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  • 51.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hägglund, Sture
    SICS East Swedish ICT.
    Hult, Lars
    SICS East Swedish ICT.
    Katarina, Bohm
    Karolinska Institutet, Institution of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset.
    Multi-Touchpoint Design of Multimodal Healthcare Services2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to identify research themes and outline a research-through-design project that will explore opportunities and challenges in human-centred multi- touchpoint design for multimodal emergency calls, healthcare counselling, and elderly patient monitoring. Relevant research areas for the project include multimodal user interfaces and interaction, transmodality, accessibility, and multi-touchpoint user experience (UX) and service design. Research questions will primarily focus on opportunities and challenges of interaction and visualisation; dialogue and communication; and operations and organisation. On a higher level, beyond the specific case, the overarching research questions concern what roles modalities play in multi-touchpoint UX and service design. The knowledge contribution is a better understanding of how different modalities can be designed, employed, combined, and transduced in and between multiple touchpoints. 

  • 52.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Högskolan Väst.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ragnemalm, Eva L.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simulated provocations: A hypermedia radio theatre for reflection on classroom management2018In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 98-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Learning to manage a classroom is a difficult but important part of teacher education. Earlier research on simulations for learning classroom management has highlighted the difficulty of supporting reflection.

    Purpose. This case study explores and evaluates the design of a simulation for student teachers’ reflection on classroom management.

    Design. The design process resulted in the scenario-based SIMPROV simulation, which was made in the form of a hypermedia radio theatre that students go through in pairs or triads. Authoritarian, authoritative, democratic, and compliant leadership styles were built into the choices student teachers made.

    Evaluation. The simulation was evaluated in two courses where the participants’ level of reflection and perceived knowledge improvement was measured using a questionnaire. Forty three first-year student teachers, 48 third-year student teachers, and 38 of the student teachers’ mentors participated in the evaluation.

    Results. The results indicate that participants engaged in reflection and understanding to a high degree, and only to a low degree in critical reflection or habitual action.

    Conclusions. The conclusions are that the scenario-based simulation designed as a hypermedia radio theatre supported knowledge improvement, understanding, and reflection and that social interaction during and after simulation sessions was an important feature.

  • 53.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Walfridsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Mediated Action Sheets: Structuring the Fuzzy Front-End of UX2015In: The fuzzy front end of experience design: Workshop proceedings / [ed] Eija Kaasinen, Hannu Karvonen, Yichen Lu, Jari Varsaluoma, Heli Väätäjä, Espoo: VTT , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decisions about what to design, for whom, and why to design it, are made during the fuzzy front of user experience (UX) design. Our approach to structure this process is to use a theoretical and methodological framework based on mediated action. This position paper describes how we put the framework, called the Mediated Action Sheets, to test in UX design practice. The test consisted of two workshops with professional designers. Transcripts of video recordings and results were qualitatively analyzed. The results are used to improve the framework. 

  • 54.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hägglund, Sture
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olsson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pettersson, Nils-Erik
    Sjöqvist, Bengt-Arne
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    36-nätet och "pensionärsdatorer" kan bidra till att lösa sjukvårdens problem2003In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 100, no 14, p. 1257-1258Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Axelsson, Alfred
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Designing for usability of 3D configuration in E-commerce: Interactive design of 3D in web applications2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mass production of consumer products is both wasteful and limit the consumers' power to influence the design of what they are buying. When shopping for a product, the customer must choose between a range of specific products with limited variations. What if the customer could make all the design choices, creating and buying the product according to his or her own needs?

    A 3D product generator holding a configurable model of a product was created to replace static content in online stores and give creative power to customers. This work aimed at creating an effective 3D product generator by evaluating how users experience the design of and interaction with it, and finding general design goals when introducing interactive 3D content in static 2D environments.

    A prototype of a 3D product generator in a generic online storefront was implemented in two iterations, improving on and evaluating the design through usability testing. The evaluation of the final prototype suggested that the interface was indeed effective in both design and interaction. This work concludes that user feedback is crucial to creating a successful user experience, which in turn is important when creating interfaces for product configuration.

  • 56.
    Axelsson, Anton
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Richard
    IT University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Lund University, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Lund University, Sweden.
    Scaffolding Executive Function Capabilities via Play-&-Learn Software for Preschoolers2016In: Journal of Educational Psychology, ISSN 0022-0663, E-ISSN 1939-2176, Vol. 108, no 7, p. 969-981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational software in the form of games or so called "computer assisted intervention" for young children has become increasingly common receiving a growing interest and support. Currently there are, for instance, more than 1,000 iPad apps tagged for preschool. Thus, it has become increasingly important to empirically investigate whether these kinds of software actually provide educational benefits for such young children. The study presented in the present article investigated whether preschoolers have the cognitive capabilities necessary to benefit from a teachable-agent-based game of which pedagogical benefits have been shown for older children. The role of executive functions in childrens attention was explored by letting 36 preschoolers (3;9-6;3 years) play a teachable-agent-based educational game and measure their capabilities to maintain focus on pedagogically relevant screen events in the presence of competing visual stimuli. Even though the participants did not succeed very well in an inhibition pretest, results showed that they nonetheless managed to inhibit distractions during game-play. It is suggested that the game context acts as a motivator that scaffolds more mature cognitive capabilities in young children than they exhibit during a noncontextual standardized test. The results further indicate gender differences in the development of these capabilities.

  • 57.
    Axelsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Graphical User Interface Design of a Maintenance Support System: Using Prototyping and User-Centred Design2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in the complex relationship between the behaviour of users and the design of interactive system has been significantly increased as the digital technology has advanced. This has led to usability becoming one of the key elements in user-centred interaction design. Systems need to be designed in a usable way; efficient, use-enhancing, flexible and learnable and the design should also meet the user’s needs and aspirations. This thesis aimed to develop a more usable prototype of the Maintenance Ground Support System (MGSS), using prototyping and a user-centred design approach. The prototype was developed using an adaptation on the evolutionary software development process that consisted of four iterative steps. The prototypes were created, tested and evaluated with surrogate and end-users. The design of the prototype is based on a customizable and simple dashboard application that supports multiple user needs and requirements, in a familiar environment where the user can feel confident and be in control. Based on usability testing, the prototype was concluded to be more efficient, understandable as well as easier to use than the existing system.

  • 58.
    Axelsson, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Dynamic Programming Algorithms for Semantic Dependency Parsing2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dependency parsing can be a useful tool to allow computers to parse text. In 2015, Kuhlmann and Jonsson proposed a logical deduction system that parsed to non-crossing dependency graphs with an asymptotic time complexity of O(n3), where “n” is the length of the sentence to parse. This thesis extends the deduction system by Kuhlmann and Jonsson; the extended deduction system introduces certain crossing edges, while maintaining an asymptotic time complexity of O(n4).

    In order to extend the deduction system by Kuhlmann and Jonsson, fifteen logical item types are added to the five proposed by Kuhlmann and Jonsson. These item types allow the deduction system to intro-duce crossing edges while acyclicity can be guaranteed. The number of inference rules in the deduction system is increased from the 19 proposed by Kuhlmann and Jonsson to 172, mainly because of the larger number of combinations of the 20 item types.

    The results are a modest increase in coverage on test data (by roughly 10% absolutely, i.e. approx. from 70% to 80%), and a comparable placement to that of Kuhlmann and Jonsson by the SemEval 2015 task 18 metrics. By the method employed to introduce crossing edges, derivational uniqueness is impossible to maintain. It is hard to defien the graph class to which the extended algorithm, QAC, parses, and it is therefore empirically compared to 1-endpoint crossing and graphs with a page number of two or less, compared to which it achieves lower coverage on test data. The QAC graph class is not limited by page number or crossings.

    The takeaway of the thesis is that extending a very minimal deduction system is not necessarily the best approach, and that it may be better to start off with a strong idea of to which graph class the extended algorithm should parse. Additionally, several alternative ways of extending Kuhlmann and Jonsson are proposed.

  • 59.
    Axelsson, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Implementation och utvärdering av termlänkare i Java2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aligning parallell terms in a parallell corpus can be done by aligning all words and phrases in the corpus and then performing term extraction on the aligned set of word pairs. Alternatively, term extraction in the source and target text can be made separately and then the resulting term candidates can be aligned, forming aligned parallell terms. This thesis describes an implementation of a word aligner that is applied on extracted term candidates in both the source and the target texts. The term aligner uses statistical measures, the tool Giza++ and heuristics in the search for alignments. The evaluation reveals that the best results are obtained when the term alignment relies heavily on the Giza++ tool and Levenshtein heuristic.

  • 60.
    Baburao, Swetha
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of a smartphone interface to support the visually impaired.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 2 billion people in the world will be aged 60 and over by the year 2050. Along with the aging process, there will be declination of sensory, physical and cognitive factors. Vision impairment is a worldwide problem faced by people of all ages. The usage of smartphones has escalated exponentially. Smartphones are now equipped with features like text to speech converters, speech interpreters, voice guided navigation, and intelligent assistants. Appropriately designed, these can be valuable tools for the visually impaired. However, despite the advanced accessibility implemented in the smartphones, the elderly still seems to prefer ordinary phones which have physical buttons. The aim of this thesis was twofold; (1) to identify factors hindering the elderly and their use of smartphones, and (2) to develop smartphone interfaces to improve accessibility.

    Two Android applications were developed in this thesis. The Magnifier is a magnification tool for physical objects and text. EyesFree is a text to speech service that reads out the screen content to the user. The requirements for the apps were elicited by studying existing applications and also by interviewing potential users. EyesFree and Magnifier were evaluated using the think aloud protocol method and the results show that they are useful applications for the visually impaired.

    The Android operating system provides a number of accessibility features and services to help the users with different abilities to navigate the device easily. Paradoxically, these features are quite difficult to use, for example, they are not easily launched and closed. The meta application and user interface of EyesFree exemplifies how users can access the internal features of the OS such as the speech services more effectively.

  • 61.
    Balkenius, Christian
    et al.
    Kognitionsvetenskap, Filosofiska institutionen, Lunds universitet.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Haake, Magnus
    Kognitionsvetenskap, Filosofiska institutionen, Lunds universitet.
    Wallergård, Mattias
    Ergonomi och aerosolteknologi, Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Intelligent, socially oriented technology III: Projects by teams of master level students in cognitive science and engineering2017Report (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Nählinder, Staffan
    FOI.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Turcotte, Isabelle
    Laval University.
    Tremblay, Sebastien
    Laval University.
    Assessing development of team training in emergency management2014In: Proceedings of the 11th ISCRAM, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Health Care in Linköping. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    McCambridge, Jim
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Nadine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics.
    Effectiveness of a proactive mail-based alcohol Internet intervention for university students: dismantling the assessment and feedback components in a randomized controlled trial2012In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 14, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: University students in Sweden routinely receive proactive mail-based alcohol Internet interventions sent from student health services. This intervention provides personalized normative feedback on alcohol consumption with suggestions on how to decrease drinking. Earlier feasibility trials by our group and others have examined effectiveness in simple parallel-groups designs.Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of electronic screening and brief intervention, using a randomized controlled trial design that takes account of baseline assessment reactivity (and other possible effects of the research process) due to the similarity between the intervention and assessment content. The design of the study allowed for exploration of the magnitude of the assessment effects per se.Methods: This trial used a dismantling design and randomly assigned 5227 students to 3 groups: (1) routine practice assessment and feedback, (2) assessment-only without feedback, and (3) neither assessment nor feedback. At baseline all participants were blinded to study participation, with no contact being made with group 3. We approached students 2 months later to participate in a cross-sectional alcohol survey. All interventions were fully automated and did not have any human involvement. All data used in the analysis were based on self-assessment using questionnaires. The participants were unaware that they were participating in a trial and thus were also blinded to which group they were randomly assigned.Results: Overall, 44.69% (n = 2336) of those targeted for study completed follow-up. Attrition was similar in groups 1 (697/1742, 40.01%) and 2 (737/1742, 42.31% retained) and lower in group 3 (902/1743, 51.75% retained). Intention-to-treat analyses among all participants regardless of their baseline drinking status revealed no differences between groups in all alcohol parameters at the 2-month follow-up. Per-protocol analyses of groups 1 and 2 among those who accepted the email intervention (36.2% of the students who were offered the intervention in group 1 and 37.3% of the students in group2 ) and who were risky drinkers at baseline (60.7% follow-up rate in group 1 and 63.5% in group 2) suggested possible small beneficial effects on weekly consumption attributable to feedback.Conclusions: This approach to outcome evaluation is highly conservative, and small benefits may follow the actual uptake of feedback intervention in students who are risky drinkers, the precise target group.Trial Registration: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 24735383; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN24735383 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Awq7gjXG)

  • 64.
    Bengtsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jonson, Carl-Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Prytz, Erik G.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Framtidens skadeplats: intervjuer med landstingens beredskapssamordnare2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att genom intervjuer med beredskapssamordnare från Sveriges landsting försöka skapa en bild av hur uppfattningen var att skadeplatsen såg ut idag och skulle kunna kommat att förändras på sikt. Vidare önskade intervjustudien söka svar på frågor som rörde komplexiteten på skadeplatsen genom att diskutera ledningsförhållanden, samverkan med andra aktörer, alarmerings- och dirigeringsfunktionernas roll i det svenska sjukvårdsystemet samt hur ett möjligt arbete med ett återtagande av förmågan till ett civilt försvar skulle påverka systemet i sin helhet. Överlag har detta syfte uppnåtts genom ett rikt material kring relevanta frågeställningar som belyst ett flertal kritiska aspekter både i dagens situation men även för framtiden.

    Resultatet ger en relativt entydig bild av hur situationen uppfattas på landstingsnivå idag av personalen som behandlar beredskapsfrågorna. Den bild som målas upp fokuserar kanske främst på en upplevd avsaknad av centrala och nationellt övergripande styrningar vilket menligt påverkar förmågan att lyfta ledningsförmågan från regional till nationell nivå vid en större händelse som överstiger den regionala förmågan. Den svenska modellen för att hantera samhällsstörningar av idag är väl anpassad för att hantera händelser inom ramen för det egna länets geografiska område. Befintliga koncept för samverkan och samordning bedöms fungera bra i vardagen, exempelvis vid de vanligaste fallen av skadeplatser: trafik och brand. Detta innebär dock att systemet fungerar väl under förutsättning att händelsen är begränsad i såväl tid och rum som vad avser antalet drabbade. En större händelse eller flera händelser samtidigt på olika platser, särskilt om det finns försvårande faktorer såsom utsläpp av farliga ämnen eller en högre hotbild, skapar försvårande omständigheter som upplevs svårhanterliga idag. I ett framtida scenario upplevs även risken för dessa händelser och terrorattacker att öka. Avhängigheten av IT samt ett samhälle som i allt högre grad förlitar sig på ”just in time”-leveranser gör att sårbarheten har ökat och upplevs fortsätta göra det även i framtiden. Andra viktiga områden som lyfts är nuvarande och befarad framtida brist på kompetent personal samt att utbildnings- och övningsverksamhet inte kan bedrivas i önskvärd utsträckning, delvis på grund av personalbrist och –omsättning.

    Vidare syns den generella uppfattningen vara att det saknas ett tydligt ledarskap på nationell nivå då det sällan, om alls, utkommer några direkta styrningar rörande vad som skall uppnås och i vilken utsträckning. Detta har också påvisats i avsnittet ovan rörande före-, under- och efterperspektivet där det finns en klart övervägande del synpunkter på de två förstnämnda perspektiven. Nationell styrning är alltså något som uppfattas vara efterfrågat och då inte bara avseende ledning under insats utan även i frågor rörande enhetlig utrustning och metodik samt utbildnings- och övningsfrågor. Få respondenter har tagit upp efterperspektivet i någon större utsträckning men då det har förekommit har det framförallt berört erfarenhetshanteringsfrågor och den brist som upplevs finnas inom detta specifika område idag. Erfarenheter från den egna verksamheten, såväl i vardagen som vid insatser vid allvarliga händelser, behöver tas om hand, följas upp och sedan utgöra grund för ett levande utvecklingsarbete.

  • 65.
    Bergenbrant, Mikaela
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrating Usability Work in the Development Process at a Consulting Firm2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When needing software, using the services of an IT consulting rm is todaya common solution for companies nowadays. To make a system suited forthe intended users it is important to focus on usability.There are many dierent approaches possible to use when developinga usable system. The purpose of this study was to study if any of theapproaches, goal-directed design, could be used when a customer orders asolution from a consulting rm. This was to be studied through a case studywhich was conducted at the IT consulting rm Sigma. One of Sigma's customersis Toyota Material Handling Group which is a supplier of forkliftsand additional services like the online eet management platform ToyotaISite. The platform is about to be further developed by connecting it to amobile application with the purpose of making the platform more accessibleand ecient. The assignment in the case study was to develop a prototypefor this mobile application. This was done using the goal-centered design approach.Further, in order to understand the work at Sigma today, interviewswere conducted with developers at the company.The data collected led to an analysis about how Sigma and other similarIT consulting rms could use the goal-centered design approach when developingsoftware. The conclusion drawn was that parts of the method couldbe motivated to the customer and thereby be used in future projects, whilesome parts would be harder to motivate for the customer. The includedsteps were user research, context scenarios, requirements and high-delityprototyping. These conclusions can be used to integrate usability work inthe development process in the context of an IT consulting rm deliveringa system to a customer.

  • 66.
    Berggren, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring the Possibilities of Split Testing on Motion-Based Games2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Split testing is a popular practise to compare and evaluate design elements of web-sites. In this report, it is explored how split testing can be employed to test features of motion-based online games. This is done by applying theory taken from split testing of common web-pages and translating it to work with games. A pilot test is conducted on the newly developed game Phaseformer to evaluate two interaction techniques. With only 105 test participants, the results from the pilot test show with high statistical power that one variant provides the player with a higher level of control over the game than the other.

  • 67.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The advance of a valid and reliable tool for assessing shared understanding2014In: Assessing command and control effectiveness: dealing with a changing world / [ed] Peter Berggren, Staffan Nählinder, Erland Svensson, Farnham: Ashgate, 2014, p. 127-139Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Assessing the quality of Shared Priorities in teams using content analysis in a microworld experiment2017In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 128-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective, easy to use, and easy to comprehend assessment methods for measuring shared understanding in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is assessed. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task. The maturity of the participating teams was also assessed using a content analysis measure. The Shared Priorities measure was used alongside other well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. Results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlates with task performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures (cf. CARS – Crew Awareness Rating Scale – and DATMA – Distributed Assessment of Team Mutual Awareness), suggesting that it captures a different quality of teamwork than the self-rating measures. Further, the Shared Priorities measure was found to be easily administered.

  • 69.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Turcotte, Isabelle
    Laval University, Canada.
    Tremblay, Sébastien
    Laval University, Canada.
    Assessing team focused behaviors in emergency response teams using the shared priorities measure2014In: ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings - 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, The Pennsylvania State University , 2014, p. 130-134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work in progress paper is to report on the method development of the Shared Priorities measure to include content analysis, as a way of gaining a deeper understanding of team work in crisis/emergency response. An experiment is reported where the performance of six trained teams is compared with the performance of six non-trained teams. The experiment was performed using an emergency response microworld simulation with a forest fire scenario. Dependent measures were simulation performance, the Crew Awareness Rating Scale (CARS), and content analysis. Trained teams performed better and scored higher on measures of team behaviors.

  • 70.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The shared priorities measure as a way of assessing team strategic awareness – a bridge between self-assessment and the deep blue sea of field recordings2014In: ECCE '14 Proceedings of the 2014 European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics / [ed] Stary, Christian, ACM Press, 2014, no 13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective, easy to use, easy to comprehend, high face- validity assessment methods for measuring shared awareness in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a new measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is tested. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task in terms of performance and shared awareness. The shared priorities measure was used alongside other, well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. The results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlate with performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures, suggesting that it captures a different quality of team work than the self-rating measures. Further, the shared priorities measure was found to be easily administered and gained a high user acceptance.

  • 71.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Svensson, Erland
    Retired.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish National Defence College (FHS), Sweden.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Statistical modelling of team training in a microworld study2014In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Sage Publications, 2014, Vol. 58, p. 894-898Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A command and control environment is a dynamic and complex setting with complicated technical systems where teams of operators interact to reach shared goals. This study presents an experiment in which we, by means of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), explain the relations between basic concepts of command and control environments: mental workload, frustration, situational awareness, and performance. This paper reports a LISREL analysis of the Baroutsi, Berggren, Nählinder, & Johansson (2013) data. From that data, a new latent variable “Frustration” emerges, which now can be included in the model.

  • 72.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nählinder, Staffan
    Alfredson, Jens
    SAAB.
    Svensson, Erland
    The quasi-dynamic approach to measuring complex systems2009In: Proceedings of the Europe Chapter Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) conference 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nählinder, StaffanFOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.Svensson, ErlandFOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Assessing Command and Control Effectiveness: Dealing with a changing world2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing Command and Control Effectiveness: Dealing with a Changing World offers a description of the current state of Command and Control (C2) research in imperfect settings, showing how a research process should assess, analyse and communicate results to the development cycle of methods, work, manning and C2-technology. Special attention is given to the development of C2 research methods to meet the current and coming needs. The authors also look forward towards a future where effective assessment of C2 abilities are even more crucial, for instance in agile organisations.

    The purpose of the C2 research is to improve the process and make it more effective while still saving time and money. Research methods have to be chosen carefully to be effective and simple, yet provide results of high quality. The methodological concerns are a major consideration when working under such circumstances. Furthermore, there is often a need for a swift iterative development cycle, and thus a demand to quickly deliver results from the research process. This book explains how field research experimentation can be quick, simple and effective, being able to draw valid conclusions even when sample sizes are small and resources are limited, collecting empirical data using measures and procedures that are minimally intrusive.

  • 74.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svensson, Jonathan
    FOI.
    Hörberg, Ulf
    Jonsson, Sandra
    Höglund, Fredrik
    Shared priorities as a measure of shared understanding2009In: Proceedings of the Europe Chapter Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) conference 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Berglund, Aseel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berglund, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Siliberto, Fabio
    University of Roma La Sapienza, Italy.
    Prytz, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of Reactive and Strategic Game Mechanics in Motion-based Games2017In: 2017 IEEE 5TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SERIOUS GAMES AND APPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH (SEGAH), IEEE , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motion-based games offer positive effects on physical, social, and mental health for the players and have been common during the past decade, enabled by commercial motion tracking devices. However, little is known about the impact of game mechanics on the player experience, movement, and performance in motion-based games. In this paper we present results from a study with 35 participants comparing two different game mechanics, one reactive and one strategic, for a casual motion-based game. The assumption was that a more strategic mechanic would lead to less movement but more enjoyment. However, there was no significant difference in player experience, performance, or movement between the two game mechanics. In addition, a key aspect for the players preferred game mechanics was the perceived amount of thinking the game mechanic required.

  • 76.
    Bergqvist, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Designing for Empathy in Elderly Care: Exploration of Opportunities to Deliver Behaviour Change Interventions through mHealth Applications, to Promote Empathic Behaviour in Elderly Home Care Nursing Assistants2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The Swedish population is ageing quickly and the system for elderly home care is under increasing pressure. Staff turnover is high, nursing assistants are reporting stress, and employers have to recruit staff lacking sufficient experience. These factors are barriers to empathic care, considered essential to patient health outcomes. Elderly care should rely on cognitive empathy, be other-oriented and improve the client’s situation based on contextual understanding. There is a need for education and support for nursing assistants, so that they can provide empathic care.

    Purpose

    The thesis explores empathy as a skill in elderly home care to identify opportunities of promoting empathy in the client-nursing assistant interaction, by means of behaviour change interventions delivered through an mHealth application that nursing assistants already use at work.

    Method

    A group interview was conducted with six nursing assistants from four elderly home care organisations in a Swedish municipality, to learn about their experience of empathy at work, and factors affecting their ability to give empathic care. The respondents were using the same mHealth application to get and provide information about client visits. The Behaviour Change Wheel framework was used to analyze behavioural drivers of empathic care in elderly home care.

    Results

    Influences on empathic behaviour was identified in all 14 domains in the Theoretical Domains Framework. 13 target behaviours, 7 Intervention Functions and 45 Behaviour Change Techniques were suggested as suitable candidates to investigate for intervention development.

    Conclusion

    Empathy seems possible to promote through resource-efficient digital behaviour change interventions. Future studies may use this work as a starting point for development of interventions to promote empathic behaviour in elderly care.

  • 77.
    Bergström, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Workshopmetodik för uppstart av nya projekt inom mobil IT2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Workshops have become a familiar phrase during the last decade. It is a useful and popular way of working, which has led to workshops methodology being of great interest to a numerous amount of companies. One type of workshop is the idea generating workshop. During these it is desirable that the participants have a common objective during the workshop, which at times can be hard to achieve.

    The purpose of the case study was to create a workshop methodology surrounding mobile applications. The workshop focuses on creating a common objective for the participants and letting the company representatives focus on their potential users.

    Several criteria were extracted from a literature study, interviews and requests provided from the company Sogeti. These criteria were then used to select suiting techniques and with them, create a workshop methodology. The workshop was tested and analyzed twice, by performing test runs. This was to be able to see whether the workshops would work as expected in a real life scenario or not.

    The end result is a workshop methodology with elaborately chosen techniques. During the test cases the workshop met its demands on a common objective, as well as having the participants centering their idea generation on their end users through the whole workshop.

    The conclusions made from the study were that this method should work fine when used as an idea generating workshop, especially when used in the context of mobile applications. The different parts of the workshop which are crucial for it to reach a desirable result have also been identified as; purpose description, Empathy map, Nominal group technique and 20-20 vision.

  • 78.
    Bergwik, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using the DIAL Protocol for Zero Configuration Connectivity in Cross-Platform Messaging2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's living room context offers more and more possibilities when it comes to when and how to interact with the television and media content offerings. Buzzwords such as "TV Everywhere" is something that both hardware manufacturers, content providers and television networks are pursuing to great lengths. At the core of such marketing schemes is the availability of platform-independent content consumption. In a Utopian setting, the end-user should never have to worry if he or she is currently using a smart TV, tablet, phone or computer to view a video or photos, play music or play games. Taking the concept even further, the devices should also be able to connect and communicate with each other seamlessly. Having for example a television set (first screen) controlled by a mobile phone (second screen) is commonly referred to as companion device interaction and is what this thesis has investigated. More specifically, a way of discovering and launching a first screen application from a second screen application using the zero configuration discovery protocol named DIAL has been implemented into a cross-platform messaging solution. A case study was conducted to gather data about the system and its context as well as what was needed of the framework in terms of architecture design, use cases and implementation details. A proof of concept application was developed for Android that used the proposed framework, showcasing the ease of use and functionality presented in integrating DIAL into such a solution. Since DIAL is so well-documented, easy to understand and is becoming one of the industry standards among consumer electronic manufacturers in terms of device discovery, I believe it should become a standard for so called zero configuration companion device interactivity.

  • 79.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics, Sweden.
    Svensson, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics, Sweden.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics, Sweden; Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Finding Your Way from the Bed to the Kitchen: Reenacting and Recombining Sensorimotor Episodes Learned from Human Demonstration2016In: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 3, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several simulation theories have been proposed as an explanation for how humans and other agents internalize an “inner world” that allows them to simulate interactions with the external real world – prospectively and retrospectively. Such internal simulation of interaction with the environment has been argued to be a key mechanism behind mentalizing and planning. In the present work, we study internal simulations in a robot acting in a simulated human environment. A model of sensory–motor interactions with the environment is generated from human demonstrations and tested on a Robosoft Kompaï robot. The model is used as a controller for the robot, reproducing the demonstrated behavior. Information from several different demonstrations is mixed, allowing the robot to produce novel paths through the environment, toward a goal specified by top-down contextual information. The robot model is also used in a covert mode, where the execution of actions is inhibited and perceptions are generated by a forward model. As a result, the robot generates an internal simulation of the sensory–motor interactions with the environment. Similar to the overt mode, the model is able to reproduce the demonstrated behavior as internal simulations. When experiences from several demonstrations are combined with a top-down goal signal, the system produces internal simulations of novel paths through the environment. These results can be understood as the robot imagining an “inner world” generated from previous experience, allowing it to try out different possible futures without executing actions overtly. We found that the success rate in terms of reaching the specified goal was higher during internal simulation, compared to overt action. These results are linked to a reduction in prediction errors generated during covert action. Despite the fact that the model is quite successful in terms of generating covert behavior toward specified goals, internal simulations display different temporal distributions compared to their overt counterparts. Links to human cognition and specifically mental imagery are discussed.

  • 80.
    Bjurling, Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Most Valuable Player?: Assessing the impact of individual team role activity on team performance in a microworld environment2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studying team performance dynamics in tasks and activities has proven difficult because of the dynamic and unpredictable nature of the real world. Microworld systems aim to address that issue by providing researchers with controllable simulated environments that captures the essence of their real-world counterpart activities. This study utilized one such microworld system, called C3Fire, to simulate a forest firefighting setting where 48 participants divided into 12 teams were tasked with cooperating in extinguishing the fires. Teams consisted of four roles – each with its different responsibilities and resources. The aim of this study was to determine whether any individual team role had a greater impact on team performance than the other roles. Each team encountered three distinct scenarios of varying difficulty. Command input action counts and self-assessed performance scores were collected for each participant. These measurements were tested for correlations with team scores. The logistics chief role, who was responsible for re-filling and re-fueling other units, stood out as being the only role whose command input count correlated with team score, and being one of only two roles for which command inputs and self-assessed performance scores were correlated, as well. Results of a multiple regression procedure also indicated that the command counts of the logistics chief was a significant predictor of team score.

  • 81.
    Björk Timm, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Looking at text simplification: Using eye tracking to evaluate the readability of automatically simplified sentences2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a world with an increasing flow of written information online and offline, the demand for automatic translation, simplification and summarization technology is growing. The tool StilLett uses several lexical and semantic rules to automatically simplify text, shortening the time from original text to simplified text compared to manual simplification. Four of the simplification types were evaluated in this study, using three different eye tracking measures; total dwell time, number of regressions, and average fixation duration. No statistically significant differences were found for any of the simplification types when compared to the corresponding original sentences, indicating that for this population the difficulty of the sentences was roughly the same.

  • 82.
    Blazevic, Denis Ivan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Jansson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Improving the flexibility of DPDK Service Cores2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Data Plane Development Kit is a highly used library for creating network applications that can be run on all hardware. Data Plane Development Kit has a component called Service Cores, which allows the main applications to create services that will run independently. These services are manually mapped to specific CPU cores, and are scheduled in a round-robin method. Because of the manual mapping, and the scheduling, the different load for each service can impact the start time for each service. By having services not run when supposed to, the throughput will degrade. In this thesis, we investigate and try to solve the issue by implementing a basic load balancer into the Service Core component. Our results show that an basic load balancer, that will balance upon reaching a CPU upper threshold, will increase the throughput of services while decreasing the delay between each service run.

  • 83.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Conceptualisations of Service Prototyping: Service Sketches, Walkthroughs and Live Service Prototypes2012In: Service Design with Theory: Discussions on Change, Value and Methods / [ed] Satu Miettinen and Anu Valtonen, Vantaa, Finland: Lapland university press, 2012, p. 175-186Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses the area of serviceprototyping, which is considered by service designersto be one of the most important aspects oftheir work (Blomkvist & Holmlid, 2010). However, littleis known about what a service specific prototypingapproach is and how to best represent services in sucha way that makes it possible to understand whole serviceexperiences. Consequently, one way of conceptualisingservice prototypes is suggested here.By prototyping, an activity surrounding a prototypeis implied. It can be the activity of creating prototypes, oractivities made possible by or with the prototype. Theseactivities are ways to suggest changes to, and gain understandingabout how an existing situation can betransformed into a new one. Here, any representationof such a future state is referred to as a prototype. Differentprototyping approaches have been used withinvarious design disciplines for a long time. This chaptersuggests that service prototyping is a specific activitywith similarities to other prototyping approaches.Service prototyping is described as an activity that involvesthe representation of multiple service momentswhere customers interact with service providers.How such a service specific prototyping approachmight be utilised, to assist service development atvarious stages of the development process, will beaddressed. Representations that can be used at threedifferent stages of the design process will be used asexamples. These are: service sketches, service walkthroughs,and live service prototypes. The examplesillustrate how services can be understood as wholecoherent compositions, and how an embodied andsituated understanding of services can be achieved.

  • 84.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Representing Future Situations of Service: Prototyping in Service Design2014Data set
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes prototyping in service design through the theoretical lens of situated cognition. The research questions are what a service prototype is, what the benefits of service prototyping are, and how prototypes aid in the process of designing services. Four papers are included. Paper one suggests that service prototyping should be considered from the perspectives of purpose, fidelity, audience, position in the process, technique, representation, validity and author. The second paper compares research about how humans use external representations to think, with reasons for using prototypes in service design and service design techniques. The third paper compares two versions of a service prototyping technique called service walkthrough; showing that walkthroughs with pauses provided both more comments in total and more detailed feedback. The fourth paper also contributes to our understanding of how prototypes aid in designing services, by connecting the surrogate situation with the future situation of service. The paper shows how the formative service evaluation technique (F-SET) uses the theory of planned behaviour to add knowledge to service prototype evaluations about the intention to use a service in the future. Taken together the research provides a deeper understanding of what prototypes are, and their roles in service prototyping. This understanding is further deepened by a discussion about service as a design material, suggesting that from a design perspective, a service consists of service concept, process and system. The service prototype acts as a surrogate for the future situation of service. The thesis describes what the benefits of using surrogates are, and shows how prototypes enhance the ability to gain knowledge about future situations. This leads to an understanding of prototyping as a way of thinking in design.

  • 85.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Representing Future Situations of Service: Prototyping in Service Design2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes prototyping in service design through the theoretical lens of situated cognition. The research questions are what a service prototype is, what the benefits of service prototyping are, and how prototypes aid in the process of designing services. Four papers are included. Paper one suggests that service prototyping should be considered from the perspectives of purpose, fidelity, audience, position in the process, technique, representation, validity and author. The second paper compares research about how humans use external representations to think, with reasons for using prototypes in service design and service design techniques. The third paper compares two versions of a service prototyping technique called service walkthrough; showing that walkthroughs with pauses provided both more comments in total and more detailed feedback. The fourth paper also contributes to our understanding of how prototypes aid in designing services, by connecting the surrogate situation with the future situation of service. The paper shows how the formative service evaluation technique (F-SET) uses the theory of planned behaviour to add knowledge to service prototype evaluations about the intention to use a service in the future. Taken together the research provides a deeper understanding of what prototypes are, and their roles in service prototyping. This understanding is further deepened by a discussion about service as a design material, suggesting that from a design perspective, a service consists of service concept, process and system. The service prototype acts as a surrogate for the future situation of service. The thesis describes what the benefits of using surrogates are, and shows how prototypes enhance the ability to gain knowledge about future situations. This leads to an understanding of prototyping as a way of thinking in design.

  • 86.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pausing or not?: Examining the Service Walkthrough Technique2014In: Proceedings of the 28th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference on HCI 2014: Sand, Sea & Sky - Holiday HCI / [ed] Daniel Fitton, Matt Horton, Janet C Read, Gavin Sim, London, UK: British Computer Society (BCS), 2014, p. 171-176Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of service design calls for holistic design techniques that represent multiple service moments. One such technique is the service walkthrough that can be used to prototype and formatively evaluate services. A service walkthrough is an enactment of several consecutive service moments. This paper informs decisions about how to set up service walkthroughs by looking at two kinds of walkthroughs in a case study: with pauses for discussion and feedback after each service moment, and without pauses where the entire service journey is walked through before comments and feedback are collected. The case study did not show any differences in the content of the feedback, but more feedback was given in the walkthroughs with pauses. The feedback in the paused walkthroughs was also more detailed.

  • 87.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Clatworthy, Simon
    Linköping University.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ways of seeing the design material of service2016In: Service Design Geographies. Proceedings of the ServDes.2016 Conference / [ed] Nicola Morelli, Amalia de Götzen, Francesco Grani, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, Vol. 125, p. 1-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper makes a contribution to the current conceptualisation of service as a design material from three different perspectives. We use definitions of the term material, the connection with service logic and the techniques that service designers use to discuss ways to understand service from a design perspective. Service designers have tools for working with components, things, locations, actions, procedures, interactions and experiences at their disposal. Service designers work with a meta-material for the most part, which is a material representation of the services they are (re-)designing. Unlike fields where the material is worked into a finished form, the material of service design traverses between the concrete and the abstract throughout the design process.

  • 88.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fjuk, Annita
    Linköping University.
    Sayapina, Vasilisa
    Linköping University.
    Low threshold service design: desktop walkthrough2016In: Service design geographies: Proceedings of the ServDes.2016 Conference / [ed] Nicola Morelli, Amalia de Götzen, Francesco Grani, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, p. 154-166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the first academic characterisation of the desktop walkthrough technique. Desktop walkthrough is considered here as a service design technique using a collaboratively built miniature environment to construct knowledge about a specific service. It is further examined as a technique for rapidly exploring and designing a service concept. The analytical lens of the paper is outlined from socio-cultural theories on human development where any human action is developed from, and emulated by, social interactions and the intellectual and physical artefacts herein. The analysis shows that desktop walkthrough enabled teams to design a holistic service journey with low threshold usage, and provided a means for exploring and designing the complexity of customer journeys and the backstage organizational processes.

  • 89.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Existing Prototyping Perspectives: Considerations for Service Design2011In: Proceedings of the Nordes’11: The 4th Nordic Design Research Conference, Making Design Matter, 29-31 May Helsinki, Finland, Helsinki, Finland: School of Art & Design, Aalto University , 2011, p. 31-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With new design disciplines that challenge the borders of design practice and inquiry comes new possibilities for prototyping techniques and approaches. The basis for such an evolution is a firm understanding of the existing knowledge generated in design and the challenges posed by new design disciplines, such as service design. This study identifies a framework of perspectives for prototyping to reveal what the existing toolbox of prototyping contains based on a literature overview. Going through published literature from the early 1980s and onward, the framework is constructed using the following perspectives; purpose, fidelity, audience, position in the process, technique, and representation. These perspectives make knowledge about prototyping explicit and summarise contemporary approaches. Based on current challenges and characteristic attributes of service design the framework is then reconstructed to better cater to design for services. The conclusions are that validity and author are two perspectives that complement the existing framework, and that prototyping so far does not support a holistic approach to prototyping services.

  • 90.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prototype Evaluation in Service Design: A Case Study at an Emergency Ward2011In: Proceedings of 20th IASDR 2011, International Association of Societies of Design Research (IASDR) , 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prototypes based on user research are embodiments of hypotheses about how behaviour and experiences will change. The purpose of prototypes has been discussed in academic literature but in the case of service design, some of that knowledge needs to be re-examined. In Service design, one of the problems is that the impact of prototypes is complex and difficult to predict. A way to counter this dilemma is to put more focus on making the hypotheses explicit and testable. This paper presents a practical process for using designers’ hypotheses to generate survey tools for evaluating the impact of prototypes in service systems. This is also a way for designers to verbalize the purpose of service prototypes in a contextual and situated way. The tool was designed to be quick, easy, and light-weight, to suit the needs of design consultants, and it focused on measuring the experiences of a waiting room from the perspective of the visitors. The process has been applied to a project where the waiting room of an emergency ward was redesigned. The three-step process started with building up the hypothesis structure, where the designers’ assumptions and intentions were used to make a representation of the hypothesis. The next step was formulating questions, where questions that tested the hypothesis were formulated. The last step – making the questionnaire – included the selection of what information to gather and iterative testing of the questions. It was found that the designers did not have a well-defined hypothesis. The suggested process can help designers identify a contextual and situated purpose for prototypes.

  • 91.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service Designers on Including Stakeholders in Service Prototyping2011In: INCLUDE 11 Proceedings “The Role of Inclusive Design in Making Social Innovation Happen, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Services are by nature co-created. They are produced and consumed simultaneously through interactions between customers and service providers. The professional design of services is also highly associated with co-creation, which is evident in the sparse service design literature. This paper reveals what designers say they do to involve different stakeholders in the process of prototyping services. The main data source is interviews with designers from design agencies that work exclusively or partially with service design. The paper focuses on the questions of "who is involved in creating prototypes", "who evaluates the prototype" and how "the clients [of the design agencies] are involved". A distinction is made between different types of involvement based on previous literature that characterise different roles and perspectives on inclusion in design. Results show that most of the agencies involve others besides the design team in the creation and evaluation of prototypes. The primary stakeholder in co-creation is the client. End customers are involved also but for the most part, both clients and customers have the role of subjects or informants rather than partners in the creation of prototypes. The evaluation of prototypes follows the same pattern, and a key aspect to some of the agencies is that the client is involved, as a domain expert. The question of who authors prototypes, and implications thereof, is raised and further discussed.

  • 92.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Service Prototyping According to Service Design Practitioners2010In: Exchanging knowledge, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010, Vol. 2, p. 1-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current trends in service design research include case studies and similar approaches that aspire to reveal what the practice of service design looks like. The understanding of how service design is performed can serve as a base for future research into more specific research endeavours. One area where knowledge is said to be lacking is service prototyping, part of which knowledge this paper attempts to contribute. The main data source for the paper is findings from in-depth interviews with six practicing service designers from some of the more well-known design agencies. The informants consider service prototyping to be a very important part of their work that allows them to learn and communicate about design ideas. The practitioners’ account of how they work with prototypes indicates that service prototyping has different meanings and that the practice of prototyping is very diverse. The interviews also uncover a number of areas that, according to the designers, might prove extra challenging for service prototyping to be successful. This research shows that there is much potential in the not yet fully formed practice of service prototyping.

  • 93.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandberg, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University.
    Westerlund, Bo
    Konstfack.
    Workshop: exploring participatory prototyping of services2012In: PDC '12 Proceedings of the 12th Participatory Design Conference: Exploratory Papers, Workshop Descriptions, Industry Cases - Volume 2, 2012, p. 151-152Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This full day workshop intends to explore approaches, methods and techniques that can be used in participatory prototyping of services. The participants will contribute with their experiences of different ways of working with participatory prototyping. During the workshop the participants will share, explore and give feedback on the method or case that they present. By engaging in other methods there will also be a learning activity. Another aim of the workshop is to initiate research and development of knowledge within the emerging field of participatory prototyping of services and product service systems. One particular interest regards the relation between details and "the whole". The emphasis of the workshop is to have creative learning experiences.

  • 94.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prototyping a Service Design Curriculum: Integrating Current Research in Teaching2011In: Touchpoint, ISSN 1868-6052, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 52-55Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 95.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service Design Research: Which direction do we want it to take? (workshop)2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 96.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service Design Research: Yesterday, today and tomorrow2010In: This is Service Design Thinking: Basics - Tools - Cases / [ed] Stickdorn, M & Schneider, J, Amsterdam: BIS Publishers , 2010, 1, p. 308-315Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How to design and market services to create outstanding customer experiences

    Service design thinking is the designing and marketing of services that improve the customer experience, and the interactions between the service providers and the customers. If you have two coffee shops right next to each other, and each sell the exact same coffee at the exact same price, service design is what makes you walk into one and not the other. Maybe one plays music and the other doesn't. Maybe one takes credit cards and the other is cash only. Maybe you like the layout of one over the other, or one has more comfortable seating. Maybe the staff at one is friendlier, or draws fun shapes on the top of their lattes. All of these nuances relate to service design.

    "This Is Service Design Thinking" combines the knowledge of twenty-three international authors and even more online contributors from the global service design community and is divided into three sections: Basics: outlines service design thinking along five basic principlesTools: describing a variety of tools and methods used in Service Design ThinkingCases: vivid examples for the introduced fundamentals with real-life case studies from 5 companies that did inspiring projects within the field of Service Design

    At the end, a one-page "Customer Journey Canvas" is included, which can be used to quickly sketch any service on a single sheet of paper--capturing different stakeholder concerns: e.g. customers, front-line staff and management.

  • 97.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Overkamp, Tim
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Research in the first four service design and innovation (ServDes) conferences2016In: Service design geographies: Proceedings of the ServDes.2016 Conference / [ed] Nicola Morelli, Amalia de Götzen, Francesco Grani, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, p. 167-179Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we take a closer look at the papers published during the first four Service design and innovation (ServDes) conferences and sources that the authors of those papers have referenced. The analysis uses the academic search engine Scopus and the references found in the conferences’ Proceedings. In total 206 authors have contributed to the 105 research papers presented at ServDes, and 53% of all ServDes papers have been referenced at a later ServDes. ServDes authors are informed by research published mainly after 1999 (79,2%), primarily within the fields of Business, Computer Science and Engineering. We also look at what authors publish their research at ServDes and the percentage of self-referencing (27%) as well as within-conference referencing (2,4% of references) to examine the progression within the field through the research published at ServDes.

  • 98.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Oslo School of Architecture and Design.
    Persson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Communication through Boundary Objects in Distributed Agile Teams2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal communication between User-Centered Design (UCD) specialists and developers is important for communicating user needs and design solutions in agile development. In distributed projects where opportunities for personal communication are limited, the design documentation is an important surrogate. This study has investigated the perceived effectiveness of boundary objects in a distributed agile team, and their role in communicating target user needs. Six in-depth interviews with UCD specialists showed that the boundary objects rarely communicate underlying needs of the users but rather focus on interaction with the system that is being developed. The used boundary objects also do not work as stand-alone deliverables; they need to be explained and elaborated. Making the boundary objects comprehensive enough to be stand-alone is seen as too time consuming and not worth the effort. For agile projects with distributed teams, this creates hand-over and follow-up problems.

  • 99.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anundi, Daniel
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barrier analysis as a design tool in complex safety critical systems2010In: Design and Complexity, Montreál, Canada, 2010, Vol. 7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When constructing or improving large complex systems, design activities help establish the needs and goals of users, deepen the understanding of the system and facilitate ideation of new solutions. When service systems are large, dynamic and complex, the need for thorough design work is especially evident. However, design methods usually strive to describe and design best case scenarios and we argue they lack the perspective of safety needed when working in safety critical systems. In order to gain knowledge on how a perspective of risk and safety can benefit design in a safety critical domain, two different perspectives were adopted through the use of two different methods. The methods were service blueprinting and barrier analysis, adopted from service design and cognitive systems engineering respectively. The methods were implemented during the research phase of a service design project in a home healthcare system in Sweden. Service blueprinting is a method used by service designers to visualise services. Barrier analysis is aimed at identifying and categorizing artefacts and functions that prevent unwanted events from taking place, or that lessen the impact of their consequences. A comparative analysis of the two methods was performed, concluding that barrier analysis has the potential to benefit design work performed in complex and safety critical systems. The potential for barrier analysis to be more tightly integrated into current service design methods is discussed, but more research is needed in order to clarify this matter.

  • 100.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Benefits of External Representations in Service Design: a Distributed Cognition Perspective2014In: Design journal, ISSN 1460-6925, E-ISSN 1756-3062, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 331-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A defining characteristic of service design is the use of external representations, which support designers in making intangible aspects of services accessible and shareable. Both current and future states are externally represented, using different service design techniques, for the purposes of articulating insights, learning, communicating, collaborating, and maintaining empathy for customers. The purposes of, and techniques for, making external representations were compared with benefits of using external representations to think, suggested by the theory of distributed cognition. The analysis indicated that the service design techniques could be divided into two groups; definite and ongoing. The analysis also revealed that none of the included techniques explicitly supported designers in making multiple simultaneous representations of services. The research contributes knowledge about how the externalisations relate to benefits of making external representations, and about how to choose and use different service design techniques based on theories of distributed and situated cognition.

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