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  • 51.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Gimbler Berglund, Ingalill
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Faresjö, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Are radiographers prepared to meet children with special needs, when seen for an examination?2017In: Acta Radiologica, ISSN 0284-1851, E-ISSN 1600-0455, Vol. 58, no 1 Suppl., p. 16-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Anxiety is often experienced by children undergoing health care procedures, and children with autism spectrum disorders (ADS) experience more anxiety than typically developed children. A prerequisite for obtaining an optimum procedure is firstly based on the health care provider’s knowledge about children with ASD, but may also depend on the use of guidelines. Two previous national surveys showed, that none radiology or paediatric departments and a minority of anaesthesiology departments throughout Sweden use specific guidelines when seeing children with ASD. Following, the purpose was to develop guidelines to use when caring for and preparing children with ASD in those settings.

    Methods: A modified Delphi method was used, including19 experts identified from the two afore mentioned surveys. The questions considered in the process, proceeded from previous research and the results from the surveys. The experts’ responses regarding the importance of each item, were analysed and scrutinized between each round.

    Results: The Delphi process resulted in guidelines consisting of 15 items and a checklist with 16 aspects. The items cover the areas: planning and involving parents, features in the environment, use of time, communication, thehealth care professionals. The checklist covers the child’spattern of communication, anxiety, sensory stimuli, special interests and likes/dislikes.

    Conclusions: To obtain an optimum caring encounter when a child with ASD is seen in the preoperative and radiology setting, a meticulous planning is important and the environment should be adjusted for the needs of the child. To accomplish this, guidelines need to be in place and be followed.

  • 52.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Sigstedt, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Children’s pain and distress while undergoing an acute radiographic examination2012In: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 191-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pain has been highlighted as a main concern for children in conjunction with an acute radiographic examination. The aim of this study was to further investigate children’s pain and distress while undergoing an acute radiographic examination.

    The study comprised 29 participants with an age range of 5–15 years who were injured and submitted to an acute radiographic examination of the upper or lower extremity when the question at issue was fracture. The Coloured Analogue Scale (CAS) and the Facial Affective Scale (FAS) were used as self-reporting scales to measure the children’s pain and distress. The Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability Behavioural scale (FLACC) was used as an observation tool to assess behaviours associated with pain in children.

    Descriptive statistics were used when analysing the scores, and the results showed that children experience pain and distress in conjunction with a radiographic examination after an injury. Spearman’s correlation was used to compare variables, and significant correlations were obtained between the self-reported pain and the observed pain behaviour. Fischer’s Exact test was used to compare groups, and when using the cut-off 3.0 on the self-reporting scale no significant correlation was found concerning the pain reported by children diagnosed with and without a fracture. No significant correlations were found concerning the self-reported distress and pain either, regardless of whether it was a first-time visit and whether a parent was near during the examination.

  • 53.
    Björkström, Gun
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Hellström, Anna-Lena
    Andersson, S
    Electro-acupuncture in the treatment of children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, E-ISSN 1651-2065, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 21-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Blombäck, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    The impact of relationships and networks on industrial buying behavior - a tentative model.2006In: 22nd Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group Conference, Milan, Italy, September 2006., 2006Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 55.
    Blomstrand, Peter
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. City Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Engvall, Martin
    Linköping University.
    Festin, Karin
    Linköping University.
    Lindstrom, Torbjorn
    Linköping University.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköping University.
    Maret, Eva
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm.
    Nyström, Fredrik H.
    Linköping University.
    Maret-Ouda, John
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköping University.
    Left ventricular diastolic function, assessed by echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging, is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events, superior to global left ventricular longitudinal strain, in patients with type 2 diabetes2015In: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging, ISSN 2047-2404, E-ISSN 2047-2412, Vol. 16, no 9, p. 1000-1007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the study was to determine whether left ventricular systolic function, in terms of global left ventricular longitudinal strain (GLS), and diastolic function, expressed as the ratio between early diastolic transmitral flow and mitral annular motion velocities (E/e'), can predict cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Methods and results: We prospectively investigated 406 consecutive patients, aged 55-65 years, with diabetes mellitus, who participated in the CARDIPP study. Echocardiography, pulse pressure (pp), and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were analysed. Twelve cases of myocardial infarction and seven cases of stroke were identified during the follow-up period of 67 +/- 17 months. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that E/e' was a strong predictor of cardiovascular events (hazards ratio 1.12; 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.18, P < 0.001). E/e' was prospectively associated with cardiovascular events independent of age, sex, GLS, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), pp, and HbA1c in multivariate analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that E/e' and HbA1c were the strongest predictors for cardiovascular events, both having an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.71 followed by LVEF with an AUC of 0.65 and GLS of 0.61. In a Kaplan-Meyer analysis, the cumulative probability of an event during the follow-up period was 8.6% for patients with an E/e' ratio >15 compared with 2.6% for patients with E/e' <= 15, P = 0.011.

    Conclusion: In middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes, E/e' is a strong predictor of myocardial infarction and stroke, comparable with HbA1c and superior to GLS and LVEF.

  • 56.
    Blomstrand, Peter
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform. County Hospital Ryhov, Department of Clinical Physiology, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Sjöblom, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Futurum, Academy for Health and Care, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Wijkman, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Internal Medicine and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Engvall, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping, Sweden.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nyström, Fredrik H.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping, Sweden.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping, Sweden.
    Overweight and obesity impair left ventricular systolic function as measured by left ventricular ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain2018In: Cardiovascular Diabetology, ISSN 1475-2840, E-ISSN 1475-2840, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    Obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and heart failure but it is unclear to which extent it is related to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The aim of the study was to explore the effects of overweight and obesity on left ventricular systolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a control group of non-diabetic persons.

    Methods

    We prospectively investigated 384 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 184 controls who participated in the CARDIPP and CAREFUL studies. The participants were grouped according to body mass index (normal weight < 25 kg/m2, overweight 25–29 kg/m2, and obesity ≥ 30 kg/m2). Echocardiography was performed at the beginning of the study and after 4-years in the patient group.

    Results

    Univariable and multivariable regression analysis revealed that variations in left ventricular ejection fraction, global longitudinal strain, left ventricular mass and diastolic function expressed as E/é (the ratio between early diastolic mitral flow and annular motion velocities) all are related to body mass index. The mean and standard deviation of left ventricular ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain values were 57% (8%) vs. − 18.6% (2.3%) for normal weight patients, 53% (8%) vs. − 17.5% (2.3%) for overweight, and 49% (9%) vs. − 16.2% (3.0%) for obese (p < 0.05 vs. p < 0.05). Corresponding results in the control group were 58% (6%) vs. − 22.3% (3.0%), 55% (7%) vs. − 20.8% (3.1%) and 54% (8%) − 19.6% (4.0%) (p < 0.05 vs. p < 0.05). Patients who gained weight from baseline to follow-up changed left ventricular ejection fraction (median and interquartile range) by − 1.0 (9.0) % (n = 187) and patients who lost weight changed left ventricular ejection fraction by 1.0 (10.0) % (n = 179) (p < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    Overweight and obesity impair left ventricular ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain in both patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-diabetic persons.

  • 57.
    Bohm, Niklas
    et al.
    Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Charlott
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Skoogh Andersson, Jessica
    Department of Periodontology, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Almståhl, Annica
    Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Variations in odontological care routines for patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancer in county councils/regions of Sweden2019In: Clinical and Experimental Dental Research, ISSN 2057-4347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To investigate current odontological care routines for patients treated for head and neck cancers in the county councils/regions (C/Rs) of Sweden.

    Methods

    An invitation to fill in a web-based questionnaire was sent to dentists/dental hygienists working in dental clinics in the 12 C/Rs, treating and responsible for the odontological care of patients undergoing treatment for cancer of the head and neck. The questionnaire started with two mandatory and one non-mandatory questions, followed by questions regarding routines before (n = 28), during (n = 23), and after (n = 9) treatment, plus two additional questions, totalling 65 questions.

    Results

    Four dental hygienists and six dentists in 10 of the 12 C/Rs answered the questionnaire. Three C/Rs stated that they measure both the unstimulated and stimulated salivary secretion rate, and another C/R stated that they measure the stimulated secretion rate only. Similar recommendations were given regarding oral hygiene, salivary stimulants and substitutes, and extra fluoride. However, great variations were seen regarding recommendations for preventing and relieving oral mucositis. There were also discrepancies regarding information about the importance of avoiding smoking and alcohol. In seven C/Rs, patients visited the dental hygienist once a week during cancer treatment.

    Conclusion

    The results suggests that there are great variations in odontological care given to patients undergoing treatment for cancer of the head and neck region in different county councils/regions in Sweden. There is a need to develop and implement evidence-based guidelines to decrease the risk of oral complications and increase both the quality of life and the quality of care.

  • 58.
    Bouillon, Kim
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Hamer, Mark
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Sabia, Severine
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Fransson, Eleonor
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Gale, Catharine R.
    MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Batty, G. David
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Measures of frailty in population-based studies: An overview2013In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 13, no 64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although research productivity in the field of frailty has risen exponentially in recent years, there remains a lack of consensus regarding the measurement of this syndrome. This overview offers three services: first, we provide a comprehensive catalogue of current frailty measures; second, we evaluate their reliability and validity; third, we report on their popularity of use.

    Methods: In order to identify relevant publications, we searched MEDLINE (from its inception in 1948 to May 2011); scrutinized the reference sections of the retrieved articles; and consulted our own files. An indicator of the frequency of use of each frailty instrument was based on the number of times it had been utilized by investigators other than the originators.

    Results: Of the initially retrieved 2,166 papers, 27 original articles described separate frailty scales. The number (range: 1 to 38) and type of items (range of domains: physical functioning, disability, disease, sensory impairment, cognition, nutrition, mood, and social support) included in the frailty instruments varied widely. Reliability and validity had been examined in only 26% (7/27) of the instruments. The predictive validity of these scales for mortality varied: for instance, hazard ratios/odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for mortality risk for frail relative to non-frail people ranged from 1.21 (0.78; 1.87) to 6.03 (3.00; 12.08) for the Phenotype of Frailty and 1.57 (1.41; 1.74) to 10.53 (7.06; 15.70) for the Frailty Index. Among the 150 papers which we found to have used at least one of the 27 frailty instruments, 69% (n = 104) reported on the Phenotype of Frailty, 12% (n = 18) on the Frailty Index, and 19% (n = 28) on one of the remaining 25 instruments.

    Conclusions: Although there are numerous frailty scales currently in use, reliability and validity have rarely been examined. The most evaluated and frequently used measure is the Phenotype of Frailty.

  • 59. Bowe, C M
    et al.
    Johansson, Carina S
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Hildebrand, C
    Evans, N H
    Functional properties and nodal spacing of myelinated fibers in developing rat mental and sural nerves1994In: Developmental Brain Research, ISSN 0165-3806, E-ISSN 1872-6755, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 186-94Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 60. Bratel, J
    et al.
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Jontell, M
    Effect of replacement of dental amalgam on oral lichenoid reactions.1996In: Journal of Dentistry, ISSN 0300-5712, E-ISSN 1879-176X, Vol. 24, no 1-2, p. 41-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 61. Bratel, John
    et al.
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Jontell, Mats
    The effect of LongoVital on recurrent aphthous stomatitis in a controlled clinical trial.2005In: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry, ISSN 1602-1622, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 3-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Byström, Ann-Louise
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Äldre individers upplevelse av sin orala hälsa - en kvalitativ intervjustudie2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 63. Cabrera, Claudia
    et al.
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Ahlqwist, Margareta
    Wedel, Hans
    Björkelund, Cecilia
    Bengtsson, Calle
    Lissner, Lauren
    Can the relation between tooth loss and chronic disease be explained by socio-economic status?: A 24-year follow-up from the population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden.2005In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 229-236Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Cardell, K.
    et al.
    Dep. of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Widell, A.
    Dep. of Medical Microbiology (Malmö), Lund University, Sweden.
    Frydén, A.
    Dep. of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Åkerlind, B.
    Dep. of Virology, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Månsson, A-S.
    Dep. of Medical Microbiology (Malmö), Lund University, Sweden.
    Franzén, S.
    Dep. of Thoracic Surgery, University Hospital. Linköping, Sweden.
    Lymer, U-B.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Isaksson, B.
    Dep. of Infection Control, University Hospital. Linköping, Sweden.
    Nosocomial hepatitis C in a thoracic surgery unit: retrospective findings generating a prospective study2008In: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 322-328Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Carlsson, Emma
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    The importance of psychological and physical stressors on diabetes-related immunity in a young population – an interdisciplinary approach2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The prevalence of immunological disorders such as type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasingly common amongst children, adolescents and young adults. There is also an increase in psychosomatic symptoms (depression, insomnia, anxiety, headaches and fatigue etc.) as well as a decrease in physical activity amongst young people, affecting the well-being and overall health of our younger population. It is therefore important to study the effects of psychological and physical stressors on the immune system, to evaluate their impact on juvenile health.

    Aim: This thesis explores the impact of psychological and physical stressors on the cellular immune system with special focus on diabetes-related immunity in a young population, using an interdisciplinary approach.

    Method: When exploring the impact of psychological and physical stressors such as psychological stress due to exposure to psychological stressful experiences or degree of physical activity/training on the cellular immune system in children, adolescents and young women, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated with antigens (tetanus toxoid (TT) and β-lactoglobulin (βLG)) as well as diabetes-related autoantigens (insulin, heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), tyrosine phosphatase-2 (IA-2) and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65)) and secreted cytokines and chemokines were measured by multiplex fluorochrome technique (Luminex). Populations of Thelper (Th) cells (CD4+), T-cytotoxic (Tc) cells (CD8+), B cells (CD19+), Natural Killer (NK) cells (CD56+CD16+) as well as regulatory T (Treg) cells (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+CD127-), and their expression of CD39 and CD45RA were studied by flow cytometry. Diabetes-related parameters (glucose, C-peptide,proinsulin, pancreatic polypeptide and peptide YY) were measured to studyβ-cell activity and appetite regulation and cortisol was used as a biological marker for psychological and physical stress.

    Results: Children in families exposed to psychological stress showed an imbalanced cellular immune response as well as an increased immune response towards diabetes-related autoantigens. Also, previous exposure to psychological stress as well as current exposure to psychological stress in young women showed an increased immune response towards diabetes-related autoantigens. Further, previous exposure to psychological stress in young women showed increased numbers of circulating CD56+CD16+ NK cells as wellas decreased numbers of circulating CD4+CD25+FoxP3+CD127- Treg cells. High physical activity in children showed decreased spontaneous immune response as well as a decreased immune response towards diabetes-related autoantigens, while low physical activity in children showed an increased immune response towards diabetes-related autoantigens. Further, endurance training in adolescents, especially in adolescent males and young adolescents, showed an increased immune response towards the diabetes-related autoantigen IA-2.

    Conclusion: It is evident that psychological and physical stressors such as exposure to psychological stress and degree of physical activity/training impact the cellular immune system. Experiences associated with psychological stress seem to have a negative effect on the cellular immune system in a young population, causing an imbalance in the immune system that could possibly induce diabetes-related immunity. High physical activity in children seems to have a protective effect against diabetes-related immunity. In contrast, low physical activity in children and endurance training in adolescents seems to induce diabetes-related immunity. It is very likely that psychological stressful experiences, low physical activity and intense training such as endurance training all play important roles in the immunological process leading to the development of type 1 diabetes.

  • 66.
    Carlsson, Emma
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Frostell, Anneli
    Division of Medical Diagnostics, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Division of Paediatrics and Diabetes Research Centre, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Faresjö, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Psychological Stress in Children May Alter the Immune Response2014In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 192, no 5, p. 2071-2081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological stress is a public health issue even in children and has been associated with a number of immunological diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological stress and immune response in healthy children, with special focus on autoimmunity. In this study, psychological stress was based on a composite measure of stress in the family across the domains: 1) serious life events, 2) parenting stress, 3) lack of social support, and 4) parental worries. PBMCs, collected from 5-y-old high-stressed children (n = 26) and from 5-y-old children without high stress within the family (n = 52), from the All Babies In Southeast Sweden cohort, were stimulated with Ags (tetanus toxoid and β-lactoglobulin) and diabetes-related autoantigens (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, insulin, heat shock protein 60, and tyrosine phosphatase). Immune markers (cytokines and chemokines), clinical parameters (C-peptide, proinsulin, glucose), and cortisol, as an indicator of stress, were analyzed. Children from families with high psychological stress showed a low spontaneous immune activity (IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL10; p < 0.01) but an increased immune response to tetanus toxoid, β-lactoglobulin, and the autoantigens glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, heat shock protein 60, and tyrosine phosphatase (IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α, CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL10; p < 0.05). Children within the high-stress group showed high level of cortisol, but low level of C-peptide, compared with the control group (p < 0.05). This supports the hypothesis that psychological stress may contribute to an imbalance in the immune response but also to a pathological effect on the insulin-producing β cells.

  • 67.
    Carlsson, Emma
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Ludvigsson, J.
    Division of Paediatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Faresjö, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    High physical activity in young children suggests positive effects by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 441-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity in children is associated with several positive health outcomes such as decreased cardiovascular risk factors, improved lung function, enhanced motor skill development, healthier body composition, and also improved defense against inflammatory diseases. We examined how high physical activity vs a sedentary lifestyle in young children influences the immune response with focus on autoimmunity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, collected from 55 5-year-old children with either high physical activity (n = 14), average physical activity (n = 27), or low physical activity (n  = 14), from the All Babies In Southeast Sweden (ABIS) cohort, were stimulated with antigens (tetanus toxoid and beta-lactoglobulin) and autoantigens (GAD65, insulin, HSP60, and IA-2). Immune markers (cytokines and chemokines), C-peptide and proinsulin were analyzed. Children with high physical activity showed decreased immune activity toward the autoantigens GAD65 (IL-5, P < 0.05), HSP60 and IA-2 (IL-10, P < 0.05) and also low spontaneous pro-inflammatory immune activity (IL-6, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and CCL2 (P  < 0.05)) compared with children with an average or low physical activity. High physical activity in young children seems to have positive effects on the immune system by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity.

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