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  • 51.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Hovsepyan, Vardan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Correction to: The income return to entrepreneurship: theoretical model and outcomes for Swedish regions2018In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 61, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The original version of this article unfortunately contains an error in Appendix A.

  • 52.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH.
    Hovsepyan, Vardan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    The income return to entrepreneurship: theoretical model and outcomes for Swedish regions2018In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 479-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the income return to entrepreneurship and wage employment by means of Lazear's model of occupational choice. The paper has two major aims. The first is to develop a new theoretical framework for analyzing the income return to entrepreneurship by combining the Lazear model with the assumption that the skill profiles in a population are Frechet-distributed. The second is to demonstrate that the resulting theoretical derivations can be used for a new type of regional analysis of the income return to entrepreneurship and wage employment. The empirical analysis is based on data for individuals with a Master of Science degree in Electrical Engineering. We compute their income return to self-employment and wage employment in three parts of Sweden: the Stockholm region, the combined Gothenburg and Malmo region, and the Rest of Sweden. The results show that the average return to self-employment is less than 5% in all regions and smaller in the Gothenburg and Malmo region than in the other two regions. The regional differences are explained by the differential supply curves and market values of entrepreneurial talent. The theoretical derivation of the income return to entrepreneurship is the main contribution of the paper. Another contribution is the derivation of regional supply curves for entrepreneurs.

  • 53.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Evoultion, Interaction and Welfare: An Introduction1998In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 295-298Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Johansson, Börje
    Umeå University.
    Regional industrial analysis and vintage dynamics1991In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Forslund, Ulla M
    Assessing road investments: accessibility changes, cost benefit and production effects1995In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 155-174Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Agglomeration Dynamics of Business Services2011In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 20p. 373-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important characteristic of the economic development in Europe and North America during the last few decades is a fast expansion of the business-service sector. The present paper aims at modeling the location dynamics of three categories of firms: (i) knowledge-intensive business-service firms, (ii) ordinary business-service firms and other firms, where the latter form the rest of the economy. In the theoretical framework, business-service firms have random-choice preferences and respond in a non-linear way to time distances in their contact efforts to customer firms. Business-service firms make their location decisions in response to local, intra-regional and extra-regional access to market demand. The econometric analysis makes use of information about time distances between zones in urban areas as well as between urban areas in the same agglomeration and between urban areas in different agglomerations. The empirical analysis shows how the number of jobs in the different sectors change in response to accessibility to purchasing power. The estimation results show that the change processes feature non-linear dependencies with varying spatial reach.

  • 57.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Samhällsekonomi.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Agglomeration dynamics of business services2011In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 373-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important characteristic of the economic development in Europe and North America during the last few decades is a fast expansion of the business-service sector. The present paper aims at modeling the location dynamics of three categories of firms: (i) knowledge-intensive business-service firms, (ii) ordinary business-service firms and other firms, where the latter form the rest of the economy. In the theoretical framework, business-service firms have random-choice preferences and respond in a non-linear way to time distances in their contact efforts to customer firms. Business-service firms make their location decisions in response to local, intra-regional and extra-regional access to market demand. The econometric analysis makes use of information about time distances between zones in urban areas as well as between urban areas in the same agglomeration and between urban areas in different agglomerations. The empirical analysis shows how the number of jobs in the different sectors change in response to accessibility to purchasing power. The estimation results show that the change processes feature non-linear dependencies with varying spatial reach.

  • 58.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Roy, John R
    A model of trade flows in differentiated goods1993In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 95-115Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Westin, Lars
    Affinities and frictions of trade networks1994In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 243-261Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    Infrastruktur, Kungliga Tekniska högskolan/Infrastructure and Planning, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Affinities and frictions of trade networks1994In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 243-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper formulates a theoretical framework in which the analysis starts with supplier-customer links of micro type. From this we derive aggregate trade links between nodes in a spatial network. It is shown how affinities and barriers shape and influence the establishment of customer links, and how this forms aggregate patterns of flows. The framework is applied to three types of models for determining trade patterns — random discrete choice, information theory and gravity models. Essentially equivalent solutions are derived.

  • 61.
    Johansson, Sara
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    R&D Accessibility and Regional Export Diversity2007In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 501-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the influences of accessibility to R&D on the export diversity in Swedish regions. A theoretical model with fixed R&D cost predicts that spatial knowledge spillovers generate external economies of scale in R&D activities. These external effects are presumed to increase regions' innovative capacity. Moreover, the model implies that the effects of R&D on regional export performance are reflected by the size of the export base rather than by the export volumes. The empirical analysis focuses on three different indicators of export diversity: the number of exported goods, the number of exporting firms and the number of export destinations. The hypothesis that regional accessibility to R&D facilities in the private business sector, on the one hand, and university research departments on the other hand, increases the export diversity in regions is tested in a spatial cross-regressive model. Since knowledge cannot be regarded as a spatially trapped resource the empirical analysis includes two measures of R&D accessibility: intra-regional and inter-regional. The empirical results indicate that the three indicators of regional export diversity are positively affected by the intra-regional accessibility to company R&D in commodity groups that have a relatively high R&D-intensity in production. Inter-regional accessibility to company R&D has significant positive impacts on the number of export goods and the number of export destinations also in less R&D-intensive industries. In the case of university R&D, the empirical results are weaker, in particular in the case of intra-regional accessibility. Yet, the inter-regional accessibility to university R&D has a significant positive impact on the number of export goods and the number of export destinations in the majority of commodity groups.

  • 62.
    Johansson, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    R&D accessibility and regional export diversity2007In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 501-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the influences of accessibility to R&D on the export diversity in Swedish regions. A theoretical model with fixed R&D cost predicts that spatial knowledge spillovers generate external economies of scale in R&D activities. These external effects are presumed to increase regions' innovative capacity. Moreover, the model implies that the effects of R&D on regional export performance are reflected by the size of the export base rather than by the export volumes. The empirical analysis focuses on three different indicators of export diversity: the number of exported goods, the number of exporting firms and the number of export destinations. The hypothesis that regional accessibility to R&D facilities in the private business sector, on the one hand, and university research departments on the other hand, increases the export diversity in regions is tested in a spatial cross-regressive model. Since knowledge cannot be regarded as a spatially trapped resource the empirical analysis includes two measures of R&D accessibility: intra-regional and inter-regional. The empirical results indicate that the three indicators of regional export diversity are positively affected by the intra-regional accessibility to company R&D in commodity groups that have a relatively high R&D-intensity in production. Inter-regional accessibility to company R&D has significant positive impacts on the number of export goods and the number of export destinations also in less R&D-intensive industries. In the case of university R&D, the empirical results are weaker, in particular in the case of intra-regional accessibility. Yet, the inter-regional accessibility to university R&D has a significant positive impact on the number of export goods and the number of export destinations in the majority of commodity groups.

  • 63.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Product Development, Innovation Networks, and Agglomeration Economies1997In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 235-258Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Sara
    Cecis, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    R&D Accessibility and Regional Export Diversity2007In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, ISSN 0570-1864, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 501-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the influences of accessibility to R&D on the export diversity in Swedish regions. A theoretical model with fixed R&D cost predicts that spatial knowledge spillovers generate external economies of scale in R&D activities. These external effects are presumed to increase regions’ innovative capacity. Moreover, the model implies that the effects of R&D on regional export performance are reflected by the size of the export base rather than by the export volumes. The empirical analysis focuses on three different indicators of export diversity: the number of exported goods, the number of exporting firms and the number of export destinations. The hypothesis that regional accessibility to R&D facilities in the private business sector, on the one hand, and university research departments on the other hand, increases the export diversity in regions is tested in a spatial cross-regressive model. Since knowledge cannot be regarded as a spatially trapped resource the empirical analysis includes two measures of R&D accessibility: intra-regional and inter-regional. The empirical results indicate that the three indicators of regional export diversity are positively affected by the intra-regional accessibility to company R&D in commodity groups that have a relatively high R&D-intensity in production. Inter-regional accessibility to company R&D has significant positive impacts on the number of export goods and the number of export destinations also in less R&D-intensive industries. In the case of university R&D, the empirical results are weaker, in particular in the case of intra-regional accessibility. Yet, the inter-regional accessibility to university R&D has a significant positive impact on the number of export goods and the number of export destinations in the majority of commodity groups.

  • 65.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Olsson, Michael
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. The Swedish Unemployment Insurance Board (IAF), Katrineholm, Sweden.
    The identification of functional regions: theory, methods and applications2006In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A functional region is characterised by a high frequency of intra-regional interaction. The text analyses how functional regions can be identified by using labour market data. Three approaches are applied in this task, named the local labour market, commuting zone, and accessibility approach, respectively. The text includes an application using the Fyrstad region. The situation is also studied at two points in time. The outcomes using the different approaches are compared, and the results combined have a richer flavour.

  • 66.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Olsson, Michael
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    The Identification of Functional Regions: Theory, Methods, and Applications2006In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, ISSN 0570-1864, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A functional region is characterised by a high frequency of intra-regional interaction. The text analyses how functional regions can be identified by using labour market data. Three approaches are applied in this task, named the local labour market, commuting zone, and accessibility approach, respectively. The text includes an application using the Fyrstad region. The situation is also studied at two points in time. The outcomes using the different approaches are compared, and the results combined have a richer flavour.

  • 67.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    The Identification of Functional Regions: Theory, Methods, and Applications2006In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Zhang, W.-B
    The Role of Universities in Regional Development: Endogenous Human Capital and Growth in a Two-Region Model2001In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 179-197Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Karlsson, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School. Department of Economics and Statistics, Linnaeus University Centre for Labour Market and Discrimination Studies, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Mansson, Jonas
    Department of Economics and Statistics, Linnaeus University Centre for Labour Market and Discrimination Studies, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Getting a full-time job as a part-time unemployed: How much does spatial context matter?2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 179-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the extent to which differences in the probability to exit from part-time unemployment to a full-time job are accountable for by spatial contextual factors and individual characteristics. To correctly incorporate contextual effects, a multilevel analysis is applied using a mixed-effects model to explore whether contextual factors account for differences in the probability of transition to full-time employment between individuals with different characteristics. The results indicate that there is a contextual effect and that there are some spatial spill-over effects from neighbouring municipalities, and that the unemployment rate partly explains the context variability. Furthermore, the contextual effect is found to be especially large for individuals without a university degree.

  • 70.
    Karlsson, Joel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Getting a full-time job as a part-time unemployed: How much does spatial context matter?2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 179-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the extent to which differences in the probability to exit from part-time unemployment to a full-time job are accountable for by spatial contextual factors and individual characteristics. To correctly incorporate contextual effects a multilevel analysis applied using a mixed-effects model, a method frequently used in other disciplines but rarely used in economics, is adopted here to explore whether contextual factors account for differences in the probability of transition to full-time employment between individuals with different characteristics. The results indicate that there is a contextual effect and that there are some spatial spill-over effects from neighbouring municipalities, and unemployment rate partly explains the context variability. Furthermore, the contextual effect is found to be especially large for individuals without a university degree.

  • 71.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Monopolistic Competition, Increasing Returns, Agglomeration, and Transport Costs2001In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 375-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a model where production concentrated in one place is compared with dispersed production. Concentrated production can attain a higher level of productivity but must incur transport costs. Dispersed production, on the other hand, has a lower productivity level but need no transportation. In order to avoid unnecessary complications, output per capita is used as an objective function. Transport cost is measured in units of output and will therefore affect the objective function directly. The model uses a linkage approach where a final output is produced under constant returns to scale. This production has increasing returns to the number of differentiated inputs. The differentiated intermediate inputs are produced subject to increasing returns to scale in a framework of Chamberlinian monopolistic competition. The size of the market determines the number of intermediate inputs that the local economy can accommodate. In this way the model formalises Adam Smith's theorem on the division of labour being limited by the extent of the market. The paper examines how the break-even point between the two ways of organising production is affected by (i) changes in transport cost and market density and (ii) shifts in technology for producers of intermediaries and the final output.

  • 72.
    Klaesson, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Norman, Therese
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Market potential and the employment growth of knowledge-intensive services: comparing different geographical resolutions2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 157-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to empirically understand the geographical reach of different markets, it is vital to use an appropriate geographical resolution. Using too large observational units risks hiding the interesting relationships within the regional boundaries. In this study, we aim to investigate and compare similar analyses performed on different geographical levels, with a special focus on innovative industries. Accessibility to markets, services and infrastructure is thought to be major determinants of the potential for economic development and welfare of a region. Earlier empirical research establishing the relationship between agglomeration forces and regional growth typically includes a measure for accessibility or market potential as an explanatory factor. The geographical scale that conventional accessibility measures operate on is usually on the level of municipalities or similar, even when theory suggests that a more disaggregated scale is desirable. Most often the reason for this is limitations in available data. In many cases, the researcher is left with a geographical level based on administrative borders. Analyses on more disaggregated levels allow the researcher to better pinpoint the actual accessibility that each firm faces. In order to shed light on the importance of these issues, this paper utilizes an exploratory approach to investigate the relationship between the spatial distribution and growth of knowledge-intensive services (KIS) and the accessibility to economic activity (market potential). We use regional employment growth in KIS as a proxy for regional innovativeness. The relationship is estimated on two different geographical levels using Swedish data. The more conventional model is estimated with the 290 municipalities in Sweden as the units of analysis. In the Swedish context, this represents the geographically smallest administrative level. In the more novel model, we use the 298 so-called SAMS areas of Jönköping County in Sweden. Our results show that the detailed level is particularly important for the analysis of the growth of the more advanced sectors of the economy, in our setting, the high-tech knowledge-intensive services.

  • 73.
    Kourtit, Karima
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies. Mickiewicz University, Poland.
    Nijkamp, Peter
    Exploring the 'New Urban World'2016In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 591-596Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    The neighborhood or the region? Reassessing the density-wage relationship using geocoded data2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 367-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I analyze the effects of sub-city-level density of economic activity on wages. Using a geocoded dataset on employment and wages in the city areas of Sweden, the analysis is based on squares representing "neighborhoods" (, "districts" (, and "agglomerations" (. The wage-density elasticity depends on spatial resolution, with the elasticity being highest in neighborhood squares, where a doubling of density is associated with wage increases of 1.2 %, or roughly the size of the elasticity for region density. Moving from a mean-density neighborhood to the densest neighborhood would on average increase wages by 9 %. The results are consistent with (i) the existence of a localized density spillover effect and (ii) quite sharp attenuation of human capital spillovers. An implication of the findings is that if the data source is not sufficiently disaggregated, analyses of the density-wage link risk understating the benefits of working in dense parts of regions, such as the central business districts.

  • 75.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Öner, Özge
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Location and co-location in retail: a probabilistic approach using geo-coded data for metropolitan retail markets2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 385-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we employ geo-coded data at a fine spatial resolution for Sweden’s metropolitan areas to assess retail co-location. Retail clusters and their place in urban space are assessed from several angles. The probability of a specific type of retail unit to be established in a 250 by 250 m square is modelled as a function of (i) the presence of other similar retail establishments, (ii) the presence of stores that belong to other retail sectors and (iii) other characteristics of the square area, and its access to demand in the pertinent urban landscape. The analysis clarifies which types of retail clusters one can expect to find in a metropolitan region, as well as their relationship to the urban landscape. We analyse three distinct types of stores: clothing, household appliances, and specialized stores. Stores with high intensities of interaction are co-located, and predominantly located close to the urban cores, consistent with predictions from bid rent theory and central place theory. We further document negative location tendencies between shops that sell frequently purchased products and shops that sell durables. Moreover, our results highlight the importance of demand in the close surroundings, which is particularly strong for small-scale establishments.

  • 76. Lejpras, Anna
    et al.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Locational Conditions, Cooperation, and Innovativeness: Evidence from Research and Company Spin-Offs2011In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 543-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper has two goals. First, it analyzes the extent to which the innovativeness of spin-offs, originating either in a research facility or from another company, is influenced by locational conditions. Second, it provides evidence on how important local cooperation links are in comparison to nonlocal ones. Using a sample of approximately 1,500 East German firms from knowledge-intensive sectors, we estimate a structural equation model applying the partial least squares method. We find that proximity to local research institutes and universities is the most influential factor for the cooperation intensity of spin-offs. Furthermore, the higher the cooperation intensity, the greater the innovativeness of a firm. Moreover, the results indicate that it is not the local but the nonlocal cooperation ties that are more conducive to innovativeness of research spin-offs. The findings also highlight that the innovativeness of research spin-offs with solely local links is strongly dependent on support from various authorities and institutions.

  • 77.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    On the definition of W in empirical models of yardstick competition2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 597-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical models of strategic interaction between local governments are often implemented empirically using spatial econometric techniques. In order to empirically discriminate between different theoretical explanations for strategic interactions, it is important to ensure that the spatial weights matrix W reflects the theoretical mechanisms behind the interaction of interest. However, researchers do not usually have the information required to adequately define its elements in such a way. Here, we present a method for defining these elements that captures the interest of one jurisdiction's inhabitants in the local politics of their neighboring jurisdictions even when this information is not directly available to the researcher. The method is suitable for use in empirical models of strategic interaction between local jurisdictions and can be used to define spatial weights matrices for spatial econometric models that will be used to test or control for yardstick competition across jurisdictions.

  • 78.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Nabavi, Pardis
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Knowledge spillovers, productivity and patent2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 249-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine potential heterogeneity in the capacity to benefit from knowledge spillovers in metropolitan areas between foreign-owned and domestic multinational enterprises, and between small and large firms. The study is restricted to R&D firms in the manufacturing sector and utilizes an unbalanced sample of 1073 Swedish firms covering a 16-year period with close to 11,000 observations. We apply linear and nonlinear approaches to test the importance of knowledge spillovers on labour productivity and patent applications. The overall result shows that not all R&D firms benefit from knowledge spillovers as a result of their presence in an agglomeration area.

  • 79.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Quoreshi, A. M. M. Shahiduzzaman
    Swedish Agcy Growth Policy Anal, Sweden ; Blekinge Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Evaluating regional cuts in the payroll tax from a firm perspective2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 323-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With few exceptions, reduced payroll taxes are analysed with regard to employment and wage effects. Our study extends the impacts to cover several possible firm outcomes using a multilevel modelling approach. Between 20 and 55 % in the variation, the outcomes can be explained by municipality differences. On firm level, the result follows a clear business logic. In the short run, profits and turnover increased which later on transforms into increased wages. After 7 years, we find the indication of impacts on investments. Thus, the support has some short-term impacts that are reduced with time and the long-term effects are questionable.

  • 80. Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Quoreshi, Shahiduzzaman
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Evaluating regional cuts in the payroll tax from a firm perspective2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 323-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With few exceptions reduced payroll taxes are analysed with regards to employment and wage effects. Our study extends the impacts to cover several possible firm outcomes using a multilevel modelling approach. Between 20-55 percent in the variation in the outcomes can be explained by municipality differences. On firm level the result follows a clear business logic. In the short run, profits and turnover increased wish later on transforms into increased wages. After seven years we find indication of impacts on investments. Thus, the support has some short-term impacts that are reduced with time and the long-term effects are questionable.

  • 81. Nyström, Kristina
    An industry disaggregated analysis of the determinants of regional entry and exit2007In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 877-896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical research by, among others, Armington and Acs (Reg Stud 36:33-45, 2002) show that regional determinants of new firm formation differ between industries. This paper reinvestigates the regional determinants of entry and exit considering these findings using panel data methods at three different levels of aggregation. Agglomeration, in terms of localisation economies, is unequivocally found to be positive for regional new firm formation, but does not necessarily prevent firms from exiting. The results also show that industry structure is a more important explanatory variable for differences between entry and exit rates across regions than regional factors.

  • 82.
    Olsson, Michael
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Matching in the labour market: modelling spatial aspects of the Swedish unemployment benefit rules2009In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 345-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, some consequences of the Swedish unemployment benefit rules are studied. This is achieved by introducing geographical mobility into a labour market matching model. Jobseekers and vacancies are unevenly distributed across space. Therefore, both the probability that a jobseeker will find a job and the probability that a vacancy is filled during a period vary across locations. Moreover, these differences are followed by spatial differences in both the duration of unemployment and vacancy times. It is shown that the potential of geographical mobility to increase the number of matches is limited in a labour market with few or many vacancies per jobseeker. In these labour markets, mobility mostly affects which jobseekers find a job during a period. In a relatively better balanced labour market, the number of matches could be increased by additional mobility.

  • 83.
    Persson, Håkan
    et al.
    Nationalekonomi, Örebro universitet/Department of Economics, University of Örebro.
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Recursive transport flow dynamics with time dependent a priori information1999In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 25-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two properties of a dynamic network flow model based on a slow process of structural adjustment inspired by principles used in models utilising a priori information is analysed. Initially it is proved that each time period is characterised by monotonically non-increasing transportation costs among flows. Secondly, we analyse the recursive sequence of connected periods. This dynamic sequence is shown to converge to the linear programming solution connected with cost minimisation. Evidently those properties have to be taken into consideration when this class of network flow models is used in forecasting of future transport flows in the process of infrastructure planning.

  • 84.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Continuous economic space modelling: Draft of a survey2009In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 5-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper attempts a survey of continuous modelling in spatial economics. The classics of spatial economics, from von Thünen on, like geographers always did, considered phenomena in the two dimensional plane, though later development was in favour of modelling discrete location point sets connected by communication arcs. The models discussed here are strongly focused around Beckmann’s continuous space market model from the early 1950s.

  • 85.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Hotelling's "ice cream dealers" with elastic demand2002In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reconsiders the Hotelling duopoly model of 1929, but under elastic demand, more precisely a linear demand function. The equilibrium state for identical firms is fully described, and the intervals of different regimes: independent monopolies, genuine duopoly competition, and price cutting wars, are specified in terms of one single compound parameter (maximum price, minus marginal production cost, divided by transportation cost).

  • 86.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Immigrant-native earnings differentials: SUR estimation applied on three generations2010In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 705-720Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Stephan, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701). Jonkoping Int Business Sch, Sweden.
    Locational conditions and firm performance: introduction to the special issue2011In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 487-494Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Locational conditions and firm performance: introduction to the special issue2011In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 487-494Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 89. Sun, X.
    et al.
    Xiong, A.
    Li, H.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies. Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Li, Y.
    Does social capital influence small business entrepreneurship?: Differences between urban and rural China2019In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between social capital and small business entrepreneurship in China. Unlike previous studies that focus solely on rural or urban residents, this paper pays more attention to the differences between them. According to our study, social capital has both positive and negative impacts on small business entrepreneurship. Based on the data drawn from China General Social Survey, we find that the impact of social capital differs significantly between rural and urban areas. In rural China, residents who have higher social capital tend to have entrepreneurial behaviors, while higher social capital leads to lower intention of small business entrepreneurship in urban China. Individuals whose parents have the experiences of small business tend to have small business entrepreneurial activities; individuals who are better educated tend to find regular jobs instead of having their own small business. The results suggest that small business entrepreneurship in rural China might be “entrepreneurship by necessity.”.

  • 90.
    Sun, Xianhua
    et al.
    School of Economics, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing, China.
    Xiong, Ailun
    School of Management, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing, China.
    Li, Hongyi
    Business School, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). Division of Urban and Regional Studies, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Yuheng
    Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Does social capital influence small business entrepreneurship?: Differences between urban and rural China2019In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between social capital and small business entrepreneurship in China. Unlike previous studies that focus solely on rural or urban residents, this paper pays more attention to the differences between them. According to our study, social capital has both positive and negative impacts on small business entrepreneurship. Based on the data drawn from China General Social Survey, we find that the impact of social capital differs significantly between rural and urban areas. In rural China, residents who have higher social capital tend to have entrepreneurial behaviors, while higher social capital leads to lower intention of small business entrepreneurship in urban China. Individuals whose parents have the experiences of small business tend to have small business entrepreneurial activities; individuals who are better educated tend to find regular jobs instead of having their own small business. The results suggest that small business entrepreneurship in rural China might be “entrepreneurship by necessity”. 

  • 91.
    Sundberg, Marcus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Optimal fragmentation in monopolistically competitive industries2012In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 1-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trade in intermediate goods necessitates the viewpoint that final goods are received through a sequential process of production. In this paper, we explore the role of vertical and horizontal complementarities in production and the effects of such complementarities on the level of fragmentation in production. We analyze the optimal level of fragmentation. Using a production chain point of view in a basic monopolistically competitive model allows us to derive analytical results regarding the level of fragmentation, both vertically and horizontally. As the economy grows, our model indicates an increasing level of roundaboutness in production. We also study forces for vertical specialization between countries by extending our framework into a two-country setting.

  • 92.
    Sörensson, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Population and employment location in Swedish municipalities 1994-20042012In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 743-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper focuses on the location choices of population and employment in Swedish municipalities from 1994 to 2004. Since firm and household location choices exert an apparent influence on municipality population and employment growth, we investigate the impact of various attributes, such as, differences in public revenue and spending patterns between municipalities, amenities, accessibility to jobs, quality of the labour pool, as well as concentration of commercial, private and public services, etc. To analyze the impact of the various attributes and the interdependence between population and employment change, we use a model of the Carlino–Mills type.

  • 93.
    Tano, Sofia
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Regional clustering of human capital: school grades and migration of university graduates2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 561-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial distribution of human capital plays a fundamental role for regional differences in economic growth and welfare. This paper examines how individual ability indicated by the grade point average (GPA) from comprehensive school affects the probability of migration among young university graduates in Sweden. Using detailed microdata available from the Swedish population register, the study examines two cohorts of individuals who enrol in tertiary education. The results indicate that individual abilities reflected by the GPA are strongly influential when it comes to completing a university degree and for the migration decision after graduation. Moreover, there is a positive relationship between the GPA and the choice of migrating from regions with a relatively low tax base and a relatively small share of highly educated people in the population, while individuals with higher GPA tend to stay at a higher rate in more flourishing regions.

  • 94.
    Tano, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Regional clustering of human capital: school grades and migration of university graduates2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 561-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial distribution of human capital plays a fundamental role for regional differences in economic growth and welfare. This paper examines how individual ability indicated by the grade point average (GPA) from comprehensive school affects the probability of migration among young university graduates in Sweden. Using detailed microdata available from the Swedish population register, the study examines two cohorts of individuals who enrol in tertiary education. The results indicate that individual abilities reflected by the GPA are strongly influential when it comes to completing a university degree and for the migration decision after graduation. Moreover, there is a positive relationship between the GPA and the choice of migrating from regions with a relatively low tax base and a relatively small share of highly educated people in the population, while individuals with higher GPA tend to stay at a higher rate in more flourishing regions.

  • 95.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    A Brief History of Time, Space, and Growth: Waldo Tobler’s First Law of Geography Revisited2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 917-924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current knowledge economy, the most important production factor, human knowledge, is much more mobile than the dominating production factors of previous periods. This means that theories of spatial development, formulated during the manufacturing-industrial era, might not be wholly applicable today. One of the basic assumptions of spatial theory is formulated in Waldo Tobler's first law of geography: "everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things." This article discusses the validity of this law in today's knowledge economy. While several factors have made distance less important, a crucial factor for innovation and growth-tacit knowledge-is still highly dependent on face-to-face contacts. This suggests that Waldo Tobler's first law of geography plays an important role also in the knowledge economy.

  • 96.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    A Brief History of Time, Space, and Growth: Waldo Tobler’s First Law of Geography Revisited2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 917-924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current knowledge economy, the most important production factor, human knowledge, is much more mobile than the dominating production factors of previous periods. This means that theories of spatial development, formulated during the manufacturing-industrial era, might not be wholly applicable today. One of the basic assumptions of spatial theory is formulated in Waldo Tobler's first law of geography: "everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things." This article discusses the validity of this law in today's knowledge economy. While several factors have made distance less important, a crucial factor for innovation and growth-tacit knowledge-is still highly dependent on face-to-face contacts. This suggests that Waldo Tobler's first law of geography plays an important role also in the knowledge economy.

  • 97.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    An Interaction-Cost Perspective on Networks and Territory1999In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, p. 93-121Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Comments on President Jack Osman’s Presentation2007In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 13-15Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Comments on President Jack Osman's Presentation2007In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 13-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 100.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The spatial distribution of inventor networks2009In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 645-668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inventor networking has become both more feasible with improved telecommunication and more important as it usually produces research of higher quality. Despite overwhelming evidence on the benefits of collaboration, patent data from 1994 to 2001 in Sweden demonstrate that inventor networks are not very common. Moreover, the spatial distribution of inventor networks is not uniform. It appears that agglomeration measured both as employment density and as industry diversity, plays a role in explaining networking. Our results indicate that inventor networks are more likely to exist in densely populated areas with a diversified industry. Market size has a negative impact on networking in that we can observe that inventor networks are less common in large metropolitan areas, ceteris paribus. Hence, it supports the proposition that networking can act as a substitute to agglomeration. Our results also suggest that researchers in dense areas will not only collaborate more; they will also collaborate over longer distance.

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