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  • 51.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Bologna.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Ethology.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Cultural evolution and individual development of openness and conservatism2009In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 106, no 45, p. 18931-18935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a model of cultural evolution in which an individual's propensity to engage in social learning is affected by social learning itself. We assume that individuals observe cultural traits displayed by others and decide whether to copy them based on their overall preference for the displayed traits. Preferences, too, can be transmitted between individuals. Our results show that such cultural dynamics tends to produce conservative individuals, i.e., individuals who are reluctant to copy new traits. Openness to new information, however, can be maintained when individuals need significant time to acquire the cultural traits that make them effective cultural models. We show that a gradual enculturation of young individuals by many models and a larger cultural repertoire to be acquired are favorable circumstances for the long-term maintenance of openness in individuals and groups. Our results agree with data about lifetime personality change, showing that openness to new information decreases with age. Our results show that cultural remodeling of cultural transmission is a powerful force in cultural evolution, i.e., that cultural evolution can change its own dynamics

  • 52. Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Old and Young Individuals' Role in Cultural Change2012In: JASSS: Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, ISSN 1460-7425, E-ISSN 1460-7425, Vol. 15, no 4, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the impact of age on cultural change through simulations of cultural evolution. Our simulations show that common observations about the relationship between old and young naturally emerge from repeated cultural learning. In particular, young individuals are more open to learn than older individuals, they are less effective as cultural models, and they possess less cultural traits. We also show that, being more open to learning, young individuals are an important source of cultural change. Cultural change, however, is faster in populations with both young and old. A relatively large share of older individuals, in fact, allows a population to retain more culture, and a large culture can change in more directions than a small culture. For the same reason, considering age-biased cultural transmission in an overlapping generations model, cultural evolution is slower when individuals interact preferentially with models of similar age than when they mainly interact with older models.

  • 53.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Brooklyn College, USA.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Regulatory traits: Cultural influences on cultural evolution2014In: Evolution, Complexity and Artificial Life / [ed] Stefano Cagnoni, Marco Mirolli, Marco Villani, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, p. 135-147Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use the term regulatory traits to indicate traits that both regulate cultural transmission (e.g., from whom to learn) and are themselves culturally transmitted. In the first part of this contribution we study the dynamics of some of these traits through simple mathematical models. In particular, we consider the cultural evolution of traits that determine the propensity to copy others, the ability to influence others, the number of individuals from whom one may copy, and the number of individuals one tries to influence. We then show how to extend these simple models to address more complex human cultural phenomena, such as ingroup biases, the emergence of open or conservative societies, and of cyclical, fashion-like, increases and decreases of popularity of cultural traits. We finally discuss how the ubiquity of regulatory traits in cultural evolution impacts on the analogy between genetic and cultural evolution and therefore on the possibility of using models inspired by evolutionary biology to study human cultural dynamics.

  • 54.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Brooklyn College, US.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Regulatory Traits in Cultural Evolution2012In: Proceedings of WiVACE 2012, 2012, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We call "regulatory traits" those cultural traits that are transmitted through cultural interactions and, at the same time, change individual behaviors directly influencing the outcome of future cultural interactions. The cultural dynamics of some of those traits are studied through simple simulations. In particular, we consider the cultural evolution of traits determining the propensity to copy, the number of potential demonstrators from whom one individual may copy, and conformist versus anti conformist attitudes. Our results show that regulatory traits generate peculiar dynamics that may explain complex human cultural phenomena. We discuss how the existence and importance of regulatory traits in cultural evolution impact on the analogy between genetic and cultural evolution and therefore on the possibility of using evolutionary biology inspired models to study human cultural dynamics.

  • 55.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    The logic of fashion cycles2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 3, p. e32541-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many cultural traits exhibit volatile dynamics, commonly dubbed fashions or fads. Here we show that realistic fashion-like dynamics emerge spontaneously if individuals can copy others' preferences for cultural traits as well as traits themselves. We demonstrate this dynamics in simple mathematical models of the diffusion, and subsequent abandonment, of a single cultural trait which individuals may or may not prefer. We then simulate the coevolution between many cultural traits and the associated preferences, reproducing power-law frequency distributions of cultural traits (most traits are adopted by few individuals for a short time, and very few by many for a long time), as well as correlations between the rate of increase and the rate of decrease of traits (traits that increase rapidly in popularity are also abandoned quickly and vice versa). We also establish that alternative theories, that fashions result from individuals signaling their social status, or from individuals randomly copying each other, do not satisfactorily reproduce these empirical observations.

  • 56.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Jacquet, Pierre O.
    Tennie, Claudio
    Behavioral constraints and the evolution of faithful social learning2012In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 307-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral “traditions”, i.e. behavioral patterns that are acquired with the aid of social learning and that are relativelystable in a group, have been observed in several species. Recently, however, it has been questioned whether non-human sociallearning is faithful enough to stabilize those patterns. The observed stability could be interpreted as a result of various constraintsthat limit the number of possible alternative behaviors, rather than of the fidelity of transmission mechanisms. Those constraints canbe roughly described as “internal”, such as mechanical (bodily) properties or cognitive limitations and predispositions, and “external”, such as ecological availability or pressures. Here we present an evolutionary individual-based model that explores the relationships between the evolution of faithful social learning and behavioral constraints, represented both by the size of the behavioral repertoire and by the “shape” of the search space of a given task. We show that the evolution of high-fidelity transmission mechanisms, when associated with costs (e.g. cognitive, biomechanical, energetic, etc.), is only likely if the potential behavioral repertoire of a species is large and if the search space does not provide information that can be exploited by individual learning. Moreover we show how stable behavioral patterns (“traditions”) can be achieved at the population level as an outcome of both high-fidelity and low-fidelity transmission mechanisms, given that the latter are coupled with a small behavioral repertoire or with a search space that provide substantial feedback. Finally, by introducing the possibility of environmental change, we show that intermediaterates of change favor the evolution of faithful social learning.

  • 57.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. University of Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Lampos, Vasileios
    Garnett, Philip
    Bentley, R. Alexander
    The Expression of Emotions in 20th Century Books2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 3, article id e59030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report here trends in the usage of mood words, that is, words carrying emotional content, in 20th century English language books, using the data set provided by Google that includes word frequencies in roughly 4% of all books published up to the year 2008. We find evidence for distinct historical periods of positive and negative moods, underlain by a general decrease in the use of emotion-related words through time. Finally, we show that, in books, American English has become decidedly more emotional than British English in the last half-century, as a part of a more general increase of the stylistic divergence between the two variants of English language.

  • 58.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Nunn, Charles
    Harvard University, Department of Human Evolutionary Biology.
    Predation and the phasing of sleep: an evolutionary individual-based model2011In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 81, no 4, p. 801-811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All mammals thus far studied sleep, yet important questions remain concerning the ecological factors that influence sleep patterns. Here, we developed an evolutionary individual-based model to investigate the effect of predation pressure on prey sleep. We investigated three ecological conditions, including one that assumed a dynamic interaction between predator and prey behaviour. In condition 1, we found that monophasic predators (i.e. with one sleep bout per 24 h) select for monophasic prey that sleep perfectly out of phase with predators. In condition 2, predators were monophasic but the safety of prey varied as a function of their activity (sleeping versus awake). In this condition, the prey adjusted their sleeping behaviour to lower the risk of predation. Finally, in condition 3, we modelled a more dynamic interaction between predator and prey, with predator activity dependent on prey activity in the previous hour. In this scenario, the prey adjusted their behaviour relative to one another, resulting in either greater or lesser synchrony in prey as a function of predator searching behaviour. Collectively, our model demonstrates that predator behaviour can have a strong influence on prey sleep patterns, including whether prey are monophasic or polyphasic (i.e. with many sleep bouts per 24 h). The model further suggests that the timing of sleep relative to predator behaviour may depend strongly on how other potential prey partition the activity period.

  • 59.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Tennie, Claudio
    Nunn, Charles
    Modeling imitation and emulation in constrained search spaces2011In: Animal Learning and Behavior, ISSN 0090-4996, E-ISSN 1532-5830, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 104-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social transmission of behavior can be realized through distinct mechanisms. Research on primate social learning typically distinguishes two forms of information that a learner can extract from a demonstrator: copying actions (defined as imitation) or copying only the consequential results (defined as emulation). We propose a decomposition of these learning mechanisms (plus pure individual learning) that incorporates the core idea that social learning can be represented as a search for an optimal behavior that is constrained by different kinds of information. We illustrate our approach with an individual-based model in which individuals solve tasks in abstract “spaces” that represent behavioral actions, results, and benefits of those results. Depending on the learning mechanisms at their disposal, individuals have differential access to the information conveyed in these spaces. We show how different classes of tasks may provide distinct advantages to individuals with different learning mechanisms and discuss how our approach contributes to current empirical and theoretical research on social learning and culture.

  • 60.
    Aceto, Giulia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Att använda eller icke använda förstaspråket, det är frågan: En kvalitativ studie om användningen av engelska respektive svenska för att främja engelskinlärning i årskurs 4–62019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med globaliseringen har engelskans betydande roll och globala utbredning medfört en utmaning för elever att utveckla sina engelskkunskaper. Tidigare forskning visar att målspråksanvändning (L2) för att maximera L2-exponering är att föredra, men andraspråksforskare anser även att förstaspråket spelar en viktig kognitiv roll vid språkinlärning. Syftet med denna studie är att öka förståelsen för hur målspråk respektive förstaspråk används i engelskundervisning i årskurs 4–6, samt hur lärare upplever att de arbetar med båda språken för att främja engelskinlärningen. Studien utgår från Stephen Krashens monitormodell samt tvåspråkighet, och bygger dessutom på en intervju med en lärare. Resultatet visar att läraren ser målspråksanvändning som språkutvecklande men upplever att exklusiv användning kan vara svårt i de yngre åldrarna. För att stödja elevernas behov för individuella instruktioner växlar läraren mellan engelska och svenska så att engelskan byggs upp successivt och förståelsen ökar på sikt. 

  • 61. Aceto, Luca
    et al.
    Della Monica, Dario
    Goranko, Valentin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy. University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Ingólfsdóttir, Anna
    Montanari, Angelo
    Sciavicco, Guido
    A complete classification of the expressiveness of interval logics of Allen’s relations: the general and the dense cases2016In: Acta Informatica, ISSN 0001-5903, E-ISSN 1432-0525, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 207-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interval temporal logics take time intervals, instead of time points, as their primitive temporal entities. One of the most studied interval temporal logics is Halpern and Shoham’s modal logic of time intervals HS, which associates a modal operator with each binary relation between intervals over a linear order (the so-called Allen’s interval relations). In this paper, we compare and classify the expressiveness of all fragments of HS on the class of all linear orders and on the subclass of all dense linear orders. For each of these classes, we identify a complete set of definabilities between HS modalities, valid in that class, thus obtaining a complete classification of the family of all 4096 fragments of HS with respect to their expressiveness. We show that on the class of all linear orders there are exactly 1347 expressively different fragments of HS, while on the class of dense linear orders there are exactly 966 such expressively different fragments.

  • 62.
    Ackehed, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Bjelkert, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Skillnader mellan pojkars och flickors läslust av skönlitteratur: En undersökning om hur lärare och elever ser på läsning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen behandlar skillnader mellan pojkars och flickors läslust av skönlitteratur. Det finns ett elev-, lärar- och genusperspektiv som genomsyrar hela uppsatsen. Uppsatsen besvarar följande tre frågor. Hur ser läslusten ut hos pojkar respektive flickor? Är svårigheter med läsning korrelerad med läslusten? Vad motiverar till att känna läslust? För att besvara de här frågorna använde vi oss av en kombinerad kvalitativ och kvantitativ analys med hjälp av intervjuer med lärare och enkäter med elever. Resultatet vi har fått visar att det är skillnad på pojkars och flickors läslust då flickor har en högre läslust än pojkar. Flickor läser även mer än pojkar. Vi har belägg för att säga att elever som tycker att det är svårt att läsa ofta samtidigt tycker att det är tråkigt och det beror på att det krävs så stor ansträngning för att lyckas ta sig igenom texten. Det finns flera faktorer som motiverar till att känna läslust. Böcker som intresserar eleven och som är lagom utmanade ger större läslust. Läsande förebilder både i skolan och hemmet bidrar till läslust hos eleven. Utbudet av böcker är en viktig faktor för att eleven ska känna läslust och det är viktigt att det finns ett stort och bra utbud av böcker. Biblioteket är en viktig källa till utbudet.

  • 63.
    Ackzén, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Kampen det varit tyst om: Svenska rösträttskvinnorna kämpade i 20 år2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska kvinnorösträttskampen har osynliggjorts i den nationella historieskrivningen om demokratiseringsprocessen. De engelska suffragetternas kamp är känd, och hur de offrade sina kroppar för rösträtten. Men de svenska rösträttskvinnorna offrade också sina kroppar för rösträtten i en nära 20 år lång kamp med hårt motstånd. Det är en förvånansvärt okänd och oberättad historia - trots att rösträtt för kvinnor är en grundläggande förutsättning för demokrati och medborgarskap. Här berättas storyn om "Landsföreningen för kvinnas politiska rösträtt" och dess ledare Signe Bergman.  

  • 64.
    Acosta Negrin, Lucia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    MERCOSUR SOM ETT NYTT REGIONALT BLOCK: Ett steg närmare en Sydamerikansk Union?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen har till syfte att undersöka huruvida MERCOSUR är en aktör på den internationella arenan och om dess tilltagande utveckling kommer kunna bidra till ett ökat interregionalt samarbete. Uppsatsen ska uppnå syftet genom att svara på två frågeställningar: 1) Kan MERCOSUR definieras som en aktör på den internationella arenan? 2) Kan MERCOSUR ses som ett nytt regionalt block och därmed ingå i interregionala samarbeten?

    Uppsatsen går igenom nya regionala blockens uppkomst och vad som skiljer dem åt från andra frihandels avtal. Uppsatsen är en komparativ analys som använder sig av två modeller för att svara på frågeställningarna. Den ena är Björn Hettnes dynamiska modell som beskriver en förändringsprocess. Den andra modellen består av fem kriterier, vilka definierats av Bretherton och Vogler och definierar ett aktörsbeteende. Denna typ av modell är, till skillnad från Hettnes, en statisk modell som används för att definiera grundläggande egenskaper. I samband med Bretherton och Voglers kriterier undersöks fundamentala begrepp, så som actorness och regioness, för att på underlätta analysen om huruvida MERCOSUR agerar som en aktör. För att kunna förstå uppkomsten och utvecklingen av regionala block undersöks hur EU skapades och uppkomsten av Europeiska värderingar samt en introduktion till regionala sammanslutningar i Latinamerika. EU är det äldsta regionala blocket vars gemensamma politik innefattar både ekonomiska och politiska mål. EU stödjer hela den regionala utvecklingen i Latin Amerika och dess interregionala politik bygger på dialog och samförstånd vilket gynnar sammanslutningarna i kontinenten. Speciellt har utvecklingen i MERCOSUR varit av intresse. MERCOSUR har blivit sedd som ett alternativ till det USA drivna projektet FTAA.

  • 65.
    Adams, Jonathan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities.
    Ships, innovation and social change: aspects of carvel shipbuilding in northern Europe 1450-18502003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 66. Adams, Jonathan
    et al.
    Heß, Cordelia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Fear and Loathing in the North: Muslims and Jews in Medieval Scandinavia and the Baltic Region2013Report (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Adamsson, Emelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Nilsson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    ”Storyn” och ”Cocktailpartyt”: En kvalitativ jämförelse av Max och Saltå Kvarns miljö- och hållbarhetskommunikation2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SYFTE: Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka drivkrafterna bakom företags miljö- och hållbarhetskommunikation. Vi vill även visa på betydelsen av trovärdighetsfrågan i relation till kommersiella intressen och hur den påverkar kommunikationen. Studien fokuseras till Max och Saltå Kvarns avsändarperspektiv med avsikt att jämföra och kontrastera hur företagen kommunicerar sina miljöidentiteter.TEORETISK RAM: Den teoretiska ramen bygger på CSR, Miljöidentitet och Miljö- och hållbarhetskommunikation med begreppen trovärdighet, transparens och tonalitet. METOD: Jämförande fallstudie och halvstrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer med nyckelpersoner på företagen. SLUTSATSER: Max och Saltå Kvarns olika utgångslägen är den största bidragande orsaken till skillnaderna mellan företagens miljö- och hållbarhetskommunikation och påverkar både drivkrafterna samt miljöidentiteternas utformning. Max som miljöanpassad snabbmatsaktör och Saltå Kvarn som drivs av ekologisk och biodynamisk framställning uttalar visionära miljö- och hållbarhetsmål. Båda företagen strävar efter dialogorienterad miljö- och hållbarhetskommunikation och undviker marknadsföring i form av köpt medialt utrymme. Istället används informella kanaler i olika utsträckning. Saltå Kvarn möter sina intressenter genom sociala medier som ett ”cocktailparty” medan Max främst vill berätta sin ”story” i restaurangerna och i anslutning till politiska sammanhang. Gemensamt för både Max och Saltå Kvarn är att deras miljö- och hållbarhetskommunikation kan ses som legitimitetsåtgärder som möjliggör företagens expansionsfaser.

  • 68.
    Adebesin, Brooklyn Sijuade
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Media, Migration and Integration: An analysis of the media practices of Nigerians in Stockholm Sweden2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the issue of migrants and their use of media to facilitate integration and negotiate nostalgia, identity and other social factors that ensue during the analysis of six selected Nigerian migrants in Stockholm.

    By means of a two-step ethnographic approach the empirical material is obtained from documented media use logs and semi-structured interviews of six Nigerian informants in Stockholm. This study sets out to discover the social factors that influence or shape the media practices of Nigerian migrants; furthermore, to understand the concept of nostalgia, integration and more descriptive concept of media use from the perspective such as: the number of years the participants have lived in Sweden, gender and ethnicity.

    The results show the motivation behind the media use of participants with emphasis on how Nigerian migrants use media in terms of type of medium used and frequency of use.

    Additionally, results show how social factors such as: ethnicity, gender, education, work and the number of years lived in Sweden play a role in influencing the media practices of the selected Nigerian migrants in Stockholm while likewise exhibiting a difference in the media practices of participants who have lived in Sweden for the same number of years. In conclusion, results display how the in number of years lived in Sweden in addition to other individual factors played a role in the media use of the participants. The results also show how the participants use media to negotiate nostalgia and ethnic identities.

  • 69.
    Adesam, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The Multilingual Forest: Investigating High-quality Parallel Corpus Development2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the development of parallel treebanks, collections of language data consisting of texts and their translations, with syntactic annotation and alignment, linking words, phrases, and sentences to show translation equivalence. We describe the semi-manual annotation of the SMULTRON parallel treebank, consisting of 1,000 sentences in English, German and Swedish. This description is the starting point for answering the first of two questions in this thesis.

    • What issues need to be considered to achieve a high-quality, consistent,parallel treebank?

    The units of annotation and the choice of annotation schemes are crucial for quality, and some automated processing is necessary to increase the size. Automatic quality checks and evaluation are essential, but manual quality control is still needed to achieve high quality.

    Additionally, we explore improving the automatically created annotation for one language, using information available from the annotation of the other languages. This leads us to the second of the two questions in this thesis.

    • Can we improve automatic annotation by projecting information available in the other languages?

    Experiments with automatic alignment, which is projected from two language pairs, L1–L2 and L1–L3, onto the third pair, L2–L3, show an improvement in precision, in particular if the projected alignment is intersected with the system alignment. We also construct a test collection for experiments on annotation projection to resolve prepositional phrase attachment ambiguities. While majority vote projection improves the annotation, compared to the basic automatic annotation, using linguistic clues to correct the annotation before majority vote projection is even better, although more laborious. However, some structural errors cannot be corrected by projection at all, as different languages have different wording, and thus different structures.

  • 70.
    Adler, Aleksandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Perifera kulturer i kontakt?: Indirekt översättning av hebreisk skönlitteratur till svenska2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following product–oriented study deals with translational norms operating in indirect translation of Hebrew literature into Swedish. The research was conducted as a contrastive study of Extra–linguistic Cultural References (ECR) based on Toury’s (1995/2012) coupled pairs and supplemented with Pedersen’s typology (2011). The material consisted of 3 x 136 coupled pairs excerpted from a collection of short stories written by an Israeli high–prestige writer Amos Oz and translated into Swedish through English. Both translations were carried out by high–prestige translators. The results suggest that indirect literary translation follows the adequacy norm in accordance with the hypothesis on high–prestige translation (Lindqvist 2002). The hypothesis on acceptancy norms operating in indirect translation is rejected. 

  • 71.
    Adler, Samuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Counterfactuality, Determinism and Free Will in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles, The Mayor of Casterbridge and The Return of the Native.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the themes of counterfactuality, determinism and free will in Thomas Hardy’s novels Tess of the D’Urbervilles, The Return of the Native and The Mayor of Casterbridge. The aim is to show how some literary strategies create a sensation that the characters are trying to diverge from an anticipated destiny, and how these measures contribute to the impression that the characters possess free will. In other words, Hardy’s literary devices create the notion that the characters are confined but paradoxically they appear independent. The tragic fate and the tragic past of the characters are the two main literary strategies which are investigated in order to show how the characters are confined by the plot, which influences the reader’s perception of the characters. The tragic fate of the character is expressed through the numerous coincidences, the characters’ choices and actions as well as the way the order of events is presented in the narrative. The tragic past is expressed through a history that is assigned to the character or by the events that the character experiences as part of the narrative. Highlighting these literary devices allows for a reading where many of these events have the ability to spark a counterfactual thought in the reader’s mind, an imagined possibility of how a causal chain could have developed differently. I claim that the moment the reader begins to construct a different possible outcome of the plot the feeling that the character has free will is strengthened. This is due to two separate, but related reasons. Firstly, a variety of possible plotlines, caused by counterfactual thinking, strengthens the image of a character with the choice to follow another causal line of events. Secondly. by claiming that the characters take part in creating their fate we are in a way making them responsible for their actions. 

  • 72.
    Adlercreutz, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Enhager, Douglas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Här är vinnarna och förlorarna på nya spellagen2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 73.
    Adolfsson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Barn, skriftspråk och skola: Fyra lärare i förskoleklass och årskurs 1 berättar om sitt arbete med barns literacyutveckling.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats syftar till att belysa och diskutera lärares didaktiska val i arbetet med barns literacyutveckling i förskoleklass respektive årskurs 1. Som grund ligger ett sociokulturellt perspektiv på lärande samt forskning om barns literacyutveckling, och med utgångspunkt i detta samt i min studie har didaktiska val i arbetet med barns literacyutveckling kunnat belysas och diskuteras.

    Inför min studie ställde jag mig den vida forskningsfrågan: Hur arbetar ett par lärare i förskoleklass respektive årskurs 1 i två olika skolor för att befrämja barns literacyutveckling och vilka skäl anger de till detta? Studien bygger på kvalitativa intervjuer med och observationer av fyra olika lärare från två olika skolor, som alla är eller nyligen varit verksamma i förskoleklass eller årskurs 1. I analysen av lärarnas tankar kring arbetet med barns literacyutveckling har olika kategorier vuxit fram, där den mest övergripande, som genomsyrar hela analysen och diskussionen, kom att bli huruvida arbetet med barns literacyutveckling sker i för barnen meningsfulla sammanhang eller ej.

    I min studie framkom det att lärarna delvis arbetar enligt traditionell behavioristisk teori och ett syntetiskt synsätt, men också enligt en modernare sociokulturell teori och ett analytiskt synsätt. Att utgå från en meningsfull helhet, som läsning med meningsinnehåll, eget skrivande samt samtal och lek/dramatisering, och att i detta jobba med de viktiga beståndsdelarna, det vill säga bokstav ljudförhållandet, lyfts fram i detta arbete. Något annat som lyfts fram är hur lärarna individualiserar så att arbetet med barnens literacyutveckling ska bli meningsfullt för eleverna, samt hur de ser på förskoleklassens och årskurs 1:s roll i mötet med eleverna.

  • 74.
    Adolfsson, Herbert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities.
    Liber epistularum Guidonis de Basochis: edidit et adnotationibus instruxit1969Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Adolfsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    Fäderneslandets kännedom: om svenska ortsbeskrivningsprojekt och ämbetsmäns folklivsskildringar under 1700- och 1800-talet2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the period c. 1720-1900 a large quantity of descriptions of rural areas in Sweden were set down on paper. Some 700 local descriptions were printed at the time or have appeared in print during the twentieth century. The most common geographical unit for local descriptions is the parish. As a rule the author was a public servant, and the clergy in particular were industrious local descriptive writers.

    In part the aim of this thesis is to present the Swedish local description projects and local descriptive literature as a phenomenon of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. A further aim is to investigate the way the folklife descriptions which come into most of the local descriptions are constituted for the period c. 1750-1850.

    The local descriptions which form the main object of analysis and discussion in the thesis comprise contemporary delineations which came into being in order to achieve an economic-topographical description of the country, where agriculture and the individual economy of the common man were the focus of attention. These descriptions to a certain extent define the problems the authors associate with the economic life of the countryside and way of life of the population.

    Local descriptions constitute a particular category of geographical delineation and have either come into being on the author's own initiative, in reply to a particular institution or the questionnaire of a particular person, or as an academic dissertation. The authors of local descriptions are in most cases connected with the area they describe. The work was mainly carried out by voluntary effort.

    The idea of the need for a national and methodically organised inventorying of resources associated with the physical environment was the most important reason for undertaking local description projects. These Swedish local descriptions were one of several important cornerstones in the endeavours of the State to increase the population, income from taxes, and welfare in general. Local descriptions constituted materialised visions of optimism for growth, and a better and happier future for the country and its inhabitants, in the modern Sweden which was beginning to emerge in the mid-eighteenth century. Another overall aim was to improve the moral status of the peasantry and promote in them a moral and virtuous way of life. The enlightenment of the common man thereby became a didactic matter, touched on in many local descriptions. This process was not unique to Sweden; corresponding efforts took place in a whole host of other European countries.

    The selection of sixty or so local descriptions studied in this thesis are characterised to a great extent by dualistic tendencies on the part of the public servants in their writings about, and interpretations of, peasant character and the state of the agricultural economy. Descriptions of the noble and exemplary true Swedish peasant faithful to his king, hospitable and honest are combined with descriptions of those same people's immodest consumption of spirits, lack of foresight, inclination to the "superstitious", and pernicious love of material things. In actual fact local descriptive writings consisted of an encounter: on the one side between more abstract and political discourses which contained thoughts of an ideal social organisation and the true nature of a population; while on the other side were the everyday experiences of separate writers vis a vis the qualities and situations of the local peasant population, compiled from their position as objectively observing public servants.

  • 76.
    Adolphson, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Education in Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Livsfrågor i praktiken: Utdrag ur en forskningsrapport2009In: Religion & Livsfrågor, ISSN 0348-8918, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 18-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Adolphson, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Education in Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Två terminer - eller jag som trodde att jag kunde...2009Report (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Aerni, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    The passionate 'sharing' of creative women: A Study of self-portrayal on Facebook and Instagram2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Online Self-portrayal has been attracting attention since the rise of social networks and their integration into everyday life. Social media have been said to support the idea of an “endlessly constructed self,” transporting culture and shaping people’s online experiences. Research often focused on the if and why when mostly college students portrayed themselves on social networks and in online communities. The aim of this study is to deepen the understanding of how a certain demographic of women uses Facebook and Instagram for self-portrayal and what it means to them. The focus is on interesting but seldom studied personalities: well-educated, urban women in their late 20’s up to their late 30’s that are well integrated into the labor market. A combination of netnographic study and semi-standardized interviews of Facebook and Instagram activities are conducted within the framework of Erwin Goffman’s "representation of the self in everyday life." Results show a high appreciation of Instagram in order to present a curated portrayal of one’s life and a communication through 'likes'. Interestingly, the women, although highly skilled, often successful and living in one of the most appreciated urban centers of the world, occasionally feel pressure and insecurity to live up to the expectations of their networks. 

  • 79.
    af Edholm, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, History of Religions.
    Människooffer i fornnordisk religion: En diskussion utifrån arkeologiskt material och källtexter2016In: Chaos: skandinavisk tidsskrift for religionshistoriske studier, ISSN 0108-4453, E-ISSN 1901-9106, no 65, p. 125-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion of ritual killing and sacrifice of humans in Old Norse religion has a long tradition. In the more text oriented discipline of history of religions, the opinion has sometimes been very critical to the theories that human sacrifices were performed, while the discipline of archaeology has been more inclined to interpret some finds as the traces of sacrifice, although sometimes due to a too wide definition of the word ‘sacrifice’. Since the two disciplines use different sources, the research needs an analysis of the religious phenomenon with a consideration of the archaeological material, and with respect to how the two disciplines may contribute to the analysis. The written sources mention and describe human sacrifices, but the question of their authenticity is problematic. Some new archaeological surveys have revealed finds that has raised the question of human sacrifices during Late Iron Age in the northern countries anew. The new archaeological material may provide an altered interpretation of the written texts. But then we need to discuss the definition of ‘human sacrifice’ from the perspectives of both disciplines.

  • 80.
    af Edholm, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, History of Religions.
    Tyr: En vetenskapshistorisk och komparativ studie av föreställningar och gestaltningar kopplade till den fornnordiske guden Tyr2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tyr – A historical and comparative study of configurations and formations connected to the Old Norse god Tyr. Klas af Edholm

     

    This thesis has two aims. One is a discussion of the history of the study of Old Norse religion and related aspects, centered on how general tendencies within the area of research have affected the interpretations of the god *Tīwaz/Tyr. Thereby, it treats a selection of influential trends of interpretation, and a selection of prominent scholars of the field. The second aim is an empirical and comparative analysis of the Old Norse source material and, to some degree, the continental Germanic, the Baltic, and the other Indo-European material. Tyr has been interpreted according to trends of research in the field; the mythological character has been used as a projection screen of the theories. Already from the beginning, Tyr was interpreted as a sky god; connected to this was the conception of an original high god. The interpretations of Tyr as a sun god, sky god, and/or law god are close related to this high god conception. These interpretations of the god Tyr has built their arguments upon the etymological connection to Indo-European words for ‘heaven, celestial’ and ‘god’, but they have not taken enough consideration of the Old Norse sources. Georges Dumézil interpreted Tyr, according to his système tripartite, as a law god. This understanding of the god has been widely adopted, but cannot be confirmed; the Old Norse material only speaks of Tyr as a war god. The comparative Indo-European etymological material indicates that his function as sky god is archaic, while the martial traits shared with the continental Germanic and Celtic counterparts prove that this characteristic must have evolved early. Tyr (or rather his predecessor *Tīwaz) lost his celestial traits and became an unmitigated war god, and as such we perceive him in the Old Norse religion. 

  • 81.
    af Edholm, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, History of Religions.
    Rajyasri: Royal Splendour in the Vedas and the Epics2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses the late-Vedic goddess Śrī and her non-personified precedent śrī ‘splendour, glory, excellence, fortune’. Śrī has not before been studied in the light of the Avestan royal splendour, xᵛarənah, and is often interpreted one-sidedly as a pre-Aryan goddess of prosperity. In contrast, this thesis locates the genealogy of Śrī’s characteristics in the Vedic goddess of dawn. The meaning of light in Vedic poetic and sacrificial terminology is highlighted, especially in the relation between royal patron and priest-poet. Śrī’s relation to terms like varcas and tejas, the “shining fame” of the hero, and epic descriptions of blazing warriors, are discussed. The nimbus in early Indian iconography is compared to descriptions of royal splendour in the texts. A subsistent theme in epics, myths and Vedic rituals is identified: the splendour won, lost and recovered by the king. This paradigm is showed to be dependent on the truthfulness, sacrificial status and asceticism of the king. A new understanding of central events in the royal consecration ritual, in the Rāmāyaṇa and the Mahābhārata are thereby offered. It is argued that a continuous and richly varied concept of royal splendour can be identified, from the Ṛgveda to the great epics, and that it is of considerable importance in the ancient Indian rulership ideology.

    Key words:  Royal splendour, śrī, goddess Śrī, Avestan xᵛarənah, tejas, varcas, svayaṃvara, ascetic, legitimation of power, fire, sun, dawn, Indra, Viṣṇu, rājasūya, king and priest-poet, Vedic ritual, Vedas, Mahābhārata, Rāmāyaṇa, Indo-European.

  • 82.
    af Edholm, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, History of Religions.
    Recent Studies on the Ancient Indian Vrātya2017In: Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies, ISSN 1084-7561, E-ISSN 1084-7561, Vol. 24, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ”vrātya problem” has been discussed for more than a century. It is not clear who the vrātya is, as some Vedic passages describe him in a cryptic manner. That the vrātya continues to engage scholars is demonstrated by two recent publications, both with T. Pontillo as one of the editors: The Volatile World of Sovereignty: The Vrātya Problem and Kingship in South Asia (2015), and Vrātya Culture in Vedic Sources (2016). In this review article I look at the two volumes in context of previous reseach and discuss a handful of the contributions. I also refer to a number of vrātya-related articles published elsewhere.

  • 83.
    af Edholm, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, History of Religions.
    Risk, förlust och oviss utgång i vedisk kungaritual2016In: Chaos: skandinavisk tidsskrift for religionshistoriske studier, ISSN 0108-4453, E-ISSN 1901-9106, no 65, p. 149-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ritual is often seen as a safe and certain of success. That the question of risk and failure is important for our understanding of ritual has, however, been argued by an increasing number of scholars. This article analyses two Vedic śrauta rituals - the horse-sacrifice and the royal consecration - from this perspective. According to brahmanic theory, sacrifice implies a dangerous break-up of cosmic structure; once started, a ritual must be successfully brought to an end, or the performer will come out lesser than before. Royal ritual also involves political dangers: being a claim to overlordship, rivals might oppose and defeat the sacrificer. Śrauta ritual appears not as a microcosm devoid of danger and unknown outcome. Rather, risk increases a ritual’s value and is an essential part of Vedic royal ritual, wherefore the most awesome sacrifice has the highest risk factor. Danger and conflict in śrauta ritual reflect the aristocratic-agonistic culture in which it evolved.

  • 84.
    Af Edholm, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, History of Religions.
    Royal Splendour in the Waters Vedic Sri- and Avestan X(v)arenah-2017In: Indo-Iranian Journal, ISSN 0019-7246, E-ISSN 1572-8536, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 17-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article explores, from an Indo-Iranian comparative perspective, the concept of 'royal splendour' and its role in myth, ritual and political discourse, in ancient Indian and Iranian texts. It argues that there are similarities both on the level of details (terminology, imagery, motifs) and on a broader level (ruler ideology), some of which likely go back to Proto-Indo-Iranian culture. The article relates the Avestan xvarenahto the Vedic sri- and varcas-, as well as their Avestan counterparts sri- and varecah-. It looks at how the Vedic/Avestan epithet apam. napat-/apam napat- is connected to the motif of aquatic and royal splendour. The Avestan concept of royal splendour, it is argued, also shares key characteristics with the late Vedic and early epic goddess Sri. As the fickle and mobile consort of successive kings, whom she approaches or abandons depending on their virtues, the epic Sri is reminiscent of xvarenah-.

  • 85.
    af Klintberg, Juli
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Akademiskt svenskt teckenspråk: En undersökning av akademiska kännetecken2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to investigate the characteristics that may be considered in academic Swedish Sign Language and which in turn will help a larger number of students produce their essays in academic Swedish Sign Language. Recorded material from lectures, made by four deaf graduates and from the Sign Language corpus, where two deaf academics were also involved, and some randomly chosen in-formants, were investigated. The results from the academic Swedish Sign Language were compared to the characteristics that identify with the academic American Sign Language. There need to be more knowledge and research on this subject.

  • 86.
    af Petersens, Lovisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Formering för offentlighet: Kvinnokonferenser och Svenska Kvinnornas Nationalförbund kring sekelskiftet 19002006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis considers three women conferences arranged by the National Council of Women of Sweden (NCWS) in Stockholm at the turn of the 20th century. NCWS was a branch of the International Council of Women and at its height it was an umbrella-organisation for about forty Swedish women organisations. The focus is on the role of the conferences as arenas for women who wanted to prove their ability and competence in society. The content, the form and the function of the conferences are analysed.

    The question whether the conferences arranged by the NCWS reflected the ideas, dilemmas and strategies of the bourgeois women’s movement is addressed. A larger historical development is illuminated – the formation of the bourgeois women movements for the public sphere in the process of modernity. The thesis explores different theories and shows how the concepts of class, gender, public sphere, modernity and trans-nationalism were dealt with at the conferences.

    The women conferences have been treated as manifestations; as a quintessence of the ideas and ambitions of the movement. The thesis asserts that the ideology of the movements was formulated and expressed not only in spoken words, but also in festivities, symbols and sisterhood. The class identity was manifested in the form of which the conferences were conducted. On the one hand, the conference women showed loyalty to the conservative society and the rigid class position. On the other hand, the conference initiators wanted to improve women’s opportunities of becoming citizens and to move the boarders between the public and the private. Ideologies such as Internationalism and Scandinavism became important in creating a collective identity.

  • 87.
    af Petersens, Lovisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Gala och extravagans: festernas betydelse vid den Internationella kvinnokonferensen 19112006In: Fältanteckningar: utbildnings- och kultursociologiska texter tillägnade Donald Broady / [ed] Mikael Börjesson, Uppsala: Forskningsgruppen för utbildnings- och kultursociologi (ILU), Uppsala universitet , 2006, p. 149-158Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 88.
    af Petersens, Lovisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    'Klokt tal af kloka kvinnor': En kort presentation av Kvinnokonferensen i Stockholm 18972001In: Kvinnovetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 0348-8365, no 2, p. 47-52Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 89.
    af Petersens, Lovisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Jonsson, Pernilla
    Uppsala universitet.
    Resources and Swedish women's organizations: Participation on the international scene 1885-19162007In: Politische netzwerkerinnen: Internationale zusammenarbeit von frauen 1830-1960, Trafo verlag, Berlin , 2007, p. 229-248Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 90.
    af Sandeberg, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Engelskundervisningens betydelse för elever med dyslexi2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien belyser och diskuterar hur undervisning i engelska inom grundskola och gymnasium samt antagningsregler till högskola kan påverka möjligheten att utbilda sig i tekniska ämnen för personer med dyslexi. Studien belyser att det finns en hel del som tyder på att undervisningen i engelska i grundskola och gymnasium ofta inte är anpassad till de elever som har fonologiska svårigheter, och att detta kan få avgörande betydelse för deras framtid.

    I en första delstudie görs en enkätundersökning bland engelsklärare i grundskola och gymnasium för att se om de har goda möjligheter att undervisa elever med dyslexi. Undersökningen visar bland annat att det har funnits brister på lärarhögskolor när det gäller utbildningen om läs- och skrivsvårigheter/dyslexi.

    81 % av de 33 lärare som har engelska i sin utbildning svarar att de inte har fått kunskap om läs- och skrivsvårigheter/dyslexi som hjälper dem i undervisningen i engelska. Undersökningen visar också att flera kommuner inte ger lärarna den fortbildning de behöver och att många lärare upplever en vardag med tidsbrist, för få alternativa verktyg och för stora undervisningsgrupper.

    I en andra delstudie belyses framgångsfaktorer i engelska för elever med dyslexi. Fyra högskolestudenter som har dyslexi djupintervjuas, samtliga går fjärde året på utbildningen till civilingenjör. Två av studenterna har MVG i engelska B från gymnasiet och två har inte läst engelska B.

    I en tredje studie görs en jämförelse mellan gymnasiebetygen i engelska för 30 studenter med dyslexi på civilingenjörsprogrammet och en kontrollgrupp. Studien visar bland annat att det är 10 % av dyslektikerna som inte skulle ha kommit in på utbildningen på grundval av sina betyg om de hade sökt hösten 2010 när det är nya antagningsregler med högre språkkrav.

  • 91.
    af Ugglas Åberg, Rebecca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Åkesdotter, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Twitter som källa?: En totalundersökning av synliga källor i nyhetsartiklar under revolutionen i Egypten 20112011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningen syftar till att med kvantitativ innehållsanalys besvara frågeställningarna: Vilka synliga källor förkommer i den svenska nyhetsrapporteringen? Hur ser fördelningen mellan de undersökta källorna ut? I vilken utsträckning används sociala medier som källa?

    Uppsatsen bygger på en explorativ totalundersökning av samtliga källor förekommande under den svenska nyhetsrapporteringen om revolutionen i Egypten under perioden 2011-01-26 – 2011-02-12. Materialet består av nyhetsartiklar från Sveriges sex största nyhetstidningar (Aftonbladet, Dagens Nyheter, Expressen, Göteborgs-Posten, Svenska Dagbladet och Sydsvenskan).

    Teoretiska utgångspunkter är teoribildningar runt journalistikens roll i samhället, demokrati och källteori.

    Resultaten visar på att Twitter och de sociala medierna har slagit igenom som kanal för nyhetskällor i Sverige och i än större utsträckning används dessa kanaler som omvärldsbevakningsverktyg av journalister. De undersökta nyhetstidningarna har sammanslaget använt Twitter som primärkälla vid tolv tillfällen.  

  • 92.
    Afsun, Donya
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Forsman, Erika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Halvarsson, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Jonsson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Malmgren, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Neves, Juliana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Effects of a film-based parental intervention on vocabulary development in toddlers aged 18-21 months2011In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2011: Speech, Music and Hearing; Quarterly Progress and Status Report, Stockholm, 2011, p. 105-108Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SPRINT is a language intervention project aimed to study the outcome of a parental home training program on children’s language development and future reading and writing skills. This study, which derives data from the SPRINT project, intended to examine the possible effects of a parental-based film intervention. It was conducted on toddlers aged 18-21 months from the Stockholm area with at least one parent who has Swedish as a first language. Parents of 78 children participated in the study and filled in 3 SECDI-w&s questionnaires rating their children's productive vocabulary. Children were randomized to either the intervention or the control group. Results indicated that the interventiongroup demonstrated significantly higher scores over time, F (2,78) = 5,192, p < .007. In the light of previous research it is concluded that this intervention contributes to an increase in productive vocabulary. However, the scores of the intervention group did not exceed the average range for Swedish children in the same age span. Furthermore the possible impact of parental education and thepresence of siblings on productive vocabulary was discussed.

  • 93.
    Afyonoglu Kirbas, Yeliz
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Neuronal activity to environmental sounds when presented together with semantically related words: An MMN study on monolingual and bilingual processing of homophones2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Neuronal activity of monolingual and bilinguals to environmental sounds and words that are semantically related to them were studied using the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of event-related potentials. MMN was expected to reflect the language selection process in bilinguals on the bases of semantics and phonology. In this regard, as lexical stimuli, interlingual homophones ‘car’ and ‘kar’ (snow) were presented together with semantically related environmental sounds in a passive auditory oddball paradigm. The lexical stimuli were recorded by a native English speaker. Three Turkish-English late bilinguals and one native English speaker participated in the study. An early MMN was elicited in both groups with a distribution over the fronto-central and central areas across the scalp with highest peak amplitude at -2.5 with a 113 ms latency. This response indicates that participants of the study were sensitive to the acoustic changes in two different types of stimuli. The further investigation of the interplay between environmental sounds and semantics displayed no conclusive result due to lack of data. Finally, the brain responses gathered from the bilinguals were not enough to draw a conclusion. Whether the bilinguals were sensitive to the sub-phonemic cues in the presented auditory lexical stimuli or not were inconclusive.

  • 94.
    Agaton, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Cannabis - i dag och i morgon: Reflektionsrapport2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Som examensarbete har jag producerat en film om Cannabis. En pilot om 22 minuter avsedd att användas som pitch inför en större dokumentär.

    I piloten har jag intervjuat fyra personer med olika erfarenheter och åsikter kring ämnet. Professor Ted Goldberg, professor Fred Nyberg, socialsekreterare Helene Adamee och en före detta cannabismissbrukare.

    Dessa intervjuer har jag därefter redigerat ihop till en pilot som tar upp ämnen som varför ungdomar börjar röka cannabis, det faktum att det pågår en förändring inom den globala drogpolitiken som kan få konsekvenser för Sverige, samt olika åsikter kring vår aktuella narkotikapolitik.     

    Jag spelar själv en aktiv roll i piloten som en journalist, och före detta cannabismissbrukare, som nu är på jakt efter svaren till de frågor mitt missbruk genererat.

  • 95.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. University of Ghana.
    Aspects of the Grammar and Lexicon of Sεlεε2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a description of some aspects of the grammar of Sɛlɛɛ, a Ghana-Togo-Mountain (GTM) language, based on my own fieldwork. The thesis consists of an introduction and five papers.

    Paper (I), Noun classes in Sεlεε, describes the noun class system of Sɛlɛɛ. It consists of eight noun class prefixes, four marking singular and four plural. They are paired in irregular ways to form eight genders (singular-plural pairs). Nouns agree with determiners, numerals and interrogative qualifiers within the noun phrase and can be indexed on the predicate. Nouns are allocated to classes/genders based partly on semantic notions.

    Paper (II), Sεlεε (with Francesca Di Garbo), details the morphological encoding of diminution in Sɛlɛɛ either by the suffixes -bi, -bii, -mii, -e or -nyi alone or in combination with noun class shift. Augmentation is not expressed morphologically.

    Paper (III), The tense and aspect system of Sεlεε: A preliminary analysis, shows that Sɛlɛɛ, unlike most Kwa languages, has a rather elaborate tense system encompassing present, hodiernal, pre-hodiernal and future tenses. The aspectual categories are progressive, habitual and perfect. Both categories often amalgamate with first person singular subject clitics.

    Paper (IV), Standard negation in Sεlεε, deals with the negation of declarative verbal main clauses. This is primarily encoded by a high tone, sometimes combined with segmental morphemes, portmanteau negative tense-aspect morphemes and vowel lengthening. Each tense-aspect category has at least one particular negation strategy.

    Paper (V), Unravelling temperature terms in Sεlεε (with Francesca Di Garbo), investigates the grammatical constructions employed for temperature evaluations. Personal feeling is only encoded via subjects, while ambient and tactile evaluations are construed attributively and predicatively.

    A comparison of Selee and other GTM languages revealed similar noun morphologies but very different verbal morphologies.

  • 96.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. University of Ghana.
    Noun classes in Sɛlɛɛ2014In: Journal of West African Languages, ISSN 0022-5401, Vol. XLI, no 1, p. 95-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the noun class system of Sl, a Na-Togo, Kwa (Niger-Congo) language spoken in the Volta Region of Ghana. As shown in this paper, Sl hasa noun class system with an equal number of singular and plural classes that are paired inirregular ways. The singular-plural pairs are referred to as genders. Nouns normally agreewith certain modifiers within the noun phrase. The agreement targets are determiners,numerals, interrogative pronouns and some adjectives. Outside the noun phrase, nounclasses may be indexed on the verb to signal long distance anaphora, a strategy thatspeakers rarely use. The paper provides a detailed account of possible semantic andcultural motivations for the assignment of nouns to a particular gender and/or class.

  • 97.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. University of Ghana.
    Standard negation in SɛlɛɛIn: Afrika und Übersee, ISSN 0002-0427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses standard negation in Sɛlɛɛ. Sɛlɛɛ is a Ghana-Togo Mountain (GTM) Language of the Kwa group of the Niger Congo family. Standard negation is the negation of declarative verbal clauses. Different strategies are used in Sɛlɛɛ to negate declarative verbal main clauses depending on the tense and aspect category of the verb. The basic negation strategy used in standard negation is tonal alternation, with or without other negation markers. The other strategies are the use of portmanteau morphemes, affixes and vowel lengthening. Interestingly, in one and the same tense paradigm, different persons can select different negation strategies. There is syncretism among the 1st person singular forms of the negative recent past, the negative habitual and the negative perfect.

  • 98.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. University of Ghana, Ghana.
    The tense and aspect system of Sɛlɛɛ: A preliminary analysis2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 99. Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    et al.
    Ameka, Felix
    Atintono, Samuel
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Temperature terms in the Ghanaian languages in a typological perspective2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This talk deals with the conceptualisation of temperature in some of the Ghanaian languages as reflected in their systems of central temperature terms, such as hot, cold, to freeze, etc. We will discuss these systems in the light of a large-scale cross-linguistic collaborative project, involving 35 researchers (including the present authors) and covering more than 50 genetically, areally and typologically diverse languages (Koptjevskaja-Tamm ed. 2015). The key questions addressed here are how the different languages carve up the temperature domain by means of their linguistic expressions, and how the temperature expressions are used outside of the temperature domain. Languages cut up the temperature domain among their expressions according to three main dimensions: TEMPERATURE VALUES (e.g., warming vs. cooling temperatures, or excessive heat vs. pleasant warmth), FRAMES OF TEMPERATURE EVALUATION (TACTILE, The stones are cold; AMBIENT, It is cold here; and PERSONAL-FEELING, I am cold), and ENTITIES whose “temperature” is evaluated.  Although the temperature systems are often internally heterogeneous, we may still talk about the main temperature value distinctions for the whole system. The Ghanaian languages favour the cross-linguistically preferred two-value systems, with water often described by a more elaborated system. An interesting issue concerns conventionalisation and frequency of expressions with a primary meaning outside of the temperature domain, for temperature uses. For instance, the conventionalised expressions for talking about ‘warm/hot’ in Ewe involve sources of heat (‘fire’) and bodily exuviae (‘sweat’). The Ghanaian languages often manifest numerous extended uses of their temperature terms. However, strikingly, none of them conforms to one of the most widely quoted conceptual metaphors, “affection is warmth” (Lakoff & Johnson 1999:50), which is also true for many other languages in (West) Africa and otherwise.

  • 100.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. University of Ghana, Ghana.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Sɛlɛɛ2015In: Edinburgh handbook of evaluative morphology / [ed] Nicola Grandi, Livia Kortvelyessy, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2015, p. 487-495Chapter in book (Refereed)
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