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  • 51.
    Cha, Yingying
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms Universitet.
    On particulate emissions from individual trains in tunnel environments2016In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Railway Technology: Research, Development and Maintenance, Dun Eaglais, Kippen Stirlingshire, FK8 3DY, UK: Civil-Comp Press , 2016, 2016, Vol. 110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to detect the concentrations and size distributions of airborne particles that were generated by individual moving trains on an underground railway platform, a series of real-time measurements were undertaken. The measurement range covered the ultrafine (less than 100 nm) and partly the fine (100 nm to 2.5 μm), but not the coarse fraction (2.5 to 10 μm). The results show that the individual trains with stop and start at the platform elevate substantially the particulate number concentrations with a diameter size greater than 100 nm. Two size modes of the particulate number concentrations are obtained. One mode peaks around 170 nm when a train stopped/started, while the other is around 30 nm when no train operated in the station. By using principal component analysis, four components are extracted from the thirty two-analyzed particulate sizes, indicating four different contributors in those detected particles. It is revealed from this study that the particulate matter released by individual moving trains (mainly through mechanical wear and turbulent resuspension) is a key contributing source of the fine particles on underground railway platforms, which can be separated from the background by their different size distributions.

  • 52.
    Cha, Yingying
    et al.
    KTH.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms Universitet.
    On particulate emissions from moving trains in a tunnel environment2018In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 59, p. 35-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing attention is being paid to airborne particles in railway environments because of their potential to adversely affect health. In this study, we investigate the contribution of moving trains to both the concentration and size distribution of particles in tunnel environments. Real-time measurements were taken with high time-resolution instruments at a railway station platform in a tunnel in Stockholm in January 2013. The results show that individual trains stopping and starting at the platform substantially elevate the particulate concentrations with a mobility diameter greater than 100 nm. Two size modes of the particulate number concentrations were obtained. A mode of around 170 nm occurs when a train moves, while the other mode peaks at about 30 nm when there is no train in the station. By using principal component analysis (PCA), three contributing sources were identified on the basis of the classification of the sizes of the particles, namely railway-related mechanical wear, suspension due to the movement of trains and sparking of electric-powered components. It is concluded that the particulate matter released by individual moving trains is a key contributor to fine particles (100–500 nm) on the railway platform in a tunnel.

  • 53.
    Conter, Marco
    et al.
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Wehr, Reinhard
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Aichinger, Claus
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Goubert, Luc
    BRRC Belgian Road Research Centre.
    Mioduszewski, Piotr
    TUG Technical University of Gdansk.
    Holck Skov, Rasmus
    DRD Danish Road Directorate.
    Anfosso, Fabienne
    IFSTTAR .
    Morgan, Phil A.
    TRL Limited.
    ROSANNE project: New procedure for noise characterization of road surfaces in Europe2016In: Proceedings of the INTER-NOISE 2016 - 45th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Towards a Quieter Future, 2016, p. 4997-5005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ROSANNE is a collaborative project in the 7th EU Framework Program which aims at harmonizing measurement methods for skid resistance, noise emission and rolling resistance of road pavements as a preparation for standardization. The project started in November 2013 and is developing and improving standards in the field of working group CEN/TC 227/WG 5.

    Regarding the influence of the pavement on the road traffic noise emission, the main objective is to combine the existing measurement methods of SPB (ISO 11819-1) and CPX (ISO/DIS 11819-2) into a stable and reliable harmonized pavement noise emission characterization method. A respective procedure is being developed within the project and its potential use for noise calculation methods like the one proposed by the CNOSSOS-EU project is investigated. The first two years of research focused on analyzing and comparing existing noise measurement methods to specify the noise properties of road surfaces as well as investigating the temperature influence of possible correction measures; respective results will be presented in a separate paper on this issue within this conference. Activities related to the compatibility with the CNOSSOS-EU calculation method and to the experimental validation are still ongoing. The present paper shows the current draft of the procedure developed.

  • 54.
    Denby, Bruce R.
    et al.
    The Norwegian Meteorological Institute (MET).
    Ketzel, M.
    Aarhus University.
    Ellermann, T.
    Aarhus University.
    Stojiljkovic, A.
    Nordic Envicon Oy.
    Kupiainen, K.
    Nordic Envicon Oy.
    Niemi, J. V.
    Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority (HSY).
    Norman, M.
    Environment and Health Protection Administration of the City of Stockholm.
    Johansson, C.
    Stockholm University,.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sundvor, I.
    The Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU).
    Road salt emissions: A comparison of measurements and modelling using the NORTRIP road dust emission model2016In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 141, p. 508-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    De-icing of road surfaces is necessary in many countries during winter to improve vehicle traction. Large amounts of salt, most often sodium chloride, are applied every year. Most of this salt is removed through drainage or traffic spray processes but a certain amount may be suspended, after drying of the road surface, into the air and will contribute to the concentration of particulate matter. Though some measurements of salt concentrations are available near roads, the link between road maintenance salting activities and observed concentrations of salt in ambient air is yet to be quantified.

    In this study the NORTRIP road dust emission model, which estimates the emissions of both dust and salt from the road surface, is applied at five sites in four Nordic countries for ten separate winter periods where daily mean ambient air measurements of salt concentrations are available. The model is capable of reproducing many of the salt emission episodes, both in time and intensity, but also fails on other occasions.

    The observed mean concentration of salt in PM10, over all ten datasets, is 4.2 μg/m3 and the modelled mean is 2.8 μg/m3, giving a fractional bias of −0.38. The RMSE of the mean concentrations, over all 10 datasets, is 2.9 μg/m3 with an average R2 of 0.28. The mean concentration of salt is similar to the mean exhaust contribution during the winter periods of 2.6 μg/m3. The contribution of salt to the kerbside winter mean PM10 concentration is estimated to increase by 4.1 ± 3.4 μg/m3 for every kg/m2 of salt applied on the road surface during the winter season. Additional sensitivity studies showed that the accurate logging of salt applications is a prerequisite for predicting salt emissions, as well as good quality data on precipitation. It also highlights the need for more simultaneous measurements of salt loading together with ambient air concentrations to help improve model parameterisations of salt and moisture removal processes.

  • 55.
    Denby, Bruce Rolstad
    et al.
    The Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU).
    Sundvor, Ingrid
    The Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU).
    Johansson, Christer I.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Pirjola, Liisa H.
    Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences.
    Ketzel, Matthias
    Aarhus Universitet.
    Norman, Michael A.
    Environment and Health Protection Administration of the City of Stockholm.
    Kupiainen, Kaarle J.
    Nordic Envicon Oy.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Kauhaniemi, Mari
    Finish Meteorological Institute (FMI).
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    SMHI.
    A coupled road dust and surface moisture model to predict non-exhaust road traffic induced particle emissions (NORTRIP). Part 2: Surface moisture and salt impact modelling2013In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 81, p. 485-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-exhaust traffic induced emissions are a major source of airborne particulate matter in most European countries. This is particularly important in Nordic and Alpine countries where winter time road traction maintenance occurs, e.g. salting and sanding, and where studded tyres are used. Though the total mass generated by wear sources is a key factor in non-exhaust emissions, these emissions are also strongly controlled by surface moisture conditions. In this paper, Part 2, the road surface moisture submodel of a coupled road dust and surface moisture model (NORTRIP) is described.

    We present a description of the road surface moisture part of the model and apply the coupled model to seven sites in Stockholm, Oslo, Helsinki and Copenhagen over 18 separate periods, ranging from 3.5 to 24 months. At two sites surface moisture measurements are available and the moisture sub-model is compared directly to these observations. The model predicts the frequency of wet roads well at both sites, with an average fractional bias of -2.6%. The model is found to correctly predict the hourly surface state, wet or dry, 85% of the time. From the 18 periods modelled using the coupled model an average absolute fractional bias of 15% for PM10 concentrations was found. Similarly the model predicts the 90'th daily mean percentiles of PMio with an average absolute bias of 19% and an average correlation (R-2) of 0.49. When surface moisture is not included in the modelling then this average correlation is reduced to 0.16, demonstrating the importance of the surface moisture conditions. Tests have been carried out to assess the sensitivity of the model to model parameters and input data. The model provides a useful tool for air quality management and for improving our understanding of non-exhaust traffic emissions.

  • 56.
    During, Heinjo J
    et al.
    Utrecht University.
    Verduyn, Betty
    Utrecht University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. Hokkaido University.
    Biomechanical properties of the terrestrial mosses Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Pogonatum japonicum Sull. & Lesq. along altitudinal gradients in northern Japan2015In: Arctoa: A Journal of Briology, ISSN 0131-1379, Vol. 24, p. 375-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Altitudinal gradients along mountain slopes provide valuable opportunities to study variation in plant traits in response to changes in environmental conditions along such  gradients. This study focused on biomechanical traits of two moss species, the more or less horizontally growing Pleurozium schreberi and the erect-growing Pogonatum japonicum, along altitudinal gradients on two mountains in Hokkaido, northern Japan.

    We measured stem diameter in two directions to determine the second moment of area I, used three-point bending tests with free stem ends to determine the slope of the force-deflection curve dF/dx, and used these data to calculate Young’s modulus and flexural rigidity of the stems. Both species showed much variation in all traits among replicates in the samples at each altitude. Environmental variation associated with altitude had more effect on the biomechanical traits of P. japonicum than on those of P. schreberi. Stems of P. japonicum were thicker (larger I) than those of P. schreberi and had a larger Young’s modulus and flexural rigidity. Stems tended to become thinner (lower second moment of area) and less rigid (lower flexural rigidity) at increasing altitude in both species.

  • 57.
    Ejsmont, Jerzy
    et al.
    Technical University of Gdańsk.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    ͆wieczko-Zurek, Beata
    Technical University of Gdańsk.
    Mioduszewski, Piotr
    Technical University of Gdańsk.
    Tyre/road noise reduction by a poroelastic road surface2014In: INTERNOISE 2014 - 43rd International Congress on Noise Control Engineering: Improving the World Through Noise Control, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low noise road surfaces of existing types may in favourable cases and in new conditions provide up to 7 dB of noise reduction. For higher noise reductions, innovative solutions must be sought. Poroelastic road surfaces (PERS) may be such a solution, which currently is studied in the EU project PERSUADE. This paper presents results of trials with a PERS version prefabricated by one of the project partners. Tests were made in a laboratory at TUG, where different tyres were tested on drums covered with PERS, and later field tests were made on a local street in Sweden where VTI had constructed a 25 m long trial section. The field tests were made with a CPX trailer from TUG. Both laboratory and field results showed that tyre/road noise reductions of 9-11 dB were achieved compared to a dense asphalt concrete pavement with maximum aggregate size 11 mm. This is the best result so far in the project. At the same time, this PERS, despite being relatively soft, reduces rolling resistance of passenger car tyres to record-low values, which is important for reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. It is concluded that this type of prefabricated poroelastic road surface offers a very efficient way of reducing tyre/road noise, provided current durability problems can be solved.

  • 58.
    Eram, Michel
    et al.
    Vejdirektoratet,.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Thordarson, Skuli
    Vegsyn/Vegagerdin.
    Lysbakken, Kai Rune
    Statens vegvesen.
    Modelling Residual Salt -– MORS2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [da]

    Bruk av salt på vinterveger er et viktig virkemiddel for å oppnå best mulig sikkerhet og framkommelighet på vinteren, samtidig som salting kan ha negative effekter på miljø, biler og vegutstyr. Veg- og trafikkmyndighetene i de nordiske landene har derfor et behov for å optimalisere saltbruken ved å holde et lavest mulig saltforbruk men fortsatt kunne nå målene med hensyn på framkommelighet og trafikksikkerhet. Et tiltak for å kunne optimalisere saltbruken er å utvikle et operasjonelt verktøy som kan forutsi varigheten av et salttiltak under ulike vegforhold. En kan dermed unngå unødvendig salttiltak og redusere risikoen for glatt veg på grunn av for lite salt. NordFoU-prosjektet Modelling Residual Salt (MORS) har som mål å utvikle en modell for utviklingen av restsaltmengde under ulike forhold. Danmark, Sverige, Island og Norge har deltatt i prosjektet. For å kunne følge restsaltutviklingen under kontrollerte forhold har det blitt gjennomført feltforsøk på en testbane ved Bygholm, Horsens (Danmark). På en lukket bane har blitt gjennomført salttiltak og deretter målt restsaltutviklingen og sentrale parametere med og uten trafikk. Målingene har skjedd med både manuelle målemetoder og automatiske målinger (Vaisala Rosa-system). Ved gjennomføringen av feltforsøkene har prosjektet møtt noen utfordringer. Det opprinnelige asfaltdekket på testbane var ujevnt, hadde mye sprekkdannelser og manglet tverrfall. Banen måtte derfor reasfalteres. Etter reasfaltering har det vist seg at teksturen på vegoverflaten er for lav til at prosjektet kan være sikre på at resultatene er fullt ut representerbare for ordinære veger. Ut fra feltforsøkene ble det også oppdaget installeringen av vegbanesensorene var helt avgjørende for målekvaliteten. Etter andre feltforsøk måtte derfor en del av vegbanesensorene reinstalleres. Utfordringene knyttet til gjennomføringen av feltforsøkene har gjort at prosjektet ikke har kunnet nå alle må slik opprinnelig skrevet i prosjektplanen. Hvordan restsaltmengden utvikler seg ette et salttiltak vil påvirkes av mange prosesser. For å få en oversikt over de antatte prosesser og parametere bak disse er det blitt prinsipiell massebalansemodell. I alt ni prosesser er blitt identifisert og bak disse en rekke faktorer. For videre modellutvikling en forenkling har vært nødvendig. Ut fra feltforsøkene har det blitt konkludert med at det er to prosesser som er svært viktige for restsaltutviklingen; avrenning og «splash og spray» (sprut pga. trafikk). Modellen som har blitt utviklet basert på innsamlet data tar for seg disse to prosessene.

  • 59.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Karlsson, Bo O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Tema miljörisker: miljörisker och trafikanters beteenden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report compiles the results from the project Theme Environmental risks. More specifically, the project concerned how different transport related environmental risks influence different road users and how their behaviour influence the environment. The project aimed at preparing for interdisciplinary research about environmental risks at VTI. The project was divided into three parts. The first subproject aimed at compiling literature about transport related environmental risks from psychological and economic perspectives, and in the second subproject a willingness to pay study was outlined where both economic and psychological principles were considered. In the third subproject, a simulator study was outlined. The focus was to study environmental effects of driving under controlled circumstances in the driving simulator. The report is divided into two parts. In part 1, the results from the literature review and the proposal for a willingness to pay study are described (subproject 1 and 2). This part is written in English. Part 2 contains a project outline for a simulator study in the form of an research project application (project 3). This part is written in Swedish.

  • 60.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Kumulativa effekter och konsekvenser: behandling i miljöbedömning och miljökonsekvensbeskrivning för vägar2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish transport infrastructure planning, cumulative effects are not given the attention demanded by the Swedish Environmental Code and the European so-called SEA and EIA directives (Strategic Environmental Assessment and Environmental Impact Assessment, respectively). In the Environmental Code, the formulations concerning cumulative effects are vague. The EIA handbook of the Swedish Road Administration does not give much guidance. There is thus a great need for development of procedures and methods adapted to Swedish road planning. The overall aim of the report is to contribute to the development of the treatment of cumulative effects in SEA and EIA of road planning in Sweden. Specific aims are to describe the concept of cumulative effects and to give advice on approaches and methods that can be used in cumulative effects analysis and assessment. The report mainly builds on American and Canadian literature. "Cumulative effects" are changes to the environment that are caused by an action or measure together with other past, present and future actions and measures.

  • 61.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Helldin, Jan Olof
    SLU.
    Planners' views on cumulative effects: A focus-group study concerning transport infrastructure planning in Sweden2013In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 243-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cumulative effects (CE) still receive little attention in the Swedish processes for road and railway infrastructure planning. This article seeks to analyse how CE are treated by professionals engaged in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment of roads and railways. The aims were (i) to analyse views of CE held by professionals with long planning practice, (ii) to analyse how planners experience the handling of CE in their daily planning practice, and (iii) to identify means to strengthen the assessment of CE in the Swedish road and railway planning process. The study was performed as an international literature review and two focus groups among planners. Discussions revealed little knowledge and use of the term CE, partly due to lack of incentives and guidance. Little mention was made of research. Participants said EIA work was much directed towards the environmental compartments/aspects listed in the Environmental Code. Environmental impacts designated as significant demanded much work. The discussions revealed a need of more collaboration between various actors in EIA and of novel methods of public participation. Spatial and temporal scales were chosen with little concern of CE. The European Landscape Convention was hoped to enhance CE treatment in EIA. Improvement suggestions include (i) use of the term CE in regulatory instruments, (ii) development of the interplay between CEA practice and CE science, (iii) co-ordination of management of baseline, monitoring and follow-up data, (iv) assessment of CE in relation to project-specific environmental objectives, developed in a bottom-up process, (v) inclusion of CE, within and across environmental aspects, in determining the significance of environmental impacts, (vi) advice on CE treatment in EIA guidelines, (vii) requirement of CE assessment in EIA procurement, (viii) strengthened generalist competence in environmental assessment, and (ix) enhancing skills in stepwise analyses and indirect environmental effects. Research needs include adaptation of the Swedish EIA procedure to international state of the art, knowledge support of quantification in CE assessment, and development of innovative means of public consultation in transport infrastructure planning.

  • 62.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Boughedaoui, Ménouer
    University of Blida.
    Joumard, Robert
    French National Research Institute for Transport and Safety.
    Ortega Pérez, Emilio
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.
    Wäger, Patrik
    Camusso, Cristian
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Pronello, Cristina
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Arapis, Gerassimos
    Agricultural Univiversity of Athens.
    Karkalis, Konstantinos
    Agricultural Univiversity of Athens.
    Goger, Thierry
    Chiron, Mireille
    Dimopoulou, Stavroula
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens.
    Assessment of some indicators within an impact2010In: Indicators of environmental sustainability in transport: An interdisciplinary approach to methods / [ed] Joumard, Robert & Gudmundsson, Henrik, Bron: INRETS , 2010, p. 141-189Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter 5 'Assessment of some indicators within an impact' looks in detail at indicators for seven impacts on the environment: direct toxicity of air pollutants, natural habitat fragmentation, non-renewable resource use, loss of cultural heritage due to land take, noise as annoyance to humans, greenhouse effect, and waste. A review of potential indicators for each impact is undertaken using criteria and other elements provided in chapter 4 as a basic framework.

  • 63.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    State of preparedness for climate change adaptation in operations and maintenance of transport infrastructure in eight Swedish municipalities2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed the preparedness for climate change adaptation (CCA) of transport infrastructure in eight municipalities in Sweden. The study focused on municipal officials’ role in organizing and implementing CCA measures. The interviews were done in 2011. Many respondents confused CCA with climate change mitigation. Three of the municipalities had performed vulnerability analyses but apart from that, well-documented decision support in long-term adaptation was largely lacking. Adaptation measures were often based on day-to-day problems and recently experienced weather incidents. Strategic work with long-term CCA seemed to be largely lacking. The placing of the responsibility for CCA in the municipal organization was often unclear. Six of the respondents found there were no actual hindrances to their work with CCA and no conflicts with other municipal aims. However, several responses indicated budgetary competition with environmental aims or other societal strivings. The planning and implementation of CCA measures seemed to be highly dependent on individual officials, their engagement, their passivity/activity regarding this issue, their defined responsibility and the boundaries for their current position in the municipality organization. 

  • 64.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ljungström, Martin
    Sweco Civil AB.
    Miljökonsekvenser av 2+1-väg: fokusgruppsstudie väg 23 och 47/1952015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to contribute to the development of methodology to assess environmental consequences of so-called 2+1 roads. During recent years, many existing roads in Sweden have been upgraded to 2+1 roads, i.e. roads where on-coming traffic is separated by a barrier (wire or guard rail). These roads comprise stretches with two lanes in one direction and one in the opposite direction, with road stretches alternating between one- and two-lane sections. Two roads, upgraded to 2+1 roads in 2009, were chosen for the study. The roads were Road 23 between Sandsbro and Drättinge and Road 47/195 between Hedenstorp and Habo, both in southern Sweden. The study revealed a number of environmental consequences that are not usually addressed in ordinary Environmental Impact Assessment of a road-separation measure. Much focus-group discussion was devoted to consequences of re-routing traffic to alternative roads during occasions when the 2+1 road is closed. Even uncomplicated operations and maintenance measures cause re-routing. This re-routed traffic gives rise to various kinds of inconvenience to people living close to the road receiving the re-routed traffic and to people who have their daily activities close to it. In addition to disturbance and decreased safety, also pollution, noise emission and vibrations were experienced as inconveniences arising from this traffic. Informants also mentioned that some re-routing roads have a standard not sufficient enough to carry the traffic volumes sometimes occurring. Environmental consequences attributed to the 2+1 road itself concerned barrier effects to people living close to the road, insecurity of families with children, the need of car transportation to children’s activities, and limited access to agricultural and forestry properties on the other side of the road. Temporary road closures can lead to decreasing revenues and inconveniences in connection with delivery delays. When it came to cycling, the informants identified the need of good signage to cycleways, sufficient technical standard of the pavement and continuity of the cycleways without interruptions forcing cyclists onto the car road.

  • 65.
    Fors, Carina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Revision of criteria for selection of road lighting class: a pre-study2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to investigate the potential in decreasing the energy use of road lighting by a revision of the guidelines regarding the selection of lighting level. The starting point of this work has been the method for selection of lighting classes suggested in the recently published technical report CEN/TR 13201-1, which considers road lighting for drivers and for vulnerable road users. In order to investigate whether CEN/TR 13201-1 is applicable in Sweden, a literature review on guidelines and criteria for selection of road lighting classes was carried out, with the aim of identifying criteria that are scientifically grounded. The literature review was supplemented by a workshop where road lighting criteria were discussed by invited road lighting experts from the Nordic countries. The results from the study show that there is some support that the parameters traffic volume, traffic composition, separation of carriageways, ambient luminosity and navigational task are relevant for the selection of road lighting class, but also that there is a lack of knowledge of road users’ needs and experiences of road lighting. The report gives recommendations for further work on a revision of the guidelines for road lighting, and suggestions for further research studies.

  • 66.
    Fors, Carina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tillståndsmätning av vägmarkeringars funktion 20142015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of road marking performance have been carried out from 21 May to 6 November 2014 on a sample of Swedish roads. The aim of the performance assessment is primarily to investigate to what extent the road markings fulfil the Swedish regulations. Besides, the assessment aims at comparing the road marking performance in different counties and regions, and to analyse the development over time, as performance assessments have been carried out to various extent since 2000. The results of the measurements in 2014 show that 39 per cent of the road marking objects fulfilled the requirements regarding dry road marking retroreflection. The corresponding figure for wet road markings was 21 per cent. With respect to dry road markings, Region Norr (North) and Region Väst (West) had the largest percentage of road marking objects that fulfilled the requirement, with 52 per cent each. Region Stockholm had the lowest percentage of road markings objects that fulfilled the requirements – only 12 per cent. Regarding wet road markings, the percentage of approved objects were 50 per cent in Region Norr (North) and in the range of 7–30 per cent in the other regions. A comparison over the years 2011–2014 shows a downward trend. The percentage of road marking length that fulfills the requirements for dry road markings has decreased from 70 per cent in 2011 to 60 per cent in 2014. The corresponding figures for the percentage of approved road marking objects are 52 per cent and 39 per cent, respectively. In four out of the six regions, the percentage of approved road marking objects has decreased from 2013 to 2014. In summary, the fulfilment of the requirements is in general low and there has been a downward trend since 2011. Furthermore, there is a substantial difference in results between the regions, where Region Norr (North), Region Väst (West) and Region Syd (South) have better results than the other regions. Region Stockholm has markedly worse results than the other regions. A total of 303 objects, each including two edge lines and one centre or lane line, i.e. three road marking objects, have been monitored using mobile equipment. The objects have been randomly selected, however in such a way that at least 14 objects per county have been included in the sample.

  • 67.
    Gaita, Samuel M.
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Boman, Johan
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Gatari, Michael J.
    University of Nairobi.
    Pettersson, Jan B.C.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Source apportionment and seasonal variation of PM2.5 in a Sub-Sahara African city: Nairobi, Kenya2014In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 14, no 18, p. 9977-9991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sources of airborne particulate matter and their seasonal variation in urban areas in Sub-Saharan Africa are poorly understood due to lack of long-term measurement data. In view of this, filter samples of airborne particulate matter (particle diameter ≤2.5 μm, PM2.5) were collected between May 2008 and April 2010 at two sites (urban background site and suburban site) within the Nairobi metropolitan area. A total of 780 samples were collected and analyzed for particulate mass, black carbon (BC) and 13 trace elements.

    The average PM2.5 concentration at the urban background site was 21±9.5 μg m−3, whereas the concentration at the suburban site was 13±7.3 μg m−3. The daily PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 25 μg m−3 (the World Health Organization 24 h guideline value) on 29% of the days at the urban background site and 7% of the days at the suburban site. At both sites, BC, Fe, S and Cl accounted for approximately 80% of all detected elements. Positive matrix factorization analysis identified five source factors that contribute to PM2.5 in Nairobi, namely traffic, mineral dust, industry, combustion and a mixed factor (composed of biomass burning, secondary aerosol and aged sea salt).

    Mineral dust and traffic factors were related to approximately 74% of PM2.5. The identified source factors exhibited seasonal variation, apart from the traffic factor, which was prominently consistent throughout the sampling period. Weekly variations were observed in all factors, with weekdays having higher concentrations than weekends. The results provide information that can be exploited for policy formulation and mitigation strategies to control air pollution in Sub-Saharan African cities.

  • 68.
    Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.
    et al.
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
    Bokkers, Bas G. H.
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
    Sachse, Hannes
    IDIADA Fahrzeugtechnik.
    Reijnders, Jos J. E.
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Boere, A. John F.
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
    Fokkens, P. F. H.
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
    Leseman, Daan L. A. C.
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
    Augsburg, Klaus
    Technical University Ilmenau.
    Cassee, Flemming Ralph
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
    Inhalation toxicity profiles of particulate matter: a comparison between brake wear with other sources of emission2019In: Inhalation Toxicology, ISSN 0895-8378, E-ISSN 1091-7691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: There is substantial evidence that exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) from road traffic is associated with adverse health outcomes. Although it is often assumed to be caused by vehicle exhaust emissions such as soot, other components may also contribute to detrimental effects. The toxicity of fine PM (PM2.5; <2.5 µm mass median aerodynamic diameter) released from brake pads was compared to PM from other sources.

    Materials and methods: PM2.5 of different types of brake pads (low-metallic, semi-metallic, NAO and ECE-NAO hybrid), tires and road pavement, poultry as well as the combustion of diesel fuel and wood (modern and old-fashioned stove technologies) were collected as suspensions in water. These were subsequently aerosolized for inhalation exposures. Female BALB/cOlaHsd mice were exposed for 1.5, 3, or 6 hours by nose-only inhalation up to 9 mg/m 3 .

    Results: Neither cytotoxicity nor oxidative stress was observed after exposure to any of the re-aerosolized PM2.5 samples. Though, at similar PM mass concentrations the potency to induce inflammatory responses was strongly dependent on the emission source. Exposure to most examined PM2.5 sources provoked inflammation including those derived from the poultry farm, wear emissions of the NAO and ECE-NAO hybrid brake pads as well as diesel and wood combustion, as indicated by neutrophil chemoattractant, KC and MIP-2 and lung neutrophil influx.

    Discussion and conclusions: Our study revealed considerable variability in the toxic potency of brake wear particles. Understanding of sources that are most harmful to health can provide valuable information for risk management strategies and could help decision-makers to develop more targeted air pollution regulation.

  • 69.
    Glaas, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI).
    Managing climate change vulnerabilities: formal institutions and knowledge use as determinants of adaptive capacity at the local level in Sweden2010In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 525-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Though managing vulnerabilities posed by climate change calls for effective strategies and measures, its challenges have hitherto not been fully understood. In Sweden, municipalities have recently started incorporating vulnerability management into their political and administrative agendas. This study discusses such experiences and explores how institutional determinants may influence adaptive capacity within a local case study area, to illustrate emerging challenges and opportunities for Swedish municipalities in managing climate vulnerabilities. Specifically, formal institutional structure and the use of knowledge are analysed, concluding that vulnerability management often is focused on technical and reactive fixes, due to limited cooperation between local sector organisations, lack of local co-ordination, and an absence of methods and traditions to build institutional knowledge. Even so, opportunities, such as a high capacity to examine risks to technical systems and important establishments which in turn facilitates protection of technical infrastructure exposed to climate variability and change, also exist.

  • 70.
    Goubert, Luc
    et al.
    Belgian Road Research Centre.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Development of the ultra low noise poroelastic road surface: The findings of the persuade project2016In: ICSV 2016 - 23rd International Congress on Sound and Vibration: From Ancient to Modern Acoustics, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A poroelastic road surface (PERS) consists of rubber granulates and stone aggregates, bound with an elastic resin, such as polyurethane. It does not contain bitumen. Thanks to its elasticity, porosity and texture, it is capable of yielding an unequalled noise reduction, typically 8 - 12 dB(A) with respect to reference dense asphalt concrete. Although already invented in 1979, some persistent problems, the most important being as durability, prevented the use of it for noise abatement.

    In 2009 the six year EU funded project PERSUADE started, aiming to develop a highly noise reducing, safe and affordable PERS with an acceptable durability. The approach of the PERSUADE consortium was at the same time holistic (all aspects of PERS were studied) and step-wise. It started with laboratory testing of mixes and adhesion to the sub layer. Then small scale pilot test tracks were constructed on parking lots and consequently full scale test tracks on real roads. An extensive monitoring program extracted as much as possible information from the test tracks.

    Many other relevant aspects, such as cost-benefit, fire safety, toxicity, sustainability, etc were thoroughly studied. This contribution outlines all the findings of the project and makes clear how one go further with this technology.

  • 71.
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Häggmark-Svensson, Tobias
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Andersson, Hans
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Jansson, Gunnar
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Using traffic data to estimate wildlife populations2015In: Journal of Bioeconomics, ISSN 1387-6996, E-ISSN 1573-6989, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 17-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wildlife populations are threatened worldwide by, among others, habitat fragmentation and hunting pressure. An important impediment for the large scale, national and regional, management of the populations is the difficulty to quantify population dynamics. The purpose of this study is to present a tool for such estimations which is based on available data in several countries; traffic load and traffic accidents with wildlife. An econometric model is developed, which accounts for landscape characteristics. It is applied to wild boar in Sweden, for which data on traffic load and accidents for different counties and years are available. Landscape characteristics are introduced with direct or indirect effects on population growth. The indirect landscape model gives the best statistical performance, and the results show relatively small differences in calculated intrinsic growth rate among counties but considerable differences in predicted population developments.

  • 72.
    Grigoratos, Theodoros
    et al.
    European Commission Joint Research Centre.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Martini, Giorgio
    European Commission Joint Research Centre.
    Experimental investigation of tread wear and particle emission from tyres with different treadwear marking2018In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 182, p. 200-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Treadwear Rating (TWR) provided on the sidewall of the tyre is a marking intended to inform the customer about the expected durability of the tyre. The current study explores whether there is a correlation between the TWR and tyres' tread mass loss. Furthermore, it explores the possible correlation between the TWR and tyre wear dust emitted in the form of PM10 and PM2.5. For that reason, two tyres of the same brand (B) but with different TWR and three tyres of different brands (C and D with the same TWR as one of the B tyres and A with a lower TWR) were tested at a constant speed of 70 km/h by means of the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) road simulator. Tyres of the same TWR but of different brands showed different behaviour in terms of material loss, PM, and PN emissions under the selected testing conditions. This means that it is not feasible to categorize tyres of different brands in terms of their emissions based on their TWR. The test performed on the two tyres of the same brand but with different TWR showed instead a substantial (not statistically significant) difference in both total wear and PM10 emissions. The tyre with the higher TWR (B2) showed less wear and PM10 emissions compared to the B1 tyre having a lower TWR. Since only two tyres of the same brand and with different TWR were tested, this result cannot be generalized and more tests are necessary to confirm the relation within the same brand. In general, the tyre tread mass loss showed no obvious statistical relation to PM10, PM2.5 or PN concentration. In all cases approximately 50% (by mass) of emitted PM10 fall within the size range of fine particles, while PN size distribution is dominated by nanoparticles most often peaking at 20-30 nm.

  • 73.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Cha, Yingying
    KTH.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lund University.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB-analys and Stockholm University.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH.
    Particles in road and railroad tunnel air: sources, properties and abatement measures2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High levels of air pollution are a common problem in both road and railroad tunnels. Sources and emission processes however differ significantly, as reflected by aerosols physical and chemical properties. As particle concentrations and properties affect exposure of and health effects for people on platforms and in vehicles, effective ways to reduce emissions and exposure are important. This study aims to improve the knowledge of the differences between PM10 in the rail and road tunnel environments, their sources and the possibilities to address problems with high particulate levels. Measurement campaigns were carried out at Arlanda Central, a railroad tunnel station below Arlanda airport and in Söderleden road tunnel, a road tunnel in central Stockholm.

    The results show large differences in concentration levels, size distributions and in composition of the particles. The railroad tunnel aerosol consisted of coarse particles with high iron content, while the properties of the coarse particles in the road tunnel were strongly influenced by whether the road surface was wet or dry. In wet conditions, concentrations were relatively low and iron and sulfur dominating elements, while silicon, potassium, calcium and iron from suspension and road wear dominated during dry conditions. The content of elemental carbon, most likely from the pantograph, were unexpectedly high in the railroad tunnel. An older type of train with a large proportion of mechanical brakes were suggested to be responsible to the main particle emissions in the railway tunnel. The report concludes with a discussion and proposals for action against particle sources in the various underground environments.

  • 74.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Slitagepartiklar från vägbeläggningar med gummiinblandad bitumen: jämförelser med referensbeläggning2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dubbdäcksslitage av vägbeläggningar orsakar emissioner av inandningsbara partiklar (PM10) vars tillåtna halt i omgivningsluften är reglerad enligt en miljökvalitetsnorm. Ett sätt att minska partikelemissionen är att anpassa beläggningarnas egenskaper. Föreliggande projekt har undersökt betydelsen för partikelbildningen av inblandning av gummi från bildäck i två beläggningars bitumenfas. Undersökningen genomfördes i VTI:s provvägsmaskin där två gummiinblandade beläggningar av olika konstruktion (GAP11 och GAÖ11) och en referensbeläggning (ABS11) undersöktes. De bildade partiklarnas halter och storleksfördelningar studerades.

  • 75.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Wear particles from road pavements with rubber mixed bitumen: comparison with reference pavement2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studded tyre wear of road pavements causes emissions of inhalable particles (PM10). Allowed concentration of PM10 is regulated by an EU directive which is implemented in an environmental quality standard in Sweden. One way of reducing pavement wear particles is to adjust the properties of the road pavement. In the present project the effect on particle emission from mixing milled tyre rubber into the pavement bitumen has been investigated. Tests were made by the VTI road simulator using two pavement constructions containing rubber (GAP11 and GAÖ11) and one reference pavement (ABS11). GAP=GAR (Gap Graded Asphalt Rubber), ABS=SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt) and GAÖ=OGAR (Open Graded Asphalt Rubber). The concentrations and size distributions of the emitted particles were measured.

    The results show that GAP11 causes lower PM10 concentrations (in this laboratory environment 20–25%) than the reference pavement ABS11, while the GAÖ11 does not differ from the reference. Size distributions show that PM10 has a bi-modal distribution with two mass maxima at 4–5 and 7–8 μm. GAP11 decreases the mass size distribution mainly in the finer mode, while GAÖ11 seems to affect mainly the coarser mode. Ultrafine particles are emitted during all tests and have number distribution maxima at around 20–30 nm. These particles are formed in the interaction between tyre studs and pavement and/or tyre rubber. Higher speed generates higher concentrations of ultrafine particles.

    All in all, the results indicate a lowering effect on PM10 emissions caused by GAP11, while the GAÖ11 does not seem to lower the emissions as compared to the reference pavement ABS11.

  • 76.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2016/20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, Stockholm City has been working to reduce the impact of road dust through improved and specific street operations to reduce particulate levels in the air. Since its inception, effects on dust load and air quality have been investigated by VTI and SLB-analys at the Environmental Management in Stockholm. Specific measures have mainly included dust binding with calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) and vacuum cleaning with a Disa-Clean sweeper. The air quality measurements show that the environmental quality standard for PM10 is maintained for the fourth year in a row in Stockholm, which is partly due to operational measures. Additional daytime dust binding could be shown to lower the daily average PM10 concentration by 6%, while blockwise CMA treatment could not be shown to have any clear effect. Road dust load, measured as DL180 (road dust less than 180 μm), tend to have increased slightly compared to the previous season, especially in between the wheel tracks. The repaving of Folkungagatan has resulted in heavily increased dust load levels, but also lower PM10 levels than previous seasons. Evaluation of the possibilities for optimizing dust binding shows that several days with exceedances in autumn are missed, while several days in January are treated with CMA without an actual need to reach the limit value. Higher precision with forecast-based measures is needed to further optimize the efforts.

  • 77.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2017–20182019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The City of Stockholm has been working since 2011 on reducing, through improved and specific street operations, the suspension of road dust to the air. Since the start, the effects on both dust storage and air quality have been followed up by VTI and SLB-analys. Specific measures have included mainly dust binding with calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) and vacuum cleaning (Disa-Clean). However, the vacuum sweeper has not been used this season. The air quality measurements show that the environmental quality standard for PM10 is met for the fifth year in Stockholm, but the levels are higher than the previous year. Road dust loads measured as DL180 (road dust less than 180 μm) have generally increased, which has been the development since the 2014–2015 season. The Folkungagatan, which had a new pavement in 2016, still has high road dust volumes, but also lower PM10 levels than before the pavement change. The evaluation of the possibilities of optimizing the dust binding shows that CMA is often used even though the PM10 levels were not at risk to be exceeded. May was particularly dry and several PM10 exceedances could then have been prevented with CMA, but the measure ends in April due to risk of low friction. Higher precision with, for example, forecast-based measures would probably be beneficial for optimizing the efforts.

  • 78.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Jonsson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Vägbeläggningars damningsbenägenhet2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2005 Sweden has an environmental quality standard for inhalable particles (PM10), based on an EC directive. In Sweden, road dust is an important local source of norm exceedance, which has highlighted the negative effects of studded tyres, but also initiated research and development for other ways to reduce the formation and distribution of road dust to our ambient air. More than 100 000 tons of road pavement is worn each season. Some of this material is PM10 from the start, while other material has the potential to be ground down by the traffic to PM10. Reducing road pavement dust formation propensity is therefore a potential measure studied in this project. Eight surfaces of SMA-type (stone mastic asphalt) were tested in the VTI road simulator for particle formation to determine both the impact of the largest stone size and the influence of rock material properties. As a complement to analyze the impact of technical properties of different stone materials, data from nine additional pavements tested in other projects were used. The results show that larger largest stone size generally leads to lower particulate emissions and that the stone material Nordic ball mill value is a useful measure for estimating a stone material dust formation propensity. In the pavements with 11 mm largest stone size, the Nordic ball mill value can explain 70% of the variation in PM10 at 50 km/h. The results are not conclusive, suggesting that some material may be more sensitive for changes in the largest stone size than others. Elemental analysis shows that particles larger than about 1 micron are completely dominated by elements originating in the aggregates of the pavement. Sulfur, which may originate from tyres and/or bitumen is usually a significant contribution to particles below 1 micron, while zinc, which can be traced to tyre rubber, is found in relatively small amounts mainly in the coarser fractions. Special tests in the Norwegian part of the project show that increased studded tyre percentage increases particle formation and that when non-studded winter tires and summer tires are tested on one of the Norwegian pavements, this results in about 15 times lower PM10 concentrations than with use of studded tyres and a higher proportion of fine particles. In all tests with studded tyres also ultrafine particles are formed. The source is still unknown, but tests with the porphyry pavements result in higher concentrations than for quartzite and mylonite pavements.

  • 79.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hultqvist, Bengt-Åke
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Slitage av och partikelemissioner från betongbeläggning2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to study wear and the formation of inhalable particles from concrete coating, concrete coating with mixed in titanium dioxide (TiOmix) and from a reference asphalt (SMA16) under controlled conditions in the VTI road simulator (PVM). All coatings used the same rock material, a granite with ball mill value 6. Wear tests showed that the TiOmix wore most, due to the poor strength properties caused in manufacturing the slabs. The asphalt was initially more worn than the concrete, but after about 250 000 rounds in the PVM it was at the same wear rate as the concrete. Particle formation was higher for the concrete that that of the asphalt. PM10 from concrete contained substantially more calcium than PM10 from asphalt, indicating that the cement in the concrete is an important particle source. Ultrafine particles emitted, after initial high emissions at any speed increase, to a lesser extent from the concrete and TiOmix than from asphalt. The concentrations of PAHs are lower in samples from concrete coating, which may indicate that a part of the PAHs are derived from bitumen. However, the difference may also be due to different PAH content from the tires used.

  • 80.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mätning av luftkvalitet vid TestSite E182015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of air quality (PM10 and NOx (NO and NO2)) were made during the period 2013-03-16 to 2014-03-26 at TestSite E18, situated along the E18 highway between Västerås and Enköping. At TestSite E18 continuous measurements of traffic (eastbound direction) and meteorology are made. On the site, optical equipment for measuring road wetness was used during the campaign. The main purpose of the surveys is to create a data base for a highway traffic environment, which can be used for modeling air quality and calculation of exposure and health effects at a later stage. The results show that the concentrations do not exceed the relevant EQS. PM10 and NO2 are highest during the spring and autumn and lower in the summer period. The correlations between PM10 and nitrogen oxides are high in spring, low in summer and moderate in autumn and winter, suggesting that the summertime sources for PM10 at TestSite E18 are essentially others than traffic. Road surface moisture reduces PM10 levels strongly during spring when road dust is a major particle source. On a daily basis nitrogen dioxide and PM10 concentrations follow traffic variation, but with a clear secondary minimum at midday for nitrogen oxides. TestSite E18 generates large amounts of traffic and meteorology data, which can be used to analyze the correlation between these factors and air pollution at the site, and provide appropriate data for input to as well as validation of emission models.

  • 81.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2015–20162017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, Stockholm has made special efforts to reduce PM10 levels in the city. The efforts mainly include dust binding with CMA (calcium magnesium acetate) and vacuum suction with a powerful dry vacuum suction machine. This report summarizes effects on particulate matter and road dust storage, as the actions taken by Stockholm City during the 2015–2016 season and discusses how measures can be further improved. The limit value for the environmental quality standard was not exceeded for the 2015–2016 season for the third consecutive year, but the number of days with PM10 levels over the environmental quality standard was higher than in the previous season, which had a record low number of exceedances. The evaluation of daytime dust binding was complicated by the fact that the CMA was also used on the reference street, which caused to much uncertainties to provide quantitative analysis of its effect this season. Block-wise dust binding and vacuuming could not be evaluated due to dust contamination from a construction site. The dust load on the streets varies from a few g/m2 to about 250 g/m2 depending on the street and season and is highest during the winter (Dec–Jan). A trend towards lower dust loads is broken this season on several streets, which may be due to the damper streets in spring. Analyses made on the connection between dust load, PM10 and impacting factors, as well as a condition-based calculation method suggests that dust binding in spring is important for keeping the levels down, while dust binding in autumn and winter is more often “unnecessary” (the levels would probably not have exceeded the limit value also without dust binding).

  • 82.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM), Stockholms universitet.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys, Miljöförvaltningen, Stockholms stad.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2012–20132014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is exceeding the limit values in the EU air quality directives and an important cause is the high concentrations of inhalable particles (PM10) that occurs during winter and spring. Wear of road pavements and winter operation like sanding are important sources for these high concentrations. The city of Stockholm has the largest air quality problems due to many badly ventilated street canyons with high traffic flows. Since 2011 an intensified mitigation work is intended to reduce PM10 concentrations. In this work, some streets are used as test streets for different measures and the resulting PM10 concentrations are compared to concentrations on un-treated reference streets. The results of the season 2011–2012 showed that dust binding with CMA (calcium magnesium acetate) was the most effective measure, while cleaning with an advanced sweeper with vacuum, could not be proven to give any reducing effects on PM10. The trials have been extended with two more test sites during the season 2012–2013, presented in this report. The reason for this was to be able to evaluate a new kind of vacuum sweeper, which does not use water and therefore can be used also during sub-zero conditions. The results show that dust binding with CMA is still the most effective method to reduce high PM10 concentrations resulting from road dust suspension and that the effect can be seen also the day after treatment. Cleaning the streets with the new vacuum cleaner could not be shown to give a significant reduction of PM10 concentrations, even though samples showed that the machine actually picked up fine particles. As during the previous season, the amount of road dust has been sampled and analyzed. The road dust depot increases during winter and reaches a maximum in early spring but is very low in the beginning and at the end of the winter season. This shows the importance of pavement wear and winter operation measures for the road dust depot. The dust binding effect is reflected in higher dust amounts with finer particle size distributions on the treated streets. As CMA might give reduce friction, friction measurements were performed, but no friction problems could be detected. Road surface texture was detected and this indicate that texture is an important parameter for the size of the road dust depot and therefore also for the dust suspension potential.

  • 83.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB-analys.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2013–20142015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, intensified efforts are made to reduce levels of PM10 in Stockholm, where the problems are extensive. This report includes the results and evaluation of the measures taken during the winter season 2013–2014. The lowest PM10 levels since records began in Stockholm, were measured during the season and the limit values for the environmental quality standard is managed by a wide margin, which at least partially can be attributed to the intensified measures. The winter was unusually mild and snow-free and this has probably contributed to that, the typically large quantities of road dust that accumulates on the road surface in winter were able to leave the system through suspension, cleaning and drainage without high particulate levels resulting. During dry periods, frequent dust binding has helped to suppress high PM10 levels. The usually sharp PM10 peak in spring did not appear to the same extent as previous years. The block-wise CMA (calcium magnesium acetate) treatment was shown to provide additional reducing effect on PM10 levels, while the CMA + KF (potassium formate) treatment did not appear to have any impact. The measurements of the road dust load show the same seasonal fluctuations as in previous years, with large amounts during winter and early spring and lower in fall and late spring. All streets, except Hornsgatan, show a gradual decrease of road dust load over the three seasons with available data. The proportion of particles smaller than 10 microns in the dust increases from autumn to winter and decreases again in the spring. The organic proportion varies between 10 and 20 per cent by weight of DL180 (dust load less than 180 μm)and also exhibit a seasonal variation, where the proportion is higher in autumn and lowest in early spring. In a specific evaluation of the cleaning machine, a reduction of the road dust load could be observed.

  • 84.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2014–20152016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, intensified efforts are made to reduce the levels of PM10 in Stockholm. This report presents results and evaluation of the efforts made during the winter season 2014–2015. The season has the lowest PM10 concentrations and the lowest number of exceedances of the environmental quality standard for PM10 since measurements started in Stockholm in 2000. Calculations using the NORTRIP model shows that both increased dust binding, reduced use of studded tires, lower background concentration and differences in meteorology are all factors that contributed to reduced levels from 2013 to 2015. Treatment with CMA + KF (potassium formate) did not appear to give any impact on PM10 levels, while block-wise dust binding gave an additional, but not significant, positive effect.

    The dust load on the road surface has a declining trend in all streets except Hornsgatan over the past three years and has, as in previous seasons, a seasonal variation with large amounts in winter and early spring and low in October and May. Detailed measurements showed a strong variation in the dust load across streets, with large accumulations outside the driving lane. Road surface texture is considered to play an important role in the accumulation of dust as it affects both the suspension from traffic, as well as the ability to clean off the dust. The report provides, based on the season’s results, combined with data on measures and meteorology, some suggestions for how measures can be improved and also provides examples of how additional needs or unnecessary efforts can be retrieved from the existing data.

  • 85.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM), Stockholms universitet .
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys, Miljöförvaltningen, Stockholms stad.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 på Hornsgatan och Sveavägen i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2011–20122012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several Swedish cities have problems with complying with the environmental quality standard for inhalable particulate matter in air (PM10). Stockholm has a number of problematic traffic environments with narrow street canyons and high traffic flows, where the limit values are exceeded practically every year. An important source for PM10 is road dust forming from wear of road pavements and use of winter sanding. Different measures have been tested to mitigate the particle concentrations but to reach the limit values, no single measure is enough, but needs to be combined. During the winter 2011–2012, the city of Stockholm has tested a combination of measures, including dust binding with CMA, powerful street sweeping and street flushing with water to, if possible, reach the PM10 limit values. During the season, 31 applications of CMA, 25 road sweepings and 42 road flushes, were conducted. The results show that the number of PM10 directive exceedances on both streets were considerably fewer than on the reference streets. The single measure having a significant effect, though, was dust binding with CMA, while sweeping and flushing did not reduce PM10 concentrations. The road dust depot increased during the winter months on the test streets and reached a maximum in March, during the most intense dust binding efforts. An obvious relationship between road surface texture and road dust depot could be identified. The ion content on the street surfaces reflected the use of road salt (NaCl) and CMA

  • 86.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jonsson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Damningsminimerad vinter- och barmarksdrift: mått, medel och strategier2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A great deal of the inhalable particulate matter (PM10) problems in Sweden has been shown to result from wear particles from traffic, but also from winter sanding. The problem with high concentrations of PM10 thus originates in traffic safety and accessibility measures during winter. At the end of the winter season, the need for street cleaning increases and usually the highest levels of PM10 occur then. Road dust can be mitigated in several ways. For example, it is possible to adjust road surfaces so that they produce less amount of particles. Quality, quantity and handling of sand can be adjusted. To prevent suspension of particles from the road surface, they might be cleaned away or bound to the surface using dust-binders. Resulting problems concerning PM10 are thus connected to sources, road user behaviour, weather conditions and winter road operator actions. This project therefore aims at the following: - to survey the measures that are important for a road pavement's dust forming properties. - to provide a knowledge overview of the impact of various operational measures against inhalable particles. - to develop and evaluate an instrument collecting road dust to evaluate the potential of dust from various pavements to formulate policy proposals for dust minimised road operation of the Swedish road network.

    Alternative URL: http://fudinfo.trafikverket.se/fud infoexternwebb/Publikationer/Publikationer_001201_001300/Publikation_001257/R701 .pdf

  • 87.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB-analys.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Road dust load dynamics and influencing factors for six winter seasons in Stockholm, Sweden2019In: Atmospheric Environment: X, ISSN 2590-1621, Vol. 2, article id 100014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic related non-exhaust particulate sources and road dust are an increasingly important source for PM10 air pollution as exhaust sources are decreasing due to regulations. In the Nordic countries, the road dust problem is enhanced by use of studded tyres, causing increased road wear and winter road maintenance including gritting. Efforts to reduce road dust emissions requires knowledge on temporal and spatial road dust load dynamics. The city of Stockholm, Sweden, has therefore financed seasonal (October to May) road dust sampling to be able to optimize their winter and spring time street operation measures for reduced road dust emissions. This work describes the outcome of six seasons (2011/2012–2016/2017) of road dust sampling in five central streets using the VTI wet dust sampler (WDS).The results show that road dust load, expressed as DL180 (dust load smaller than 180 μm) has a seasonal variation with the highest loads (up to 200 g/m2) in late winter and early spring and a minimum (down to about 15 g/m2) in early autumn and late spring. The dust load varies between streets and is depending on pavement surface properties. On a smaller scale the dust load has a high variability across streets due to differences in rates of suspension from different parts of the road surface, with low amounts in wheel tracks and higher in-between and outside the tracks. Between 2 and 30% of the DL180 is smaller than 10 μm and could directly contribute to PM10 emissions. In general, higher road surface texture leads to higher dust loads, but the condition of the pavement (e.g. cracks, aggregate loss) might also have an effect. A new, wear resistant pavement accumulated markedly higher road dust amounts than a several years old pavement. This paper closes with a discussion on the complex relation between road dust load and PM10 concentrations and a discussion on the challenges and comparability of road dust sampling techniques and measures.

  • 88.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Eneroth, Kristina
    SLB-analys.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Optidrift: optimerad vinter- och barmarksdrift för bättre luftkvalitet2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Operation of streets and roads, in addition to accessibility and safety, also affects environmental aspects such as air quality. Measures such as sanding and salting affect the content of inhalable particles (PM10) in the air. On the other hand, operational measures that are made to reduce the suspension of particles in the spring can have an effect on the winter operation, because the salt solutions used also act as de- and anti-icing agents. The project has investigated the possibilities of optimizing street operations from these aspects, with a focus on air quality. In various activities, views and experiences were gathered about problem images and solutions from industry, road managers and practitioners. A road dust sampler, WDS II, was developed. Evaluations of the effect of different coil and cleaning variants on the road dust load showed that a positive effect of the methods requires that there is relatively much dust on the road surface. Optimization tests showed that good forecasting of dust binding is important for a good result. A criteria-based analysis showed that no optimization of the dust binding occurred during the project period. Overall, the project's original goal of being able to propose an optimized street operation in a district in Stockholm has not been achieved, mainly due to current operating contracts and of the high priority of the environmental quality objective (PM10) and accessibility in the city. On the other hand, Optidrift has identified success factors and problems with the street operation, resulting in increased knowledge about the street operations' effects on dust load and air quality, and developed useful evaluation methods and scenario analyzes useful in continued work on improving and optimizing winter and barge operations.

  • 89.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Lunds Universitet.
    Dahl, Andreas
    Lunds Universitet.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lunds Universitet.
    Inhalable railroad particles at ground level and subterranean stations: physical and chemical properties and relation to train traffic2012In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 277-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper compares PM10 concentrations in railroad environments with EU air quality standards and characterizes particle concentrations and particle properties in relation to train traffic. The results show that PM10 concentrations in ground-level railroad environments do not exceed the EU directive 24-h limit value, while on the platforms of the two subterranean stations PM10 concentrations were far above the outdoor limit value. Diurnal and weekly patterns in PM10 concentration could be identified, co-varying with train traffic intensity. The particle mass size distribution peaked at around 2–micro-m. The elemental composition of PM10 at the subterranean stations was dominated by Fe.

  • 90.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Kärnfysik, Lunds universitet.
    Dahl, Andreas
    Ergonomi och aerosolteknologi ,Lunds universitet.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Ergonomi och aerosolteknologi ,Lunds universitet.
    PM10 measurements and element analysis of airborne particles at railway stations above and below ground in Sweden2011Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Emission of inhalable particles from studded tyre wear of road pavements: a comparative study2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New restrictions on the number of studs on studded tyres were introduced in Sweden and Finland in 2013. Regulations now allows 50 studs per meter rolling circumference. Alternatively, the tyres can be tested in a special wear test, the so-called over-run test, to be approved. This has resulted in studded tyres that follows the rule of the number of studs per rolling circumference meters, but also studded tyres that pass the over-run test, even though they have considerably more spikes are present on the market. The over-run test shall ensure that the tested tyre will not cause more road wear than a tyre with a maximum of 50 studs per meter rolling circumference. Since studded tyres are a major source of inhalable particles (PM10) in road and street environments, it is of interest to investigate the difference between the various studded tyre types also from particle emission point of view. In the present study, the particle generation from seven studded tyres was tested in the VTI road simulator. The tyres have been tested at 50 km/h in a statistically optimal sequence during the four test days where various order of tyres used each day of testing. Concentrations (mass and number) and size distributions were measured during the experiments, as well as environmental parameters (temperature and humidity). In the statistical analysis of particle data was partly analysed as constants and partly as depending on ambient and tyre-specific parameters. The results show that the tyre with the most studs (190) generates significantly higher PM10 levels than other tyres while one of the tyres following the stud number regulations and have 96 studs results in significantly lower formation of inhalable particles than all other tyres tested. Increased number of studs increases PM10, PM2.5 and number concentration significantly, while increasing stud force significantly increases the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5. Temperatures in the tyre, pavement and air as well as relative humidity also have an effect on the particle levels. A calculation example was performed where the relationship between the tested highest and lowest emitting tyres was applied in a process based emissions model in which studded tyre wear is included (NORTRIP model). This demonstrated that the effect of variations in the studded tyre wear on both PM10-levels and the number of limit value exceedances for the current data set used was significant.

  • 92.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    ITM – Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap, Stockholms Universitet.
    Road pavements and PM10: summary of the results of research funded by the Swedish Transport Administration on how the properties of road pavements influence emissions and the properties of wear particles2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wear particles from road pavements contribute to high particle concentrations in Swedish road and street environments. In order to obtain an idea of how the properties of road pavements can be influenced so as to reduce the emissions, several research projects were performed during the last century, mainly by the Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), SLB Analysis at the City of Stockholm Environmental and Health Administration, and the Institution of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm University. At VTI, the research was mainly carried out in a laboratory environment using the VTI heavy vehicle simulator. SLB Analysis and ITM mostly worked in the field with air quality measurements and with a survey vehicle called EMMA which measures particle concentrations behind the two front wheels. The studies mainly focused on the wear resistant pavements used on roads and streets carrying high traffic (SMA) since it is normally these roads and streets that cause problems due to high particle concentrations. However, some tests on ABT in the field have also been carried out. The pavement properties studied are those which are shown by experience to have the greatest influence on the overall wear of pavements, i.e. the maximum size of coarse aggregate and the properties of the aggregate in the pavement. Some alternative pavement designs have also been studied. These are porous asphalt, asphalt rubber pavements, and cement concrete pavements. Overall, the results show that the lower the maximum size of coarse aggregate and the lower the Nordic abrasion value of the aggregate material, the lower the particle formation. Even though experience shows that an AC design wears more rapidly than a similar SMA, no clear differences could be noted between these pavements in the field measurements, probably because the differences are concealed by the dust stirred up which, in field measurements, is difficult to distinguish from direct emission. In the heavy vehicle simulator, rubber asphalt tended in certain designs to produce slightly lower particle emissions, which was not confirmed by the measurements in the field. Porous (quiet) pavement produced lower emissions in the simulator, but since no correct reference pavement was tested, it was considered that the effect was mainly due to the use of a particularly wear resistant aggregate material in the pavement. Measurements in the field were not able to confirm that porous pavements produce lower particle emissions. Cement concrete, on the other hand, was found to cause lower emissions in field measurements, even though there is still some lack of clarity. Particle size distributions in PM10 are similar regardless of which properties of the pavement are changed, and the composition of these particles is fully governed by the mineralogy of the aggregate material. Several important research questions remain. The significance of the direct emissions in relation to suspended dust and the influence of various factors (texture, meteorology, different sources, drainage etc) on the road dust depot processes is important knowledge for better understanding and modelling of the emissions from roads. More knowledge is also needed on how particle emissions are influenced by different standard designs, alternative designs and materials, as well as by the influence of the age and wear of the pavement. The relative contributions which the different aggregate materials in the pavement make to the emissions are also of interest, since the aggregate is often of high quality, while the local stone which is used as the fill is of considerably lower quality. Finally, it may be stated that particle emissions are one of several important properties of road pavements. In choosing a pavement, other aspects must also be considered, such as noise properties, other environmental effects (inclusive of LCA), the effect on fuel consumption and tyre wear.

  • 93.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    ITM – Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap, Stockholms Universitet.
    Vägbeläggningar och PM10: sammanställning av Trafikverksfinansierade forskningsresultat kring hur vägbeläggningars egenskaper påverkar emissioner och egenskaper hos slitagepartiklar.2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wear particles from road pavements contribute to high particle concentrations in Swedish road and street environments. In order to obtain an idea of how the properties of road pavements can be influenced so as to reduce the emissions, several research projects were performed during the last century, mainly by the Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), SLB Analysis at the City of Stockholm Environmental and Health Administration, and the Institution of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm University. At VTI, the research was mainly carried out in a laboratory environment using the VTI heavy vehicle simulator. SLB Analysis and ITM mostly worked in the field with air quality measurements and with a survey vehicle called EMMA which measures particle concentrations behind the two front wheels. The studies mainly focused on the wear resistant pavements used on roads and streets carrying high traffic (SMA) since it is normally these roads and streets that cause problems due to high particle concentrations. However, some tests on ABT in the field have also been carried out. The pavement properties studied are those which are shown by experience to have the greatest influence on the overall wear of pavements, i.e. the maximum size of coarse aggregate and the properties of the aggregate in the pavement. Some alternative pavement designs have also been studied. These are porous asphalt, asphalt rubber pavements, and cement concrete pavements. Overall, the results show that the lower the maximum size of coarse aggregate and the lower the Nordic abrasion value of the aggregate material, the lower the particle formation. Even though experience shows that an AC design wears more rapidly than a similar SMA, no clear differences could be noted between these pavements in the field measurements, probably because the differences are concealed by the dust stirred up which, in field measurements, is difficult to distinguish from direct emission. In the heavy vehicle simulator, rubber asphalt tended in certain designs to produce slightly lower particle emissions, which was not confirmed by the measurements in the field. Porous (quiet) pavement produced lower emissions in the simulator, but since no correct reference pavement was tested, it was considered that the effect was mainly due to the use of a particularly wear resistant aggregate material in the pavement. Measurements in the field were not able to confirm that porous pavements produce lower particle emissions. Cement concrete, on the other hand, was found to cause lower emissions in field measurements, even though there is still some lack of clarity. Particle size distributions in PM10 are similar regardless of which properties of the pavement are changed, and the composition of these particles is fully governed by the mineralogy of the aggregate material. Several important research questions remain. The significance of the direct emissions in relation to suspended dust and the influence of various factors (texture, meteorology, different sources, drainage etc) on the road dust depot processes is important knowledge for better understanding and modelling of the emissions from roads. More knowledge is also needed on how particle emissions are influenced by different standard designs, alternative designs and materials, as well as by the influence of the age and wear of the pavement. The relative contributions which the different aggregate materials in the pavement make to the emissions are also of interest, since the aggregate is often of high quality, while the local stone which is used as the fill is of considerably lower quality. Finally, it may be stated that particle emissions are one of several important properties of road pavements. In choosing a pavement, other aspects must also be considered, such as noise properties, other environmental effects (inclusive of LCA), the effect on fuel consumption and tyre wear.

  • 94.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Kraft, Lars
    RISE.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH.
    Moderna betongbeläggningar: utveckling mot mindre slitage och partikelemission2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Road paving of concrete has the potential to be an interesting alternative to asphalt in several ways. Concrete is normally durable and lacks fossil components, which is favorable from a climate point of view and for fire safety in e.g. tunnels. However, concrete is more expensive to lay, which means that from a sustainability perspective, the concrete must be both more durable and require less maintenance compared to asphalt coatings. The purpose of the present project has been to develop a concrete recipe (Concrete 2), with better properties regarding wear and particle emissions compared to a known standard concrete (Concrete 1) and a durable asphalt coating (SMA16) based on the same ballast material. Initial pin-on-disk machine tests showed that abrasion and particle concentration of concrete road materials exhibit a reversed proportionality to the hardness of the ballast, and a direct proportionality to the slip distance.

    In VTI’s road simulator, Concrete 2 (the new recipe) was compared to Concrete 1 and against an asphalt of the type SMA16. The test showed that the wear was significantly lower for Concrete 2 compared to ABS16 and Concrete 1. Generally, both the concretes generate higher PM10 levels than the asphalt. Ultrafine particles are generated to a greater extent by the asphalt. The reason for the higher PM10 emission of the concrete is considered to be the contribution from the cement paste, which is reflected in an approximately three times higher calcium content in PM10 from the concrete compared to PM10 from the asphalt. Overall, both the test in road simulator and in the detailed studies in the pin-on-disc machine show that Concrete 2 has a higher wear resistance than both Concrete 1 and the asphalt SMA16 and generally generates less PM10 than Concrete 1.

  • 95.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Grumert, Ellen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Hastighetsdämpande åtgärder: en litteraturstudie med fokus på nya trafikmiljöåtgärder och ITS-orienterade lösningar2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A literature survey has been conducted regarding international traffic calming measures that could have a potential use in Sweden and other Nordic countries. Focus has been on measures in new traffic environments and ITS (Intelligent Transport System) based solutions. Information has been obtained through searches in literature databases and on different homepages, as well as from contacts in networks. Initially, we describe common traffic calming measures used today in Swedish traffic environments. For example, different forms of vertical and horizontal measures, and different types of surfaces, road markings and paintings. In the case of existing ITS solutions, we mention speed reminder signs, variable message signs and Motorway Control System (MCS).

    New kinds of physical measures that have most potential for use are e.g. modifications of speed bumps and the construction of small curves that enforce lower speed. Such curvatures can be used at entrances to communities or before roundabouts.

    Different concepts of "shared space" (e.g. walking speed zones) are something that could be used more extensively, even at intersections and other locations in urban areas. In such cases, all traditional road equipment is removed and a synergy between different user groups is created, leading to lower speeds.

    Different types of road markings and paintings can be used to visually narrow the road, but also in order to create an optical illusion that makes one feel as if the speed is high. However, such measures are not fully effective during winter conditions. Applications in 3D can also be used to create the illusion of obstacles in the roadway and result in reduced speeds. It is important to consider the overall picture and to combine various measures in a correct way. This report gives some examples on how to implement speed reduction measures in communities with thoroughfares. Furthermore, we give example on how strategic approaches and policy design may help to efficiently implement different kinds of traffic calming measures.

    ITS-solutions, where a two-way communication between vehicles and between vehicles and the infrastructure is used, have gained momentum in Europe and internationally. Three possible systems that have not yet been introduced on the market are described. Most of the cooperative systems are still in a research and development phase. The potential of the systems is considered to be large, and this is also reflected in the extensive research and development investments in the area. Furthermore, ITS as a whole, i.e. cooperative systems as well as other ITS solutions is believed to have a great potential.

  • 96.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ljudvarningar vid vägarbetsplatser för att uppnå sänkta hastigheter: Kartläggning och praktisk utvärdering2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A project has been carried out to find methods that effectively decrease drivers’ speeds at road work sites through real-time audio warnings. The project consisted of two parts. First, a survey of existing studies took place. The results show that the characteristics of a successful audio alert are female voice, direct and informative messages, an interaction between semantics and acoustics, successively increased intensity, and the dimming of secondary audio distractions. Based on the results of the survey, a practical evaluation of the potential use of audio warnings at road work sites was carried out in a VTI driver simulator. Twenty-two car drivers drove 25 kilometer on a motorway where two road works were placed on the hard shoulder. Half of the subjects were given an audio warning before the first road work and the other half prior to the second roadwork. The audio warning consisted of a sound similar to that of a GPS warning signal, followed by a female voice saying "Warning! Road work within 500 meters. Adjust the speed!". The message was sent via the car's internal speaker system. The speed reducing effect is significant and the average decrease is estimated to be 9–17 km/h greater with audio warning than without. Furthermore, there was still a small effect (0.5–3.3 km h) left of the audio alert after the road works. More results of the simulation tests are presented along with the drivers’ subjective opinions of such systems.

  • 97.
    Haider, Manfred
    et al.
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Conter, Marco
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Green, Martin
    TRL Limited, UK.
    Schmidt, Bjarne
    Danish Road Directorate.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Status of the EU-project ROSANNE2016In: Transportation Research Procedia, 2016, Vol. 14, p. 2946-2955Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ROSANNE is a collaborative project in the Seventh EU Framework Programme which aims at developing/harmonising measurement methods for skid resistance, noise emission and rolling resistance of road pavements as a preparation for standardization. To achieve this, the project is following the recommendations of key predecessor projects like TYROSAFE, HERMES, SILVIA, SILENCE and MIRIAM as well as considering the ongoing work in CEN and ISO groups.

    Work package 1 deals with skid resistance and aims at the harmonization of skid resistance measurement following the TYROSAFE Roadmap, by deriving conversion factors for friction indices based on similar groups of devices, namely longitudinal and sideways skid resistance measurement devices. During the first project year a first round robin test was carried out in Nantes, ten different devices participated to the test. The results of this test are collected in report D1.2 "Analysis of data from the first round of tests and initial development of the common scale".

    Work package 2 is dealing with the pavement influence on road traffic noise emission: the main objective of this work package is to combine the existing measurement methods of SPB (ISO 11819-1) and CPX (ISO/DIS 11819-2) into a stable and reliable harmonised pavement noise emission characterisation method. The project is validating procedure incorporating correction mechanisms for temperature influence and investigating its potential use for noise calculation methods like the one proposed by the CNOSSOS-EU project.

    Work package 3 is dealing with rolling resistance, where the ROSANNE project is mainly building on the results obtained in the MIRIAM project and is considering standardized trailer measurements of rolling resistance coefficients of road surfaces. After a first report D3.1 "State of the art on rolling resistance measurement devices including draft standard outline" the following main report was produced "Parameters influencing rolling resistance and possible correction procedures".

    In the frame of work package 4 the project is also exploring the potential for developments in the measurement of surface texture in order to find out parameters that better reflect the physical process of tyre/road interaction and that may improve the understanding of how the texture influences noise emission, skid resistance and rolling resistance. In addition to that this work package is also investigating the performance of reference tyres and pavements which are necessary for the measurement of all three road surface properties. The present paper summarizes the project status after the first 18 project months.

  • 98.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Karlsson, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys av rundvirkestransporter med 90-tonslastbilar: delprojekt inom Sammodalitetsprojektet2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to make a cost benefit analysis, showing how costs for truck transports of round wood would change if vehicles with a total weight of 90 tonnes were used instead of the 60-tonne vehicles that are currently in use. The analysis has two parts. First, costs per vehicle kilometre are presented for both vehicle sizes. This gives a good general view but does not take into account the various conditions with regard to road type, etcetera, that affect costs. Neither does it take into account that the amount of vehicle kilometres associated with round wood transports changes if larger vehicles are allowed. Therefore a scenario analysis is also performed. The basis for this analysis is simulations using the Swedish transport and logistics system Samgods. Flow estimates from Samgods are combined with road attribute data from the national road database (NVDB) to compute the total transport cost, including externalities. In these computations road type and other situation specific factors are taken into account. The scenario analysis is summarized by the total annual cost for road transports of round wood in Sweden. Due to the simulations the amount of vehicle kilometres are reduced by 21 percent if 60-tonne vehicles are replace by 90-tonne vehicles, given that the capacity of bridges is left without regard. In socioeconomic terms this equals cost reduction of 4 per cent of 163 million Swedish crowns annually. It should be kept in mind, though, that costs for improving bridge capacity, which is required for this scenario to be realized, are not included in the analysis. When 90-tonne vehicles are not allowed to pass bridges with limited bearing capacity, larger vehicles do not generally improve efficiency. There are however some important round wood transport routes where larger vehicles are possible to use without any measures to improve bridges.

  • 99.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Fremtidens kollektive transport i Region Sjælland: Fase 3 - Handlingsplan2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [da]

    Region Sjælland har iværksat et udredningsprojekt, som fokuserer på fremtidens kollektive transport i regionen. Projektet indeholder tre faser: kortlægning, scenarier og udarbejdelse af en handlingsplan.  

    I første fase er udarbejdet et såkaldt ”mobilitetsatlas”, som illustrerer tilgængelighed og mobilitet med kollektiv transport i regionen. Mobilitetsatlasset peger på udfordringer og muligheder for fremtidens kollektive transport. For det første står den kollektive transport stærkt på især de lange pendlerrejser. For det andet udgør de unges transport til uddannelse en udfordring – særligt for erhvervsuddannelserne. For det tredje følges lavt bilejerskab og dårlig tilgængelighed til kollektiv transport ad i regionens tyndere befolkede områder, og endelig - for det fjerde - udgør eventuel realisering af et servicemål om maksimalt 30 minutters rejsetid til transportknudepunkter og større byer en udfordring i en række – især tyndt befolkede – områder (Moe-Tetraplan, 2016).  

    I projektets anden fase har fokus været på at udarbejde tre scenarier for 2025, som sigtede mod at illustrere forskellige udviklingsretninger for regionens kollektive transport og effekterne på rejsetider, tilgængelighed og udgifter til kollektiv transport. Det ene scenarie tilstræbte høj mobilitet og havde til formål at optimere betjeningen med kollektiv transport. I det andet scenarie var sigtet at reducere udgifterne ved at bevare den kollektive transport, hvor den gavner de fleste og begrænse, hvor det generer de færreste. Endelig tilstræbte det tredje scenarie stor tilgængelighed til den kollektive transport ved at udnytte nye organisatoriske og teknologiske mobilitetsløsninger i samspil med den nuværende kollektive transport (Moe-Tetraplan, 2017).  

    Der er i hele projektet anlagt en helhedsbetragtning på den kollektive transport, så både kommunalt og regionalt finansierede linjer indgår i overvejelserne.  

  • 100. Hemström, Kristian
    et al.
    Bramryd, Torleif
    Wik, Ola
    Johansson, Michael
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ackumulering av metaller i vegetation på geotekniska askkonstruktioner2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur användning av askor i ett långtidsperspektiv påverkar omgivande djur- och växtliv med avseende på ackumulation av metaller i ekosystem via växtupptag och exponering för betande djur. Studien innefattade en fält- och en odlingsstudie. I fältstudien studerades ackumulation av metaller och metalloider i blad från träd och buskar som självetablerat och växt under längre tid i äldre försöksuppställningar (lysimetrar) med aska. Dels i två olika åldrade slaggrus från avfallsförbränning och dels i åldrad aska från förbränning av biobränsle (grenar och toppar, GROT) och impregnerat returträ (RT), benämnd GROT/RT-aska. I odlingsstudien studerades ackumulationen av metaller och metalloider i engelskt rajgräs från askor och referensmaterial under en växtsäsong. Referensmaterial i odlingsstudien var två vanliga geotekniska material; bergkross och schaktmassa, och i fältstudien blad från träd och buskar i lysimetrarnas närområde. Samtliga studerade askor var åldrade;  5-24 år.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar studien på vikten av att ta hänsyn till damning och partikelkontaminering som exponeringsväg vid askanvändning. Vidare visar studien att åldrat slaggrus inte ger upphov till betydande förhöjda halter i blad från buskar och träd som självetablerat i sådant material eller i gräs från slaggrus som blandats med enhetsjord (50 vikt-%). Slutligen visade studien att de generella ackumuleringsfaktorer för upptag till växter som används i Naturvårdsverkets Handbok 2010:1 inte är lämpliga att använda i samband med riskbedömning av askor.

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