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  • 51.
    Rytter, Elisabet
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Johansson, Clara
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Sjödin, Anders
    Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Life Science, University of Copenhagen.
    Möller, Lennart
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Åkesson, Björn
    Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Biomedical Nutrition, Lunds University.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Biomarkers of oxidative stress in overweight men are not influenced by a combination of antioxidants2010In: Free radical research, ISSN 1071-5762, E-ISSN 1029-2470, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 522-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of antioxidant supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress was investigated in a 6-week intervention study in 60 overweight men. The supplement contained a combination of antioxidants aiming to correspond to the antioxidant content found in a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. Placebo, single or double dose of antioxidants was provided to the subjects. Metabolic variables, plasma antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and DNA damage) were measured. No effect of supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress was observed. Both intervention groups showed substantial increases of plasma antioxidants. This study demonstrated that supplementation with a combination of antioxidants did not affect lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in overweight men, despite increased concentrations of plasma antioxidants. The absence of antioxidant supplement effect might possibly be explained by the chosen study group having a normal level of oxidative stress, duration of the intervention and/or doses of antioxidants.

     

  • 52.
    Rytter, Elisabet
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Uppsala University.
    Åsgård, Rikard
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Ersson, Clara
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Moussavian, Shahnaz
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Sjödin, Anders
    Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Life Science, University of Copenhagen.
    Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne
    National Food Administration.
    Möller, Lennart
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Supplementation with a combination of antioxidants does not affect glycaemic control, oxidative stress or inflammation in type 2 diabetes subjects2010In: Free radical research, ISSN 1071-5762, E-ISSN 1029-2470, Vol. 44, no 12, p. 1445-1453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present clinical trial examined the influence of a supplement, containing a combination of antioxidants extracted from fruit, berries and vegetables, on levels of plasma antioxidants (tocopherols, carotenoids and ascorbate), glycaemic control (blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin), oxidative stress biomarkers (F2-isoprostane, malondialdehyd, nitrotyrosine, 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, formamidopyrimidine glycosylase sites, frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes) and inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, prostaglandin F-metabolite) in type 2 diabetes. Forty subjects were randomly assigned to control, single or double dose group and completed the study. In summary, 12 weeks of antioxidant supplementation did neither affect glycaemic control nor the levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress or inflammation, despite substantially increased plasma concentrations of antioxidants. The absence of an effect may be explained by the selected study subjects with relatively well-controlled diabetes, a high intake of fruit and vegetable and levels of plasma antioxidants, biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers comparable to those found in healthy subjects.

  • 53. Selin, Jinjin Zheng
    et al.
    Lindblad, Birgitta Ejdervik
    Rautiainen, Susanne
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Morgenstern, Ralf
    Bottai, Matteo
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Are Increased Levels of Systemic Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Associated with Age-Related Cataract?2014In: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 700-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxidative stress and inflammation may be involved in the etiology of age-related cataract. This study is the first to investigate the association between urinary levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGF(2 alpha); as a biomarker for systemic oxidative stress in vivo) and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF(2 alpha) (as a biomarker for systemic inflammation in vivo) and risk of age-related cataract. We observed in a nested case-control study, including 258 women with incident cataract diagnosis and/or cataract extraction and 258 women without cataract, matched on age and date of urine sample collection that, women with higher levels of urinary 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) as compared with lower levels had an increased risk of age-related cataract. There was no difference in 15-keto-dihydro-PGF(2 alpha) levels between cases and controls. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that higher systemic oxidative stress increases the risk of developing age-related cataract.

  • 54. Smit, Liesbeth A.
    et al.
    Katan, Martijn B.
    Wanders, Anne J.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Brouwer, Ingeborg A.
    A High Intake of trans Fatty Acids Has Little Effect on Markers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Humans2011In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 141, no 9, p. 1673-1678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumption of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) increases LDL cholesterol, decreases HDL cholesterol, and is strongly associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, changes in circulating cholesterol cannot explain the entire effect. Therefore, we studied whether iTFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CIA) affect markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Sixty-one healthy adults consumed each of 3 diets for 3 wk, in random order. Diets were identical except for 7% of energy provided by oleic acid (control diet), ITFA, or CLA. At the end of the 3 wk, we measured plasma inflammatory markers IL-6, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor receptors I and II (TNF-R1 and -RII), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and E-selectin, and urinary 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha), a marker of lipid peroxidation. Consumption of iTFA caused 4% lower TNF-RI concentrations and 60/s higher E-selectin concentrations compared with oleic acid (control and had no significant effect on other inflammatory markers. CIA did not significantly affect inflammatory markers. The urine concentration of 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) [geometric mean (95% CI)) was greater after the TFA [0.54 (0.48, 0.60) nmol/mmol creatinine) and the CIA [1.2 (1.1, 1.3) nmol/mmol creatininel diet periods than after the control period [0.45 (0.41, 0.50) nmoVmmol creatinine; P < 0.05]. In conclusion, high intakes of FIFA and CLA did not substantially affect plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers, but they increased the urine 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) concentration. However, it is unlikely this plays a major role in the mechanism by which ITFA increase the risk of CVD. However, more research is needed to fully understand the implications of these findings.

  • 55. Stockfelt, Leo
    et al.
    Sallsten, Gerd
    Almerud, Pernilla
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Barregard, Lars
    Short-term chamber exposure to low doses of two kinds of wood smoke does not induce systemic inflammation, coagulation or oxidative stress in healthy humans2013In: Inhalation Toxicology, ISSN 0895-8378, E-ISSN 1091-7691, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 417-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. A proposed mechanism is that local airway inflammation leads to systemic inflammation, affecting coagulation and the long-term risk of atherosclerosis. One major source of air pollution is wood burning. Here we investigate whether exposure to two kinds of wood smoke, previously shown to cause airway effects, affects biomarkers of systemic inflammation, coagulation and lipid peroxidation. Methods: Thirteen healthy adults were exposed to filtered air followed by two sessions of wood smoke for three hours, one week apart. One session used smoke from the start-up phase of the wood-burning cycle, and the other smoke from the burn-out phase. Mean particle mass concentrations were 295 mu g/m(3) and 146 mu g/m(3), and number concentrations were 140 000/cm(3) and 100 000/cm(3), respectively. Biomarkers were analyzed in samples of blood and urine taken before and several times after exposure. Results after wood smoke exposure were adjusted for exposure to filtered air. Results: Markers of systemic inflammation and soluble adhesion molecules did not increase after wood smoke exposure. Effects on markers of coagulation were ambiguous, with minor decreases in fibrinogen and platelet counts and mixed results concerning the coagulation factors VII and VIII. Urinary F-2-isoprostane, a consistent marker of in vivo lipid peroxidation, unexpectedly decreased after wood smoke exposure. Conclusions: The effects on biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and lipid peroxidation do not indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in healthy adults by short-term exposure to wood smoke at these moderate doses, previously shown to cause airway effects.

  • 56.
    Sundelöf, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Helmersson, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Rönnemaa, Elina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Degerman-Gunnarsson, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Basun, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Systemic inflammation and the risk of Alzheimer's disease and dementia: a prospective population-based study2009In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 79-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inflammation is suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high sensitivity serum reactive protein C (hsCRP) as markers of systemic inflammation were analyzed at two examinations of the ULSAM-study, a longitudinal, community-based study of elderly men (age 70, n = 1062 and age 77, n = 749). In addition, serum amyloid protein A (SAA) and urinary prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) metabolite levels were analyzed at age 77 in this cohort. Two serial samples (at ages 70 and 77) were available from 704 individuals. Using Cox regression analyses, associations between serum IL-6, hsCRP, SAA and PGF2alpha metabolite levels and risk of AD, any type of dementia (all-cause dementia) and non-AD dementia were analyzed. On follow-up (median, 11.3 years) in the age 70 cohort, 81 subjects developed AD and 165 subjects developed all-cause dementia. Serum IL-6, hsCRP, SAA, or PGF2alpha levels were not associated with risk of AD. At age 70, high IL-6 levels were associated with an increased risk of non-AD dementia (Hazard ratio 2.21 for above vs. below/at median, 95%confidence interval 1.23-3.95, p-value = 0.008). A longitudinal change in CRP or IL-6 levels was not associated with AD ordementia. In conclusion, Serum IL-6, hsCRP, SAA, and PGF2alpha levels are not associated with the risk of AD. High serum IL-6 levels may be associated with increased risk of non-AD dementia.

  • 57.
    Sundelöf, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Helmersson, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Rönnemaa, Elina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Degerman-Gunnarsson, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Basun, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Systemic tocopherols and F2-isoprostanes and the risk of Alzheimer's disease and dementia: a prospective population-based study2009In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 71-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxidative stress in the brain is suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, serum alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, the two major systemic antioxidants, were analyzed at two examinations of the ULSAM-study, a longitudinal, community-based study of elderly men (age 70, n = 616 and age 77, n = 761). In addition, urinary F2-isoprostane levels, as markers of systemic oxidative stress, were analyzed at the age of 77 in this cohort (n = 679). Cox regression analyses were used to examine associations between serum alpha-, gamma-tocopherol and urinary F2-isoprostane levels and AD, any type of dementia (all-cause dementia) and non-AD dementia. On follow-up (median, 12.3 years), 40 subjects developed AD and 86 subjects developed all-cause dementia. Serum alpha- and gamma-tocopherol or urinary F2-isoprostane levels were not associated with the future risk of AD or dementia. In conclusion, systemic serum alpha- and gamma-tocopherol and urinary F2-isoprostane levels are not associated with the future risk of AD or dementia and do not seem to be useful predictors of clinical AD or dementia.

  • 58. Ulven, Stine M.
    et al.
    Kirkhus, Bente
    Lamglait, Amandine
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Elind, Elisabeth
    Haider, Trond
    Berge, Kjetil
    Vik, Hogne
    Pedersen, Jan I.
    Metabolic Effects of Krill Oil are Essentially Similar to Those of Fish Oil but at Lower Dose of EPA and DHA, in Healthy Volunteers2011In: Lipids, ISSN 0024-4201, E-ISSN 1558-9307, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of krill oil and fish oil on serum lipids and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation and to evaluate if different molecular forms, triacylglycerol and phospholipids, of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) influence the plasma level of EPA and DHA differently. One hundred thirteen subjects with normal or slightly elevated total blood cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels were randomized into three groups and given either six capsules of krill oil (N = 36; 3.0 g/day, EPA + DHA = 543 mg) or three capsules of fish oil (N = 40; 1.8 g/day, EPA + DHA = 864 mg) daily for 7 weeks. A third group did not receive any supplementation and served as controls (N = 37). A significant increase in plasma EPA, DHA, and DPA was observed in the subjects supplemented with n-3 PUFAs as compared with the controls, but there were no significant differences in the changes in any of the n-3 PUFAs between the fish oil and the krill oil groups. No statistically significant differences in changes in any of the serum lipids or the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation between the study groups were observed. Krill oil and fish oil thus represent comparable dietary sources of n-3 PUFAs, even if the EPA + DHA dose in the krill oil was 62.8% of that in the fish oil.

  • 59. Wang, Huifen
    et al.
    Steffen, Lyn M.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Steinberger, Julia
    Moran, Antoinette
    Jacobs, David R., Jr.
    Hong, Ching-Ping
    Sinaiko, Alan R.
    Obesity Modifies the Relations Between Serum Markers of Dairy Fats and Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Among Adolescents2011In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 19, no 12, p. 2404-2410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pentadecanoic acid (15: 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17: 0), the dairy-specific saturated fatty acids have been inversely, while inflammation and oxidative stress have been positively related to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both fatty acid metabolism and inflammation and oxidative stress may be influenced by adiposity. In the current cross-sectional analyses among adolescents (mean age 15 years), we determined whether overweight status modified the associations between dairy fatty acids (pentadecanoic acid (15: 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17: 0)) represented in serum phospholipids (PL) and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Six biomarkers for inflammation and oxidative stress were analyzed, including circulating adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and urinary 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2 alpha (15-keto) and 8-iso-PGF2 alpha (F2-iso). Generalized linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, gender, race, tanner score, total energy intake and physical activity, revealed that PL dairy fatty acids were inversely associated with CRP, F2-iso and 15-keto in overweight, but not in normal weight adolescents (all P(interaction) < 0.05). However, higher level of PL dairy fatty acids was associated with lower IL-6 among all adolescents. Further adjustment for dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, protein, total flavonoids, and omega-3 fatty acids did not materially change the findings. Dairy-specific saturated fats, i.e., 15: 0 and 17: 0 fatty acids, may contribute to the potential health benefits of dairy products, especially for overweight adolescents.

  • 60. Wennersberg, Marianne Hauge
    et al.
    Smedman, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Turpeinen, Anu M
    Retterstøl, Kjetil
    Tengblad, Siv
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lipre, Endla
    Aro, Antti
    Mutanen, Pertti
    Seljeflot, Ingebjørg
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Pedersen, Jan I
    Mutanen, Marja
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Dairy products and metabolic effects in overweight men and women: results from a 6-mo intervention study2009In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 90, no 4, p. 960-968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Some epidemiologic studies have suggested inverse relations between intake of dairy products and components of the metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the effects of an increased intake of dairy products in persons with a habitually low intake on body composition and factors related to the metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: Middle-aged overweight subjects (n = 121) with traits of the metabolic syndrome were recruited in Finland, Norway, and Sweden and randomly assigned into milk or control groups. The milk group was instructed to consume 3-5 portions of dairy products daily. The control group maintained their habitual diet. Clinical investigations were conducted on admission and after 6 mo. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between changes in body weight or body composition, blood pressure, markers of inflammation, endothelial function, adiponectin, or oxidative stress in the milk and the control groups. There was a modest unfavorable increase in serum cholesterol concentrations in the milk group (P = 0.043). Among participants with a low calcium intake at baseline (<700 mg/d), there was a significant treatment effect for waist circumference (P = 0.003) and sagittal abdominal diameter (P = 0.034). When the sexes were analyzed separately, leptin increased (P = 0.045) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 decreased (P = 0.001) in women in the milk group. CONCLUSIONS: This study gives no clear support to the hypothesis that a moderately increased intake of dairy products beneficially affects aspects of the metabolic syndrome. The apparently positive effects on waist circumference and sagittal abdominal diameter in subjects with a low calcium intake suggest a possible threshold in relation to effects on body composition.

  • 61.
    Wiklund, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    An experimental model of myocardial and cerebral global ischemia and reperfusion2011In: Studies on experimental models, Totowa, NJ: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2011, p. 279-302Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite many programs aimed at better immediate care of cardiac arrest victims, the subsequent mortality rate remains high, with myocardial and central nervous system injuries as the most common causes of death. Preclinical research is badly needed to produce a sound base for future clinical trials and possible improvements in clinical outcome. Our continued use of a porcine model for studies of cerebral effects of anoxia and reperfusion has shown that this model results in standardized effects, where time of cardiac arrest and reperfusion are approximately proportional to the ischemic neurological injury. Free radical damage is proved to be an important pathophysiological mechanism in the early development of this nervous injury. Hence, not unexpectedly, early experimental treatment after total ischemia during early reperfusion results in improved measures of cerebral tissue damage.

  • 62.
    Wiklund, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Zoerner, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Semenas, Egidijus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Miclescu, Adriana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Sharma, Hari Shanker
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Improved neuroprotective effect of methylene blue with hypothermia after porcine cardiac arrest2013In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 57, no 8, p. 1073-1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Induced mild hypothermia and administration of methylene blue (MB) have proved to have neuroprotective effects in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); however, induction of hypothermia takes time. We set out to determine if MB administered during CPR could add to the histologic neuroprotective effect of hypothermia.

    Methods

    A piglet model of extended cardiac arrest (12 min of untreated cardiac arrest and 8 min of CPR) was used to assess possible additional neuroprotective effects of MB when administered during CPR before mild therapeutic hypothermia induced 30 min after restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Three groups were compared: C group (n = 8) received standard CPR; PH group (n = 8) received standard CPR but 30 min after ROSC these piglets were cooled to 34°C; the PH+MB group (n = 8) received an MB infusion 1 min after commencement of CPR and the same cooling protocol as the PH group. Three hours later, the animals were killed. Immediately after death, the brains were harvested pending histological and immunohistological analysis.

    Results

    Circulatory variables were similar in the groups except that cardiac output was greater in the PH+MB group 2–3 h after ROSC. Cerebral cortical neuronal injury and blood–brain barrier disruption was greatest in the C group and least in the MB group. The neuroprotective effect of MB and hypothermia was significantly greater than that of delayed hypothermia alone.

    Conclusion

    Administration of MB during CPR added to the short term neuroprotective effects of induced mild hypothermia induced 30 min after ROSC.

  • 63.
    Östman, Bengt
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research center.
    Byberg, Liisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research center.
    Helmersson, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Gedeborg, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research center.
    Melhus, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research center.
    Oxidative stress and bone mineral density in elderly men: antioxidant activity of alpha-tocopherol2009In: Free Radical Biology & Medicine, ISSN 0891-5849, E-ISSN 1873-4596, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 668-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxidative stress has recently been identified as a pivotal pathogenetic factor of bone loss in mice, but its importance in humans is not clear. We aimed to investigate the association between urinary 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) levels, a major F(2)-isoprostane and a reliable in vivo biomarker of oxidative stress, and bone mineral density (BMD), and to study whether vitamin E in the form of serum alpha-tocopherol, a scavenger of peroxyl radicals, modifies the association. In 405 men, urinary 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) and serum alpha-tocopherol were measured at age 77 years and BMD at age 82 years. One SD increase in 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) corresponded to an approximately 2-4% decrease in average adjusted BMD values of total body, lumbar spine, and proximal femur (all P<0.001). Serum alpha-tocopherol levels seemed to modify the association between urinary 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) and BMD. Men with alpha-tocopherol levels below the median combined with high oxidative stress, i.e., 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) above the median, had 7% (95% CI 3-11%) lower BMD at the lumbar spine and 5% (95% CI 2-9%) lower BMD at the proximal femur. In elderly men high oxidative stress is associated with reduced BMD, which is more pronounced in individuals with low serum levels of the antioxidant vitamin E.

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