår av ofullständiga indata (ett glest nederbördsnät på grund av kravet på homogena långa serier) och på de förenklingar av naturen som ändå sker i modellen. Studien tyder alltså på att det inte skett några tydligt påvisbara förändringar av evapotranspirationen och avrinningen på grund av ökad skogstillväxt.

  • 89.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Snömätning med georadar och snötaxeringar i övre Luleälven1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Snömätning med flygburen georadarutrustning (i helikopter) har utförts längs fasta linjer i övre Luleälvens tillrinningsområde i april under åren 1986 till 1990. I prognosområdena Suorva, Parki och Tjaktjajaure, som domineras av kalfjäll och där nederbördsstationsnätet är mycket glest, visar de fem årens mätningar, att en uppdatering av HBV-modellens snömagasin utifrån georadarmätningarna kan förbättra prognosutfallet. För skogsområdena Porjus och Letsi, som har ett mer representativt nederbördsstationsnät och bättre prognosutfall, är det svårare att förbättra prognoserna.

  • 90.
    Brandt, Maja
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Bergström, Sten
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    INTEGRATION OF FIELD DATA INTO OPERATIONAL SNOWMELT-RUNOFF MODELS1994In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 25, no 1-2, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conceptual runoff models have become standard tools for operational hydrological forecasting in Scandinavia. These models are normally based on observations from the national climatological networks, but in mountainous areas the stations are few and sometimes not representative. Due to the great economic importance of good hydrological forecasts for the hydro-power industry attempts have been made to improve the model simulations by support from field observations of the snowpack. The snowpack has been mapped by several methods; airborne gamma-spectrometry, airborne georadars, satellites and by conventional snow courses. The studies cover more than ten years of work in Sweden. The conclusion is that field observations of the snow cover have a potential for improvement of the forecasts of inflow to the reservoirs in the mountainous part of the country, where the climatological data coverages is poor. This is pronounced during years with unusual snow distribution. The potential for model improvement is smaller in the climatologically more homogeneous forested lowlands, where the climatological network is denser. The costs of introduction of airborne observations into the modelling procedure are high and can only be justified in areas of great hydropower potential.

  • 91.
    Brandt, Maja
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Bergström, Sten
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Gardelin, Marie
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    MODELING THE EFFECTS OF CLEARCUTTING ON RUNOFF - EXAMPLES FROM CENTRAL SWEDEN1988In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 307-313Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 92.
    Brandt, Maja
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Bergström, Sten
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Gardelin, Marie
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Modellberäkning av extrem effektiv nederbörd1987Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande analys av vattenbalansen vid extrema situationer är ett led i Flödeskommittens arbete med att ta fram nya riktlinjer för dimensioneringsberäkningar för dammar och utskov, som inleddes våren 1985 (Ehlin, 1986). Frågan fick förnyad aktualitet i samband med höstflöden 1985 och 1986, som orsakade översvämningar och ett antal mindre dammras.De viktigaste faktorerna för beräkning av dimensionerande flöden är arealnederbörd, snösmältning, markfuktighet samt flödessituationen före flödet. En analys av extrem nederbörd har utförts (Vedin och Eriksson, 1986). För beräkning av effekten av den extrema nederbörden på flödet behöver även kombinationer av eventuell snösmältning och markfuktighetsunderskott i marken vara kända. Hur stor snösmältning kan tänkas ske i ett avrinningsområde? Kan vi räkna med att marken är helt mättad? Ett sätt att analysera detta är att med HBV-modellen ta fram extrema arealnederbörds- och snösmältningsvärden samt lägsta  markfuktighetsunderskott. I denna rapport redovisas en analys, som bygger på HBV-modellberäkningar i tjugofem avrinningsområden. Sammanlagt täcker områdena 79 000 km2 av Sveriges totala yta på449 000 km2. Den sammantagna tidsperioden för beräkningarna är475 år.

  • 93.
    Brandt, Maja
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Bergström, Sten
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Sandén, Per
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF AN OLD MINE TAILINGS DEPOSIT - MODELING OF WATER-BALANCE, ALKALINITY AND PH1987In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 18, no 4-5, p. 291-300Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 94.
    Brandt, Maja
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Edler, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Andersson, Lars
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Översvämningar längs Oder och Wisla sommaren 1997 samt effekterna i Östersjön1998Report (Other academic)
  • 95.
    Brandt, Maja
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Ehlert, Kurt
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Avrinningen från Sverige till omgivande hav1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A data base of monthly runoff to seas around Sweden is created. This report presents long term, seasonal and spatial variations for the period 1930 - 1990. Runoff calculation are based on measurments, wich cover 86% of the land area and on estmate by proportioning against nearby reference station for the remaining 14%. The calculations are made for 265 land areas.

  • 96.
    Brandt, Maja
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Grahn, Gun
    SMHI.
    Avdunstning och avrinningskoefficient i Sverige 1961-1990: Beräkningar med HBV-modellen1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Världsmeteorologiska organisationen (WMO) har fastställt att statistiska parametrar, som används för klimatbeskrivningar, skall beräknas för sk normalperioder orn 30 år, såsom 1931-1960, 1961-1990. I Sveriges Nationalatlas (SNA 1995) redovisas ett stort antal kartor för olika parametrar (nederbörd, avrinning, avdunstning, temperatur, snödjup osv) för perioden 1961-1990. Avrinningskartan i SNA togs fram med hjälp av HBV-modellen.Modellen beskriver vattnets kretslopp från nederbörd, snöackumulation till snösmältning, avdunstning, buffring i marken, grundvattenbildning och avrinning på daglig basis, vilket gör det möjligt att plocka ut mer resultat för fler parametrar än bara avrinningen både i rummet och tiden.

    I denna rapport har avdunstningen och avrinningskoefficienter i Sverige närmare studerats utifrån de körningar som gjorts för perioden 1961-1990. Diagrammen och kartorna i rapporten är av översiktlig natur och hänsyn måste tas till det vid utnyttjandet. Kartorna är inte lämpadeför detaljplanering eller vid studier av korta delperioder.

  • 97.
    Brandt, Maja
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Grahn, Gun
    SMHI.
    Årnfelt, Erik
    Länsstyrelsen Östergötland.
    Bäckman, Niclas
    Länsstyrelsen Östergötland.
    Anpassning av TRK-systemet från nationell till regional nivå samt scenarioberäkningar för kväve: Tester för Motala Ström2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En nationell belastningsberäkning av kväve och fosfor till Sveriges omgivande hav utfördes inom ett projekt benämnt TRK (Transport, retention, källfördelning – Belastning på havet), som syftade till internationell rapportering. En analys av möjligheten att förfina detta beräkningssystem har utförts. Syftet är att det skall baseras på det nationella systemet och kunna användas generellt på regional nivå både för en finare karakterisering enligt vattendirektivet och åtgärdsbedömning inom det kommande vattendistriktsarbetet.Anpassningen av det nationella TRK-systemet till regional nivå beskrivs i rapporten. Huvudvikten har lagts på kvävesimulering på grund av att beräkningarna är betydligt mer utvecklade för kväve än för fosfor. Nedanstående punkter rör både kväve och fosfor om inget annat står. Bättre framtida fosformodeller kan dock kräva ytterligare anpassning vid en regionalisering. För användare av det regionala TRK-systemet inom vattendistrikten eller t.ex. regional miljöövervakning finns en mer handfast manual som bilaga till rapporten. Från regionaliseringsanalysen i projektet kan följande slutsatser dras:- I den nationella TRK-beräkningen var Sverige uppdelat i 1 000 TRKavrinningsområden. Vid regionaliseringen är en indelning i SVARs standardavrinningsområden en lämplig bas i södra Sverige. Vid behov kan stora sjöar brytas ut som egna avrinningsområden samt även delas vid tydliga sund. För stora närområden till sjöar kan det finnas behov att dela dessa. Arbetet rationaliseras om den SVAR version som använts vid TRK eller vid senaste motsvarandenationella beräkning utnyttjas.- Markanvändningen som beräknats vid den nationella TRK-beräkningen eller senaste motsvarande beräkning utnyttjas. För delade avrinningsområden görs en arealviktning eller en kartanalys vid behov. Den nationella jordartskartan för jordbruksmark är relativt grov och finns det tillgång till regional jordartskarta med bättre upplösning kan det vara aktuellt att göra en förfinad uppdelning av jordbruksmarken för kväve. För framtida beräkningar av fosfor behövs en regional jordartskarta, som omfattar all markanvändning.- Typhalter för kväve och fosfor från nationella TRK eller senaste motsvarande beräkning kan användas med undantag för jordbrukets fosfortyphalter. Beräkningsmetodik för jordbrukets fosfortyphalter behöver ses över i det nationella systemet innan en regionalisering och eventuella scenarioberäkningar görs. Om regionaliseringen kräver redovisning för ett specifikt år kan det behövas nya beräkningar av jordbrukets kvävetyphalter med SOILNDB modellen (och då även av jordbruksmarkens grödofördelning för detta år).- Uppgifter om punktkällor hämtas från den senaste nationella beräkningen eller uppdateras från EMIR med utsläpp för valt år. Om möjligt kompletteras dessa med utsläpp från mindre källor baserat på uppgifter från ansvariga tillsynsmyndigheter och miljörapporter. Uppskattning av utsläpp från mindre reningsverk, som saknar utsläppsdata, kan ske med hjälp av linjär regression som visar sambandet mellan totalutsläpp och antal anslutna personer. I bilagan visas ett exempel på sambandet i Motala Ströms avrinningsområde, som tagits fram för kväveutsläpp från reningsverk med mindre än 3 000 personer anslutna. Den kan användas där mätdata saknas. Motsvarande samband kan skapas för aktuell region.- Utsläpp från enskilda avlopp kan hämtas från TRK eller senaste nationella belastningsberäkning.

  • 98.
    Brandt, Maja
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Jutman, Torbjörn
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Alexandersson, Hans
    SMHI.
    Sveriges vattenbalans: Årsmedelvärden 1961-1990 av nederbörd, avdunstning och avrinning1994Report (Other academic)
  • 99. Brigode, Pierre
    et al.
    Brissette, Francois
    Nicault, Antoine
    Perreault, Luc
    Kuentz, Anna
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Mathevet, Thibault
    Gailhard, Joel
    Streamflow variability over the 1881-2011 period in northern Quebec: comparison of hydrological reconstructions based on tree rings and geopotential height field reanalysis2016In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 1785-1804Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 100. Bunse, Carina
    et al.
    Israelsson, Stina
    Baltar, Federico
    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    Legrand, Catherine
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Lindh, Markus
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Martinez-Garcia, Sandra
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    High Frequency Multi-Year Variability in Baltic Sea Microbial Plankton Stocks and Activities2019In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, article id 3296Article in journal (Refereed)
1234567 51 - 100 of 442
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf