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  • 51.
    Adolfsson Jörby, Sofie
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Sustainable Development in Swedish Municipalities: To know, to be able, to want and to do2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A process of change like the building-up of sustainable societies can be visualised as four steps: to know, to be able, to want and to do. To pay attention to the appropriate measures and the best solutions implies a wide range of knowledge of natural and societal conditions. But to make it possible to realize them, there has to be space of action including physical tools (technique, money etc.), as well as desire and courage among the participants and decision-makers to act towards sustainability. The most important prerequisites for sustainable development are considered to be appropriate natural resources management and public participation. In this thesis I concentrate on the possibilities of modifying administration at local levels in order to economise resources in durable ways, locally as well as globally. In some case studies I examine to what extent local Agenda 21 (LA21) processes can facilitate this realization.

    In developing more sustainable societies I emphasise the following aspects to be among the most relevant: Society has to prepare for unexpected outcomes, thus the apparent unpredictability of the behaviour of ecosystems and their response to impacts have to be taken into account in planning and in making decisions. Moreover, it has to be discussed what to do if aims are reached without obtaining the expected recovery in the ecosystems and in the natural situation. Environmental space and function should more often be used as a basis when managing natural resource. Finally, the interplay beween the central and the local levels should be enhanced in order to choose the most relevant measures and to strive in the same direction: towards creating more flexible societies.

    The LA21 processes can very well be excellent tools in this work because they provide platforms for better understanding and exchange of knowledge and experience among different levels of society. These discussions can make the participants more willing to take actions as well as to find new solutions and new ways acting.

    The case studies show that the first steps towards more sustainable societies are taken. The support for LA21 given by the local governments has been and is absolutely vital to the progress and results of the processes. The most progressive results are found in the municipalities of the case study where top-level politicians have been most interested and have taken on the responsibility of LA21. My main conclusions of how the LA21 processes and the striving towards sustainability could be improved are that goals and visions should be discussed more thoroughly involving many parts of society. More and more these visions and objectives should observe the connections between environmental, economic and social issues. Furthermore, measures and actions should be diversified and flexible, and co-operation across administrative borders should be developed. It is also essential to formulate strategies of how to deal with up-coming ideas and proposals as well as how to increase the level of influence of all participants. In order to improve the handling of natural resources the kind of resource and the functions making it one has to be identified. To choose the most appropriate measures it is important to know if the resource is vital and scarce, scarce, or poisonous and/or if its use may cause pollution.

    Paper I comprises the frame of and the tools for developing the local system in Sweden in the direction of global sustainability. Swedish municipalities have taken the first steps towards sustainability mainly through local Agenda 21 processes. Environmental issues have a prominent role in the decision-making of the local governments, but social and economic topics are not connected to decisions on sustainable development to the same extent. How to proceed at the local level is discussed in this paper as is the national frame and local prerequisities for achieving sustainable development. This article states that most important factors, when creating sustainable societies, are active, high-level politicians and officials, a structured process with co-operation aiming at including all stakeholders' real influence, increased knowledge among all participants, positive thinking, feedback and information, money and much time. To use limited projects as one of the first steps of a more comprehensive process may attract more inhabitants to take part. Their results can be shown quite rapidly, further encouraging actions and involvement in other areas of interest.

    The papers II and III are based on a five-year study of the LA21 processes in four Swedish municipalities. In Paper II the LA21 of two of the chosen municipalities are analysed. Comparisons between attitudes among local politicians and officials and LA21 documents and projects indicate that the most important issues, to protect clean air and to co-operate with the inhabitants in LA21, are followed up in plans, actions and projects connected to LA21. The local governments have made efforts to improve the natural resources management, to prolong the views of planning in the local government, but they have difficulties in interpreting visions and long-term goals in their daily decisions. It is still too early to discern whether or not the two municipalities have moved towards sustainability.

    Paper III includes results from all four municipalities. This study shows that the LA21 processes have aroused many new thoughts, brought fields together and introduced new subjects into the municipal world. In the decisions of the local govemments' environmental considerations are treated seriously. There are signs of an increased dialogue and of public influence, especially within fields where the inhabitants are users. It is indicated that LA21 does not seem to have great influence on which natural resources are dealt with, but on how. New stakeholders within and outside the municipal organization have been identified through the LA21 processes, and more comprehensive ways of solving problems and a positive climate of testing new ideas have been created. In these respects LA21 has been and will be a significant support to the development of appropriate natural resources management at the local level.

    In Paper IV a part of a local Agenda 21 project aiming at reducing the nutrient supply into a Swedish Baltic Sea fjord is analysed. The reduction is to be carried out in way that permits and facilitates the re-use of the nutrients as fertilizers. This article is focused on how to implement the project and on how to increase public participation, especially that of farmers and owners of houses of single sewage treatment systems. Increased public participation needs continuous efforts by the project leaders. Indivdual as well as group actions, forming of small groups, information, feedback and continous encouragement are crucial. The homogenous group of farmers considers the management of natural resources very important. They have voluntarily formed five watercourse groups where community management is developed. The owners of houses of single sewage treatment systems form a heterogeneous group. They are mostly interested in individual measures. Constant changes of the prerequisites of sewage systems and lack of knowledge are other obstacles against carrying out voluntary measure.

  • 52.
    Adolfsson Jörby, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Marianne
    Local Agenda 21: a comparison between attitudes and practice in two Swedish municipalities2000In: Local Governance, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53. Agger, Ralf
    et al.
    Anderssen, Vagn
    Leslie, Graham
    Aastedt, Bent
    Gustafsson, Katarina
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Immunologi. Svensk översättning från danska2006Book (Other academic)
  • 54. Ahlm, Clas
    et al.
    Olsen, Björn
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D
    Monsen, Tor
    Brain abscess caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 32, p. 562-563Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Correlated evolution of color pattern and body size in polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers, Tetrix undulata.2003In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 16, p. 1308-1318Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Differential habitat selection by pygmy grasshopper color morphs; interactive effects of temperature and predator avoidance2006In: Evolutionary ecology, Vol. 20 (3), p. 235-257Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix sp.) – eye-catching variation2006In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, Vol. 127, p. 145-150Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Torngräshoppor (Tetrix sp.) – iögonfallande variation2006In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, Vol. 127, p. 145-150Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 59. Ahrens, J.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Andres, E.
    Bai, X.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bay, R. C.
    Becka, T.
    Becker, K. -H
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Binon, F.
    Biron, A.
    Boersma, D. J.
    Böser, S.
    Botner, O.
    Bouchta, A.
    Bouhali, O.
    Burgess, T.
    Carius, Staffan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Castermans, T.
    Chirkin, D.
    Conrad, J.
    Cooley, J.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Davour, A.
    de Clercq, C.
    DeYoung, T.
    Desiati, P.
    Dewulf, J. -P
    Dickinson, E.
    Ekström, P.
    Engel, R.
    Evenson, P.
    Feser, T.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Ganugapati, R.
    Gaug, M.
    Geenen, H.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Hanson, K.
    Hardtke, R.
    Hauschildt, T.
    Hellwig, M.
    Herquet, P.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hubert, D.
    Hughey, B.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hundertmark, S.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Karle, A.
    Kim, J.
    Köpke, L.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kuehn, K.
    Lamoureux, J. I.
    Leich, H.
    Leuthold, M.
    Lindahl, P.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Liubarsky, I.
    Lloyd-Evans, J.
    Madsen, J.
    Mandli, K.
    Marciniewski, P.
    Matis, H. S.
    McParland, C. P.
    Messarius, T.
    Miller, T. C.
    Minaeva, Y.
    Miočinović, P.
    Mock, P. C.
    Morse, R.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Neunhöffer, T.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Ögelman, H.
    Olbrechts, P.
    Pérez de los Heros, C.
    Pohl, A. C.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Porrata, R.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Richter, S.
    Rochester, K.
    Rodríguez Martino, J.
    Ross, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Schmidt, T.
    Schinarakis, K.
    Schlenstedt, S.
    Schneider, D.
    Schwarz, R.
    Silvestri, A.
    Solarz, M.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Stanev, T.
    Steele, D.
    Steffen, P.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Sulanke, K. -H
    Taboada, I.
    Tilav, S.
    Walck, C.
    Wagner, W.
    Wang, Y. -R
    Watson, A. A.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wiedemann, C.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Wu, W.
    Yodh, G.
    Young, S.
    Measurement of the cosmic ray composition at the knee with the SPASE-2/AMANDA-B10 detectors2004In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 565-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mass composition of high-energy cosmic rays at energies above 1015 eV can provide crucial information for the understanding of their origin. Air showers were measured simultaneously with the SPASE-2 air shower array and the AMANDA-B10 Cherenkov telescope at the South Pole. This combination has the advantage to sample almost all high-energy shower muons and is thus a new approach to the determination of the cosmic ray composition. The change in the cosmic ray mass composition was measured versus existing data from direct measurements at low energies. Our data show an increase of the mean log atomic mass 〈lnA〉 by about 0.8 between 500 TeV and 5 PeV. This trend of an increasing mass through the "knee" region is robust against a variety of systematic effects. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 60. Ahrens, J.
    et al.
    Andrés, E.
    Bai, X.
    Barouch, G.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bay, R. C.
    Becka, T.
    Becker, K. -H
    Bertrand, D.
    Binon, F.
    Biron, A.
    Booth, J.
    Botner, O.
    Bouchta, A.
    Bouhali, O.
    Boyce, M. M.
    Carius, Staffan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Chen, A.
    Chirkin, D.
    Conrad, J.
    Cooley, J.
    Costa, C. G. S.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Dalberg, E.
    de Clercq, C.
    de Young, T.
    Desiati, P.
    Dewulf, J. -P
    Doksus, P.
    Edsjö, J.
    Ekström, P.
    Feser, T.
    Frère, J. -M
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gaug, M.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Hanson, K.
    Hardtke, R.
    Hauschildt, T.
    Hellwig, M.
    Heukenkamp, H.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hundertmark, S.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Karle, A.
    Kim, J.
    Koci, B.
    Köpke, L.
    Kowalski, M.
    Lamoureux, J. I.
    Leich, H.
    Leuthold, M.
    Lindahl, P.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Liubarsky, I.
    Loaiza, P.
    Lowder, D. M.
    Madsen, J.
    Marciniewski, P.
    Matis, H. S.
    McParland, C. P.
    Miller, T. C.
    Minaeva, Y.
    Miočinović, P.
    Mock, P. C.
    Morse, R.
    Neunhöffer, T.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Ögelman, H.
    Olbrechts, Ph.
    Pérez de los Heros, C.
    Pohl, A. C.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Porrata, R.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Reed, C.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Richter, S.
    Rodríguez Martino, J.
    Romenesko, P.
    Ross, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Schwarz, R.
    Silvestri, A.
    Solarz, M.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Starinsky, N.
    Steele, D.
    Steffen, P.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Streicher, O.
    Sudhoff, P.
    Sulanke, K. -H
    Taboada, I.
    Thollander, L.
    Thon, T.
    Tilav, S.
    Vander Donckt, M.
    Walck, C.
    Weinheimer, C.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wiedeman, C.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Wu, W.
    Yodh, G.
    Young, S.
    Observation of high energy atmospheric neutrinos with the Antarctic muon and neutrino detector array2002In: Physical Review D, ISSN 1550-7998, E-ISSN 1550-2368, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 120051-1200520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Antarctic muon and neutrino detector array (AMANDA) began collecting data with ten strings in 1997. Results from the first year of operation are presented. Neutrinos coming through the Earth from the Northern Hemisphere are identified by secondary muons moving upward through the array. Cosmic rays in the atmosphere generate a background of downward moving muons, which are about 106 times more abundant than the upward moving muons. Over 130 days of exposure, we observed a total of about 300 neutrino events. In the same period, a background of 1.05 × 109 cosmic ray muon events was recorded. The observed neutrino flux is consistent with atmospheric neutrino predictions. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that 90% of these events lie in the energy range 66 GeV to 3.4 TeV. The observation of atmospheric neutrinos consistent with expectations establishes AMANDA-B10 as a working neutrino telescope.

  • 61. Ahrens, J.
    et al.
    Andrés, E.
    Bai, X.
    Barouch, G.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bay, R. C.
    Becka, T.
    Becker, K. -H
    Bertrand, D.
    Biron, A.
    Botner, O.
    Bouchta, A.
    Carius, Staffan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Chen, A.
    Chirkin, D.
    Conrad, J.
    Cooley, J.
    Costa, C. G. S.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Dalberg, E.
    De Clercq, C.
    DeYoung, T.
    Desiati, P.
    Dewulf, J. -P
    Doksus, P.
    Edsjö, J.
    Ekström, P.
    Feser, T.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gaug, M.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Goobar, A.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Hanson, K.
    Hardtke, R.
    Hauschildt, T.
    Hellwig, M.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hundertmark, S.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Karle, A.
    Kim, J.
    Koci, B.
    Köpke, L.
    Kowalski, M.
    Lamoureux, J. I.
    Leich, H.
    Leuthold, M.
    Lindahl, P.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Loaiza, P.
    Lowder, D. M.
    Ludvig, J.
    Madsen, J.
    Marciniewski, P.
    Matis, H. S.
    McParland, C. P.
    Miller, T. C.
    Minaeva, Y.
    Miočinović, P.
    Mock, P. C.
    Morse, R.
    Neunhöffer, T.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Ogelman, H.
    Olbrechts, Ph.
    Pérez De Los Heros, C.
    Pohl, A.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Porrata, R.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Richter, S.
    Rodríguez Martino, J.
    Romenesko, P.
    Ross, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Schneider, E.
    Schwarz, R.
    Silvestri, A.
    Solarz, M.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Steele, D.
    Steffen, P.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Streicher, O.
    Sudhoff, P.
    Sulanke, K. H.
    Taboada, I.
    Thollander, L.
    Thon, T.
    Limits to the muon flux from WIMP annihilation in the center of the Earth with the AMANDA detector2002In: Physical Review D, ISSN 1550-7998, E-ISSN 1550-2368, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 032006-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A search for nearly vertical up-going muon-neutrinos from neutralino annihilations in the center of the Earth has been performed with the AMANDA-B10 neutrino detector. The data collected in 130.1 days of live time in 1997, ∼10 9 events, have been analyzed for this search. No excess over the expected atmospheric neutrino background has been observed. An upper limit at 90% confidence level has been obtained on the annihilation rate of neutralinos in the center of the Earth, as well as the corresponding muon flux limit, both as a function of the neutralino mass in the range 100 GeV-5000 GeV. © 2002 The American Physical Society.

  • 62. Ahrens, J.
    et al.
    Bai, X.
    Barouch, G.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bay, R. C.
    Becka, T.
    Becker, K. -H
    Bertrand, D.
    Binon, F.
    Biron, A.
    Boeser, S.
    Botner, O.
    Bouchta, A.
    Bouhali, O.
    Burgess, T.
    Carius, Staffan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Castermans, T.
    Chirkin, D.
    Conrad, J.
    Cooley, J.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Davour, A.
    de Clercq, C.
    DeYoung, T.
    Desiati, P.
    Dewulf, J. -P
    Doksus, P.
    Edsjö, J.
    Ekström, P.
    Feser, T.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gaug, M.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Hanson, K.
    Hardtke, R.
    Hauschildt, T.
    Hellwig, M.
    Herquet, P.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hundertmark, S.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Karle, A.
    Kim, J.
    Köpke, L.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kuehn, K.
    Lamoureux, J. I.
    Leich, H.
    Leuthold, M.
    Lindahl, P.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Madsen, J.
    Marciniewski, P.
    Matis, H.
    McParland, C. P.
    Miller, T. C.
    Minaeva, Y.
    Miocinoví, P.
    Mock, P. C.
    Morse, R.
    Neunhöffer, T.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Ögelman, H.
    Olbrechts, P.
    Pérez de los Heros, C.
    Pohl, A. C.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Richter, S.
    Rodríguez Martino, J.
    Romenesko, P.
    Ross, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Schwarz, R.
    Silvestri, A.
    Solarz, M.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Steele, D.
    Steffen, P.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Sulanke, K. -H
    Taboada, I.
    Thollander, L.
    Tilav, S.
    Walck, C.
    Weinheimer, C.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wiedemann, C.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Wu, W.
    Yodh, G.
    Young, S.
    Search for point sources of high-energy neutrinos with AMANDA2003In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, Vol. 583, no 2 I, p. 1040-1057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the search for astronomical sources of high-energy neutrinos using the AMANDA-B10 detector, an array of 302 photomultiplier tubes used for the detection of Cerenkov light from upward-traveling neutrino-induced muons, buried deep in ice at the South Pole. The absolute pointing accuracy and angular resolution were studied by using coincident events between the AMANDA detector and two independent telescopes on the surface, the GASP air Cerenkov telescope and the SPASE extensive air shower array. Using data collected from 1997 April to October (130.1 days of live time), a general survey of the northern hemisphere revealed no statistically significant excess of events from any direction. The sensitivity for a flux of muon neutrinos is based on the effective detection area for through-going muons. Averaged over the northern sky, the effective detection area exceeds 10,000 m2 for E μ ≈ 10 TeV. Neutrinos generated in the atmosphere by cosmic-ray interactions were used to verify the predicted performance of the detector. For a source with a differential energy spectrum proportional to Eν -2 and declination larger than +40°, we obtain E2(dNν/dE) ≤ 10-6 GeV cm-2 s-1 for an energy threshold of 10 GeV.

  • 63. Ahrens, J.
    et al.
    Bai, X.
    Barouch, G.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bay, R. C.
    Becka, T.
    Becker, K. -H
    Bertrand, D.
    Binon, F.
    Biron, A.
    Böser, S.
    Booth, J.
    Botner, O.
    Bouchta, A.
    Bouhali, O.
    Boyce, M. M.
    Burgess, T.
    Carius, Staffan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Chen, A.
    Chirkin, D.
    Conrad, J.
    Cooley, J.
    Costa, C. G. S.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Davour, A.
    De Clercq, C.
    DeYoung, T.
    Desiati, P.
    Dewulf, J. -P
    Doksus, P.
    Ekström, P.
    Feser, T.
    Frère, J. -M
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gaug, M.
    Geenen, H.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Hanson, K.
    Hardtke, R.
    Hauschildt, T.
    Hellwig, M.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hundertmark, S.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Karle, A.
    Kim, J.
    Koci, B.
    Köpke, L.
    Kowalski, M.
    Lamoureux, J. I.
    Leich, H.
    Leuthold, M.
    Lindahl, P.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Liubarsky, I.
    Lowder, D. M.
    Madsen, J.
    Marciniewski, P.
    Matis, H. S.
    McParland, C. P.
    Messarius, T.
    Miller, T. C.
    Minaeva, Y.
    Miočinović, P.
    Mock, P. C.
    Morse, R.
    Neunhöffer, T.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Ogelman, H.
    Olbrechts, Ph.
    De Los Heros, C. P.
    Pohl, A. C.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Porrata, R.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Reed, C.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Richter, S.
    Martino, J. R.
    Romenesko, P.
    Ross, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Schinarakis, K.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Schwarz, R.
    Silvestri, A.
    Solarz, M.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Starinsky, N.
    Steele, D.
    Search for neutrino-induced cascades with the AMANDA detector2003In: Physical Review D, ISSN 1550-7998, E-ISSN 1550-2368, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 012003-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a search for electromagnetic and/or hadronic showers (cascades) induced by a diffuse flux of neutrinos with energies between 5 TeV and 300 TeV from extraterrestrial sources. Cascades may be produced by matter interactions of all flavors of neutrinos, and contained cascades have better energy resolution and afford better background rejection than throughgoing νμ-induced muons. Data taken in 1997 with the AMANDA detector were searched for events with a high-energy cascadelike signature. The observed events are consistent with expected backgrounds from atmospheric neutrinos and catastrophic energy losses from atmospheric muons. Effective volumes for all flavors of neutrinos, which allow the calculation of limits for any neutrino flux model, are presented. The limit on cascades from a diffuse flux of νe+ νμ + ντ+ ν̄e + ν̄μ+ ν̄τ is E2(dΦ/dE)<9.8×10-6 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1, assuming a neutrino flavor flux ratio of 1:1:1 at the detector. The limit on cascades from a diffuse flux of νe+ν̄e is E2(dΦ/dE)<6. 5×10-6 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1, independent of the assumed neutrino flavor flux ratio. © 2003 The American Physical Society.

  • 64. Ahrens, J.
    et al.
    Bai, X.
    Barouch, G.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bay, R. C.
    Becka, T.
    Becker, K. -H
    Bertrand, D.
    Biron, A.
    Booth, J.
    Botner, O.
    Bouchta, A.
    Boyce, M. M.
    Carius, Staffan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Chen, A.
    Chirkin, D.
    Conrad, J.
    Cooley, J.
    Costa, C. G. S.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Dalberg, E.
    DeYoung, T.
    Desiati, P.
    Dewulf, J. -P
    Doksus, P.
    Edsjö, J.
    Ekström, P.
    Feser, T.
    Gaug, M.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Hanson, K.
    Hardtke, R.
    Hellwig, M.
    Heukenkamp, H.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hundertmark, S.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Karle, A.
    Kim, J.
    Koci, B.
    Köpke, L.
    Kowalski, M.
    Lamoureux, J. I.
    Leich, H.
    Leuthold, M.
    Lindahl, P.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Liubarsky, I.
    Loaiza, P.
    Lowder, D. M.
    Madsen, J.
    Marciniewski, P.
    Matis, H. S.
    Miller, T. C.
    Minaeva, Y.
    Miočinović, P.
    Mock, P. C.
    Morse, R.
    Neunhöffer, T.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Ogelman, H.
    Pérez de los Heros, C.
    Porrata, R.
    Price, P. B.
    Rawlins, K.
    Reed, C.
    Rhode, W.
    Richter, S.
    Rodríguez Martino, J.
    Romenesko, P.
    Ross, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Schwarz, R.
    Silvestri, A.
    Solarz, M.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Starinsky, N.
    Steele, D.
    Steffen, P.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Streicher, O.
    Sudhoff, P.
    Taboada, I.
    Thollander, L.
    Thon, T.
    Tilav, S.
    Vander Donckt, M.
    Walck, C.
    Weinheimer, C.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Wu, W.
    Yodh, G.
    Young, S.
    Search for supernova neutrino bursts with the AMANDA detector2001In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 345-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The core collapse of a massive star in the Milky Way will produce a neutrino burst, intense enough to be detected by existing underground detectors. The AMANDA neutrino telescope located deep in the South Pole ice can detect MeV neutrinos by a collective rate increase in all photo-multipliers on top of dark noise. The main source of light comes from positrons produced in the CC reaction of anti-electron neutrinos on free protons ve + p → e+ + n. This paper describes the first supernova search performed on the full sets of data taken during 1997 and 1998 (215 days of live time) with 302 of the detector's optical modules. No candidate events resulted from this search. The performance of the detector is calculated, yielding a 70% coverage of the galaxy with one background fake per year with 90% efficiency for the detector configuration under study. An upper limit at the 90% c.l. on the rate of stellar collapses in the Milky Way is derived, yielding 4.3 events per year. A trigger algorithm is presented and its performance estimated. Possible improvements of the detector hardware are reviewed.

  • 65. Ahrens, J.
    et al.
    Bai, X.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bay, R. C.
    Becka, T.
    Becker, K. -H
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Binon, F.
    Biron, A.
    Böser, S.
    Botner, O.
    Bouchta, A.
    Bouhali, O.
    Burgess, T.
    Carius, Staffan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Castermans, T.
    Chirkin, D.
    Conrad, J.
    Cooley, J.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Davour, A.
    de Clercq, C.
    DeYoung, T.
    Desiati, P.
    Doksus, P.
    Ekström, P.
    Engel, R.
    Evenson, P.
    Feser, T.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Ganugapati, R.
    Gaug, M.
    Geenen, H.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Hanson, K.
    Hardtke, R.
    Hauschildt, T.
    Hellwig, M.
    Herquet, P.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hughey, B.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hundertmark, S.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Karle, A.
    Kim, J.
    Köpke, L.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kuehn, K.
    Lamoureux, J. I.
    Leich, H.
    Leuthold, M.
    Lindahl, P.
    Liubarsky, I.
    Lloyd-Evans, J.
    Madsen, J.
    Mandli, K.
    Marciniewski, P.
    Martello, D.
    Matis, H. S.
    McParland, C. P.
    Messarius, T.
    Miller, T. C.
    Minaeva, Y.
    Miočinović, P.
    Mock, P. C.
    Morse, R.
    Neunhöffer, T.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Ögelman, H.
    Olbrechts, P.
    Perez de los Heros, C.
    Pohl, A. C.
    Porrata, R.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Richter, S.
    Rochester, K.
    Rodríguez Martino, J.
    Romenesko, P.
    Ross, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Schmidt, T.
    Schinarakis, K.
    Schlenstedt, S.
    Schneider, D.
    Schwarz, R.
    Silvestri, A.
    Solarz, M.
    Splczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Stanev, T.
    Steele, D.
    Steffen, P.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Sulanke, K. -H
    Taboada, I.
    Tilav, S.
    Walck, C.
    Wagner, W.
    Wang, Y. -R
    Watson, A. A.
    Weinheimer, C.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wiedemann, C.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Wu, W.
    Yodh, G.
    Young, S.
    Calibration and survey of AMANDA with the SPASE detectors2004In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 522, no 3, p. 347-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the analysis of air showers observed in coincidence by the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino detector array (AMANDA-B10) and the South Pole Air Shower Experiment (SPASE-1 and SPASE-2). We discuss the use of coincident events for calibration and survey of the deep AMANDA detector as well as the response of AMANDA to muon bundles. This analysis uses data taken during 1997 when both SPASE-1 and SPASE-2 were in operation to provide a stereo view of AMANDA. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 66. Ahrens, J.
    et al.
    Bai, X.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bay, R. C.
    Becka, T.
    Becker, K. -H
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Biron, A.
    Boeser, S.
    Botner, O.
    Bouchta, A.
    Bouhali, O.
    Burgess, T.
    Carius, Staffan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Castermans, T.
    Chirkin, D.
    Conrad, J.
    Cooley, J.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Davour, A.
    de Clercq, C.
    DeYoung, T.
    Desiati, P.
    Doksus, P.
    Ekström, P.
    Feser, T.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Ganugapati, R.
    Gaug, M.
    Geenen, H.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Hanson, K.
    Hardtke, R.
    Hauschildt, T.
    Hellwig, M.
    Herquet, P.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hughey, B.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hundertmark, S.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Karle, A.
    Kuehn, K.
    Kim, J.
    Köpke, L.
    Kowalski, M.
    Lamoureux, J. I.
    Leich, H.
    Leuthold, M.
    Lindahl, P.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Liubarsky, I.
    Madsen, J.
    Mandli, K.
    Marciniewski, P.
    Matis, H.
    McParland, C. P.
    Messarius, T.
    Miller, T. C.
    Minaeva, Y.
    Miocinović, P.
    Mock, P. C.
    Morse, R.
    Neunhöffer, T.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Ögelman, H.
    Olbrechts, P.
    Pérez de los Heros, C.
    Pohl, A. C.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Porrata, R.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Richter, S.
    Rodríguez Martino, J.
    Romenesko, P.
    Ross, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Schlenstedt, S.
    Schinarakis, K.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Schwarz, R.
    Silvestri, A.
    Solarz, M.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Steele, D.
    Steffen, P.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Sulanke, K. -H
    Taboada, I.
    Tilav, S.
    Wagner, W.
    Walck, C.
    Wang, Y. -R
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wiedemann, C.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Wu, W.
    Yodh, G.
    Young, S.
    Limits on diffuse fluxes of high energy extraterrestrial neutrinos with the AMANDA-B10 detector2003In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 90, no 25, p. 2511011-2511015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A report on the limits, which could be placed on diffuse fluxes of high energy extraterrestrial neutrinos, was presented. The incorporation of neutrino oscillations was necessary for interpreting the limits in terms of the flux from a cosmological distributions of sources. The energetic accelerated environments were presented as the sources of high energy extraterrestrial neutrinos.

  • 67. Ahrens, J.
    et al.
    Bai, X.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Becka, T.
    Becker, J. K.
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Binon, F.
    Biron, A.
    Boersma, D. J.
    Böser, S.
    Botner, O.
    Bouchta, A.
    Bouhali, O.
    Burgess, T.
    Carius, Staffan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Castermans, T.
    Chen, A.
    Chirkin, D.
    Collin, B.
    Conrad, J.
    Cooley, J.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Davour, A.
    de Clercq, C.
    DeYoung, T.
    Desiati, P.
    Dewulf, J. P.
    Ekström, P.
    Feser, T.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Ganugapati, R.
    Gaug, M.
    Geenen, H.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Groß, A.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Hanson, K.
    Hardtke, R.
    Harenberg, T.
    Hauschildt, T.
    Helbing, K.
    Hellwig, M.
    Herquet, P.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hubert, D.
    Hughey, B.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hundertmark, S.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Karle, A.
    Kestel, M.
    Köpke, L.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kuehn, K.
    Lamoureux, J. I.
    Leich, H.
    Leuthold, M.
    Lindahl, P.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Liubarsky, I.
    Madsen, J.
    Mandli, K.
    Marciniewski, P.
    Matis, H. S.
    McParland, C. P.
    Messarius, T.
    Minaeva, Y.
    Miočinović, P.
    Morse, R.
    Münich, K.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Neunhöffer, T.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Ögelman, H.
    Olbrechts, P.
    Perez de los Heros, C.
    Pohl, A. C.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Porrata, R.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Richter, S.
    Rodríguez Martino, J.
    Sander, H. G.
    Schinarakis, K.
    Schlenstedt, S.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Schwarz, R.
    Silvestri, A.
    Solarz, M.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Steele, D.
    Steffen, P.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Sulanke, K. H.
    Taboada, I.
    Thollander, L.
    Tilav, S.
    Wagner, W.
    Walck, C.
    Wang, Y. R.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wiedemann, C.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Yodh, G.
    Search for Extraterrestrial Point Sources of Neutrinos with AMANDA-II2004In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 92, no 7, p. 711021-711025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of a search for point sources of high energy neutrinos in the northern hemisphere were presented using AMANDA-II data collected in the year 2000. The results included the flux limits on several active-galactic-nuclei blazars, microquasars, magnetars, and other candidate neutrino sources. A search for excesses above a random background of cosmic ray induced atmospheric neutrinos and misreconstructed downgoing cosmic-rays muons, which revealed no statistically significant neutrino point sources was also presented. It was shown that AMANDA-II had achieved the sensitivity required to probe known TeV γ-ray sources such as the blazar Markarian 501 in its 1997 flaring state at a level where neutrino and γ-ray fluxes were equal.

  • 68. Ahrens, J.
    et al.
    Bai, X.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Becka, T.
    Becker, K. -H
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Binon, F.
    Biron, A.
    Böser, S.
    Botner, O.
    Bouhali, O.
    Burgess, T.
    Carius, Staffan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Castermans, T.
    Chen, A.
    Chirkin, D.
    Conrad, J.
    Cooley, J.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Davour, A.
    De Clercq, C.
    De Young, T.
    Desiati, P.
    Dewulf, J. -P
    Doksus, P.
    Ekström, P.
    Feser, T.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gaug, M.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Godschmidt, A.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Hanson, K.
    Hardtke, R.
    Hauschildt, T.
    Hellwig, M.
    Herquet, P.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hundertmark, S.
    Jacobson, J.
    Karle, A.
    Koci, B.
    Köpke, L.
    Kuehn, P.
    Kowalski, M.
    Lamoureux, J. I.
    Leich, H.
    Leuthold, M.
    Lindahl, P.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Liubarsky, I.
    Madsen, J.
    Marciniewski, P.
    Matis, H. S.
    McParland, C. P.
    Minaeva, Y.
    Miočinovć, P.
    Morse, R.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Neunhöffer, T.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Ogelman, H.
    Olbrechts, Ph.
    Péres de los Heros, C.
    Pohl, A. C.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Richter, S.
    Rodríguez Martino, J.
    Ross, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Schwarz, R.
    Silvestri, A.
    Solarz, M.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Steele, D.
    Steffen, P.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Sudhoff, P.
    Sulanke, K. -H
    Taboada, I.
    Thollander, L.
    Tilay, S.
    Walck, C.
    Weinheimer, C.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wiedemann, C.
    Wissing, H.
    Results from the Antarctic muon and nuetrino detector array2003In: Nuclear physics B, Proceedings supplements, ISSN 0920-5632, E-ISSN 1873-3832, Vol. 118, p. 371-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show new results from both the older and newer incarnations of AMANDA (AMANDA-B10 and AMANDA-II, respectively). These results demonstrate that AMANDA is a functioning, multipurpose detector with significant physics and astrophysics reach. They include a new higher-statistics measurement of the atmospheric muon neutrino flux and preliminary results from searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, gamma-ray bursters and diffuse sources producing muons in the detector, and diffuse sources producing electromagnetic or hadronic showers in or near the detector.

  • 69. Ahrens, J.
    et al.
    Bai, X.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Becka, T.
    Becker, K. -H
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Binon, F.
    Biron, A.
    Böser, S.
    Botner, O.
    Bouhali, O.
    Burgess, T.
    Carius, Staffan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Castermans, T.
    Chirkin, D.
    Conrad, J.
    Cooley, J.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Davour, A.
    de Clercq, C.
    de Young, T.
    Desiati, P.
    Dewulf, J. -P
    Ekström, P.
    Feser, T.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Ganupati, R.
    Gaug, M.
    Geenen, H.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Hanson, K.
    Hardtke, R.
    Hauschildt, T.
    Hellwig, M.
    Herquet, P.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hundertmark, S.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Karle, A.
    Köpke, L.
    Kuehn, K.
    Kowalski, M.
    Lamoureux, J. I.
    Leich, H.
    Leuthold, M.
    Lindahl, P.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Liubaxsky, I.
    Madsen, J.
    Mandli, K.
    Marciniewski, P.
    Matis, H. S.
    McParland, C. P.
    Messarius, T.
    Minaeva, Y.
    Miočinović, P.
    Morse, R.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Neunhöffer, T.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Ogelman, H.
    Olbrechts, P.
    Pérez de los Heros, C.
    Pohl, A. C.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Richter, S.
    Rodríguez Martino, J.
    Sander, H. -G
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Schinarakis, K.
    Schwarz, R.
    Silvestri, A.
    Solarz, M.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Steele, D.
    Steffen, P.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Sudoff, P.
    Sulanke, K. -H
    Taboada, I.
    Thollander, L.
    Tilav, S.
    Wagner, W.
    Walck, C.
    Weinheimer, C.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wiedemann, C.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Yodh, G.
    Young, S.
    Results from the AMANDA telescope2003In: Nuclear Physics A, ISSN 0375-9474, E-ISSN 1873-1554, Vol. 721, p. C545-C548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole. They include measurements of the atmospheric neutrino flux, search for UHE point sources, and diffuse sources producing electromagnetic/hadronic showers at the detector or close to it.

  • 70. Ahrens, J.
    et al.
    Bai, X.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Becka, T.
    Becker, K. -H
    Bertrand, D.
    Binon, F.
    Biron, A.
    Böser, S.
    Botner, O.
    Bouhali, O.
    Burgess, T.
    Carius, Staffan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Castermans, T.
    Chirkin, D.
    Conrad, J.
    Cooley, J.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Davour, A.
    de Clercq, C.
    DeYoung, T.
    Desiati, P.
    Dewulf, J. -P
    Doksus, P.
    Ekström, P.
    Feser, T.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gaug, M.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Hanson, K.
    Hardtke, R.
    Hauschildt, T.
    Hellwig, M.
    Herquet, P.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hundertmark, S.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Karle, A.
    Köpke, L.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kuehn, K.
    Lamoureux, J. I.
    Leich, H.
    Leuthold, M.
    Lindahl, P.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Madsen, J.
    Marciniewski, P.
    Matis, H. S.
    McParland, C. P.
    Minaeva, Y.
    Miočinović, P.
    Morse, R.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Neunhöffer, T.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Ogelman, H.
    Olbrechts, P.
    Pérez de los Heros, C.
    Pohl, A. C.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Richter, S.
    Rodríguez Martino, J.
    Ross, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Schwarz, R.
    Silvestri, A.
    Solarz, M.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Steele, D.
    Steffen, P.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Sudhoff, P.
    Sulanke, K. -H
    Taboada, I.
    Thollander, L.
    Tilav, S.
    Walck, C.
    Weinheimer, C.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wiedemann, C.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Yodh, G.
    Young, S.
    Physics and operation of the AMANDA-II high energy neutrino telescope2002In: Proceedings of the SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 2003, Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE), 2002, p. 79-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-B10, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we focus on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources and the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.

  • 71. Ahrens, J.
    et al.
    Bai, X.
    Bay, R.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Becka, T.
    Becker, J. K.
    Becker, K. -H
    Bernardini, E.
    Bertrand, D.
    Biron, A.
    Boersma, D. J.
    Böser, S.
    Botner, O.
    Bouchta, A.
    Bouhali, O.
    Burgess, T.
    Carius, Staffan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Castermans, T.
    Chirkin, D.
    Collin, B.
    Conrad, J.
    Cooley, J.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Davour, A.
    De Clercq, C.
    DeYoung, T.
    Desiati, P.
    Dewulf, J. -P
    Ekström, P.
    Feser, T.
    Gaug, M.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Ganugapati, R.
    Geenen, H.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Groß, A.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Hanson, K.
    Hardtke, R.
    Harenberg, T.
    Hauschildt, T.
    Helbing, K.
    Hellwig, M.
    Herquet, P.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hubert, D.
    Hughey, B.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hundertmark, S.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Karle, A.
    Kestel, M.
    Köpke, L.
    Kowalski, M.
    Kuehn, K.
    Lamoureux, J. I.
    Leich, H.
    Leuthold, M.
    Lindahl, P.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Liubarsky, I.
    Madsen, J.
    Marciniewski, P.
    Matis, H. S.
    McParland, C. P.
    Messarius, T.
    Minaeva, Y.
    Miočinović, P.
    Mock, P. C.
    Morse, R.
    Münich, K. S.
    Nam, J.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Neunhöffer, T.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Ögelman, H.
    Olbrechts, Ph.
    Pérez De Los Heros, C.
    Pohl, A. C.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Porrata, R.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Rawlins, K.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Richter, S.
    Martino, J. R.
    Ross, D.
    Sander, H. -G
    Schinarakis, K.
    Schlenstedt, S.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Muon track reconstruction and data selection techniques in AMANDA2004In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 524, no 1-3, p. 169-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) is a high-energy neutrino telescope operating at the geographic South Pole. It is a lattice of photo-multiplier tubes buried deep in the polar ice between 1500 and 2000 m. The primary goal of this detector is to discover astrophysical sources of high-energy neutrinos. A high-energy muon neutrino coming through the earth from the Northern Hemisphere can be identified by the secondary muon moving upward through the detector. The muon tracks are reconstructed with a maximum likelihood method. It models the arrival times and amplitudes of Cherenkov photons registered by the photo-multipliers. This paper describes the different methods of reconstruction, which have been successfully implemented within AMANDA. Strategies for optimizing the reconstruction performance and rejecting background are presented. For a typical analysis procedure the direction of tracks are reconstructed with about 2° accuracy. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 72.
    Aldén, Anna
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ohlson, Sten
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Påhlsson, Peter
    Rydén, I
    HPLC analysis of carbohydrate deficient transferrin isoforms isolated by the Axis-Shield %CDT method2005In: Clinica chimica acta, Vol. 356 (1-2), p. 143-146Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 73. Aldén, Anna
    et al.
    Persson, Anna
    Christensson, Kerstin
    Holmqvist, Olov
    Ohlson, Sten
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Porcine platelet lysate as a supplement for animal cell culture2007In: Cytotechnology (Dordrecht), ISSN 0920-9069, E-ISSN 1573-0778, Vol. 55, p. 3-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 74. Alexander, C
    et al.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, L I
    Ansell, R I
    Kirsch, Nicole
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Nicholls, Ian A.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    O'Mahony, John
    Whitcombe, M J
    Molecular imprinting science and technology: a survey of the literature for the years up to and including 20032006In: Journal of molecular recognition, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 106-180Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Alfredsson, Hanna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences. University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Prey selection of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) larvae in the Sargasso Sea: a molecular approach.2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) migrates to the Sargasso Sea to spawn. Even though the biology of A. anguilla leptocephali in the Sargasso Sea has been studied for several decades, information regarding their diet has remained unknown until now. Previous dietary studies concerning other species of leptocephali in the Pacific Ocean have been limited to the recognition of identifiable prey remains amongst gut contents. Hence, in this study a molecular approach relying on the detection of prey DNA amongst gut contents was used to study dietary profiles of A. anguilla leptocephali in the Sargasso Sea.

     

    Leptocephali were collected during the circumglobal Galathea 3 expedition in spring 2007 to the Sargasso Sea. DNA extracted from gut contents were PCR amplified using universal primers targeting the nuclear 18S rRNA gene. In order to separate eel amplicons from prey amplicons, PCR products were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Furthermore, clone libraries were constructed using universal primers targeting a portion of the 18S rRNA and mitochondrial COI gene, respectively. In total, the gut contents of 78 leptocephali were screened by DGGE.

     

    A diverse array of eukaryotic taxa was identified, hence demonstrating the applicability of a universal PCR- DGGE approach to study gut contents of leptocephali. The results presented here show, for the first time, that young stages of A. anguilla leptocephali feed on a large variety of zooplankton of which many were gelatinous (e.g. Hydrozoa, Thaliacea and Ctenophora). Several of the identified taxa also constitute important parts of the Sargasso Sea zooplankton community and are of size ranges (adult or larval stages) that made them reasonable as leptocephali prey.

  • 76.
    Allender, Chris J.
    et al.
    Cardiff University, UK.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences. Cardiff University, UK.
    Brain, Keith R.
    Cardiff University, UK.
    Ramström, Olof
    Cardiff University, UK.
    Preface2001In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 435, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 77. Allers, E
    et al.
    Gomez-Consarnau, Laura
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Simek, K
    Gasol, JM
    Pernthaler, J
    Population dynamics of Alteromonas and Roseobacter in marine mesocosms after substrate and nutrient manipulations2007In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 9, p. 2417-2429Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Alm, Håkan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Är svenska optikerbutiker tillgängliga för rörelsehindrade människor?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Legitimerade optiker står under Hälso- och sjukvårdslagen och har därmed samma skyldigheter som övrig hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal. En optiker ska således kunna ta emot och erbjuda sina tjänster till alla människor. Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur väl detta fungerar i praktiken. Detta gjordes genom att undersöka optikerbutiker och bedöma dess tillgänglighet för rullstolsburna människor. Undersökningsgruppen bestod av 20 optikerbutiker fördelade på en mindre respektive en större sydsvensk stad. En enkät konstruerades utifrån studiens syfte som butikerna fick svara på samt en checklista skapades innehållande följande bedömningsområden: dörrar, korridorer, gångar, dörröppnare, trösklar samt trappsteg. Resultatet visade på stora brister i tillgänglighet. Endast 20 % av butikerna klassades som tillgängliga och enkätsvaren visade att var femte optiker någon gång ej haft möjlighet att undersöka en patient på grund av dess funktionshinder. Studien visar att de svenska optikerbutikerna inte lever upp till Hälso- och sjukvårdslagens krav på ”vård på lika villkor för hela befolkningen”.

  • 79.
    Almudafar, Salar
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Traditionella växtbaserade läkemedel.: Är Echinacea och Ginkgo terapeutiskt verksamma?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

    Herbal remedies have been used for many years to alleviate various symptoms. They were used in ritual acts to reassure the Gods and as medication. Plants as rhubarb and ginseng were used in China long time ago. The Egyptians had knowledge of herbal medicine such as aloe, myrrh and henbane, 1550 BC. The father of medicine Hippocrates used a large number of herbal medicines, and had many theories on the subject.

    Different parts of the plant can be used to extract the active ingredients. The active ingredient is made up of essential oils, tanning substances etc. The parts that are used may be the root, stem, leaves, and flowers. In order to extract the active ingredients, you can use various strategies such as making tinctures or extracts. Echinacea has been used against various diseases, the plant now used to alleviate cold symptoms. St John's worth can be used for depression. Valerian can be used as a sedative. Ginkgo can be used for poor cerebral blood flow in the brain. The mental and physical performance can be increased with the help of ginseng. These are approved herbal medicine and the interest in them is increasing. But do they work and how safe are they?

    Use and safety of Echinacea and Ginkgo where reviewed in the present study. Three scientific articles on the echinacea effect were studied, as were two articles about ginkgo. The aim of the Echinacea articles was to examine whether the plant was effective against the common or not. The other two articles examined ginkgo’s effect on memory problem and on tinnitus, respectively. Echinacea studies showed no significant difference therapeutically compared to placebo. The side effects were few, and not serious. The studies on ginkgo did not demonstrate any therapeutic difference compared to placebo. The side effects were few and not serious. These are approved herbal remedies. Do they really work, or could this effect rather be referred to as placebo? The use of herbal remedies as medicines could potentially be useful as complementary to traditional medicine. To read the instructions and follow the dosage, however, is an important part of the safety. More studies are also needed on the safety of herbal remedies.

  • 80. Alonso-Saez, L
    et al.
    Aristegui, J
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Gomez-Consarnau, Laura
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Gonzalez, JM
    Vaque, D
    Agusti, S
    Gasol, JM
    Bacterial assemblage structure and carbon metabolism along a productivity gradient in the NE Atlantic Ocean2007In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 46, p. 43-53Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 81. Alonso-Saez, L
    et al.
    Balagué, V
    Sanchez, ESO
    Gonzalez, JM
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Massana, R
    Pernthaler, J
    Pedros-Alio, C
    Gasol, JM
    Seasonality in bacterial diversity in north-west Mediterranean coastal waters: assessment through clone libraries, fingerprinting and FISH2007In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 60, p. 98-112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 82. Alonso-Saez, L.
    et al.
    Vazquez-Dominguez, E.
    Cardelus, C.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Sala, M. M.
    Lekunberri, I.
    Balague, V.
    Vila-Costa, M.
    Unrein, F.
    Massana, R.
    Simo, R.
    Gasol, J. M.
    Factors controlling the year-round variability in carbon flux through bacteria in a coastal marine system2008In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 397-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from several years of monthly samplings are combined with a 1-year detailed study of carbon flux through bacteria at a NW Mediterranean coastal site to delineate the bacterial role in carbon use and to assess whether environmental factors or bacterial assemblage composition affected the in situ rates of bacterial carbon processing. Leucine (Leu) uptake rates [as an estimate of bacterial heterotrophic production (BHP)] showed high interannual variability but, on average, lower values were found in winter (around 50 pM Leu(-1) h(-1)) as compared to summer (around 150 pM Leu(-1) h(-1)). Leu-to-carbon conversion factors ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 kgC mol Leu(-1), with generally higher values in winter. Leu uptake was only weakly correlated to temperature, and over a full-year cycle (in 2003), Leu uptake peaked concomitantly with winter chlorophyll a (Chl a) maxima, and in periods of high ectoenzyme activities in spring and summer. This suggests that both low molecular weight dissolved organic matter (DOM) released by phytoplankton, and high molecular weight DOM in periods of low Chl a, can enhance BHP. Bacterial respiration (BR, range 7-48 mu g C l(-1) d(-1)) was not correlated to BHP or temperature, but was significantly correlated to DOC concentration. Total bacterial carbon demand (BHP plus BR) was only met by dissolved organic carbon produced by phytoplankton during the winter period. We measured bacterial growth efficiencies by the short-term and the long-term methods and they ranged from 3 to 42%, increasing during the phytoplankton blooms in winter (during the Chl a peaks), and in spring. Changes in bacterioplankton assemblage structure (as depicted by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting) were not coupled to changes in ecosystem functioning, at least in bacterial carbon use.

  • 83.
    Alriksson, Stina
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Conjoint analysis: a new method of eliciting environmental preferences and stakeholder group segmentation2007In: Proceedings of Eco-Tech 2007, Kalmar, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Alriksson, Stina
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Conjoint analysis as a decision tool2009In:   From the everyday to the extraordinary: challenges for risk analysis and management, Karlstad, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Alriksson, Stina
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Conjoint analysis as a tool for communication and corporate environmental decision-making2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjoint analysis has been used extensively in marketing, transportation and healthcare for the past 50 years. Since the mid-1990s, it has also been applied to an increasing number of environmental issues. In this thesis, conjoint analysis is applied to environmental objectives of the Swedish steel industry. The aim of the research project has been to develop a method for eliciting stakeholder preferences for environmental issues and to present the results to the stakeholders through the multivariate data analysis method of partial least squares regression.

    This licentiate thesis is based on three studies: a literature review of all conjoint studies conducted on environmental issues, a pilot study in which a new method was developed, and a main study where this method was tested on four environmental objectives of the Swedish steel industry. Up to the present, 109 environmental conjoint studies have been carried out. Recently, studies in environ¬mental economy have dominated, with investigators trying to estimate a mone¬tary value on environmental values or products. The problem selection has varied widely, from ecosystem management and green products to waste and risk management.

    One trend among environmental conjoint studies has been to use conjoint methods that report results at a group level. In the pilot study here, conjoint analysis was combined with partial least squares regression to enable presentation of results at individual level. The benefit of individual-level results is that they can be used to initiate a dialogue between an industry and its stakeholders, as well as between different stakeholder groups. The presentation mode also allows the researcher to find segments of respondents that think alike, although perhaps from different groups. In the pilot study, cluster analysis was used successfully to find hidden segments among the respondents.

    In the main study, the method from the pilot study was used to elicit preferences for four environmental objectives of the Swedish steel industry: reduced use of non-renewable energy, reduced use of non-renewable resources, decreased emission of carbon dioxide and weight reduction of products. Six stakeholder groups participated in the study, and the results showed that decreased emission of carbon dioxide was the environmental objective that most participants prioritised highest. Lowest priority was given to weight reduction of products.

    Conjoint analysis combined with multivariate data analysis methods such as partial least squares regression, principal component analysis and cluster analysis has been verified as an effective method for eliciting stake¬holder preferences on industry-wide environmental issues.

  • 86.
    Alriksson, Stina
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Preferences for carbon dioxide emission mitigation from the Swedish steel industry2007In: abstracts of SRA UK chapter, Nottingham, UK, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 87.
    Alriksson, Stina
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Vilka miljöproblem är viktigast? Ställningstaganden inom och utanför stålindustrin2007In: Abstracts from Stål 2007, Borlänge, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Eklund, Mats
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Historical emissions from Swedish crystal-glass production and future scenarios of soil-lead pollution1999In: Environmental Reviews, Vol. 7, p. 53-60Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hakuli, M
    Helo, P
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Kekäle, T
    Kohtamäki, M
    MARQUES, MARCIA
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Paajaste, K
    Peltoniemi, J
    Peura, Pekka
    Key Areas of Environmental Entrepreneurships and Relevant Legal, Finacial and Organizational Framework2006 (ed. Alriksson, S., Hakuli, M., Helo, P., Hogland, W., Kekäle, T., Kohtamäki, M, Marques, M., Paajaste, K., Peltoniemi, J., and Peura, P., (eds))Book (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ljungberg, Maria
    Axelsson, Pernilla
    Corporate environmental strategies2000Book (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Conjoint analysis as a decision tool for evaluation of environmental performance2007Report (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Conjoint analysis as a tool for risk communication2006In: Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, Baltimore, Maryland, 3-6 december 2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Conjoint analysis for environmental evaluation: a review of methods and applications.2008In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 244-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND, AIM AND SCOPE: Conjoint analysis and the related choice-modelling methods have been used for many years in marketing research to evaluate consumer behaviour and preferences for different kinds of product attributes. Recently, the number of applications in environmental science and management has started to grow. Conjoint analysis is found in many different forms, and the environmental studies evaluated in this review display the same range of methods as in other fields. The key characteristic of all these methods is that trade-offs are evaluated by jointly considering a number of important attributes. MAIN FEATURES: This paper is a review of the literature on environmental applications of conjoint analysis and assesses in which environmental area conjoint analysis has been most successful. The method and the design of the studies are reviewed as well. RESULTS: A total of 84 studies were found, dealing with environmental issues that were evaluated by conjoint analysis. The studies concern agriculture, ecosystem management, energy, environmental evaluation, forestry, land management, pollution, products, recreation, environmental risk analysis and waste management. DISCUSSION: Choice experiments seem to have a comparatively stronger position in environmental studies than elsewhere. Most of the environmental applications are related to natural resource management. This is somewhat surprising, but a number of reports have appeared also on product evaluation, which could be a key application area in the future. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to marketing and transportation, the number of environmental conjoint studies is rather small but increasing, and the method has proven to work effectively in eliciting preferences on environmental issues. In environmental issues, experimenters often use choice experiments, especially concerning ecosystem management and environmental evaluations. When it comes to evaluating preferences concerning agriculture, forestry, energy and products, a more traditional approach of conjoint analysis is favoured. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Two new areas of application are identified in this review--environmental communication and expert elicitation. Conjoint analysis can thus be developed into a useful instrument for environmental risk analysis and communication, both of which are necessary for an efficient approach to risk governance.

  • 94.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Towards a closed steel eco-cycle - cojoint analysis as a decision tool2005In: Proceedings Kalmar ECO-TECH´ 05: Conference on Waste to Energy Bioremediation and Leachate Treatment / [ed] William Hogland, Tonje Broby, Kalmar: Högskolan i Kalmar , 2005, p. 27-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish steel industry has over the past 20 years made substantial efforts to promote energy efficiency and environment protection. However, the dominant part of these investments has been directed to the individual production sites, most of which today have 'solved' their own acute environmental problems. The focus has therefore switched to the properties and performance of the steel products where the evaluation of environ­mental performance is a complex task that often requires simultaneous consideration of many different attributes.

     

    Conjoint analysis is commonly used in marketing research, to evaluate how consumers appreciate specific attributes in products. It has also been widely used in health care, traffic planning and quality management. Conjoint analysis has also been applied to environmental issues such as energy, recreation, environmental valuation, ecosystem management, consumer preferences to products, public preferences to industrial projects, waste management, and environmental policy development. This previous research has shown that the method is well suited for evaluating environmental issues.

     

    Here we briefly present the methodology and review some papers on environmental applications. It is our intention to use this approach as a tool to integrate environmental considerations into both process and product development within the steel industry.

     

  • 95.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Towards a closed steel eco-cycle. Conjoint analysis as a decision tool2005In: University of Kalmar, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 96. Alston-Smith, J
    et al.
    Ware, J
    Ljungqvist, O
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    The effects of hormones and calcium ionophore A23187 on the activity of pyruvate kinase in primary culture and freshly isolated rat hepatocytes1992In: Life science advances, Vol. 11, p. 91-99Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 97. AMANDA Collaboration, -
    et al.
    Pohl, Arvid
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Flux limits on ultra high energy neutrinos with AMANDA-B102005In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 22, no 5-6, p. 339-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data taken during 1997 with the AMANDA-B10 detector are searched for a diffuse flux of neutrinos of all flavors with energies above 10(16) eV. At these energies the Earth is opaque to neutrinos, and thus neutrino induced events are concentrated at the horizon. The background are large muon bundles from down-going atmospheric air shower events. No excess events above the background expectation are observed and a neutrino flux following E-2, with an equal mix of all flavors, is limited to E(2)Phi(10(15) eV < E < 3 x 10(18) eV) less than or equal to 0.99 x 10(-6) GeV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) at 90% confidence level. This is the most restrictive experimental bound placed by any neutrino detector at these energies. Bounds to specific extraterrestrial neutrino flux predictions are also presented. 

  • 98. AMANDA Collaboration, -
    et al.
    Pohl, Arvid
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Limits to the muon flux from neutralino annihilations at the Center of the Earth with AMANDA2006In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 129-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A search has been performed for nearly vertically upgoing neutrino-induced muons with the Antarctic Muon And Neutrino DetectorArray (AMANDA), using data taken over the three year period 1997–99. No excess above the expected atmospheric neutrino backgroundhas been found. Upper limits at 90% confidence level have been set on the annihilation rate of neutralinos at the center ofthe Earth, as well as on the muon flux at AMANDA induced by neutrinos created by the annihilation products.

  • 99. AMANDA Collaboration, -
    et al.
    Pohl, Arvid
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Limits to the muon flux from neutralino annihilations in the Sun with the AMANDA detector2006In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 459-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A search for an excess of muon-neutrinos from neutralino annihilations in the Sun has been performed with the AMANDA-II neutrino detector using data collected in 143.7 days of live-time in 2001. No excess over the expected atmospheric neutrino background has been observed. An upper limit at 90% confidence level has been obtained on the annihilation rate of captured neutralinos in the Sun, as well as the corresponding muon flux limit at the Earth, both as functions of the neutralino mass in the range 100-5000 GeV. 

  • 100. Amanda Collaboration, -
    et al.
    Pohl, Arvid
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Optical Properties of Deep Glacial Ice at the South Pole2006In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 111, no D13, p. D13203-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have remotely mapped optical scattering and absorption in glacial ice at the South Pole for wavelengths between 313 and 560 nm and depths between 1100 and 2350 m. We used pulsed and continuous light sources embedded with the AMANDA neutrino telescope, an array of more than six hundred photomultiplier tubes buried deep in the ice. At depths greater than 1300 m, both the scattering coefficient and absorptivity follow vertical variations in concentration of dust impurities, which are seen in ice cores from other Antarctic sites and which track climatological changes. The scattering coefficient varies by a factor of seven, and absorptivity (for wavelengths less than ∼450 nm) varies by a factor of three in the depth range between 1300 and 2300 m, where four dust peaks due to stadials in the late Pleistocene have been identified. In our absorption data, we also identify a broad peak due to the Last Glacial Maximum around 1300 m. In the scattering data, this peak is partially masked by scattering on residual air bubbles, whose contribution dominates the scattering coefficient in shallower ice but vanishes at ∼1350 m where all bubbles have converted to nonscattering air hydrates. The wavelength dependence of scattering by dust is described by a power law with exponent −0.90 ± 0.03, independent of depth. The wavelength dependence of absorptivity in the studied wavelength range is described by the sum of two components: a power law due to absorption by dust, with exponent −1.08 ± 0.01 and a normalization proportional to dust concentration that varies with depth; and a rising exponential due to intrinsic ice absorption which dominates at wavelengths greater than ∼500 nm.

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