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  • 51. Chang, Yue
    et al.
    Liu, Guanglong
    Guo, Lina
    Liu, Hongbo
    Yuan, Dongxia
    Xiong, Jie
    Ning, Yingzhi
    Fu, Chengjie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Miao, Wei
    Cd-Metallothioneins in Three Additional Tetrahymena Species: Intragenic Repeat Patterns and Induction by Metal Ions2014In: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, ISSN 1066-5234, E-ISSN 1550-7408, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 333-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ciliate metallothioneins (MTs) possess many unique features compared to the "classic" MTs in other organisms, but they have only been studied in a small number of species. In this study, we investigated cDNAs encoding subfamily 7a metallothioneins (CdMTs) in three Tetrahymena species (T. hegewischi, T. malaccensis, and T. mobilis). Four CdMT genes (ThegMT1, ThegMT2, TmalMT1, and TmobMT1) were cloned and characterized. They share high sequence similarity to previously identified subfamily 7a MT members. Tetrahymena CdMTs exhibit a remarkably regular intragenic repeat homology. The CdMT sequences were divided into two main types of modules, which had been previously described, and which we name "A" and "B". ThegMT2 was identified as the first MT isoform solely composed of module "B". A phylogenetic analysis of individual modules of every characterized Tetrahymena CdMT rigorously documents the conclusion that modules are important units of CdMT evolution, which have undergone frequent and rapid gain/loss and shuffling. The transcriptional activity of the four newly identified genes was measured under different heavy metal exposure (Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb) using real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that these genes were differentially induced after short (1 h) or long (24 h) metal exposure. The evolutionary diversity of Tetrahymena CdMTs is further discussed with regard to their induction by metal ions.

  • 52.
    Christerson, Linus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Blomqvist, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Grannas, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Thollesson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Laroucau, Karine
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Eliasson, Ingvar
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    A novel Chlamydiaceae-like bacterium found in faecal specimens from sea birds from the Bering Sea2010In: Environmental Microbiology Reports, ISSN 1758-2229, E-ISSN 1758-2229, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 605-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The family Chlamydiaceae contains several bacterial pathogens of important human and veterinary medical concern, such as Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydophila psittaci. Within the order Chlamydiales there are also an increasing number of chlamydia-like bacteria whose biodiversity, host range and environmental spread seem to have been largely underestimated, and which are currently being investigated for their potential medical relevance. In this study we present 16S rRNA, rnpB and ompA gene sequence data congruently indicating a novel chlamydia-like bacterium found in faecal specimens from opportunistic fish-eating sea birds, belonging to the Laridae and Alcidae families, from the Bering Sea. This novel bacterium appears to be closer to the Chlamydiaceae than other chlamydia-like bacteria and is most likely a novel genus within the Chlamydiaceae family.

  • 53. Cooper, Wendy, E.
    et al.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    A taxonomic revision of Trichosanthes L. (Cucurbitaceae) in Australia, including one new species from the Northern Territory2011In: Austrobaileya : a journal of plant systematics, ISSN 0155-4131, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 364-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trichosanthes is represented by six species in Australia: T cucumerina L. var. cucumerina,T morrisii W.E.Cooper sp. nov., T odontosperma W.E.Cooper & A.J.Ford, T pentaphylla F.Muell. ex Benth., T pilosa Lour. and T subvelutina F.Muell. ex Cogn. Trichosanthes ovigera Blume has recently been synonymised with T pilosa and we now include T holtzei F.Muell. within this synonymy. All taxa are illustrated (with the exception of T odontosperma previously illustrated in 2010), and distinguished from other Australian species. Notes on habitat and distribution are included together with distribution maps. Three identification keys are presented, two to the sections of Trichosanthes and one to the species of Trichosanthes in Australia.

  • 54.
    Corcoran, Padraic
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology. Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England.
    Anderson, Jennifer L
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Jacobson, David J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Sun, Yu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Ni, Peixiang
    BGI HongKong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Johannesson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Introgression maintains the genetic integrity of the mating-type determining chromosome of the fungus Neurospora tetrasperma.2016In: Genome Research, ISSN 1088-9051, E-ISSN 1549-5469, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 486-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genome evolution is driven by a complex interplay of factors, including selection, recombination, and introgression. The regions determining sexual identity are particularly dynamic parts of eukaryotic genomes that are prone to molecular degeneration associated with suppressed recombination. In the fungus Neurospora tetrasperma, it has been proposed that this molecular degeneration is counteracted by the introgression of nondegenerated DNA from closely related species. In this study, we used comparative and population genomic analyses of 92 genomes from eight phylogenetically and reproductively isolated lineages of N. tetrasperma, and its three closest relatives, to investigate the factors shaping the evolutionary history of the genomes. We found that suppressed recombination extends across at least 6 Mbp (similar to 63%) of the mating-type (mat) chromosome in N. tetrasperma and is associated with decreased genetic diversity, which is likely the result primarily of selection at linked sites. Furthermore, analyses of molecular evolution revealed an increased mutational load in this region, relative to recombining regions. However, comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the mat chromosomes are temporarily regenerated via introgression from sister species; six of eight lineages show introgression into one of their mat chromosomes, with multiple Neurospora species acting as donors. The introgressed tracts have been fixed within lineages, suggesting that they confer an adaptive advantage in natural populations, and our analyses support the presence of selective sweeps in at least one lineage. Thus, these data strongly support the previously hypothesized role of introgression as a mechanism for the maintenance of mating-type determining chromosomal regions.

  • 55.
    Crous, P. W.
    et al.
    Westerdijk Fungal Biodivers Inst, POB 85167, NL-3508 AD Utrecht, Netherlands;Univ Pretoria, FABI, Dept Genet Biochem & Microbiol, P Bag X20, ZA-0028 Pretoria, South Africa.
    Luangsa-ard, J. J.
    Natl Ctr Genet Engn & Biotechnol BIOTEC, Microbe Interact & Ecol Lab, 113 Thailand Sci Pk,Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Luang 12120, Pathum Thani, Thailand.
    Wingfield, M. J.
    Univ Pretoria, FABI, ZA-0002 Pretoria, South Africa.
    Carnegie, A. J.
    NSW Dept Primary Ind Forestry, Forest Hlth & Biosecur, Level 12,10 Valentine Ave, Parramatta, NSW 2124, Australia.
    Hernandez-Restrepo, M.
    Westerdijk Fungal Biodivers Inst, POB 85167, NL-3508 AD Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Lombard, L.
    Westerdijk Fungal Biodivers Inst, POB 85167, NL-3508 AD Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Roux, J.
    Univ Pretoria, FABI, ZA-0002 Pretoria, South Africa.
    Barreto, R. W.
    Univ Fed Vicosa, Dept Fitopatol, BR-36570900 Vicosa, MG, Brazil.
    Baseia, I. G.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Norte, Ctr Biociencias, Dept Botan & Zool, Campus Univ, BR-59072970 Natal, RN, Brazil.
    Cano-Lira, J. F.
    URV, Med Sch, Mycol Unit, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;URV, IISPV, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain.
    Martin, M. P.
    CSIC, RJB, Dept Mycol, Plaza Murillo 2, E-28014 Madrid, Spain.
    Morozova, O. V.
    Russian Acad Sci, Komarov Bot Inst, 2 Prof Popov Str, St Petersburg 197376, Russia.
    Stchigel, A. M.
    URV, Med Sch, Mycol Unit, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;URV, IISPV, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain.
    Summerell, B. A.
    Royal Bot Gardens & Domain Trust, Mrs Macquaries Rd, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia.
    Brandrud, T. E.
    Norwegian Inst Nat Res, Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349 Oslo, Norway.
    Dima, B.
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Inst Biol, Dept Plant Anat, Pazmany Peter Setany 1-C, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary.
    Garcia, D.
    URV, Med Sch, Mycol Unit, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;URV, IISPV, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain.
    Giraldo, A.
    Westerdijk Fungal Biodivers Inst, POB 85167, NL-3508 AD Utrecht, Netherlands;Univ Free State, Dept Plant Sci, Fac Nat & Agr Sci, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa.
    Guarro, J.
    URV, Med Sch, Mycol Unit, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;URV, IISPV, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain.
    Gusmao, L. F. P.
    Univ Estadual Feira de Santana, Av Transnordestina S-N Novo Horizonte, BR-44036900 Feira De Santana, BA, Brazil.
    Khamsuntorn, P.
    Natl Ctr Genet Engn & Biotechnol BIOTEC, Microbe Interact & Ecol Lab, 113 Thailand Sci Pk,Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Luang 12120, Pathum Thani, Thailand.
    Noordeloos, M. E.
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Sect Bot, POB 9517, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Nuankaew, S.
    Natl Ctr Genet Engn & Biotechnol BIOTEC, Fungal Biodivers Lab, 113 Thailand Sci Pk,Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Luang 12120, Pathum Thani, Thailand.
    Pinruan, U.
    Natl Ctr Genet Engn & Biotechnol BIOTEC, Microbe Interact & Ecol Lab, 113 Thailand Sci Pk,Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Luang 12120, Pathum Thani, Thailand.
    Rodriguez-Andrade, E.
    URV, Med Sch, Mycol Unit, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;URV, IISPV, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain.
    Souza-Motta, C. M.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Thangavel, R.
    Minist Primary Ind, Plant Hlth & Environm Lab, POB 2095, Auckland 1140, New Zealand.
    van Iperen, A. L.
    Westerdijk Fungal Biodivers Inst, POB 85167, NL-3508 AD Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Abreu, V. P.
    Univ Fed Vicosa, Dept Microbiol, BR-36570000 Vicosa, MG, Brazil.
    Accioly, T.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Norte, Programa Posgrad Sistemat & Evolucao, Natal, RN, Brazil.
    Alves, J. L.
    Univ Fed Vicosa, Dept Fitopatol, BR-36570900 Vicosa, MG, Brazil.
    Andrade, J. P.
    Univ Estadual Feira de Santana, Av Transnordestina S-N Novo Horizonte, BR-44036900 Feira De Santana, BA, Brazil.
    Bahram, Mohammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Dept Bot, 40 Lai St, EE-51005 Tartu, Estonia.
    Baral, H. -O
    Barbier, E.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Zool, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Barnes, C. W.
    Inst Nacl Invest Agr, Estac Expt Santa Catalina, Panamer Km 1,Sect Cutuglahua, Pichincha, Ecuador.
    Bendiksen, E.
    Norwegian Inst Nat Res, Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349 Oslo, Norway.
    Bernard, E.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Zool, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Bezerra, J. D. P.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Bezerra, J. L.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Bizio, Enrico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology. Soc Veneziana Micol, S Croce 1730, I-30135 Venice, Italy.
    Blair, J. E.
    Franklin & Marshall Coll, Dept Biol, 415 Harrisburg Ave, Lancaster, PA 17603 USA.
    Bulyonkova, T. M.
    Russian Acad Sci, Siberian Branch, AP Ershov Inst Informat Syst, 6 Acad Lavrentieva Pr, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia.
    Cabral, T. S.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Norte, Dept Biol Celular & Genet, Natal, RN, Brazil.
    Caiafa, M. V.
    Dept Plant Pathol, 2527 Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA;Florida Museum Nat Hist, 2527 Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.
    Cantillo, T.
    Univ Estadual Feira de Santana, Av Transnordestina S-N Novo Horizonte, BR-44036900 Feira De Santana, BA, Brazil.
    Colman, A. A.
    Univ Fed Vicosa, Dept Fitopatol, BR-36570900 Vicosa, MG, Brazil.
    Conceicao, L. B.
    Univ Estadual Feira de Santana, Av Transnordestina S-N Novo Horizonte, BR-44036900 Feira De Santana, BA, Brazil.
    Cruz, S.
    Dept Plant Pathol, 2527 Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA;Florida Museum Nat Hist, 2527 Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.
    Cunha, A. O. B.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Darveaux, B. A.
    Mycosynthetix Inc, 505 Meadowlands Dr,Suite 103, Hillsborough, NC 27278 USA.
    da Silva, A. L.
    Univ Fed Vicosa, Dept Fitopatol, BR-36570900 Vicosa, MG, Brazil.
    da Silva, G. A.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    da Silva, G. M.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Norte, Ctr Biociencias, Dept Botan & Zool, Campus Univ, BR-59072970 Natal, RN, Brazil.
    da Silva, R. M. F.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    de Oliveira, R. J. V.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Oliveira, R. L.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Norte, Programa Posgrad Sistemat & Evolucao, Natal, RN, Brazil.
    De Souza, J. T.
    Univ Fed Lavras, Lavras, MG, Brazil.
    Duenas, M.
    CSIC, RJB, Dept Mycol, Plaza Murillo 2, E-28014 Madrid, Spain.
    Evans, H. C.
    CAB Int, Bakeham Lane, Egham TW20 9TY, Surrey, England.
    Epifani, F.
    CNR, Inst Sci Food Prod, Via Amendola 122-O, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Felipe, M. T. C.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Fernandez-Lopez, J.
    CSIC, RJB, Dept Mycol, Plaza Murillo 2, E-28014 Madrid, Spain.
    Ferreira, B. W.
    Univ Fed Vicosa, Dept Fitopatol, BR-36570900 Vicosa, MG, Brazil.
    Figueiredo, C. N.
    Reconcavo Bahia Fed Univ, Itabuna, BA, Brazil.
    Filippova, N. V.
    Yugra State Univ, 16 Chekhova Str, Khanty Mansiysk 628012, Russia.
    Flores, J. A.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Ecuador, Escuela Ciencias Biol, Av 12 Octubre 1076 & Roca, Quito, Ecuador.
    Gene, J.
    URV, Med Sch, Mycol Unit, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;URV, IISPV, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain.
    Ghorbani, G.
    Univ Tehran, Coll Agr & Nat Resources, Dept Plant Protect, Karaj 3158777871, Iran.
    Gibertoni, T. B.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol, Ave Engn S-N Cidade Univ, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Glushakova, A. M.
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, RAS, Moscow All Russian Collect Microorganisms, GK Skryabin Inst Biochem & Physiol Microorganisms, Pushchino, Russia.
    Healy, R.
    Dept Plant Pathol, 2527 Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA;Florida Museum Nat Hist, 2527 Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.
    Huhndorf, S. M.
    Field Museum, Dept Bot, 1400 South Lake Shore Dr, Chicago, IL 60605 USA.
    Iturrieta-Gonzalez, I.
    URV, Med Sch, Mycol Unit, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;URV, IISPV, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain.
    Javan-Nikkhah, M.
    Univ Tehran, Coll Agr & Nat Resources, Dept Plant Protect, Karaj 3158777871, Iran.
    Juciano, R. F.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol, Programa Posgrad Biol Fungos, BR-50670420 Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Jurjevic, Z.
    EMSL Analyt Inc, 200 Route 130 North, Cinnaminson, NJ 08077 USA.
    Kachalkin, A. V.
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, RAS, Moscow All Russian Collect Microorganisms, GK Skryabin Inst Biochem & Physiol Microorganisms, Pushchino, Russia.
    Keochanpheng, K.
    Biotechnol & Ecol Inst, Viangchan, Laos.
    Krisai-Greilhuber, I.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Bot & Biodivers Res, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna, Austria.
    Li, Y. -C
    Lima, A. A.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Norte, Programa Posgrad Sistemat & Evolucao, Natal, RN, Brazil.
    Machado, A. R.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Madrid, H.
    Univ Mayor, Fac Ciencias, Ctr Genom & Bioinformat, Camino Piramide 5750, Santiago, Chile.
    Magalhaes, O. M. C.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Marbach, P. A. S.
    Reconcavo Bahia Fed Univ, Itabuna, BA, Brazil.
    Melanda, G. C. S.
    Field Museum, Dept Bot, 1400 South Lake Shore Dr, Chicago, IL 60605 USA.
    Miller, A. N.
    Univ Illinois, Illinois Nat Hist Survey, 1816 South Oak St, Champaign, IL 61820 USA.
    Mongkolsamrit, S.
    Natl Ctr Genet Engn & Biotechnol BIOTEC, Microbe Interact & Ecol Lab, 113 Thailand Sci Pk,Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Luang 12120, Pathum Thani, Thailand.
    Nascimento, R. P.
    Rio De Janeiro Fed Univ, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Oliveira, T. G. L.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol Prof Chaves Batista, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Ordonez, M. E.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Ecuador, Escuela Ciencias Biol, Av 12 Octubre 1076 & Roca, Quito, Ecuador.
    Orzes, R.
    Grp Micol Bresadola Belluno, Via Bries 25, I-32021 Agordo, Italy.
    Palma, M. A.
    Serv Agr & Ganadero, Lab Reg Valparaiso, Unidad Fitopatol, Valparaiso 2360451, Chile.
    Pearce, C. J.
    Mycosynthetix Inc, 505 Meadowlands Dr,Suite 103, Hillsborough, NC 27278 USA.
    Pereira, O. L.
    Natl Ctr Genet Engn & Biotechnol BIOTEC, Microbe Interact & Ecol Lab, 113 Thailand Sci Pk,Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Luang 12120, Pathum Thani, Thailand.
    Perrone, G.
    CNR, Inst Sci Food Prod, Via Amendola 122-O, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Peterson, S. W.
    ARS, Mycotoxin Prevent & Appl Microbiol Res Unit, USDA, 1815 North Univ St, Peoria, IL 61604 USA.
    Pham, T. H. G.
    St Petersburg State Forestry Univ, 194021,5U Inst Str, St Petersburg, Russia;Joint Russian Vietnamese Trop Res & Technol Ctr, 194021,5U Inst Str, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Piontelli, E.
    Univ Valparaiso, Facultad Medicina, Prof Emerito Catedra Micol, Hontaneda 2653, Valparaiso 2341369, Chile.
    Pordel, A.
    Univ Tehran, Coll Agr & Nat Resources, Dept Plant Protect, Karaj 3158777871, Iran.
    Quijada, L.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Organism & Evolutionary Biol, Farlow Reference Lib, 22 Divin Ave, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA;Harvard Univ, Herbarium Cryptogam Bot, 22 Divin Ave, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Raja, H. A.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Chem & Biochem, 435 Sullivan Sci Bldg,POB 26170, Greensboro, NC 27402 USA.
    de Paz, E. Rosas
    URV, Med Sch, Mycol Unit, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;URV, IISPV, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;IPN, ENCB, Microbiol Dept, Lab Med Bacteriol, Prolongac Manuel Carpio & Plan Ayala S-N, Ciudad De Mexico 11350, DF, Mexico.
    Ryvarden, L.
    Univ Oslo, Dept Bot, POB 1045, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Saitta, A.
    Univ Palermo, Dept Agr Food & Forest Sci, Viale Sci, I-90128 Palermo, Italy.
    Salcedo, S. S.
    Univ Fed Vicosa, Dept Fitopatol, BR-36570900 Vicosa, MG, Brazil.
    Sandoval-Denis, M.
    Westerdijk Fungal Biodivers Inst, POB 85167, NL-3508 AD Utrecht, Netherlands;Univ Free State, Dept Plant Sci, Fac Nat & Agr Sci, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa.
    Santos, T. A. B.
    Univ Estadual Feira de Santana, Av Transnordestina S-N Novo Horizonte, BR-44036900 Feira De Santana, BA, Brazil.
    Seifert, K. A.
    Agr & Agri Food Canada, Biodivers Mycol, Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6, Canada;Univ Ottawa, Dept Biol, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada.
    Silva, B. D. B.
    Univ Fed Bahia Salvador, Inst Biol, Salvador, BA, Brazil.
    Smith, M. E.
    Dept Plant Pathol, 2527 Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA;Florida Museum Nat Hist, 2527 Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.
    Soares, A. M.
    Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Micol, Ave Engn S-N Cidade Univ, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Sommai, S.
    Natl Ctr Genet Engn & Biotechnol BIOTEC, Microbe Interact & Ecol Lab, 113 Thailand Sci Pk,Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Luang 12120, Pathum Thani, Thailand.
    Sousa, J. O.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Norte, Programa Posgrad Sistemat & Evolucao, Natal, RN, Brazil.
    Suetrong, S.
    Natl Ctr Genet Engn & Biotechnol BIOTEC, Fungal Biodivers Lab, 113 Thailand Sci Pk,Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Luang 12120, Pathum Thani, Thailand.
    Susca, A.
    CNR, Inst Sci Food Prod, Via Amendola 122-O, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Tedersoo, L.
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Dept Bot, 40 Lai St, EE-51005 Tartu, Estonia.
    Telleria, M. T.
    CSIC, RJB, Dept Mycol, Plaza Murillo 2, E-28014 Madrid, Spain.
    Thanakitpipattana, D.
    Natl Ctr Genet Engn & Biotechnol BIOTEC, Microbe Interact & Ecol Lab, 113 Thailand Sci Pk,Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Luang 12120, Pathum Thani, Thailand.
    Valenzuela-Lopez, N.
    URV, Med Sch, Mycol Unit, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;URV, IISPV, St Llorenc 21, Tarragona, Spain;Univ Antofagasta, Fac Hlth Sci, Med Technol Dept, Microbiol Unit, Av Univ Antofagasta S-N, Antofagasta 02800, Chile.
    Visagie, C. M.
    Agr Res Council Plant Hlth & Protect, Biosystemat Div, Private Bag X134, ZA-0121 Pretoria, South Africa.
    Zapata, M.
    Serv Agr & Ganadero, Lab Reg Chillan, Unidad Fitopatol, Claudio Arrau 738, Chillan 3800773, Chile.
    Groenewald, J. Z.
    Westerdijk Fungal Biodivers Inst, POB 85167, NL-3508 AD Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Fungal Planet description sheets: 785-8672018In: Persoonia, ISSN 0031-5850, E-ISSN 1878-9080, Vol. 41, p. 238-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Angola, Gnomoniopsis angolensis and Pseudopithomyces angolensis on unknown host plants. Australia, Dothiora cotymbiae on Corymbia citriodora, Neoeucasphaeria eucalypti (incl. Neoeucasphaeria gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus sp., Fumagopsis stellae on Eucalyptus sp., Fusculina eucalyptorum (incl. Fusculinaceae fam. nov.) on Eucalyptus socialis, Harknessia cotymbiicola on Corymbia maculata, Neocelosporium eucalypti (incl. Neocelosporium gen. nov., Neocelosporiaceae fam. nov. and Neocelosporiales ord. nov.) on Eucalyptus cyanophylla, Neophaeomoniella corymbiae on Corymbia citriodora, Neophaeomoniefia eucalyptigena on Eucalyptus pilularis, Pseudoplagiostoma corymbiicola on Corymbia citriodora, Teratosphaeria gracilis on Eucalyptus gracilis, Zasmidium corymbiae on Corymbia citriodora. Brazil, Calonectria hemileiae on pustules of Hemileia vastatrix formed on leaves of Coffea arabica, Calvatia caatinguensis on soil, Cercospora solani-betacei on Solanum betaceum, Clathrus natalensis on soil, Diaporthe poincianellae on Poincianella pyramidalis, Geastrum piquiriunense on soil, Geosmithia carolliae on wing of Carollia perspicillata, Henningsia resupinata on wood, Penicillium guaibinense from soil, Periconia caespitosa from leaf litter, Pseudocercospora styracina on Styrax sp., Simplicillium filiforme as endophyte from Citrullus lanatus, Thozetella pindobacuensis on leaf litter, Xenosonderhenia coussapoae on Coussapoa floccosa. Canary Islands (Spain), Orbilia amarilla on Euphorbia canariensis, Cape Verde Islands, Xylodon jacobaeus on Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Chile, Colletotrichum arboricola on Fuchsia magellanica. Costa Rica, Lasiosphaeria miniovina on tree branch. Ecuador, Ganoderma chocoense on tree trunk. France, Neofitzroyomyces nerii (incl. Neofitzroyomyces gen. nov.) on Nerium oleander. Ghana, Castanediella tereticornis on Eucalyptus tereticornis, Falcocladium africanum on Eucalyptus brassiana, Rachicladosporium corymbiae on Corymbia citriodora. Hungary, Entoloma silvae-frondosae in Carpinus betulus-Pinus sylvestris mixed forest. Iran, Pseudopyricularia persiana on Cyperus sp. Italy, lnocybe roseascens on soil in mixed forest. Laos, Ophiocordyceps houaynhangensis on Coleoptera larva. Malaysia, Monilochaetes melastomae on Melastoma sp. Mexico, Absidia terrestris from soil. Netherlands, Acaulium pannemaniae, Conioscypha boutwelliae, Fusicolla septimanifiniscientiae, Gibellulopsis simonii, Lasionectria hilhorstii, Lectera nordwiniana, Leptodiscella rintelii, Parasarocladium debruynii and Sarocladium dejongiae (incl. Sarocladiaceae fam. nov.) from soil. New Zealand, Gnomoniopsis rosae on Rosa sp. and Neodevriesia metrosideri on Metrosideros sp. Puerto Rico, Neodevriesia coccolobae on Coccoloba uvifera, Neodevriesia tabebuiae and Alfaria tabebuiae on Tabebuia chrysantha. Russia, Amanita paludosa on bogged soil in mixed deciduous forest, Entoloma tiliae in forest of Tilia x europaea, Kwoniella endophytica on Pyrus communis. South Africa, Coniella diospyri on Diospyros mespiliformis, Neomelanconiella combreti (incl. Neomelanconiellaceae fam. nov. and Neomelanconiella gen. nov.) on Combretum sp., Polyphialoseptoria natalensis on unidentified plant host, Pseudorobillarda bolusanthi on Bolusanthus speciosus, Thelonectria pelargonii on Pelargonium sp. Spain, Vermiculariopsiella lauracearum and Anungitopsis lauri on Laurus novocanariensis, Geosmithia xerotolerans from a darkened wall of a house, Pseudopenidiella gallaica on leaf litter. Thailand, Corynespora thailandica on wood, Lareunionomyces loeiensis on leaf litter, Neocochlearomyces chromolaenae (incl. Neocochlearomyces gen. nov.) on Chromolaena odorata, Neomyrmecridium septatum (incl. Neomyrmecridium gen. nov.), Pararamichloridium caricicola on Carex sp., Xenodactylaria thailandica (incl. Xenodactylariaceae fam. nov. and Xenodactylaria gen. nov.), Neomyrmecridium asiaticum and Cymostachys thailandica from unidentified vine. USA, Carolinigaster bonitoi (incl. Carolinigaster gen. nov.) from soil, Penicillium fortuitum from house dust, Phaeotheca shathenatiana (incl. Phaeothecaceae fam. nov.) from twig and cone litter, Pythium wohlseniorum from stream water, Superstratomyces tardicrescens from human eye, Talaromyces iowaense from office air. Vietnam, Fistulinella olivaceoalba on soil. Morphological and culture characteristics along with DNA barcodes are provided.

  • 56.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Who Produces Ianthelline? The Arctic Sponge Stryphnus fortis or its Sponge Epibiont Hexadella dedritifera: a Probable Case of Sponge-Sponge Contamination2016In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 339-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline was isolated recently from the Atlantic boreo-arctic deep-sea sponge Stryphnus fortis, and shown to have clear antitumor and antifouling effects. However, chemosystematics, field observations, and targeted metabolic analyses (using UPLC-MS) suggest that ianthelline is not produced by S. fortis but by Hexadella dedritifera, a sponge that commonly grows on S. fortis. This case highlights the importance of combining taxonomic and ecological knowledge to the field of sponge natural products research.

  • 57.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Moore, Jon A.
    Wilkes Honors College, Florida Atlantic University.
    First records of Geodia demosponges from the New England seamounts, an opportunity to test the use of DNA mini-barcodes on museum specimens2019In: Marine Biodiversity, ISSN 1867-1616, E-ISSN 1867-1624, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 163-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first records of the sponge genus Geodia (Demospongiae, Tetractinellida, Geodiidae) from the New England Seamounts and Muir Seamount, at lower bathyal depths. Nine specimens collected between 2000 and 2005 belong to two boreal species (Geodia macandrewii and Geodia barretti) and a temperate species (Geodia megastrella). These records extend the distributions of these deep-sea amphi-Atlantic species to the west. Most of these specimens were originally fixed in formalin, which substantially degraded the DNA. We nonetheless managed to sequence two cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mini-barcodes: the universal mini-barcode at the 5′ end of the Folmer barcode (130 bp) and a newly proposed mini-barcode at the 3′ end of the Folmer barcode (296 bp). These mini-barcodes unambiguously confirmed our identifications. As an additional test, we also successfully sequenced these two mini-barcodes from the holotype of G. barretti, collected in 1855. We conclude by advocating the use of mini-barcodes on formalin-fixed or old specimens with degraded DNA.

  • 58.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Univ Bergen, Dept Biol, N-5020 Bergen, Norway..
    Rapp, Hans Tore
    Univ Bergen, Dept Biol, N-5020 Bergen, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Ctr Geobiol, N-5007 Bergen, Norway.;Uni Environm, Uni Res, N-5006 Bergen, Norway..
    Demosponges from the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge shed more light on the diversity and biogeography of North Atlantic deep-sea sponges2015In: Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, ISSN 0025-3154, E-ISSN 1469-7769, Vol. 95, no 7, p. 1475-1516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In July-August 2004, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Ecosystems (MAR-Eco) expedition collected Demospongiae (Porifera) from the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) north of the Azores, between 41 degrees N and 61 degrees N. Demosponges were found at 10 stations, at depths ranging from 753 to 3046 m. Twenty-two species were identified: 17 Tetractinellida, one Polymastiida, one Suberitida, two Poecilosclerida and one Dendroceratida. The study of this material is an opportunity to revise the taxonomy and the North Atlantic distribution of each of these deep-sea species. Some species are particularly rare and poorly known (Tetilla longipilis, Tetilla sandalina, Craniella azorica, Polymastia corticata) and two are new to science: Forcepia (Forcepia) toxafera sp. nov. and Iotroata paravaridens sp. nov. This study suggests that the MAR is not a longitudinal barrier for the dispersal of deep-sea demosponges while on the contrary, the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ) may be a latitudinal border for the dispersal of deep-sea demosponges, due to great depths and currents.

  • 59.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Thollesson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    A new Hymedesmia (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida) with large sigmas off western Sweden2016In: Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, ISSN 0025-3154, E-ISSN 1469-7769, Vol. 96, no 6, p. 1305-1312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) lindstroemae sp. nov. collected at 178–210 m depth off the western Swedish coast is described. This encrusting sponge is notably characterized by its unusually large sigmas. This new species brings the number of Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) species in Swedish waters to 30. A key for all the North Atlantic Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) species with sigmas (32 species) is included.

  • 60.
    Darolti, Iulia
    et al.
    UCL, Dept Genet Evolut & Environm, London, England.
    Wright, Alison E.
    UCL, Dept Genet Evolut & Environm, London, England;Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.
    Pucholt, Pascal
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, Dept Plant Biol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berlin, Sofia
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, Dept Plant Biol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mank, Judith E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. UCL, Dept Genet Evolut & Environm, London, England.
    Slow evolution of sex-biased genes in the reproductive tissue of the dioecious plant Salix viminalis2018In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 694-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative rate of evolution for sex-biased genes has often been used as a measure of the strength of sex-specific selection. In contrast to studies in a wide variety of animals, far less is known about the molecular evolution of sex-biased genes in plants, particularly in dioecious angiosperms. Here, we investigate the gene expression patterns and evolution of sex-biased genes in the dioecious plant Salix viminalis. We observe lower rates of sequence evolution for male-biased genes expressed in the reproductive tissue compared to unbiased and female-biased genes. These results could be partially explained by the lower codon usage bias for male-biased genes leading to elevated rates of synonymous substitutions compared to unbiased genes. However, the stronger haploid selection in the reproductive tissue of plants, together with pollen competition, would also lead to higher levels of purifying selection acting to remove deleterious variation. Future work should focus on the differential evolution of haploid- and diploid-specific genes to understand the selective dynamics acting on these loci.

  • 61.
    Davis, Robert B
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of York.
    Baladuf, Sandra L
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Mayhew, Peter J
    Department of Biology, University of York.
    The origins of species richness in the Hymenoptera: insights from a family-level supertree2010In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 10, article id 109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The order Hymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps, sawflies) contains about eight percent of all described species, but no analytical studies have addressed the origins of this richness at family-level or above. To investigate which major subtaxa experienced significant shifts in diversification, we assembled a family-level phylogeny of the Hymenoptera using supertree methods. We used sister-group species-richness comparisons to infer the phylogenetic position of shifts in diversification.

    RESULTS: The supertrees most supported by the underlying input trees are produced using matrix representation with compatibility (MRC) (from an all-in and a compartmentalised analysis). Whilst relationships at the tips of the tree tend to be well supported, those along the backbone of the tree (e.g. between Parasitica superfamilies) are generally not. Ten significant shifts in diversification (six positive and four negative) are found common to both MRC supertrees. The Apocrita (wasps, ants, bees) experienced a positive shift at their origin accounting for approximately 4,000 species. Within Apocrita other positive shifts include the Vespoidea (vespoid wasps/ants containing 24,000 spp.), Anthophila + Sphecidae (bees/thread-waisted wasps; 22,000 spp.), Bethylidae + Chrysididae (bethylid/cuckoo wasps; 5,200 spp.), Dryinidae (dryinid wasps; 1,100 spp.), and Proctotrupidae (proctotrupid wasps; 310 spp.). Four relatively species-poor families (Stenotritidae, Anaxyelidae, Blasticotomidae, Xyelidae) have undergone negative shifts. There are some two-way shifts in diversification where sister taxa have undergone shifts in opposite directions.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that numerous phylogenetically distinctive radiations contribute to the richness of large clades. They also suggest that evolutionary events restricting the subsequent richness of large clades are common. Problematic phylogenetic issues in the Hymenoptera are identified, relating especially to superfamily validity (e.g. "Proctotrupoidea", "Mymarommatoidea"), and deeper apocritan relationships. Our results should stimulate new functional studies on the causes of the diversification shifts we have identified. Possible drivers highlighted for specific adaptive radiations include key anatomical innovations, the exploitation of rich host groups, and associations with angiosperms. Low richness may have evolved as a result of geographical isolation, specialised ecological niches, and habitat loss or competition.

  • 62.
    Davis, Robert B
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of York.
    Baldauf, Sandra L
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Mayhew, Peter J
    Department of Biology, University of York.
    Many hexapod groups originated earlier and withstood extinction events better than previously realized: inferences from supertrees2010In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 277, no 1687, p. 1597-1606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprising over half of all described species, the hexapods are central to understanding the evolution of global biodiversity. Direct fossil evidence suggests that new hexapod orders continued to originate from the Jurassic onwards, and diversity is presently higher than ever. Previous studies also suggest that several shifts in net diversification rate have occurred at higher taxonomic levels. However, their inferred timing is phylogeny dependent. We re-examine these issues using the supertree approach to provide, to our knowledge, the first composite estimates of hexapod order-level phylogeny. The Purvis matrix representation with parsimony method provides the most optimal supertree, but alternative methods are considered. Inferring ghost ranges shows richness of terminal lineages in the order-level phylogeny to peak just before the end-Permian extinction, rather than the present day, indicating that at least 11 more lineages survived this extinction than implied by fossils alone. The major upshift in diversification is associated with the origin of wings/wing folding and for the first time, to our knowledge, significant downshifts are shown associated with the origin of species-poor taxa (e.g. Neuropterida, Zoraptera). Polyneopteran phylogeny, especially the position of Zoraptera, remains important resolve because this influences findings regarding shifts in diversification. Our study shows how combining fossil with phylogenetic information can improve macroevolutionary inferences.

  • 63.
    Davis, Robert
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of York.
    Baldauf, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Mayhew, Peter
    University of York, Department of Biology.
    Eusociality and the success of the termites: insights from a supertree of dictyopteran families.2009In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1750-1761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sociality in insects may negatively impact on species richness. We tested whether termites have experienced shifts in diversification rates through time. Supertree methods were used to synthesize family-level relationships within termites, cockroaches and mantids. A deep positive shift in diversification rate is found within termites, but not in the cockroaches from which they evolved. The shift is responsible for most of their extant species richness suggesting that eusociality is not necessarily detrimental to species richness, and may sometimes have a positive effect. Mechanistic studies of speciation and extinction in eusocial insects are advocated.

  • 64.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    African plants as antipathogen agents: efficacy and clinical evidence2008In: Botanical Medicine in Clinical Practice / [ed] Preedy, V.R., Watson, R., CABI Publishing , 2008, p. 3-12Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 65.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Local Awareness of Scarcity and Endangerment of Medicinal Plants in Roussenski Lom Natural Park in Northern Bulgaria2010In: Ethnobotany in the new Europe: people, health and wild plant resources / [ed] Manuel Pardo de Santayana, Andrea Pieroni, Rajindra K. Puri, New York: Berghahn Books, 2010, p. 93-111Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 66.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Snake Gourds, Parasites and Mother Roasting: Medicinal plants, plant repellents, and Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae) in Lao PDR2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Traditional plant use was studied in Lao PDR. Research focused on medicinal plant use by the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups, traditional plant repellents against parasitic arthropods and leeches, and the phylogeny and biogeography of the medicinally-important snake gourd genus (Trichosanthes, Cucurbitaceae).  Methods. The ethnobiology research used a combination of structured interviews, village surveys, botanical collecting, hydro-distillation, GC-MS analysis, literature studies, and laboratory experiments. The plant systematics research used a combination of morphological studies, molecular biology laboratory work, and phylogenetic, dating and biogeographical analysis.  Results. Informants reported the use of close to 100 species to repel arthropods and leeches, many of which have constituents with documented efficacy.  Brou, Saek and Kry informants use over 75 plant species for women’s healthcare, mainly during the postpartum period for steam sauna, steam bath, hotbed, mother roasting, medicinal decoctions and infusions, and postpartum diet.  A molecular phylogeny of Trichosanthes and Gymnopetalum using a broad sampling of ~60% of their species and 4756 nucleotides of nuclear and plastid DNA shows that Gymnopetalum is nested within Trichosanthes. Fossil-calibrated Bayesian molecular dating of the Trichosanthes phylogeny reveals an early Oligocene origin of the genus, and many of the extant sections originating and diversifying during the Miocene. Biogeographical analysis shows a likely East or South Asian origin of Trichosanthes, with lineages diversifying and spreading throughout Australasia from the early Pliocene to the Pleistocene.  Discussion. Traditional plant use in Lao PDR is common and widespread. The presence among the repellent species of economical alternatives to costly synthetic repellents is tenable, and the subject of ongoing studies.  Postpartum traditions and medicinal plant use are essential parts of childbirth and postpartum recovery in these ethnic groups, and many other groups in Lao PDR. Efforts to improve maternal healthcare and reduce maternal and infant mortality need to integrate these traditions with modern notions of healthcare to achieve wider adoption. Documenting all possible uses of commonly used medicinal plant species shows that similarity in use between these ethnic groups is relatively low considering that they share, and have shared for many generations, the same environment and resources. A lack of effective cures leads to a process of continuous innovation, where effective cures are shared between cultures, but remedies of only cultural importance, or those under evaluation are culture-specific.  The Trichosanthes phylogeny implies the merging of Gymnopetalum into Trichosanthes, and this is done using available names or new combinations. A synopsis of Trichosanthes, the new combinations, and a revision of the species in Australia, are made and presented.  Conclusions. Traditional plant use is widespread in Lao PDR, and of significance to many people as a source of primary healthcare and inexpensive repellents. The important medicinal plant genus Trichosanthes includes Gymnopetalum, and has a complex biogeographic history with multiple colonization events of Australasia.

  • 67.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Cotingting, Crystle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Medicinal plants for women's healthcare in southeast Asia: a meta-analysis of their traditional use, chemical constituents, and pharmacology2014In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 151, no 2, p. 747-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance

    This is an extensive review of plants used traditionally for women's healthcare in Southeast Asia and surrounding countries. Medicinal plants have a significant role in women's healthcare in many rural areas of the world. Plants with numerous efficacious observations have historically been used as a starting point in the development of new drugs, and a large percentage of modern pharmaceuticals have been derived from medicinal plants.

    Materials and methods

    A review was conducted for all plant use mentioned specifically for female healthcare, such as medicine to increase fertility, induce menstruation or abortion, ease pregnancy and parturition, reduce menstrual bleeding and postpartum hemorrhage, alleviate menstrual, parturition and postpartum pain, increase or inhibit lactation, and treat mastitis and uterine prolapse, in 200 studies focusing on medicinal plant use, either general studies or studies focusing specifically on women's healthcare.

    Results

    Nearly 2000 different plant species are reported to be used in over 5000 combinations. Most common areAchyranthes asperaArtemisia vulgarisBlumea balsamiferaCarica papayaCurcuma longaHibiscus rosa-sinensisLeonurus japonicusPsidium guajava and Ricinus communis, and each of these species had been reported in more than 10 different scientific articles.

    Conclusions

    This review provides a basis for traditional plant use in women's healthcare, and these species can be used as the starting point in the discovery of new drugs.

  • 68.
    De Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, Oslo, Norway.;Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Cross, Hugh B.
    Norwegian Inst Bioecon Res, As, Norway..
    De Wilde, Willem J. J. O.
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Duyfjes, Brigitta E. E.
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Gravendeel, Barbara
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands.;Univ Appl Sci Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of Cucurbitaceae tribe Benincaseae urge for merging of Pilogyne with Zehneria2015In: Phytotaxa, ISSN 1179-3155, E-ISSN 1179-3163, Vol. 236, no 2, p. 173-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tropical cucurbitaceous genus Zehneria as traditionally circumscribed displays much morphological diversity. Recent taxonomic revisions have resulted in its redefinition through both recognition and subsequent lumping of several additional genera. This study utilized plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data to reconstruct a molecular phylogeny of Zehneria and its close relatives in order to test whether these revisions reflected the molecular evolution in this group. The results suggest that Neoachmandra is monophyletic, and that Zehneria in a restricted sense and Neoachmandra accessions form a single monophyletic clade, whereas Pilogyne in its present understanding is polyphyletic. In the light of these results Pilogyne should be merged back into Zehneria from which it was split off earlier.

  • 69.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, Oslo, Norway.;Nat Biodivers Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Ghorbani, Abdolbaset
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Manzanilla, Vincent
    Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, Oslo, Norway..
    Raclariu, Ancuta-Cristina
    Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, Oslo, Norway.;NIRDBIS, Stejarul Res Ctr Biol Sci, Piatra Neamt, Romania..
    Kreziou, Anna
    Argonafton 30, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Ounjai, Sarawut
    Chiang Mai Univ, Dept Biol, Chiang Mai, Thailand..
    Osathanunkul, Maslin
    Chiang Mai Univ, Dept Biol, Chiang Mai, Thailand..
    Gravendeel, Barbara
    Nat Biodivers Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands..
    DNA metabarcoding of orchid-derived products reveals widespread illegal orchid trade2017In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 284, no 1863, article id 20171182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In eastern Mediterranean countries orchids continue to be collected from the wild for the production of salep, a beverage made of dried orchid tubers. In this study we used nrITS1 and nrITS2 DNA metabarcoding to identify orchid and other plant species present in 55 commercial salep products purchased in Iran, Turkey, Greece and Germany. Thirty samples yielded a total of 161 plant taxa, and 13 products (43%) contained orchid species and these belonged to 10 terrestrial species with tuberous roots. Another 70% contained the substitute ingredient Cyamopsis tetraganoloba (Guar). DNA metabarcoding using the barcoding markers nrITS1 and nrITS2 shows the potential of these markers and approach for identification of species used in salep products. The analysis of interspecific genetic distances between sequences of these markers for the most common salep orchid genera shows that species level identifications can be made with a high level of confidence. Understanding the species diversity and provenance of salep orchid tubers will enable the chain of commercialization of endangered species to be traced back to the harvesters and their natural habitats, and thus allow for targeted efforts to protect or sustainably use wild populations of these orchids.

  • 70.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Ichim, Mihael C.
    Newmaster, Steven G.
    DNA Barcoding and Pharmacovigilance of Herbal Medicines2015In: Drug Safety, ISSN 0114-5916, E-ISSN 1179-1942, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 611-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines relies on the product label information regarding the ingredients and the adherence to good manufacturing practices along the commercialisation chain. Several studies have shown that substitution of plant species occurs in herbal medicines, and this in turn poses a challenge to herbal pharmacovigilance as adverse reactions might be due to adulterated or added ingredients. Authentication of constituents in herbal medicines using analytical chemistry methods can help detect contaminants and toxins, but are often limited or incapable of detecting the source of the contamination. Recent developments in molecular plant identification using DNA sequence data enable accurate identification of plant species from herbal medicines using defined DNA markers. Identification of multiple constituent species from compound herbal medicines using amplicon metabarcoding enables verification of labelled ingredients and detection of substituted, adulterated and added species. DNA barcoding is proving to be a powerful method to assess species composition in herbal medicines and has the potential to be used as a standard method in herbal pharmacovigilance research of adverse reactions to specific products.

  • 71.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Kool, Anneleen
    Identifying Medicinal Plant Roots in Trade: DNA barcoding in Morocco2014In: iBOL Barcode Bulletin, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 72.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Kool, Anneleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Björk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Botany.
    Ethnobotanical research and teaching: A Case in Bulgaria2006In: Program of the Society for Economic Botany 47th Annual Meeting, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Bulgarian people in rural areas have a tradition of using herbal medicine as household remedies,

    due partly to the scarcity of pharmaceuticals during the Soviet era. As part of a fieldwork exercise

    in the ethnobotany course taught at Uppsala University students carried out ethnobotanical

    research in different areas in Bulgaria to study and describe these traditions.

    Objectives

    To study: Plants used to treat fevers and cold; plants used to treat wounds and for pain-relief;

    plants grown in home gardens; plants used for magical purposes; and awareness of endangerment

    of medicinally used plants.

    Methods

    Our group of 16 students was divided in groups of two-three students. Each group had written a

    project proposal focusing on one of the study objectives, and carried out this research with the help

    of a Bulgarian translator, who was knowledgeable about the local flora. Three field sites had been

    selected to spread the students throughout the country and to prevent informant fatigue. Interviews

    were semi-structured and if necessary, walks were made with the informants to point out plants and

    collect herbarium vouchers.

    Results

    The students as a whole managed to collect an enormous amount of data in a very short time, and

    some groups carried out as many as 18 interviews during the 8-day field period. Results were

    analyzed per group and presented during a one-day seminar at Ruse University, Bulgaria.

    Conclusion

    Bulgarian villagers, mainly ederly people, rely to a great extent on the use of medicinal plants to

    treat common and non-threatening chronic diseases. These plants are often grown in home

    gardens, and less so collected in the wild. Knowledge is often based on books, and less so on

    maternal or paternal transmission. The people living in Roussenski Lom national park experience

    that most medicinally used wild plants have stayed equal or increased in abundance over the last

    decennium. Carrying out ethnobotanical field research can be effective and efficiently done as part

    of a course training ethnobotany students.

  • 73.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Lamxay, Vichith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Plants used during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum healthcare in Lao PDR: A comparative study of the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups2009In: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, ISSN 1746-4269, E-ISSN 1746-4269, Vol. 5, p. 25-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In many Southeast Asian cultures the activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet, traditional medicine, steam bath and mother roasting (where mother and child placed on a bed above a brazier with charcoal embers on which aromatic plants are laid). This research focuses on the use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare among three ethnic groups, the Brou, Saek and Kry. It aims to identify culturally important traditions that may facilitate implementation of culturally appropriate healthcare.

    Methods

    Data were collected in 10 different villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers.

    Results

    A total of 55 different plant species are used in women's healthcare, of which over 90% are used in postpartum recovery. Consensus Analysis rejects the hypothesis that the three ethnic groups belong to a single culture for postpartum plant use, and multidimensional scaling reveals non-overlapping clusters per ethnic group.

    Conclusion

    Medicinal plant use is common among the Brou, Saek and Kry to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care. The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as confinement, dietary restrictions, mother roasting and herbal steam baths and their incorporation into modern healthcare

  • 74.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Lamxay, Vichith
    Björk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Comparing medicinal plant knowledge using similarity indices: A case of the Brou, Saek and Kry in Lao PDR2012In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 141, no 1, p. 481-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    known traditional ecosystem services, as it provides primary healthcare, contributes to subsistence livelihoods, and for its potential value as a source of novel pharmaceuticals. People living in close contact with their surroundings for many generations are hypothesized to have developed, through trial-and-error, in-depth knowledge of ecosystems, biodiversity, and their management and utility. In the case of medicinal plant knowledge it could lead to an asymptotic climax or a constantly evolving equilibrium of cures with proven efficacy and those under assessment.Methods: An in-depth study of 97 plant species used in traditional medicine by the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups in Lao PDR was made to test similarity in medicinal plant knowledge.Results: Medicinal plants were used in 99 different ways in 510 species-use combinations. Medicinal uses could be generalized into 12 use categories with 747 species-category combinations. Similarity indices show Brou and Saek plant use appears to be most similar (QS(BS): 60.0; JI(BS): 75.1) followed by Kry and Saek (QS(KS): 51.6; JI(KS): 53.4), and then Kry and Brou (QS(BK): 46.9; JI(BK): 44.1).Discussion: Intercultural similarities found are quite low, considering that all three groups share the same geographical and ecological area and have the same dependence on medicinal plants. Intercultural transmission is unimpeded but many treatments are likely to be ineffective. Comparison of the similarities found here with similarities computed from other data show that these results are homologous with other sympatric ethnic groups, and much higher than those for allopatrically living groups.Conclusion: Medicinal plant knowledge does not reach a stable climax, but appears to evolve continually by trial-and-error, as effective cures to many ailments are unavailable.

  • 75.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Lamxay, Vichith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Björk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Steam sauna and mother roasting in Lao PDR: Practices and Chemical constituents of essential oils of plant species used in postpartum recovery2011In: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1472-6882, E-ISSN 1472-6882, Vol. 11, p. 128-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fundamental in traditional postpartum recovery in Lao PDR is the use of hotbeds, mother roasting, steam sauna and steam baths. During these treatments medicinal plants play a crucial role, but little has been published about how the treatments are carried out precisely, which species are used, the medicinal properties of these species, and the medicinal efficacy of their chemical constituents.

    Methods: Sixty-five interviews, in 15 rural villages, with women of 4 different ethnic groups were conducted to survey confinement rituals, and postpartum plant use and salience. Essential oils from the main species used were extracted using steam distillation and the main chemical constituents characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    Results: A total of 10 different species were used by three or more of the ethnic groups included in this study. All species were used in steam sauna and bath, but only 3 species were used in hotbed and mother roasting. Essential oils of Amomum villosum, Amomum microcarpum and Blumea balsamifera were found to contain significant amounts of the following terpenes: β-pinene, camphor, bornyl acetate, borneol, linalool, D-limonene, fenchone, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpinene.

    Conclusions: Many of these terpenes have documented antimicrobial and analgesic properties, and some have also synergistic interactions with other terpenes. The mode of application in hotbed and mother roasting differs from the documented mechanisms of action of these terpenes. Plants in these two practices are likely to serve mainly hygienic purposes, by segregating the mother from infection sources such as beds, mats, stools, cloth and towels. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through inhalation of essential oils vapors can possibly have medicinal efficacy, but is unlikely to alleviate the ailments commonly encountered during postpartum convalescence. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through dermal condensation of essential oils, and steam bath cleansing of the perineal area is possibly a pragmatic use of the reported medicinal plants, as terpene constituents have documented antimicrobial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.

  • 76.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Meyboom, Ronald
    Ericsson, Jenny
    Farah, Mohamed
    Farmacovigilantie van fytotherapeutica door het Uppsala Monitoring Centre2004In: Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Fytotherapie, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 2-4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 77.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Nat Biodivers Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands; Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, Oslo, Norway.
    Ouarghidi, Abderrahim
    Cadi Ayyad Univ, Fac Sci Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco; Global Div Fdn, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Martin, Gary
    Cadi Ayyad Univ, Fac Sci Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco; Global Div Fdn, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Abbad, Abdelaziz
    Cadi Ayyad Univ, Fac Sci Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco; Global Div Fdn, Marrakech, Morocco.
    Kool, Anneleen
    Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, Oslo, Norway.
    DNA Barcoding Reveals Limited Accuracy of Identifications Based on Folk Taxonomy2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 1, article id e84291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The trade of plant roots as traditional medicine is an important source of income for many people around theworld. Destructive harvesting practices threaten the existence of some plant species. Harvesters of medicinal roots identifythe collected species according to their own folk taxonomies, but once the dried or powdered roots enter the chain ofcommercialization, accurate identification becomes more challenging.

    Methodology:

    A survey of morphological diversity among four root products traded in the medina of Marrakech wasconducted. Fifty-one root samples were selected for molecular identification using DNA barcoding using three markers,trnH-psbA, rpoC1, and ITS. Sequences were searched using BLAST against a tailored reference database of Moroccanmedicinal plants and their closest relatives submitted to NCBI GenBank.Principal Findings: Combining psbA-trnH, rpoC1, and ITS allowed the majority of the market samples to be identified tospecies level. Few of the species level barcoding identifications matched the scientific names given in the literature,including the most authoritative and widely cited pharmacopeia.

    Conclusions/Significance:

    The four root complexes selected from the medicinal plant products traded in Marrakech allcomprise more than one species, but not those previously asserted. The findings have major implications for the monitoringof trade in endangered plant species as morphology-based species identifications alone may not be accurate. As a result,trade in certain species may be overestimated, whereas the commercialization of other species may not be recorded at all.

  • 78.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Schaefer, Hanno
    Harvard University, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology.
    Thulin, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Renner, Susanne S.
    University of Munich (LMU), Systematic Botany and Mycology.
    Evolution and loss of long-fringed petals: A case study using a dated phylogeny of the snake gourds, Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae)2012In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 12, p. 108-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The Cucurbitaceae genus Trichosanthes comprises 90–100 species that occur from India to Japan and southeast to Australia and Fiji. Most species have large white or pale yellow petals with conspicuously fringed margins, the fringes sometimes several cm long. Pollination is usually by hawkmoths. Previous molecular data for a small number of species suggested that a monophyletic Trichosanthes might include the Asian genera Gymnopetalum (four species, lacking long petal fringes) and Hodgsonia (two species with petals fringed). Here we test these groups’ relationships using a species sampling of c. 60% and 4759 nucleotides of nuclear and plastid DNA. To infer the time and direction of the geographic expansion of the Trichosanthes clade we employ molecular clock dating and statistical biogeographic reconstruction, and we also address the gain or loss of petal fringes.

    Results

    Trichosanthes is monophyletic as long as it includes Gymnopetalum, which itself is polyphyletic. The closest relative of Trichosanthes appears to be the sponge gourds, Luffa, while Hodgsonia is more distantly related. Of six morphology-based sections in Trichosanthes with more than one species, three are supported by the molecular results; two new sections appear warranted. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses suggest an Oligocene origin of Trichosanthes in Eurasia or East Asia, followed by diversification and spread throughout the Malesian biogeographic region and into the Australian continent.

    Conclusions

    Long-fringed corollas evolved independently in Hodgsonia and Trichosanthes, followed by two losses in the latter coincident with shifts to other pollinators but not with long-distance dispersal events. Together with the Caribbean Linnaeosicyos, the Madagascan Ampelosicyos and the tropical African Telfairia, these cucurbit lineages represent an ideal system for more detailed studies of the evolution and function of petal fringes in plant-pollinator mutualisms.

  • 79.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Steffen, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Wendy, Cooper
    Sunda to Sahul dispersals in Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae): a dated phylogeny reveals five independent dispersal events to Australasia2015In: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 519-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimThe Cucurbitaceae genus Trichosanthes is widespread in Asia and Australia, and previous studies have shown that the genus originated in Asia, and that three independent lineages dispersed through the Sunda archipelago to Australasia. The timing and routes of these three dispersals, as well as the dispersal of two widespread species found in Australia and New Guinea, were investigated. LocationSunda-Sahul dispersals with a focus on New Guinea and Australia. MethodsA combined dataset of nuclear ribosomal (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and plastid DNA (matK, ndhF, rpl20-rps12, rps16) was used for maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis to infer the relationships of the studied taxa. A fossil-calibrated molecular dating was used to time the dispersal events, and a biogeographical analysis was used to study the origin and dispersal of the genus. ResultsThe two widespread species, T. pilosa and T. cucumerina, form monophyletic groups in Australia, suggesting single dispersals. Molecular dating analysis dates four of the dispersal events to the Miocene, and two to the Oligo-Miocene boundary and the initial Sahul shelf collision with the Philippine plate. Most known Sahul-Philippine dispersals concern species that migrated from the Sahul shelf, whereas dispersals south are fewer. Southward Miocene dispersals include species that were present on the Sunda shelf before the tectonic formation of the Makassar Straits. All lineages that dispersed to Australasia have undergone extensive diversification following dispersal. Lineages adapted to wet tropical climates have speciated mostly in New Guinea, and lineages adapted to monsoon tropical climates have speciated mostly in northern Australia. Main conclusionsDispersals in Trichosanthes pre-date human colonization of Australasia, suggesting natural long-distance dispersal and establishment of all lineages. Diversification within lineages found in both Australia and New Guinea is limited, corroborating frequent land connections between these areas during the Pleistocene. Sunda-Sahul dispersals are likely to have been more common through time than previously suggested, especially in genera with floating fruit such as Trichosanthes.

  • 80.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Thulin, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Synopsis of Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae) based on recent molecular phylogenetic data2012In: PhytoKeys, ISSN 1314-2011, E-ISSN 1314-2003, Vol. 12, p. 23-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The snake gourd genus, Trichosanthes, is the largest genus in the Cucurbitaceae family, with over 90 species. Recent molecular phylogenetic data have indicated that the genus Gymnopetalum is to be merged with Trichosanthes to maintain monophyly. A revised infrageneric classification of Trichosanthes including Gymnopetalum is proposed with two subgenera, (I) subg. Scotanthus comb. nov. and (II) subg. Trichosanthes, eleven sections, (i) sect. Asterospermae, (ii) sect. Cucumeroides, (iii) sect. Edulis, (iv) sect. Foliobracteola, (v) sect. Gymnopetalum, (vi) sect. Involucraria, (vii) sect. Pseudovariifera sect. nov., (viii) sect. Villosae star. nov., (ix) sect. Trichosanthes, (x) sect. Tripodanthera, and (xi) sect. Truncata. A synopsis of Trichosanthes with the 91 species recognized here is presented, including four new combinations, Trichosanthes orientalis, Trichosanthes tubiflora, Trichosanthes scabra var. pectinata, Trichosanthes scabra var. penicaudii, and a clarified nomenclature of Trichosanthes costata and Trichosanthes scabra.

  • 81.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Virapongse, Arika
    Workshop: Student Network: Society for Economic Botany Annual Meeting2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Student members of the SEB hold a networking mixer each year in order to meet each other and to become acquainted with a variety of educational programs and faculty advisors. Faculty members who are part of training programs are encouraged to join the mixer to meet and talk with students.

  • 82.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Vongsombath, Chanda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Käfer, Jos
    A Fly in the Ointment: Evaluation of Traditional Use of Plants to Repel and Kill Blowfly Larvae in Fermented Fish2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 12, article id e29521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In rural areas in Laos, fly larvae infestations are common in fermenting fish. Blowflies (Chrysomyamegacephala, Diptera: Calliphoridae) are attracted to oviposit (and/or larviposit) onto fermenting fish which results ininfestations with fly larvae. Knowledge of traditional use of plants to repel larvae during the production of fermented fish iscommon and widespread in Lao PDR.

    Research Questions: How effective are the most salient species in repelling, and killing fly larvae in fermenting fish?

    Material and Methods: The three plant species most frequently reported to repel fly larvae during an ethnobotanical surveythroughout Lao PDR were tested for repellence and larvicidal activity of fly larvae infesting fermented fish. The lethality andrepellence of Tadehagi triquetrum (L.) H. Ohashi (Fabaceae), Uraria crinita (L.) Desv. ex DC. (Fabaceae) and Bambusa multiplex(Lour.) Raeusch. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Poaceae) were tested in an experimental design using fermenting fish in Vientiane,Lao PDR.

    Results: The repellent effect of fresh material of T. triquetrum and U. crinita, and the larvicidal effect of fresh B. multiplex, issignificantly more effective than that of dried material of the same species, and the total effect (repellence and larvicidaleffect combined) for each of the three species was significantly more effective for fresh than for dry material. Fresh materialof T. triquetrum, U. crinita, or B. multiplex added on top of the fermenting fish repelled 50%, 54%, 37%, and killed 22%, 28%,and 40% of fly larvae. The total effect was not significantly different per species at 72%, 82%, and 77%, respectively.

    Discussion and Conclusions: The three most salient species are effective in repelling and killing fly larvae in the productionof fermented fish, and may be essential to augment food safety during traditional fermentation in open jars.

  • 83.
    de Boer, Hugo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, POB 1172 Blindern, Oslo, Norway.
    Newman, Mark
    Royal Bot Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Poulsen, Axel Dalberg
    Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, POB 1172 Blindern, Oslo, Norway; Royal Bot Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Droop, A. Jane
    Royal Bot Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Fer, Tomas
    Charles Univ Prague, Fac Sci, Dept Bot, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Hien, Le Thi Thu
    Vietnam Acad Sci & Technol, Inst Genome Res, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Hlavata, Kristyna
    Charles Univ Prague, Fac Sci, Dept Bot, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Lamxay, Vichith
    Natl Univ Laos, Fac Nat Sci, Dept Biol, Dong Dok, Vientiane, Laos.
    Richardson, James E.
    Royal Bot Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland; Univ Rosario, Programa Biol, Carrera, Bogota, Colombia.
    Steffen, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    Leong-Skornickova, Jana
    Singapore Bot Gardens, Natl Parks Board, Herbarium, Singapore, Singapore.
    Convergent morphology in Alpinieae (Zingiberaceae): Recircumscribing Amomum as a monophyletic genus2018In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 6-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tropical ginger genus Amomum (Zingiberaceae) has always posed challenges for classification based on morphological characters. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies showed Amomum to be paraphyletic but limited sampling and absence of the data of the type Amomum subulatum made it impossible to resolve the paraphyly and make nomenclatural changes. Here, Amomum is further investigated in a multi-marker phylogenetic framework using matK and nrITS including multiple accessions of the type, the genus Elettaria and additional accessions of Amomum, Alpinia, Elettariopsis, Geocharis, Geostachys and Hornstedtia. Amomum is shown to consist of nine clades and Alpinia of six. The genera Elettaria, Elettariopsis, Plagiostachys, and species in Hornstedtia are nested within these clades. Morphological studies of species previously subsumed in Amomum support recognition of new genera that correspond to well-delimited clades in the phylogenetic framework presented here. Recircumscription of the paraphyletic genus Amomum facilitates identification and creates nomenclatural stability. Three genera, Conamomum, Meistera and Wurfbainia, are resurrected, and three new genera Epiamomum, Lanxangia and Sundamomum are described, together with a key to the genera and a nomenclatural synopsis placing 384 specific names (incl. all synonyms) into the new generic framework. Of these 129 represent new combinations and 3 are replacement names. Types of Geocharis and Geostachys are designated. Further studies and specific sampling will be needed to resolve other branches of Alpinioideae containing other polyphyletic genera.

  • 84. Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso
    et al.
    Thulin, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Pasquet, Rémy
    Weeden, Norm
    Lavin, Matt
    Vigna (Leguminosae) sensu lato: The names and identities of the American segregate2011In: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, Vol. 98, no 10, p. 1694-1715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Premise of study: The legume genus Vigna and close relatives have highly elaborated floral morphologies that involve the coiling, bending, and intricate connection of flower parts. Banners, levers, platforms, and pumps have evolved that attract pollinators and then manipulate their movement. Given this three-dimensional floral complexity, the taxonomy of Vigna and relatives has been confounded by the study of mostly two-dimensional museum specimens. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was undertaken in the effort to resolve long-standing taxonomic questions centered on floral morphology.

    Methods: The phylogenetic analysis included cpDNA trnK and nuclear ribosomal ITS/5.8S (ITS) sequence variation. The American species were comprehensively sampled and outgroups included Old World relatives.

    Key results: The trnK and ITS data analyses concurred in resolving six well-supported clades of American Vigna that are most closely related to other American genera: Dolichopsis, Macroptilium, Mysanthus, Oryxis, Oxyrhynchus, Phaseolus, Ramirezella, and Strophostyles. These 14 American clades ranked here as genera are resolved as sister to a clade comprising the mainly Old World species of Vigna.

    Conclusions: American Vigna clades were reassigned to the genera Ancistrotropis, Cochliasanthus, Condylostylis, Leptospron, Sigmoidotropis, and the newly described Helicotropis. Vigna sensu stricto in the Americas now includes relatively few and mostly pantropical species. Elaborate floral asymmetries are readily used to apomorphically diagnose nearly all of the American genera. The age estimates of the extant diversification of the American and its Old World sister clade are approximately coeval at ca. 6–7 million yr, which belies much greater floral variation in the Americas.

  • 85. Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso
    et al.
    Thulin, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Pasquet, Rémy
    Weeden, Norm
    Lavin, Matt
    Vigna (Leguminosae) sensu lato: The names and identities of the American segregate genera2011In: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, Vol. 98, no 10, p. 1694-1715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Premise of study: The legume genus Vigna and close relatives have highly elaborated floral morphologies that involve the coiling, bending, and intricate connection of flower parts. Banners, levers, platforms, and pumps have evolved that attract pollinators and then manipulate their movement. Given this three-dimensional floral complexity, the taxonomy of Vigna and relatives has been confounded by the study of mostly two-dimensional museum specimens. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was undertaken in the effort to resolve long-standing taxonomic questions centered on floral morphology. Methods: The phylogenetic analysis included cpDNA trnK and nuclear ribosomal ITS/5.8S (ITS) sequence variation. The American species were comprehensively sampled and outgroups included Old World relatives. Key results: The trnK and ITS data analyses concurred in resolving six well-supported clades of American Vigna that are most closely related to other American genera: Dolichopsis, Macroptilium, Mysanthus, Oryxis, Oxyrhynchus, Phaseolus, Ramirezella, and Strophostyles. These 14 American clades ranked here as genera are resolved as sister to a clade comprising the mainly Old World species of Vigna. Conclusions: American Vigna clades were reassigned to the genera Ancistrotropis, Cochliasanthus, Condylostylis, Leptospron, Sigmoidotropis, and the newly described Helicotropis. Vigna sensu stricto in the Americas now includes relatively few and mostly pantropical species. Elaborate floral asymmetries are readily used to apomorphically diagnose nearly all of the American genera. The age estimates of the extant diversification of the American and its Old World sister clade are approximately coeval at ca. 6-7 million yr, which belies much greater floral variation in the Americas.

  • 86.
    Deng, Pan
    et al.
    Huazhong Univ Sci & Technol, State Key Lab Digital Mfg Equipment & Technol, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples R China.
    Fu, Cheng-Jie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Wu, Zhigang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology. Huazhong Univ Sci & Technol, State Key Lab Digital Mfg Equipment & Technol, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples R China.
    High purity and viability cell separation of a bacterivorous jakobid flagellate based on a steep velocity gradient induced soft inertial force2018In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 8, no 62, p. 35512-35520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell separation is one of the key limiting factors for precise analysis of non-axenic microbial lab cultures or environmental samples, and it remains a challenge to isolate target cells with high purity and viability via high-throughput cell sorting. During the past decade, hydrodynamic microfluidic platforms have attracted great attention in cell preparation for their high efficiency, robust performance and low cost. Here, we employ the use of a low-velocity sheath flow with high viscosity near the wall and a high-velocity sheath flow with low viscosity on the other side of the sample flow in a soft inertial separation chip. This not only prevents hard interactions between cells and chip walls but, in comparison to previous inertial separation methods, generates a significant increase in deflection of large cells while keeping the small ones in the original flow. We first conducted experiments on a mixture of small and large fluorescent particles (1.0 and 9.9 m, respectively) and removed over 99% of the small particles. The separation efficiency was then tested on a culture of a bacterivorous jakobid flagellate, Seculamonas ecuadoriensis fed on the live bacterium, Klebsiella sp. Using our microfluidic chip, over 94% of live bacteria were removed while maintaining high jakobid cell viability. For comparison, we also conducted size-based cell sorting of the same culture using flow cytometry, which is widely used as a rapid and automated separation tool. Compared with the latter, our chip showed more than 40% higher separation efficiency. Thus, our device provides high purity and viability for cell separation of a sensitive cell sample (jakobid cells). Potentially, the method can be further used for applications in diagnostics, biological analyses and environmental assessment of mixed microbial samples.

  • 87. Dillman, Karen L.
    et al.
    Ahti, Teuvo
    Bjoerk, Curtis R.
    Clerc, Philippe
    Ekman, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Goward, Trevor
    Hafellner, Josef
    Perez-Ortega, Sergio
    Printzen, Christian
    Savic, Sanja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Schultz, Matthias
    Svensson, Mans
    Thor, Goran
    Tonsberg, Tor
    Vitikainen, Orvo
    Westberg, Martin
    Spribille, Toby
    New records, range extensions and nomenclatural innovations for lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Alaska, USA2012In: Herzogia, ISSN 0018-0971, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 177-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New records, range extensions and nomenclatural innovations for lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Alaska, U.S.A. - Herzogia 25: 177-210. Surveys of lichens and lichenicolous fungi have been taking place in the U.S. state of Alaska for more than 160 years, but until now assessing the full extent of their diversity has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive and synonymized baseline inventory. In this paper we will begin to redress this by resolving outstanding nomenclatural issues and providing voucher data for a forthcoming catalog of Alaskan lichens, specifically: 1) synonymization,and/or resolution of status of species previously reported from Alaska, with emphasis on Alaskan types; 2) species new to the Alaska lichen biota; and 3) biogeographically significant new records from within Alaska. We report 91 species new to the flora of Alaska, including 65 lichens, three saprophytic calicioid fungi and 23 lichenicolous fungi. Of these, we report thirteen species, Biatora sphaeroidiza, Biatorella conspurcans, Chaenothecopsis arthoniae, Collemopsidium foveolatum, Dactylospora frigida, Halospora discrepans, Lecanora bryopsora, Opegrapha geographicola, Peltigera lyngei, Petractis clausa, Protoblastenia cyclospora, Thelocarpon impressellum and Usnea cylindrica as new to North America. In addition, Arthonia pruinata and Flavocetraria minuscula are new to Canada and Adelococcus alpestris new to the United States. We further place the following five names into synonymy: Lecania disceptans (Nyl.) Lynge [= Halecania alpivaga (Th.Fr.) M.Mayrhofer], Lecidea pallidella Nyl. [= Lecania subfuscula (Nyl.) S.Ekman], Lempholemma triptodes (Nyl.) Zahlbr. Leciophysma finmarkicum Th.Fr.), Polyblastia obtenta (Nyl.) Lynge [= Sporodictyon terrestre (Th.Fr.) S.Savic & Tibell], and Verrucaria pernigrata Nyl. [= Protothelenella sphinctrinoides (Nyl.) H.Mayrhofer & Poelt]. We propose restoring the long overlooked taxon Polyblastia exalbida (Nyl.) Zahlbr., currently known only from Alaska, to the North American lichen checklist. Finally, we propose the new combination Puttea caesia (Fr.) M.Svensson & T.Sprib. to replace Lecidea symmictella Nyl., which becomes a synonym.

  • 88.
    Dirks-Mulder, Anita
    et al.
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Endless Forms Grp, Vondellaan 55, NL-2332 AA Leiden, Netherlands.;Univ Appl Sci Leiden, Fac Sci & Technol, Zernikedreef 11, NL-2333 CK Leiden, Netherlands..
    Butot, Roland
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Endless Forms Grp, Vondellaan 55, NL-2332 AA Leiden, Netherlands..
    van Schaik, Peter
    Univ Appl Sci Leiden, Fac Sci & Technol, Zernikedreef 11, NL-2333 CK Leiden, Netherlands..
    Wijnands, Jan Willem P. M.
    Univ Appl Sci Leiden, Fac Sci & Technol, Zernikedreef 11, NL-2333 CK Leiden, Netherlands..
    van den Berg, Roel
    Univ Appl Sci Leiden, Fac Sci & Technol, Zernikedreef 11, NL-2333 CK Leiden, Netherlands..
    Krol, Louie
    Univ Appl Sci Leiden, Fac Sci & Technol, Zernikedreef 11, NL-2333 CK Leiden, Netherlands..
    Doebar, Sadhana
    Univ Appl Sci Leiden, Fac Sci & Technol, Zernikedreef 11, NL-2333 CK Leiden, Netherlands..
    van Kooperen, Kelly
    Univ Appl Sci Leiden, Fac Sci & Technol, Zernikedreef 11, NL-2333 CK Leiden, Netherlands..
    de Boer, Hugo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Endless Forms Grp, Vondellaan 55, NL-2332 AA Leiden, Netherlands.;Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, POB 1172 Blindern, N-0318 Oslo, Norway..
    Kramer, Elena M.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Organism & Evolutionary Biol, 16 Div Ave, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Smets, Erik F.
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Endless Forms Grp, Vondellaan 55, NL-2332 AA Leiden, Netherlands.;Katholieke Univ Leuven, Ecol Evolut & Biodivers Conservat cluster, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Vos, Rutger A.
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Endless Forms Grp, Vondellaan 55, NL-2332 AA Leiden, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Inst Biodivers & Ecosyst Dynam, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Vrijdaghs, Alexander
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Ecol Evolut & Biodivers Conservat cluster, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Gravendeel, Barbara
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Endless Forms Grp, Vondellaan 55, NL-2332 AA Leiden, Netherlands.;Univ Appl Sci Leiden, Fac Sci & Technol, Zernikedreef 11, NL-2333 CK Leiden, Netherlands.;Leiden Univ, Inst Biol, Sylviusweg 72, NL-2333 BF Leiden, Netherlands..
    Exploring the evolutionary origin of floral organs of Erycina pusilla, an emerging orchid model system2017In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 17, article id 89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Thousands of flowering plant species attract pollinators without offering rewards, but the evolution of this deceit is poorly understood. Rewardless flowers of the orchid Erycina pusilla have an enlarged median sepal and incised median petal ('lip') to attract oil-collecting bees. These bees also forage on similar looking but rewarding Malpighiaceae flowers that have five unequally sized petals and gland-carrying sepals. The lip of E. pusilla has a 'callus' that, together with winged 'stelidia', mimics these glands. Different hypotheses exist about the evolutionary origin of the median sepal, callus and stelidia of orchid flowers. Results: The evolutionary origin of these organs was investigated using a combination of morphological, molecular and phylogenetic techniques to a developmental series of floral buds of E. pusilla. The vascular bundle of the median sepal indicates it is a first whorl organ but its convex epidermal cells reflect convergence of petaloid features. Expression of AGL6 EpMADS4 and APETALA3 EpMADS14 is low in the median sepal, possibly correlating with its petaloid appearance. A vascular bundle indicating second whorl derivation leads to the lip. AGL6 EpMADS5 and APETALA3 EpMADS13 are most highly expressed in lip and callus, consistent with current models for lip identity. Six vascular bundles, indicating a stamen-derived origin, lead to the callus, stelidia and stamen. AGAMOUS is not expressed in the callus, consistent with its sterilization. Out of three copies of AGAMOUS and four copies of SEPALLATA, EpMADS22 and EpMADS6 are most highly expressed in the stamen. Another copy of AGAMOUS, EpMADS20, and the single copy of SEEDSTICK, EpMADS23, are most highly expressed in the stelidia, suggesting EpMADS22 may be required for fertile stamens. Conclusions: The median sepal, callus and stelidia of E. pusilla appear to be derived from a sepal, a stamen that gained petal identity, and stamens, respectively. Duplications, diversifying selection and changes in spatial expression of different MADS-box genes shaped these organs, enabling the rewardless flowers of E. pusilla to mimic an unrelated rewarding flower for pollinator attraction. These genetic changes are not incorporated in current models and urge for a rethinking of the evolution of deceptive flowers.

  • 89.
    Ekenäs, C
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Andreasen, K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Chloroplast DNA evidence on phylogeny of Arnica (Asteraceae–Madieae): comparisons with nuclear ribosomal DNA data.2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Ekenäs, Catarina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Heidari, Nahid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Andreasen, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Arnica (Asteraceae) phylogeny revisited using RPB2: Complex patterns and multiple d-paralogues2012In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 261-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The region coding for the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2) was explored for resolving interspecific relationships in Arnica and lower level taxa in general. The region between exons 17 and 23 was cloned and sequenced for 33 accessions of Arnica and four outgroup taxa. Three paralogues of the RPB2-d copy (RPB2-dA, B and C) were detected in Arnica and outgroup taxa, indicating that the duplications must have occurred before the divergence of Arnica. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of separate alignments of the three copies reveal complex patterns in Arnica, likely reflecting a history of lineage sorting in combination with apomixis, polyploidization, and possibly hybridization. Cloned sequences of some taxa do not form monophyletic clades within paralogues, but form multiple strongly supported clades with sequences of other taxa. Some well supported groups are present in more than one paralogue and many groups are in line with earlier hypotheses regarding interspecific relationships within the genus. Low levels of homoplasy in combination with relatively high sequence variation indicates that the introns of the RPB2 region could be suitable for phylogenetic studies in low level taxonomy.

  • 91.
    Elmhalli, Fawzeia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. uppsala university.
    Plants as Sources of Natural and Effective Acaricides: Against Ixodes ricinus  (Acari: Ixodidae)2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are major health hazards worldwide, with increasing numbers of cases of Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis reported yearly. Meanwhile, concerns about the environmental impact and safety of chemical acaricides are driving research into alternative control methods, such as plant-based acaricides. I evaluated eight plant species for their toxicity and repellency against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae), the most important life cycle stage of tick-borne infection of humans.

    Paper I examines the toxicity of the principal active component of the essential oil (EO) of lemon eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora), p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD). At 4 h of exposure time (ET), lethal PMD concentrations for 50% mortality (LC50) were 0.035–0.037 mg/cm² and for 95% mortality (LC95) were 0.095-0.097 mg/cm². For 0.1 mg/cm², lethal times for 50% mortality (LT50) were 2.1-2.8 h and for 95% mortality (LT95) were 3.9-4.2 h. An open filter assay gave the most consistent results of five methods tried. Paper II investigated the toxicity of ylang-ylang oil (YYO) and star anise oil (SAO), two naturally occurring, commercially available and inexpensive EOs. Oils were tested at 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4μl/cm², and dead nymphs counted at 30-min intervals up to 5h and then at 24, 48 and 72h. For YYO, an exposure of 4.4h resulted in LC95 for 0.4 μl/cm² and LC50 for 0.2μl/cm². The LT95 was 3h for 0.4 μl YYO/cm² and 4.3 h for 0.2 μl/cm². For SAO, the highest concentration (0.4 μl/cm²) only reached LC50 at 14 h and LT95 was 24h. Thus, YYO is a much stronger acaricide but SAO still showed significant toxicity.

    Paper III investigated two plants of traditional medicinal or economic importance in Libya -Salvadora persica, (Miswak) and Rosmarinus officinalis (Libyan Rosemary). EOs were extracted from wild-collected leaves by steam distillation. Oils were tested on I. ricinus nymphs and their chemical composition analysed by GC-MS. R. officinalis EO at 0.5 and 1µl/cm² exhibited 20% and 100% mortality, respectively, after about 5h of ET. The LC50 and LC95 for 1µl/cm² R. officinalis oil were 0.7 and 0.95 µl/cm², respectively. S. persica oil at 1µl/cm² gave 95% repellency up to 1.5h, reducing to 50% at around 5.45 h, but no significant mortality even after 24h ET. GC-MS analysis showed both oils to be rich in the monoterpenes 1,8 cineol, α-pinene and β-pinene with values of 20.8%, 5.9% and 16.8 %, respectively, for S. persica and 24.07%, 13.03% and 2.45%, respectively, for R. officinalis.

    Paper IV investigated EOs extracted from leaves of three additional native Libyan plants - Artemisia herba alba (white wormwood), Origanum majorana (oregano) and Juniperus phoenicea (Ar-aar). At 1µl/cm², the LT95 for both A. herba and J. phoenicea EO was 2h versus 72 h for O. majorana oil. GC-MS analyses gave plant specific combinations of the monoterenoids α-pinene, 1,8-cineol, camphor, linalool, terpinene-4-ol, α-terpinol, β-caryophyllene and β-thujanone. EO of A.herba alba contained most of the oxygenated monoterpenes, which all are all known to have insecticidal activity.

    Taken together, all the EOs used in this study show a broad spectrum of effects against I. ricinus nymphs, making them good candidates for controlling ticks and, thereby, the diseases they carry.

  • 92.
    Elmhalli, Fawzeia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. uppsala university.
    Garboui, Samira S.
    Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya. .
    Karlson, Anna Karin Borg
    Department of Chemistry, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mozūraitis, Raimondas
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Baldauf, Sandra L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Grandi, Giulio
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden..
    Toxicity against Ixodes ricinus nymphs of essential oils from the Libyan plants Artemisia herba alba, Origanum majorana and Juniperus phoeniceaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) is a major vector for the transmission of several important human pathogens. The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of different concentrations of essential oils (Eos) on I. ricinus tick nymphs. Oils were obtained from the leaves of three plants native to Libya: white wormwood (Artemisia herba alba Asso), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) and Arâr (Juniperus phoenicea L., English common name Phoenician juniper). Assays were done using the “open filter paper method". Two concentrations from each oil, 0.5 and 1µl/cm, were tested. And the toxic effect was measured in terms of the lethal concentrations (LC50, LC95) and lethal time (LT50, LT95). Mortality rates were obtained by counting the surviving nymphs every 30 minutes for the first five hours and then at 24, 48 and 72 h. A mortality of 100% was recorded at the higher concentration of oils (1µl/cm²) from A. herba alba and J. phoenicea at the first 2 hours of exposure. With O. majorana 100% mortality was only reached on the third day (72h), and this effect decreased noticeably with 0.5µl/cm² oil at the same exposure time. However, 50% of ticks showed a paralysis effect and less movement after 2 hours. Whereas the LC50 of mortality was reached within the first 24h of ET at 0.5µl/cm² of O. majorana, which produced 60% tick’s mortality. Chemical composition of the essential oils was elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. These results suggest that essential oils merit further investigation as components of alternative approaches for I. ricinus tick control.

     

  • 93.
    Elmhalli, Fawzeia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Univ Benghazi, Fac Publ Hlth, Dept Infect Dis & Trop Dis, Dept Environm Hlth, Benghazi, Libya.
    Garboui, Samira S.
    Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya. .
    Karlson, Anna Karin M. Borg
    Department of Chemistry, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mozuraitis, Raimondas
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Baldauf, Sandra L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Grandi, Giulio
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    The repellency and toxicity effects of Essential oils from the Libyan plants Salvadora persica and Rosmarinus officinalis against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus.2019In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 77, no 4, p. 585-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Essential oils extracted from the leaves of Libyan Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and Miswak (Salvadora persica L.) were evaluated for their acaricidal and repellent effects on Ixodes ricinus L. nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae) using a bioassay based on an “open filter paper method".  R. officinalis leaf essential oil diluted to 0.5 and 1µl/cm ² in acetone exhibited, respectively, 20% and 100% tick mortality after about 5 hours of exposure. A total of 50% and 95% of I. ricinus nymphs were killed by direct contact with the oil when exposed to lethal concentrations (LC) of 0.7µl/cm² (LC50) and 0.95 µl/cm² (LC95), respectively. The LC50 (0.5µl/cm²) was reached before the end of the first 24 hours of exposure time (ET), as tick mortality at 24 hours was 60%. S. persica leaf essential oil at 1µl/cm² showed a significant repellency effect against I. ricinus nymphs at 1.5 hours ET. A 95% repellency was observed at a repellent concentration (RC95) of 1µl/cm² of S. persica, but no significant mortality was recorded at this dose of S. persica oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed that the main monoterpenes in both oils were 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, and β-pinene, although in markedly different proportions. These results suggest that essential oils have substantial potential as alternative approaches for I. ricinus tick control.

  • 94.
    Elmhalli, Fawzeia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Palsson, Katinka
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ecol Chem Grp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Grandi, Giulio
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Acaricidal properties of ylang-ylang oil and star anise oil against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae)2018In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 209-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ylang-ylang oil (YYO) from Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson and star anise oil (SAO) from Illicium verum Hook.f. were tested at four concentrations 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mu l/cm(2). Mortality rates were obtained by counting dead nymphs at 30-min intervals during the first 5h after the start of exposure and then at 24, 48 and 72h. Mortality increased with increasing oil concentration and time of exposure. The two highest concentrations of YYO (0.2, 0.4 mu l/cm(2)) gave maximum lethal concentrations (LC) of 50 and 95% mortality after 4.5h exposure. Mortality of 95% was obtained after 24h with the next highest dose (0.1 mu l/cm(2)), whereas LC95 required 3days with the lowest YYO (0.05 mu l/cm(2)). The lethal effect time (LT) was correlated with the duration of exposure, with a significant effect at 0.4l YYO/cm(2) after 3h' (LT50=3.2h, LT95=4.3h). In contrast, only the highest concentration of SAO, 0.4 mu l SAO/cm(2), showed increasing mortality with time of exposure. This reached LT50 after 10h and LT95 after 24h. However, with the lower concentration (0.2 mu l/cm(2)) 50% mortality was reached after 24h and 100% at 72h. At to the lowest concentration of SAO (0.1 mu l/cm(2)), 67% mortality after 48h. The study indicates that YYO and SAO exhibit strong acaricidal properties against nymphs of I. ricinus and suggest that both YYO and SAO should be evaluated as potentially useful in the control of ticks.

  • 95. Ertz, Damien
    et al.
    Bungartz, Frank
    Diederich, Paul
    Tibell, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Molecular and morphological data place Blarneya in Tylophoron (Arthoniaceae)2011In: The Lichenologist, ISSN 0024-2829, E-ISSN 1096-1135, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 345-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on morphological, anatomical, chemical, ecological and molecular evidence, Blarneya is synonymized here with Tylophoron. The molecular phylogeny derived from sequences obtained from sporodochia of Blarneya places this genus, described to accommodate an anamorphic lichen with white cushion-shaped sporodochia, within Tylophoron. This conclusion is further supported by the discovery of Tylophoron-type ascomata emerging directly from thalli with Blarneya-type sporodochia and producing identical hyaline conidia. In one specimen pycnidia were also observed. This represents a surprising variety of morphologically different conidiomata. A different anamorphic type was previously reported from Tylophoron, and this is confirmed here by molecular analysis for T. moderatum: besides thalli with ascomata this species has anamorphic thalli with an irregularly delimited brown sporodochial felt and brown conidia. Ascomata are not known from these entirely anamorphic thalli, whereas they do occur infrequently in Tylophoron species with Blarneya-type sporodochia. A key to all currently accepted species of Tylophoron is provided. In addition to the corticolous Tylophoron hibernicum, confined to humid forests, two saxicolous species with Blarneya-type sporodochia are described here as new: T. galapagoense, known only from Galapagos, differs from T. hibernicum by a thicker, more compact, beige rather than white, more strongly C+ red thallus, growing below sheltered rock overhangs in dry forests; T. stalactiticum has a C- thallus with stipitate, white, C+ red sporodochia; the species is known only from a single locality in Tenerife, on a large slope with volcanic boulders.

  • 96. Escudero, Marcial
    et al.
    Martin-Bravo, Santiago
    Mayrose, Itay
    Fernandez-Mazuecos, Mario
    Fiz-Palacios, Omar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Hipp, Andrew L.
    Pimentel, Manuel
    Jimenez-Mejias, Pedro
    Valcarcel, Virginia
    Vargas, Pablo
    Luceno, Modesto
    Karyotypic Changes through Dysploidy Persist Longer over Evolutionary Time than Polyploid Changes2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 1, p. e85266-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromosome evolution has been demonstrated to have profound effects on diversification rates and speciation in angiosperms. While polyploidy has predated some major radiations in plants, it has also been related to decreased diversification rates. There has been comparatively little attention to the evolutionary role of gains and losses of single chromosomes, which may or not entail changes in the DNA content (then called aneuploidy or dysploidy, respectively). In this study we investigate the role of chromosome number transitions and of possible associated genome size changes in angiosperm evolution. We model the tempo and mode of chromosome number evolution and its possible correlation with patterns of cladogenesis in 15 angiosperm clades. Inferred polyploid transitions are distributed more frequently towards recent times than single chromosome gains and losses. This is likely because the latter events do not entail changes in DNA content and are probably due to fission or fusion events (dysploidy), as revealed by an analysis of the relationship between genome size and chromosome number. Our results support the general pattern that recently originated polyploids fail to persist, and suggest that dysploidy may have comparatively longer-term persistence than polyploidy. Changes in chromosome number associated with dysploidy were typically observed across the phylogenies based on a chi-square analysis, consistent with these changes being neutral with respect to diversification.

  • 97. Estrada-Pena, Agustín
    et al.
    Farkas, Robert
    Jaenson, Thomas G.T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Madder, Maxime
    Pascucci, Ilaria
    Tarrés-Call, Jordi
    European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy.
    Scientific opinion on the Role of Tick Vectors in the Epidemiology of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever and African Swine Fever in Eurasia: EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare2010In: EFSA Journal, ISSN 1831-4732, Vol. 8, no 8, p. 1-156, article id 1703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The report provides an update on the role of the tick vectors in the epidemiology of African swine fever (ASF) and Crimean and Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Eurasia, specifically to review of the geographical distribution of the relevant ticks with presentation of maps of their occurrence in Europe and Mediterranean basin; a description of the factors that define the relevant tick population dynamics and identify possible high risk areas in the EU; an update on the role of tick vectors associated with CCHF and ASF in Eurasia; and reviews available methods for the control of the relevant tick vectors. Data were collected through systematic literature review in a database from which maps of geographic distribution of ticks, CCHF virus and ASF virus were issued. The main vectors for CCHF are Hyalomma spp, Increase in the number of fragmented areas and the degradation of agricultural lands to bush lands are the two main factors in the creation of new foci of CCHF in endemic areas. Movement of livestock and wildlife species, which may carry infected ticks, contributes to the spread of the infection. The Middle East and Balkan countries are the most likely sources of introduction of CCHFV into other European countries. All the Ornithodoros species investigated so far can become infective with ASF virus and are perhaps biological vectors. These ticks are important in maintaining the local foci of the ASFV, but do not play an active role in the geographical spread of the virus. Wild boars have never been found infested by Ornithodoros spp. because wild boars normally do not rest inside protected burrows, but above the ground. There is no single ideal solution to the control of ticks relevant for CCHF or ASF. The integrated control approach is probably the most effective.

  • 98. Estrada-Peña, A.
    et al.
    Farkas, R.
    Jaenson, Thomas GT
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Koenen, F.
    Madder, M.
    Pascucci, I.
    Salman, M.
    Tarrés-Call, J.
    Jongejan, F.
    Association of environmental traits with the geographic ranges of ticks (Acari Ixodidae) of medical and veterinary importance in the western Palearctic: a digital data set2013In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 351-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compiled information on the distribution of ticks in the western Palearctic (11°W, 45°E; 29°N, 71°N), published during 1970-2010. The literature search was filtered by the tick's species name and an unambiguous reference to the point of capture. Records from some curated collections were included. We focused on tick species of importance to human and animal health, in particular: Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, H. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. bursa, and the R. sanguineus group. A few records of other species (I. canisuga, I. hexagonus, Hy. impeltatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. excavatum, Hy. scupense) were also included. A total of 10,280 records was included in the data set. Almost 42 % of published references are not adequately referenced (and not included in the data set), host is reported for only 61 % of records and a reference to time of collection is missed for 84 % of published records. Ixodes ricinus accounted for 44.3 % of total records, with H. marginatum and D. marginatus accounting for 7.1 and 8.1 % of records, respectively. The lack of homogeneity of the references and potential pitfalls in the compilation were addressed to create a digital data set of the records of the ticks. We attached to every record a coherent set of quantitative descriptors for the site of reporting, namely gridded interpolated monthly climate and remotely sensed data on vegetation (NDVI). We also attached categorical descriptors of the habitat: a standard classification of land biomes and an ad hoc classification of the target territory from remotely sensed temperature and NDVI data. A descriptive analysis of the data revealed that a principal components reduction of the environmental (temperature and NDVI) variables described the distribution of the species in the target territory. However, categorical descriptors of the habitat were less effective. We stressed the importance of building reliable collections of ticks with specific references as to collection point, host and date of capture. The data set is freely downloadable.

  • 99. Estrada-Peña, Agustín
    et al.
    Farkas, Robert
    Jaenson, Thomas G. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Madder, Maxime
    Pascucci, Ilaria
    Salman, Mo
    Tarrés-Call, Jordi
    European Food Safety (EFSA), Parma, Italy.
    Scientific opinion on geographic distribution of tick-borne infections and their vectors in Europe and the other regions of the Mediterranean Basin: EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW)2010In: EFSA Journal, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 1723 [280 pp.]-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the second of a series of two technical assessments of the role of ticks in transmission of animal diseases and zoonoses in Eurasia. A previous published scientific opinion (EFSA 2010a) focused on two diseases- Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and African swine fever in Eurasia. The aim of this report is to provide a general overview of the geographic distribution of tick species which have proven involvement in the transmission of pathogens causing animal diseases and zoonoses in Eurasia.The report provides a review of the geographic distribution of the relevant tick species and TBDs in Eurasia by producing maps of the region that display the occurrences of ticks and tick borne pathogens. Systematic literature review of available publications for the last 10 years and other available literature from the experts were used in the retrieval of the geographical reported cases for the presence of ticks and tick borne pathogens. The report includes a description of the factors that influence the dynamics of the relevant tick species and identify possible high-risk areas in the EU for introduction considering the biological and ecological characteristics of the ticks and their ability to adapt to new areas. Surveillance tools and control measures for ticks were discussed.Findings from this review have provided evidence of the extent of ticks and TBDs in geographical ranges and the existing risk areas that should be considered as baseline information to assess potential risk of these diseases. The report indicates the validity of using available literature to support the presence of ticks and TBDs without further predication using weather and other environmental factors associated with the survival of the ticks. Surveillance tools for the detection of the ticks and their control measures are discussed in this report. The report concluded that animal and human movement play a significant impact on the spread of the ticks and TBDs. Climate changes and flight pattern of migratory birds can influence the presence and spread of the ticks and TBDs, These two factors acting by themselves have not been determined be responsible for the widespread distribution of ticks.

  • 100.
    Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Sect Pathol, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Morrison, David A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Osterberg, Julia
    Natl Vet Inst SVA, S-75189 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ytrehus, Bjornar
    Norwegian Inst Nat Res NINA, Terr Ecol Dept, N-7485 Trondheim, Norway..
    Heldmer, Eva
    Swedish Anim Hlth Serv SvDHV, S-46432 Mellerud, Sweden..
    Ekman, Stina
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Sect Pathol, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Osteochondrosis, but not lameness, is more frequent among free-range pigs than confined herd-mates2015In: ACTA VETERINARIA SCANDINAVICA, ISSN 0044-605X, Vol. 57, article id 63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organic pig production is expanding and amongst the objectives of organic farming are enhancing animal health and welfare. However, some studies have reported a higher prevalence of lameness and joint condemnation at slaughter in free-range/organic pigs than in conventionally raised pigs. Organic slaughter pigs have free-range housing in which indoor and outdoor access is compulsory, while in conventional farming the pigs are commonly confined to indoor pens. The present study evaluated the effects of free-range and confined housing on lameness prevalence in a herd of 106 finisher pigs, and whether osteochondrosis and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae associated arthritis influences these effects. We also evaluated the association between clinical lameness during the rearing period and joint condemnations at slaughter. Results: Seventy free-range and 36 confined housed fattener pigs were scored for their gait twice during the rearing period and 848 joints were evaluated post mortem. Osteochondrosis was more frequent among free-range than confined pigs (P < 0.05), and when present it was also more severe (P < 0.001). Pigs with more numerous and more severe osteochondral lesions had their gait affected more than did pigs with fewer such lesions (P < 0.05). Hence it was a paradox that we did not detect more lameness among the free-range pigs than the confined pigs. E. rhusiopathiae associated arthritis was not diagnosed. The association between gait remarks/clinical lameness and joint condemnations at slaughter was not significant. Conclusions: The results indicate that free-range housing may have both positive and negative effects on locomotory traits. Free-range pigs may be less clinically affected by osteochondrosis than are confined pigs. One explanation for this effect may be strengthening of joint supportive tissue and pain relief promoted by exercise. Visual gait scoring missed serious joint lesions that probably were harmful to the pigs, and should therefore not be used as a sole indicator of joint/leg health in welfare inspection of pigs. The association between gait scores and joint condemnation appeared to be poor. This study was limited to one herd, and so more and larger studies on the effects of free-range housing on lameness severity and osteochondrosis development in pigs are recommended.

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