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  • 51.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Discrimination in the credit market?: survey based evidence of access to financial capital among self-employed immigrants2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a survey regarding access to financial capital conducted among immigrants who are self-employed in private firms in Sweden's retail, trade or service sectors. The results show that non-European immigrants consider access to financial capital as a more serious impediment to their self-employment activities than do native Swedes and European immigrants. Self-employed non-European immigrants report more discrimination by banks, suppliers and customers than do natives and immigrants from European countries. Immigrant owned firms apply for bank loans to a larger extent than do firms owned by natives. Non-European immigrants are more likely than natives of having a loan denial and they are also charged higher interest rates on their bank loans than natives are. The occurrence of ethnic discrimination in the market for bank loans is put forward as an explanation for these results. Limited or no access to financial capital is an obstacle for self-employment among certain immigrant groups. This obstacle may be one explanation for the high exit rates from self-employment among immigrants that has been documented in several countries including Sweden.

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  • 52.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Diskriminering på kreditmarknaden?: en enkätundersökning bland utrikes födda egenföretagare2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 50-59Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi presenterar resultaten från en enkätundersökning riktad till utrikes födda företagare. Företagare födda i länder utanför Europa upplever sig diskriminerade av kunder, leverantörer och banker i högre grad än andra företagare. De har en högre sannolikhet att få avslag på låneansökningar i banker och betalar högre ränta på beviljade banklån. Resultaten är i linje med vad som framkommit i studier från andra länder. Vi drar slutsatsen att diskriminering, åtminstone delvis, förklarar resultaten. Då en allt större andel utrikes födda i Sverige är aktiva som egenföretagare belyser våra resultat en problematik som är central för integrationen av utrikes födda på arbetsmarknaden.

  • 53.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Egenföretagande bland utrikes födda: en översikt av utvecklingen under 2000-talet2017Report (Other academic)
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  • 54.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Exits from immigrant self-employment: when, why and where to?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a study of exit rates from self-employment among immigrants in Sweden. A survey was administered to all immigrants who became self-employed during the period 2001–2005 and to the members of a native comparison group. The respondents were then followed up to the year 2010. Immigrants were found to have a lower propensity than natives of exiting self-employment for wage-employment but a higher propensity than natives of exiting self-employment for unemployment or for economic inactivity. Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions are conducted to study the extent to which different background characteristics affect differences in exit rates between immigrants and natives. In line with previous research, we find that labour market and self-employment experience prior to self-employment as well as access to financial capital are important explanations for the difference between non-European immigrants and natives in exit rates from self-employment to unemployment and to being economically inactive.

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  • 55.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Flyktinginvandring: sysselsättning, förvärvsinkomster och offentliga finanser2016Report (Other academic)
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    Fulltext
  • 56.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hur klarar sig utrikes födda på den svenska arbetsmarknaden?2017In: Nationalekonomins frågor, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1, p. 243-269Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hur påverkar flyktinginvandring de offentliga finanserna?2017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 5-16Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi studerar sysselsättning bland och påverkan på offentliga finanser av flyktingar från Afrika, Mellanöstern och övriga Asien. Det framkommer att omkring 50 procent av flyktingarna var sysselsatta sju år efter folkbokföring i Sverige. Den offentliga sektorns totala nettokostnad per flykting uppgår till ca 190 000 kr första året efter folkbokföring. Sju år efter folkbokföring uppgår denna kostnad till ca 95 000 kr per flykting. När den offentliga konsumtion som på kort sikt kan antas vara oförändrad vid en ökad flyktinginvandring exkluderas uppgår den offentliga sektorns totala nettokostnad per flykting till ca 125 000 kr första året efter folkbokföring.

  • 58.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Integration of immigrants on the Swedish labour market: recent trends and explanations2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses new data to illustrate the position of the foreign-born on the Swedish labour market. Foreign-born Africans and Asians have a lower employment and a higher unemployment rate than other groups. They are overrepresented in fixed-time employment and underrepresented in managerial positions. Employment is particularly low among family and refugee immigrants. Educated people from these regions are more likely than others to have jobs requiring lower competencies than their educational level. Lack of human capital acquired in Sweden and lack of access to networks as well as prevalence of discrimination are put forward as explanations for this.

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  • 59.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Refugee immigration and public sector finances: evidence from Sweden2019In: Finanzarchiv, ISSN 0015-2218, E-ISSN 1614-0974, Vol. 75, no 3, p. 297-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an analysis of how refugee immigration affects public-sector finances during the refugees' first years of stay in Sweden. Two different measures are presented. First, public-sector revenues are related to public-sector costs under the assumption that public costs increase in proportion to refugee immigration. Second, public-sector revenues are related to public-sector costs when, in the short run, costs for public administration, infrastructure, and national defense are assumed to be fixed as refugee immigration increases. We find that refugee immigration implies a net cost for public-sector finances for several years and that this cost to a large extent is dependent on the refugees' labor market assimilation.

  • 60.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Refugee immigration and public sector finances: longitudinal evidence from Sweden2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an analysis of refugee immigration and public sector finances in Sweden. All refugees who were listed in the national population registers from 2005 to 2007 are tracked from 2006 to 2012. We present two measures of the public sector’s net costs related to refugee immigration. In the first measure, public revenues are related to all public costs associated with refugee immigration. The second measure relates public revenues to public costs associated with immigration, excluding costs that can be assumed to be fixed in the short run when refugee immigration increases. By presenting these two measures we are able to present an upper and a lower bound for the public net costs of refugee immigration during a refugee´s first years in Sweden. Our results reveal that during a refugee’s first year of residency in Sweden after the asylum application has been approved, the public sector net costs for that refugee’s immigration are between 95,000 SEK and 190,000 SEK, depending on how public costs are allocated to the refugee population. After seven years in Sweden, the cost for that refugee is between 37,000 SEK and 125,000 SEK. Large differences are found between refugees with different educational attainment as regards the extent to which they incur a cost for the public sector’s finances.

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  • 61.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Self-employment and life satisfaction among the elderly: survey-based evidence from Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares life satisfaction among the elderly (61 years of age or older) who are self-employed, wage-employed or out of the labour force in Sweden with the help of a unique survey. Sweden is interesting since the share of elderly, just as in other countries, has increased during the last decade. Encouraging the elderly to remain in the labour force is now high on the political agenda. We find that people who are self-employed report higher life satisfaction than people who are wage-employed or out of the labour force. General health is a strong determinant of life satisfaction but the differences among the groups remain when we control for health related variables. Further, the self-employed report higher job satisfaction than the wage-employed, and find their work less mentally stressful. Even though our results are driven by different types of selection, we conclude that they underline the need for a flexible working life. Stimulating self-employment among older people may be an effective way to improve their life satisfaction, to increase Sweden’s labour supply and to keep older people in the labour force.

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    Self-employment and life satisfaction among the elderly
  • 62.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Self-employment and life satisfaction among the elderly: survey-based evidence from Sweden2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares life satisfaction among the elderly (61 years of age or older) who are self-employed, wage-employed or out of the labour force in Sweden with the help of a unique survey. Sweden is interesting since the share of elderly, just as in other countries, has increased during the last decade. Encouraging the elderly to remain in the labour force is now high on the political agenda. We find that people who are self-employed report higher life satisfaction than people who are wage-employed or out of the labour force. General health is a strong determinant of life satisfaction but the differences among the groups remain when we control for health related variables. Further, the self-employed report higher job satisfaction than the wage-employed, and find their work less mentally straining or stressful. Even though our results are driven by different types of selection, we conclude that they underline the need for a flexible working life. Stimulating self-employment among older people may be an effective way to improve their life satisfaction, to increase Sweden’s labour supply and to keep older people in the labour force.

  • 63.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Svårare för utrikes födda att starta eget2014In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Politiker pekar ofta på att ökat företagande bland utrikes födda ska minska arbetslösheten. Men ett hinder för detta är att en enkät bland företagare visar att över 20 procent av dem som är födda i länder utanför Europa upplever sig ha blivit diskriminerade vid kontakter med banker. Det skriver Lina Aldén och Mats Hammarstedt, nationalekonomer vid Linnéuniversitetet i Växjö.

  • 64.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    "Sysselsättning bland flyktingar måste öka"2017In: Dagens Samhälle, ISSN 1652-6511, no 2017-04-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den bristande integrationen av flyktingar på svensk arbetsmarknad får konsekvenser för de offentliga finanserna och gör flyktinginvandringen till en nettokostnad lång tid efter invandring, skriver nationalekonomerna Mats Hammarstedt och Lina Aldén, som menar att reformer är nödvändiga.

  • 65.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Utrikes födda kvinnors erfarenheter av att driva företag: resultat från en enkätstudie2020In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 24-31Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi presenterar resultaten från en enkätstudie i vilken kvinnliga företagare födda i Mellanöstern eller Afrika fick svara på frågor om erfarenheter av att driva företag. Resultaten visar att dessa kvinnor ofta anställer familjemedlemmar och släktingar i sina företag. Kvinnor födda i Mellanöstern eller Afrika rapporterar att de möter andra problem än inrikes födda kvinnor i sina verksamheter och finansierar oftare än inrikes födda kvinnor sitt företagande med hjälp av lån från familjemedlemmar och släktingar. Familj och släktingar spelar således en viktig roll för möjligheterna att driva företag bland kvinnor med ursprung i Mellanöstern eller Afrika.

  • 66.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Utrikes födda på 2000-talets arbetsmarknad - en översikt och förklaringar till situationen2015In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 77-89Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel ger en bild av utrikes föddas position på den svenska arbetsmarknaden under 2000-talet. Utrikes födda från Afrika och Asien har lägre sysselsättningsgrad och högre andel arbetslösa än andra grupper av utrikes födda och infödda. De är också överrepresenterade i tidsbegränsade anställningar och underrepresenterade på chefspositioner. Högutbildade personer från dessa regioner har oftare än andra personer arbeten som kräver lägre kompetens än deras formella utbildningsnivå. Vidare utmärker sig högutbildade kvinnor från Afrika och Asien genom ett lågt arbetskraftsdeltagande. En diskussion förs om olika tänkbara förklaringar till situationen.

  • 67.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Utrikes födda på den svenska arbetsmarknaden: en översikt och en internationell jämförelse2014Report (Other academic)
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  • 68.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    ”Ärliga argument krävs i debatt om flyktingar”2016In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En flykting kostar i genomsnitt 142 000 kronor per år de första sju åren efter att personen har fått uppehållstillstånd. Kostnaderna för offentlig sektor är därmed höga och det är centralt att diskutera hur de kan minskas, skriver nationalekonomerna Lina Aldén och Mats Hammarstedt.

  • 69.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hussain, Shakir
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Etnic origin, local labour markets and self-employment in Sweden: A multilevel approach2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 885-910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the importance of ethnic origin and local labour markets conditions for self-employment propensities in Sweden. In line with previous research, we find differences in the self-employment rate between different immigrant groups as well as between different immigrant cohorts. We use a multilevel regression approach in order to quantify the role of ethnic background, point of time for immigration and local market conditions in order to further understand differences in self-employment rates between different ethnic groups. We arrive at the following: The self-employment decision is to a major extent guided by factors unobservable in register data. Such factors might be, that is, individual entrepreneurial ability and access to financial capital. The individual’s ethnic background and point of time for immigration play a smaller role for the self-employment decision but are more important than local labour market conditions.

  • 70.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Financial capital and immigrant self-employment: evidence from a Swedish reform2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the role of capital requirement in immigrants’ self-employment decision with the help of a reform implemented in Sweden in 2010 which reduced capital requirements for limited liability companies. For both men and women, the reform increased both the probability of starting a limited liability firm and the probability of changing corporate form for those self-employed prior to the reform.

    We found that the reform affected immigrants and natives differently. Natives primarily responded to the reform by changing corporate form whereas immigrant men, especially those originating from the Middle East, responded to the reform by starting limited liability firms. Small differences emerge when we compare native women with immigrant women.

    Finally, it is the wage employed who start a limited liability business in the post-reform period, underlining the fact that access to financial capital is an obstacle for wage-employed individuals who opt for self-employment. This is true for both immigrants and natives. In contrast, more marginalised groups (i.e. unemployed immigrants), do not respond to the reform by starting limited liability firms.

  • 71.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    All about balance?: a test of the Jack-of-all-trades theory among the self-employed in Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers as well as policymakers often view self-employment as an important factor behind innovation and economic growth and policies that foster self-employment has been on the agenda in several European countries during the last decades. The Jack-of-all-trades theory argues that individuals with a balanced set of skills are more suitable for self-employment than others. In this paper we test this theory using Swedish Military Enlistment data. This data enables us to construct a measure of balance in endowed abilities that, incomparison to measures used in previous research, is less contaminated by endogeneity problems. Specifically, we measure balance in skills using the result from the tests of cognitive and non-cognitive ability taken at military enlistment. We find clear support for the Jack-of-all-trades theory, in the sense that the likelihood of being self-employed or switching into self-employment is higher for individuals who are more balanced in their in abilities. In addition, earnings from self-employment tend to be higher among individuals with a more balanced set of skills.

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  • 72.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    All about balance?: A test of the jack-of-all-trades theory using military enlistment data2017In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 49, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Jack-of-all-trades theory, people with a balanced set of skills are more suitable for self-employment than are those without. In this paper we test this theory using Swedish Military Enlistment data. This data enables us to construct a measure of balance in abilities that, in comparison to measures used in previous research, is less contaminated by endogeneity problems. We find clear support for the Jack-of-all-trades theory, in the sense that the likelihood of being self-employed is higher for individuals whose skills are balanced. In addition, their earnings from self-employment tend to be higher.

  • 73.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    "Breda utbildningar bäst för entreprenörer"2015In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, Vol. 27 decArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 74.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ethnic segregation, tipping behaviour, and native residential mobility2015In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 36-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study tipping behaviour in residential mobility of the native population in Sweden between 1990 and 2007. Using regression discontinuity methods, we find that the native population growth in a neighbourhood discontinuously drops once the share of non-European immigrants exceeds the identified tipping point. Native tipping behaviour can be ascribed to both native flight and native avoidance. Natives with a high level of educational attainment and the highest labour earnings are more likely to move from neighbourhoods that have tipped. We conclude that tipping behaviour is likely to be associated with ethnic as well as to socio-economic segregation in Sweden.  

  • 75.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Är det bra att "kunna lite om mycket?": En studie av egenföretagare baserad på mönstringsdata2016In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 44-52Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi presenterar ett empiriskt test av Edward Lazears Jack-of-All Trades teori med hjälp av de tester av kognitiva och icke-kognitiva förmågor som män genomförde vid mönstring inför militärtjänsten. Vi finner stöd för Lazears teori då män vars kunskaper är jämnt fördelade över olika områden är mer benägna att vara företagare än andra. Dessutom är deras företag mer framgångsrika än företag som drivs av människor med specialistkunskaper. En policyslutsats är att utbildningar som ger breda kunskaper stimulerar framgångsrikt företagande. Ett bredare innehåll i utbildningar på varierande nivåer kan därför vara ett medel i syfte att stimulera till fler nya framgångsrika företag.

  • 76.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Self-employment among in-movers and stayers in rural areas: Insights from Swedish register and survey data2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our use of longitudinal register data combined with a unique survey allows us to offer a more comprehensive picture of rural self-employment than in previous studies. We find that self-employed in rural settings are more likely than those in metropolitan regions to employ others, but self-employment rates in rural areas are lower. There is substantial heterogeneity among the rural self-employed; in-movers are quite different from stayers in terms of their perceptions of the conditions necessary for business success and their employment practices. Policy initiatives aimed at fostering development in rural areas should consider these distinctions.

  • 77.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Swahnberg, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    (I can’t get no) job satisfaction?: Differences by sexual orientation in Sweden2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a unique nationwide survey conducted in Sweden on sexual orientation and job satisfaction. Our results show that gay men, on average, seem more satisfied with their job than heterosexual men; lesbians appear less satisfied with their job than heterosexual women. However, the issue of sexual orientation and job satisfaction is complex since gay men, despite their high degree of job satisfaction, like lesbians find their job more mentally straining than heterosexuals. We conclude that gay men and lesbians are facing other stressers at work than heterosexuals do. We also conclude that discrimination and prejudice may lead gay men to have low expectations about their job; these low expectations may translate into high job satisfaction. In contrast, prejudice and discrimination may hinder lesbians from realizing their career plans, resulting in low job satisfaction.

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  • 78.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Swahnberg, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Sexual orientation and job satisfaction: survey-based evidence from Sweden2020In: Journal of Labor Research, ISSN 0195-3613, E-ISSN 1936-4768, Vol. 41, no 1-2, p. 69-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a unique nationwide survey conducted in Sweden on sexual orientation and job satisfaction. Our results show that gay men are more likely to be very satisfied with their job than heterosexual men, both in general and with different aspects of the job. In contrast, lesbians appear less satisfied with their job in general and with promotion prospects than heterosexual women. Among women, we find no differences in the probability of being very satisfied with the job by sexual orientation. However, the issue of sexual orientation and job satisfaction is complex since gay men, despite that they more often are very satisfied with the job, like lesbians find their job more mentally straining than heterosexuals. We conclude that gay men and lesbians are facing other stressers at work than heterosexuals do. We also conclude that the worker’s own expectations about the job and possibilities to fulfill career plans may be possible driving forces to our results. Previous research has documented discrimination against gay males and lesbians in hiring. Our results underline that measures to prevent discrimination in hiring is not enough to create an equal working life for homosexuals and heterosexuals. Measures within the workplace are also needed.

  • 79.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Culture and the gender gap in choice of major: An analysis using sibling comparisons2022In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 201, p. 346-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study if there is an association between culture on gender roles and the gender gap in choice of major. For this purpose, we use the epidemiological approach and sibling comparisons. We find that the gender gap in STEM is smaller for individuals who originate in countries where women are more likely, relative to men, to major in STEM. We observe a similar pattern when we study the probability to major in a male- or female-dominated field. We present suggestive evidence that cultural beliefs explain our results. Thus, to limit gender segregation in education this study points to the importance of changing gendered beliefs about educational choices. However, the results indicate that the gender convergence in STEM and male-dominated fields is driven by the fact that men, not women, choose less gender-typical majors. This suggests that to increase women’s participation in STEM and male-dominated fields, policies in other areas, e.g., directed towards changing workplace characteristics, may also be necessary.

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  • 80.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Culture and the gender gap in major choice: an analysis using sibling comparisons2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study the importance of culture on gender roles – preferences and beliefs about the appropriate role of women in society – for the gender gap in choice of major, using the epidemiological approach. We focus on second-generation immigrants in Sweden and compare the major choices at high school and college among opposite-sex siblings. By incorporating sibling fixed effects we can more convincingly than in previous literature control for factors apart from culture on gender roles that may affect educational choices. We use the female relative share in traditionally male fields to proxy for culture on gendered beliefs about educational choices in the source country. We find a negative gender gap in the probability of having majored in a STEM or male-dominated field, and that this gender gap varies with the proxy for culture on gender roles. We observe the same pattern when we study the probability to have majored in a female-dominated field. Our results clearly indicate that policies aimed at changing stereotypical gendered beliefs about educational choices have the potential to decrease the gender gap in major choice.

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  • 81.
    Alfelt, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Mazur, Stepan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Örebro University, Sweden.
    On the mean and variance of the estimated tangency portfolio weights for small samples2022In: Modern Stochastics: Theory and Applications, E-ISSN 2351-6054, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 453-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a sample estimator of the tangency portfolio (TP) weights is con-sidered. The focus is on the situation where the number of observations is smaller than the number of assets in the portfolio and the returns are i.i.d. normally distributed. Under these as-sumptions, the sample covariance matrix follows a singular Wishart distribution and, therefore, the regular inverse cannot be taken. In the paper, bounds and approximations for the first two moments of the estimated TP weights are derived, as well as exact results are obtained when the population covariance matrix is equal to the identity matrix, employing the Moore-Penrose inverse. Moreover, exact moments based on the reflexive generalized inverse are provided. The properties of the bounds are investigated in a simulation study, where they are compared to the sample moments. The difference between the moments based on the reflexive generalized inverse and the sample moments based on the Moore-Penrose inverse is also studied.

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  • 82.
    Alfredsson, Eva
    et al.
    The Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Vikström, Peter
    The Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.
    Internalising external environmental effects in efficiency analysis: The Swedish pulp and paper industry 2000-20072016In: Economic Analysis and Policy, ISSN 0313-5926, Vol. 51, p. 22-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the efficiency in the Swedish pulp and paper industry using national account data. By using a directional distance function approach we are able to investigate different aspects of efficiency relating to the direction of scaling. In the first analysis, desired output (pulp and paper) and undesired output (pollution) are considered equally important. This analysis shows that there is a 12% potential to simultaneously reduce pollution and increase the production of pulp and paper. In the second analysis, only undesired output is considered. The analysis shows an average potential reduction in pollution of 22%. If, on the other hand, this potential is computed in terms of desired output, keeping undesired output constant, the average potential increase in desired output is 14%. In a fourth analysis we discuss the potential to evaluate the costs of environmental regulations using the DEA methodology. Finally, our paper demonstrates that data from national accounts can be used to investigate different aspects of environmental efficiency.

  • 83.
    Ali, Abdul Aziz
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    On the use of wavelets in unit root and cointegration tests2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four essays linked with the use of wavelet methodologies in unit root testing and in the estimation of the cointegrating parameters of bivariate models.

    In papers I and II, we examine the performance of some existing unit root tests in the presence of error distortions. We suggest wavelet-based unit root tests that have better size fidelity and size-adjusted power in the presence of conditional heteroscedasticity and additive measurement errors. We obtain the limiting distribution of the proposed test statistic in each case and examine the small sample performance of the tests using Monte Carlo simulations.

    In paper III, we suggest a wavelet-based filtering method to improve the small sample estimation of the cointegrating parameters of bivariate models. We show, using Monte Carlo simulations, that wavelet filtering reduces the small sample estimation bias.

    In paper IV, we propose a wavelet variance ratio unit root test for a system of equations. We obtain the limiting distributions of the test statistics under different specifications of the deterministic components of the estimating equations. We also investigate the small sample properties of the test by conducting Monte Carlo simulations. Results from the Monte Carlo simulations show that the test has good size fidelity for small sample sizes (of up to 100 observations per equation, and up to 10 equations), and has better size-adjusted power for these sample sizes, compared the Cross-sectionally Augmented Dickey-Fuller test.

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  • 84.
    Ali, Abdul Aziz
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    A wavelet-based variance ratio unit root test for a system of equations2020In: Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics and Econometrics, ISSN 1081-1826, E-ISSN 1558-3708, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 1-16, article id 20180005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we suggest a unit root test for a system of equations using a spectral variance decomposition method based on the Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform. We obtain the limiting distribution of the test statistic and study its small sample properties using Monte Carlo simulations. We find that, for multiple time series of small lengths, the wavelet-based method is robust to size distortions in the presence of cross-sectional dependence. The wavelet-based test is also more powerful than the Cross-sectionally Augmented Im et al. unit root test (Pesaran, M. H. 2007. "A Simple Panel Unit Root Test in the Presence of Cross-section Dependence." Journal of Applied Econometrics 22 (2): 265-312.) for time series with between 20 and 100 observations, using systems of 5 and 10 equations. We demonstrate the usefulness of the test through an application on evaluating the Purchasing Power Parity theory for the Group of 7 countries and find support for the theory, whereas the test by Pesaran (Pesaran, M. H. 2007. "A Simple Panel Unit Root Test in the Presence of Cross-section Dependence." Journal of Applied Econometrics 22 (2): 265-312.) finds no such support. © 2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.

  • 85.
    Alkhamisi, M. A.
    et al.
    Salahaddin University, Iraq.
    Golam Kibria, B. M.
    lorida International University, USA.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Estimation of SUR model with VAR(p) disturbances2019In: Communications in Statistics: Case Studies, Data Analysis and Applications, E-ISSN 2373-7484, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 432-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The multiple time series and ridge regression techniques are proposed for modeling and analyzing a scaled real life (or a simulated) data as a SUR model with VAR(p) disturbances. The regression coefficients are estimated via the generalized least squares method if collinearity is weak and otherwise the regression coefficients are estimated by the generalized ridge regression method. Small sample likelihood ratio test statistic and model selection criteria are employed for selecting the smallest possible lag order for the VAR process. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulations (1000 replications) are conducted to examine the properties of some new and some of the existing ridge parameters in rectifying the collinearity problem in SUR models with VAR(2) disturbances via the trace(MSE) and condition number criteria. Two data sets are analyzed to illustrate the findings of the article.

  • 86.
    Almasri, Abdullah
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Locking, Håkan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Forecasting risk premium using wavelet transform2015In: Festschrift in honor of Professor Ghazi Shukur on the occasion of his 60th birthday / [ed] Thomas Holgersson, Linnaeus University Press, 2015, 1, p. 1-7Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 87.
    Almasri, Abdullah
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Locking, Håkan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    Testing for trends and causality in Swedish environmental data, using Wavelet analysis2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper utilizes Wavelet based methodology to estimate and test for trends and granger causality in temperature andprecipitation. We use quarterly data from Sweden for the period 1884 up to 2011. The analysis suggests that temperatureand precipitation in Sweden currently have a positive trend in 2011. Thus the recent lower levels of the variables 2009-2010are estimated to be temporary fluctuations or deviations from the trend. Moreover, in the short run there are feedbackeffects between the variables and over longer periods, 4-8 years, temperature granger cause precipitation.

  • 88.
    Almasri, Abdullah
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping University.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    A wavelet-based panel unit-root test in the presence of an unknown structural break and cross-sectional dependency, with an application of purchasing power parity theory in developing countries2017In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 49, no 21, p. 2096-2105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces two different non-parametric wavelet-based panel unit-root tests in the presence of unknown structural breaks and cross-sectional dependencies in the data. These tests are compared with a previously suggested non-parametric wavelet test, the parameteric Im-Pesaran and Shin (IPS) testand a Wald type of test. The results from the Monte Carlo simulations clearly show that the new wavelet-ratio tests are superior to the traditional tests both interms of size and power in panel unit-root tests because of its robustness to cross-section dependency and structural breaks. Based on an empirical Central American panel application, we can, in contrast to previous research (where bias due to structural breaks is simply disregarded), find strong, clear-cut support for purchasing power parity (PPP) in this developing region.

  • 89.
    Alnemer, Rawan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ssenabulya, Nicholas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The influence of ethical leadership on the employee performance in nonprofit orgaanizations2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the fact that charitable organizations are critical to society and the economy, there has been little research on ethical leadership and its impact on employee performance. Because of the different provisions that exist in a nonprofit firm, it is s tated that nonprofit leadership varies from those of forprofit organizations. "How does ethical leadership influence employee performance in nonprofit organizations?" is the thesis research topic. We interviewed the leaders of four distinct nonprofit or ganizations in four different countries, as well as four employees from each organization, to acquire a deeper understanding of their perspectives on the subject we researched. A qualitative study was conducted with the abductive research approach in mind, with semistructured interviews being employed to produce the best research results. This study could be classified as credible with a high degree of validity after a thorough assessment of the research methodology, ethical issues, research quality, and of their important features of the research. The results have shown that the ethical leadership styles we found at the nonprofit organization that we have investigated had supportive and open communication relationship behavior and middle to low task behavior. The leaders work closely together with their employees with high trust. We have also pointed out the formal and informal leadership between leaders and employees and some differences between volunteers and payable participants. The result has thus contributed to increased knowledge in theoretical and empirical aspects where there has been perceived to be a lack of sufficient information and knowledge regarding the current aspects of ethical leadership and its influence on employee performance in nonprofit organizations.

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    Ethical Leadership
  • 90.
    Alriksson, Anton
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Labor supply effects of increases in non-labor income: A study about older working individuals labor force participation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ageing of the Swedish population entails an increase of public and pension expenditure. A solution to keep the compensation level constant is to make individuals retire later from the labor force. In order to understand what actions need to be implemented, there is a need of more knowledge about the characteristics of individuals who chose to remain in the labor force after the normal age of retirement. This essay investigates how senior workers’ that are above the normal retirement age responds to an increase of non-labor income and how it affects labor supply. The results show that around 66 % of individuals will continue to work to the same extent, around 15 % will choose to reduce hours of work, and near 19 % will chose to retire. Also the results show that a person that will not change anything in hours of work after an increase in non-labor income will most likely be a male that is self-employed, who really likes his job and has a postgraduate degree. One conclusion in this essay is that to only focus on compensation levels in different social insurance systems to increase senior workers’ labor force participation will not be as effective as if also focus would be on social norms and cultural beliefs to increase engagement towards work. 

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  • 91.
    Alriksson, Anton
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Åström, Erik
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Attitudes toward immigration: A mapping of the development and analysis in attitudes towards immigration in Europe2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research on natives’ attitudes regarding immigration has increased during the past decades. The overall findings question the common theory of labor market competition and that native attitudes are affected by personal economic considerations. In the same time an increased concern in the political debate has become immigration. In many countries, there is a growth and progress of political parties with a far-right orientation that disapproves and attempts to prevent immigration. We examine data on attitudes towards immigration from eight rounds of the European social survey (ESS) which covers the years between 2002-2016. We study if the attitudes in Europe towards immigration from poor non-member countries of the European Union have changed during the 21th century and examine if the massive acceleration of refugee applications during the refugee crisis in 2015 has had an impact on the attitudes towards immigration. We estimate different models to examine how different factors are associated with individuals' attitudes towards immigration. Furthermore, we test if the labor market competition model holds for the seventh round of ESS due to limitation in data. We find that natives’ attitudes have not become worse in Europe, and that the refugee crisis in 2015 has not made the attitudes worse. We find that the factors that are associated with individual attitudes towards immigration are to a large degree connected with cultural values and beliefs, and that individuals with more years of schooling are more likely to favor immigration regardless of where the immigrants come from. These findings are consistent with the growing body of empirical findings that considers that cultural values and believes are the main drivers of attitudes towards immigration, and that actual effects of immigration on income and employment are quite small. These findings put the labor market competition premise in forming immigration attitudes into question.

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  • 92.
    Alushani, Merlind
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Rahmatullah, Khalid
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Ethnic Discrimination in The Housing Market 2016-2023: A Literature Review2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This literature review combines findings from 13 separate empirical studies from 2016-2023 with the goal of examining ethnic discrimination in the housing market across OECD countries. This review aims to highlight the various discriminations, the amount of discrimination rates and the extent of ethnic discrimination in the housing market. The findings reveal consistent and accurate evidence of ethnic discriminations against ethnic minorities from real estate agents and landlords, manifested through fewer positive responses and higher rejection rates. These studies altogether prove that ethnic discrimination in the housing market persists despite initiatives to reduce discrimination. This review contributes to a deeper and a more comprehensive understanding of the subject.

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  • 93.
    Ambjörnsson, Mårten
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The effect of the housing market on mobility and unemployment2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyzes the relationship of housing tenure, mobility and unemployment. With data on the municipal level in Sweden from 1998 to 2010 it is shown that the share of house ownership affects mobility and unemployment negatively while the share of tenant ownership has no effect on mobility and unemployment. The share of house ownership affects primarily the share of out migration from the municipality. The majority of the negative effect of house ownership on unemployment does not go through mobility. The model used is a two way fixed effect model. The different effects of the two types of ownership indicate that they have different characteristics. One explanation could be that house owners are more tied to the municipality than tenant owners. The result does not support the argument that owners in general have higher unemployment because they are less mobile. There is no evidence for that an increase in the share of owners increases the unemployment rate in Sweden.

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  • 94.
    Amin, Vikesh
    et al.
    Cent Michigan Univ, USA.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    The intergenerational transmission of schooling: Are mothers really less important than fathers?2015In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 47, p. 100-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a "puzzle" in the literature on the intergenerational transmission of schooling, where twin studies emphasize the importance of fathers' schooling, whereas IV-studies often emphasize the importance of mothers. We provide new evidence on this "puzzle" using register based Swedish data on the largest sample of twins used so far in the literature. In contrast to previous twin studies, our results confirm the importance of mothers' schooling. We also provide the first twin-based evidence of possible role model effects, where our estimates suggest that mother's schooling matters more than father's schooling for daughters schooling. One additional year of mothers' schooling raises daughter's schooling by a tenth of a year, which is similar to some of the previous IV-based estimates in the literature. Finally, we bring in new US twin data that for the first time allows a replication of previous twin-based estimates of the intergenerational transmission of schooling in the US. The results show no statistically significant effect of mothers' and fathers' schooling on children's schooling. Our results have implications for assessing the efficiency of policies that subsidize the schooling of men and women and are in contrast to most previous findings in the twin literature. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 95.
    Amin, Vikesh
    et al.
    Central Michigan University, USA.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lund University ; VU University, The Netherlands.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. IZA ; CReAM.
    The intergenerational transmission of schooling: are mothers really less important than fathers?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a “puzzle” in the literature on the intergenerational transmission of schooling, where twin studies emphasize the importance of fathers’ schooling, whereas IV-studies often emphasize the importance of mothers. We provide new evidence on this “puzzle” using register based Swedish data on the largest sample of twins used so far in the literature. In contrast to previous twin studies, our results confirm the importance of mothers’ schooling. We also provide the first twin-based evidence of role model effects, where our estimates suggest that only mother's schooling matters when allowing the effects to differ between sons and daughters. One additional year of mothers’ schooling raises daughter’s schooling by a tenth of a year, which is similar to some of the previous IV-based estimates in the literature. Finally, we bring in new US twin data that for the first time allow a replication of previous twin-based estimates of the intergenerational transmission of schooling in the US. The results show that that mothers’ and fathers’ schooling has no effect on children’s schooling in the US. Our results have implications for assessing the efficiency of policies that subsidize the schooling of men and women and are in contrast to most previous findings in the twin literature.

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  • 96.
    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck
    et al.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Sandholt Jensen, Peter
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Too Big to Fail and Moral Hazard: Evidence from an Epoch of Unregulated Commercial Banking2022In: IMF Economic Review, ISSN 2041-4161, E-ISSN 2041-417X, Vol. 70, p. 808-830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the link between "too big to fail" (TBTF) and moral hazard using a natural experiment from an epoch of unregulated commercial banking in Denmark. In 1908 the country faced a large banking shock where the creditors of distressed commercial banks received a bailout by the government for the first time in Danish history. Due to a fortuitous combination of circumstances, banks continued to operate in an unregulated environment for more than a decade after the bailout. By considering a sample from a pre-regulation epoch, we isolate the TBTF effect. Our empirical analysis shows that TBTF banks significantly reduced post-bailout capital ratios compared to other banks.

  • 97.
    Andersson, C.
    et al.
    Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate.
    Antelius, J.
    Swedish National Audit Office.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Sund, K.
    Stockholm University.
    Technical efficiency and productivity for higher education institutions in Sweden2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 205-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates technical efficiency and productivity for Swedish higher education institutions (HEIs). One identified problem in previous research concerns adjusting efficiency scores for input quality. This problem is avoided using grades from upper-secondary schools. A second problem concerns heterogeneity with respect to subjects and institutions between HEIs. Using the Swedish national resource allocation system, students are weighted according to subject. For research production, a bibliometric index that allows for differences in publication tradition is used. A third problem when using the data envelopment analysis approach is the lack of statistical inference. Bootstrapping is used to approach this problem. The results indicate an average inefficiency of 12% and a productivity increase of around 1.7% per year.

  • 98.
    Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    The Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. The Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate.
    Persson Kern, Krister
    The Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate.
    Thelander, Jonas
    The Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate.
    Effektiviteten i Försäkringskassans ärendehandläggning: en granskning av resurseffektiviteten vid Försäkringskassans lokala försäkringscenter åren 2010–2013 med DEA-metoden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Försäkringskassan administrerar stora delar av den svenska social­försäkringen och är den myndighet som ansvarar för den största delen av statens utbetalningar av ersättningar till enskilda individer. Försäkringskassan förfogar över cirka 8,4 miljarder i förvaltningsanslag och har drygt 14 000 anställda. Denna kostnad och storlek, tillsammans med myndighetens centrala uppgift för trygghetssystemen, gör det viktigt att verksamheten bedrivs effektivt.

    Denna rapport analyserar den relativa effektiviteten på 44 av Försäkringskassans lokala försäkringscenter (LFC) under perioden 2010–2013. I dag är Försäkringskassan kontor organiserade på ett annat sätt, men slutsatserna och lärdomarna är fortfarande relevanta eftersom själva handläggningen i mångt och mycket är oförändrad.

    I analysen används en matematisk metod kallad DEA-metoden (Data Envelopment Analysis), där effek­tiviteten mäts genom att produktionen av beslut och aktiviteter jämförs med de förbrukade resurserna. Metoden gör det möjligt att identifiera mindre effektiva LFC, som producerar mindre än andra LFC med en given mängd resurser.

  • 99.
    Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    Swedish National Audit Office.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Swedish National Audit Office.
    Sund, Krister
    Swedish National Audit Office.
    Technical efficiency of Swedish employment offices2014In: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, ISSN 0038-0121, E-ISSN 1873-6041, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies technical efficiency for Swedish employment offices between 2004 and 2010. Efficiency is computed using a semi-dynamic DEA-framework. On the input side we include a measure of input quality and we also control for services that are carried out by private contractors. On the output side we are using both intermediate and final outputs. The motivation for using an intermediate output is to take into account the fact that employment offices might have strengthen the possibility for unemployed individuals that remain unemployed to get a job in the forthcoming year. The study identifies an average yearly inefficiency between 7 and 10 percent. It is also observed that the inefficiency is unevenly distributed. To make employment offices more efficient this uneven distribution needs to be considered, otherwise efforts to improve efficiency might instead result in increased inefficiency.

  • 100.
    Andersson, David
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Sjögren, Robin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Kan aktivt förvaltade aktiefonder ge högre riskjusterad avkastning än Index?: En studie på svenska marknaden.2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This analysis aims to figure out if active fund management can provide a greater risk-adjusted return compared to an index. The analysis is divided into two periods, 2012-2020 and year 2020. Jensen’s alpha is the performance measure that will be used during the analysis. A t-test will be performed to figure out if active fund management is significantly different from the index. Sharpe ratio and Treynor ratio is also included as a descriptive statistic. The result shows that during the period of 2012-2020, there was only one actively managed fund with a positive alpha that was significantly different from the benchmark index SIXPRX. The Treynor ratio showed that more than half of the actively managed funds outperform index, and less than half of the funds Sharpe ratio outperformed the index. The results for year 2020 show that there are two actively managed funds that have outperformed the index alpha and are significantly different. The amount of funds that outperformed the index Treynor ratio and Sharpe ratio also increased for that period. The conclusion is that there is very little evidence proving that active managed funds provide a greater risk-adjusted return compared to index in either time periods.

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