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  • 51.
    Abu Hatab, Assem
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; Arish University.
    Tirkaso, Wondmagegn Tafesse
    Tadesse, Elazar
    Lagerkvist, Carl-Johan
    An extended integrative model of behavioural prediction for examining households’ food waste behaviour in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia2022In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 179, article id 106073Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In developing countries, urbanization and demographic changes are increasing food waste generation at household levels. However, it remains unclear how behavioural and personal characteristics influence the behaviours of urban consumers in developing countries regarding food waste. In this study, we extended the integrative model of behavioural prediction to examine the determinants of food waste behaviour amongst a sample of 698 urban dwellers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The empirical results revealed that attitudes and perceived behavioural control were the most important predictors of intention toward food waste reduction. With regard to food waste behaviours, the results showed that the more an individual feels obliged to discard less food, the higher the odds that the quantity of food that gets wasted by the household would be reduced. Likewise, knowledge about the negative impacts of wasting food and an ability to interpret information on labels of food products were associated with decreased quantities of household food waste. In addition, lower psychological distance to food waste was generally associated with lower quantities of wasted food. Finally, sociodemographic characteristics and food-shopping routines were found to be significant predictors of food waste behaviours. Overall, these findings constitute an entry point for more research and policy measures in order to understand determinants of household food waste behaviours in developing countries and to design effective interventions to reinforce their behaviours towards more sustainable food consumption patterns.

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  • 52.
    Abu Hatab, Assem
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Economics & Rural Development, Arish University, Al-Arish, Egypt.
    Zhen, Liu
    School of Business, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China.
    Assessing stakeholder engagement in public spending, green finance and sustainable economic recovery in the highest emitting economies2022In: Economic Change and Restructuring, ISSN 1573-9414, E-ISSN 1574-0277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The generally held belief is that government spending on education and research and development is to bring about direct impacts on the advancement and sustainability of an economy. Nonetheless, this evidence is not prevalent within industrialized and third-world economies, particularly among the foremost ten carbon dioxide releasing economies. Therefore, the OLS and the DEA are used to estimate the relationship between government public spending on research and development plus green economic advancement, utilizing data from several countries between 2008 and 2018. The findings reveal a varying green economic expansion indicator, which is a result of inadequate government programs to deliver results. Subsequently, for types of expenditure where formal juxtaposition can be made, such as RE compared with conventional energy, the authors detect that multipliers on green cost are almost twofold their traditional sources. The point approximate of the multipliers is 1.1–1.7 for green energy financing and 0.4 and 0.7 for conventional energy financing, depending on time and modeling. These results passed all the required sensitivity analyses. They provided backing to the bottom-up analysis, which reveals that controlling global warming, including preventing biodiversity extinction, works hand in hand with creating economic development and advancement. 

  • 53.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Turkey.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Periods of converging carbon dioxide emissions from oil combustion in a pre-Kyoto context2016In: Environmental Development, ISSN 2211-4645, Vol. 19, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines convergence of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by oil combustion for a panel of 86 countries considering the importance of analyzing sub-periods separately. The investigation also points at the necessity of choosing a restricted global sample, which takes into account, for instance, that Eastern Bloc countries reacted differently to increasing world crude oil prices than the rest of the world. The analysis builds on examining the β-convergence hypothesis in a neoclassical growth model setting with additional control variables such as emissions from combustion of solid fuels. The results reveal evidence in support of unconditional β-convergence of CO2 emissions intensity due to oil combustion in the restricted sample for the sub-periods 1973–1979 and 1979–1991, while no evidence for convergence was found for the post-1991, pre-Kyoto period. We could not find support for coal substituting technologies.

  • 54. Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis2018In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 512-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich empirical literature testing whether per capita carbon dioxide emissions tend to converge over time and across countries. This article provides a meta-analysis of the results from this research, and discusses how carbon emissions convergence may be understood in, for instance, the presence of international knowledge spillovers and policy convergence. The results display evidence of either divergence or persistent gaps at the global level, but convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions between richer industrialized countries. However, the results appear sensitive to the choice of data sample and choice of convergence concept, e.g. stochastic convergence versus β-convergence. Moreover, peer-reviewed studies have a higher likelihood of reporting convergence in carbon dioxide emissions compared to non-refereed work.

  • 55.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Bagcilar, Turkey.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis2018In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 512-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich empirical literature testing whether per capita carbon dioxide emissions tend to converge over time and across countries. This article provides a meta-analysis of the results from this research, and discusses how carbon emissions convergence may be understood in, for instance, the presence of international knowledge spillovers and policy convergence. The results display evidence of either divergence or persistent gaps at the global level, but convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions between richer industrialized countries. However, the results appear sensitive to the choice of data sample and choice of convergence concept, e.g. stochastic convergence versus β-convergence. Moreover, peer-reviewed studies have a higher likelihood of reporting convergence in carbon dioxide emissions compared to non-refereed work. POLICY RELEVANCE The empirical basis for an egalitarian rule of equal emissions per capita in the design of global climate agreements is not solid; this supports the need to move beyond single allocation rules, and increase knowledge about the impacts of combined scenarios. However, even in the context of the 2015 Paris Agreement with its emphasis on voluntary contributions and ‘national circumstances’, different equity-based principles could serve as useful points of reference for how the remaining carbon budget should be allocated

  • 56. Acemoglu, Daron
    et al.
    Aghion, Philippe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Bursztyn, Leonardo
    Hemous, David
    The Environment and Directed Technical Change2012In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 131-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces endogenous and directed technical change in a growth model with environmental constraints. The final good is produced from dirty and clean inputs. We show that: (i) when inputs are sufficiently substitutable, sustainable growth can be achieved with temporary taxes/subsidies that redirect innovation toward clean inputs; (ii) optimal policy involves both carbon taxes and research subsidies, avoiding excessive use of carbon taxes; (iii) delay in intervention is costly, as it later necessitates a longer transition phase with slow growth; and (iv) use of an exhaustible resource in dirty input production helps the switch to clean innovation under laissez-faire.

  • 57.
    Acemoglu, Daron
    et al.
    MIT.
    Aghion, Philippe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Bursztyn, Leonardo
    Harvard.
    Hemous, David
    Harvard.
    The Environment and Directed Technical Change2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces endogenous and directed technical change in a growth model with environmental constraints. A unique final good is produced by combining inputs from two sectors. One of these sectors uses “dirty” machines and thus creates environmental degradation. Research can be directed to improving the technology of machines in either sector. We characterize dynamic tax policies that achieve sustainable growth or maximize intertemporal welfare. We show that: (i) in the case where the inputs are sufficiently substitutable, sustainable long-run growth can be achieved with temporary taxation of dirty innovation and production; (ii) optimal policy involves both “carbon taxes” and research subsidies, so that excessive use of carbon taxes is avoided; (iii) delay in intervention is costly: the sooner and the stronger is the policy response, the shorter is the growth transition phase; (iv) the use of an exhaustible resource in dirty input production helps the switch to clean innovation under laissez-faire when the two inputs are substitutes. Under reasonable parameter values and with sufficient substitutability between inputs, it is optimal to redirect technical change towards clean technologies immediately and optimal environmental regulation need not reduce long-run growth.

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  • 58.
    Acemoglu, Daron
    et al.
    MIT Department of Economics.
    Aghion, Philippe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Griffith, Rachel
    UCL.
    Zilibotti, Fabrizio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Vertical Integration and Technology: Theory and Evidence2010In: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 989-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Acemoglu, Daron
    et al.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Zilibotti, Fabrizio
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
    Agency Costs in the Process of Development1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze an economy where production is subject to moral hazard. The degree of the incentive (agency) costs introduced by the presence of moral hazard naturally depends on the information structure in the economy; it is cheaper to induce correct incentives in a society which posesses better ex post information. The degree of ex post information depends on the number of projects and entrepreneurs in the economy; the more projects, the better the information. This implies that at the early stages of development, the range of projects and the amount of information are limited and agency costs are high. Since the information created by a project is an externality on others, the decentralized economy is constrained inefficient; in particular, it does not 'experiment' enough. The analysis of the role of information also opens the way to an investigation of the development of financial institutions. We contrast the information aggregation role of stock markets and information production role of banks. Because the amount of available information increases with development, our model predicts the pattern of financial development observed in practice; banks first and stock markets later.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 60.
    Acemoglu, Daron
    et al.
    Masachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Zilibotti, Fabrizio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Information Accumulation in Development1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a model in which economic relations and intritutions in advanced and less developed countries differ as these societies have access to different amounts of information. The lack of information in less developed economies makes it hard to evaluate the performance of manager, and leads to high "agency costs". Differences in the amount of information have a variety of sources. As well as factors related to the informational infrastructure, we emphasize that societies accumulate information partly because the scarcity of capital restricts the repetition of various activities. Two implications of our model are: (i) as an economy develops and generates more information, it achieves better risk-sharing at a given level of effort, but because agents are exerting more effort and the types of activities are changing, the overall level of risk-sharing may decline; (ii) with development, the share of financial intermediation carried out through market institutions should increase.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 61.
    Acemoglu, Daron
    et al.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Zilibotti, Fabrizio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Productivity Differences1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many technologies used by the LDCs are developed in the OECD economies, and as such, are designed to make optimal use of the skills of these richer countries' workforces. Due to differences in the supply of skills, some of the tasks performed by skilled workers in the OECD economies will be carried out by unskilled workers in the LDCs. Since the technologies in these tasks are designed to be used by skilled workers, productivity in the LDCs will be low. Even when all countries have equal access to new technologies, this mismatch between skills and technology can lead to sizable differences in total factor productivity and output per worker. Our theory also suggests that productivity differences should be highest in medium-tech sectors, and that the trade regime and the degree of intellectual property right enforcement in the LDCs have an important effect on the direction of technical change and on productivity differences.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 62.
    Achioyamen, Chichi Violet
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Kazmi Johansson, Sophia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Institutional Factors and Financial Development in Sub-Saharan Africa for the period 2004-2018: Control of Corruption, Rule of Law, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, and Voice and Accountability2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to have an in-depth understanding of the importance of the institutional environment for financial development in 43 Sub-Saharan African countries during the years 2004-2018. Using new institutional economic theory (NIE) we study how the four institutional factors Control of Corruption, Rule of Law, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, and Voice and Accountability affect financial development. We also survey how the effect of institutional factors varies when there are either high, medium or low levels of corruption. Empirical results show a positive linear relationship between all institutional factors and financial development. However, when corruption levels are high the correlation between institutional factors and financial development varies and has a weak linear relationship. Inferential statistics results from a fixed effect regression model with robust standard errors shows; when we control for the financial environment, Political Stability and Absence of Violence is the only indicator for the institutional environment that has a positive significant effect on financial development. We thereby conclude that the institutional environment, mostly political institutions, are important for financial development.

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    Economics Bachelor Thesis
  • 63.
    Ackum Agell, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Swedish Labor Market Programs: Efficiency and Timing1995In: Swedish Economic Policy Review, ISSN 1400-1829, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Ackum Agell, Susanne, Björklund, Anders and Harkman, A.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Unmployment Insurance, Labour Market Programmes and Repeated Unemployment in Sweden1995In: Swedish Economic Policy Review, ISSN 1400-1829, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 65. Ackum, Susanne
    et al.
    Borg, Tor
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    Calmfors, Lars
    Institutet för näringslivsforskning, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklund, Klas
    Hansson, Åsa
    Lunds Universitet, Institutet för näringslivsforskning, Lund, Sweden.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Wetterstrand, Maria
    Vi tar fram en handfast plan för en omstart av Sverige2020In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 27 aprilArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är /.../ fullt möjligt att tänka strategiskt och systematiskt även i brinnande kris. Omstartskommissionen hoppas kunna bidra till fokus, analys och konkreta policyförslag för att stödja Sveriges långsiktiga inriktning. Vi kommer att under våren och sommaren anordna seminarier och hearings om vårt arbete, delrapporter ska läggas fram – och när budgetarbetet börjar och Riksdagen öppnar, vill vi kunna bidra med en rejäl och handfast plan för hur vi omstartar Sverige.

  • 66. Acs, Zoltan
    et al.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    The Entrepreneruship-Philanthropy Nexus: Implication for internationalization2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how Sweden and the United States have been impacted by philanthropicactivities, commercialization of university-based knowledge and internationalentrepreneurship. The analysis comprises a detailed case study of Swedish and U.S.universities, as well as a statistical analysis of the impact of philanthropy on economicgrowth. The results show that the United States has prompted a university system based oncompetition and variety, with an emphasis on philanthropy, promoting knowledge creation.International entrepreneurship has been an important mechanism by which this knowledge isglobalized leading to increased economic growth. Conversely, Swedish universities werecharacterized by less commercialized R&D and weak links to the commercial sector, rootedtraditionally in dependence on tax-financed and homogenous university structure. TheSwedish model has begun to change with important implications for development in smallerdomestic markets. The analysis has important implications for knowledge creation as asource of economic growth through international entrepreneurship taking advantage ofglobalization, especially for smaller countries.

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    CESISWP34
  • 67.
    Acs, Zoltan J.
    et al.
    LSE, London, UK, George Mason University, Faifax, USA.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS). Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Philippe Aghion: recipient of the 2016 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research2017In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Professor Philippe Aghion is the 2016 recipient of the Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research, consisting of 100,000 Euros and a statuette designed by the internationally renowned Swedish sculptor Carl Milles. He is one of the most influential researchers worldwide in economics in the last couple of decades. His research has advanced our understanding of the relationship between firm-level innovation, entry and exit on the one hand, and productivity and growth on the other. Aghion has thus accomplished to bridge theoretical macroeconomic growth models with a more complete and consistent microeconomic setting. He is one of the founding fathers of the pioneering and original contribution referred to as Schumpeterian growth theory. Philippe Aghion has not only contributed with more sophisticated theoretical models, but also provided empirical evidence regarding the importance of entrepreneurial endeavours for societal prosperity, thereby initiating a more nuanced policy discussion concerning the interdependencies between entrepreneurship, competition, wealth and growth.

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    Fulltext
  • 68.
    Adam, Liljeroos
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Hjalmarsson, Gabriel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Valuation of Amenities in the Housing Market: A Hedonic Price Approach2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper intends to examine what fraction of house prices can be accredited to the distance between residential properties and proximity to parks, water and city centers. Although a large body of work on the subject of amenities and house prices using a hedonic model already exists, we wish to contribute with an in-depth analysis on these variables of focus. The empirical analysis uses a dataset concerning 8319 single family house purchases in the Swedish municipality of Jönköping, collected during the years 2000 to 2011. The main findings show that house prices are negatively effected as the distance increases to amenities and that by testing for land value as the dependent variable, we highlight the importance of geographical location while ignoring charac-teristics surrounding the house.

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  • 69.
    Adan, Abdifatah
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ibrahim Abdi, Mustafe
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Bonus-Malus system impact on the demand for eco-friendly vehicles2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming issues are a widespread problem around the world and the emissions of greenhouse gases is one of the main contributors. The transport sector emits a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions; thus, this contributes to global warming. To tackle this challenge the Swedish state introduced in July 2018 a system called bonus-malus system which aims to increase the proportion of eco-friendly cars and in the long run reducing greenhouse gases emissions from the transport sector. This paper examines the tax system within the Bonus-Malus system. Primarily investigating if Malus, tax system, impacted the demand for electric vehicles since it introduced. The study conducted based on a short panel data from Sweden´s 21 counties for the period 2016-2020 and the analysis method applied is a regression analysis. The results of this thesis confirm a strong positive relationship between the share of newly registered battery electric vehicles (BEV) and the Malus, but much weaker influence of the other studied variables. Suggesting that tax system induce on emission seem to be efficient at boost the demand for BEV 

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  • 70.
    Addison, Tony
    et al.
    WIDER/UNU.
    Levin, Jörgen
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Revenue mobilization in aid-dependent countries: current and future challengesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent financial crisis and other climate related shocks pose important challenges to fiscal policies in a number of developing countries. The best way for developing countries to respond to the tax challenges are essentially to broaden tax bases, reduce rates and improve tax administration. But equally important, the focus has also to be on economic policies that accelerate growth and expand the tax base. In many developing countries, poor public service delivery, financed with existing revenue, creates dissatisfied citizens which are unwilling to pay taxes. A legitimate and responsive state one that secures the rule of law and keeps corruption under control is important for better mobilisation of tax revenue. With regard to the mix of tax instruments trade taxes will continue to reduce its significance as an important source of revenue. This suggests that indirect taxes such as VAT and direct taxes will be of significant importance in the future. Many developing countries have very narrow tax bases, with large number of exemptions, often designed to protect the interests of powerful groups. In these circumstances broadening the base can have the advantages of raising revenue, improving economic efficiency and achieving greater redistribution. Over the long-term taxation can reduce developing countries’ dependence upon aid and increase its ownership of the development agenda and become accountable to its citizens. This would also reinforce the social contract between state, citizens and the private sector which was how efficient institutions evolved in the developed world.

  • 71.
    Addison, Tony
    et al.
    WIDER/UNU.
    Levin, Jörgen
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    The determinants of tax revenue in sub-Saharan AfricaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
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    The Determinants of Tax Revenue in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • 72. Ade, Florian
    et al.
    Freier, Ronny
    Odendahl, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Incumbency effects in government and opposition: Evidence from Germany2014In: European Journal of Political Economy, ISSN 0176-2680, E-ISSN 1873-5703, Vol. 36, p. 117-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do district incumbents in an election have an advantage, and if so, do these advantages depend on which party is in government? We estimate the incumbency effect for the direct district candidates in German federal and state elections using a regression discontinuity design (RDD). When studying the heterogeneity in these effects, we find that incumbents from both large parties, the center-right CDU and the center-left SPD, have an advantage only if the SPD is in government. This effect is robust and shows even in state elections that are unrelated to federal elections.

  • 73.
    Adeli, Kamran
    et al.
    University of Mazandaran.
    Yachkaschi, Ali
    University of Gottingen.
    Mohammadi Limaei, Soleiman
    University of Guilan.
    Fallah, Asghar
    Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University.
    A Study of the Condition of Timber Production in Iran and the Expected Production Rate in the Next Decade2012In: Journal of Sustainable Development, ISSN 1913-9063, E-ISSN 1913-9071, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 144-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In countries with industrial forests, the first resource for providing domestic timber is their productive forests. Iran, a country that holds a few timber forests in the north, has implemented deterministic programming in the past few decades. Knowing the process of timber production in these forests and also the condition of these products that are affected by the above mentioned programming is very crucial. Therefore, the present study focuses on the timber production of Iran’s northern forests in a 33-year period (from 1978 to 2010), using simple regression analysis and time series. The results of square regression analysis revealed that this process has a significant relationship with the years under study and shows inconsistent changes. Furthermore, the overall inflation in domestic market of Iran has the highest effect on the deterministic programming of its northern forests. To predict timber production in Iran Auto-regressive moving average process 1-2 was employed, verifying the fact that the production rate will decline to about 740 thousand cubic meters. If current trends and decline in timber production continue, Iran would become increasingly dependent on imported timber. To avoid such dependence, or at least reduce it, it is necessary to change the present programming system from deterministic to dynamic, taking into account the internal and external risks in timber market such as inflation and average timber price.

  • 74.
    Adem Nur, Bellal
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Huskanovic, Jasmin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aktiv eller passiv, vilken förvaltningsstrategi har presterat bäst under coronapandemin?: - En komparativ studie baserad på svenska fonder2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines whether active or passive fund management has performed better during the corona pandemic in the Swedish fund market. With the help of Refinitiv Eikon and Morningstar, we have collected relevant weekly data for 20 actively managed funds and 12 passively managed funds between 2020-03-06 and 2022-02-11. After careful calculation of the various performance measures in Microsoft Excel, we can state that the passive management has performed better during the corona pandemic, but this result is not a guarantee for future fund choices during future crises or economic shocks.

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  • 75.
    Adem Nur, Bellal
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Huskanovic, Jasmin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Discrimination against foreign named students: a study based on a Swedish University2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate how anonymous exams impact the grades for foreign-named students and if there are differences in this treatment effect against them when considering the gender of the graders. By obtaining data from Stockholm University, we used a difference-in-difference model to estimate our results. Our results show that there was no negative treatment effect against foreign-named students when considering their test scores prior and after the reform of writing exams anonymously. The results are interpreted through the fact that foreign-named students received even lower test scores after the reform, meaning that the foreign-named students did not gain from the reform. Moreover it can be said that these results can be related to “reverse-bias”, which indicates that the grader is more lenient towards foreign-named students.

    Further, when estimating the relationship between the gender of the teacher and the treatment effect, our results showed evidence of female graders treating foreign-named students more negatively compared to male graders. This, due to the results which implied that male graders showed a strong positive treatment effect against foreign-named students, but hence a negative treatment against Swedish named students. Moreover the female graders showed a positive treatment effect against Swedish-named students and the contrary against foreign-named students.

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    Discrimination against foreign named students
  • 76.
    Adenfelt, Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Rågfälts Jenning, Siri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Inkomstskillnader och löneandel: en kritisk analys av tidigare forskning, med fokus på mätproblem och definitioner2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats tittar vi på löneandelens och inkomstskillnadernas utveckling i Sverige sedan 1970-talet. Faktorer som förklarar ökade inkomstskillnader och minskad löneandel i Sverige ligger till grund för analysen. Fokus ligger även på de mätproblem som präglar löneandelen. Syftet med uppsatsen är att ge en översikt över den aktuella diskursen som råder kring inkomstskillnader och löneandelen i Sverige. Vi undersöker om det finns några samband mellan förklaringsfaktorerna till ökade inkomstskillnader och minskad löneandel i Sveriges utveckling och varför måtten är problematiska som forskningsämne. I vår slutsats finner vi det svårare att mäta löneandelen än inkomstfördelningen pga. definitionsproblem. Vi finner en koppling mellan den svenska inkomstfördelningen och löneandelen när det gäller ökade kapitalinkomster. Det går inte att säga hur mycket faktorerna påverkat löneandelen och inkomstfördelning eftersom det saknas tillförlitliga simuleringsmodeller.

  • 77. Adenfelt, Oskar
    et al.
    Çelikaksoy, Aycan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    ”Vi har tre förslag på hur ensamkommande flickors etablering i samhället kan stärkas”2018In: Sydsvenskan, ISSN 1652-814XArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 78.
    Adermon, Adrian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Essays on the Transmission of Human Capital and the Impact of Technological Change2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Essay 1: If grandparents have an independent impact on their grandchildren's schooling, intergenerational correlations estimated using two generations will underestimate the true level of intergenerational persistence in education. Recent research has found such multi-generational effects, but there is still no consensus on whether these estimates are due to a direct impact of grandparents on their grandchildren, or if they arise because of measurement error or model misspecification. In this paper, I estimate the intergenerational transmission arising from direct interactions with grandparents by comparing families where the grandparent died before the birth of the grandchild with those where the grandparent lived to meet and spend time with the grandchild. I find that direct effects contribute most, if not all, of the transmission coefficient across three generations.

    Essay 2: Sibling correlations in education and income have been extensively studied in the literature, and attempts to look inside the correlation have focused on family and neighborhood effects. In this paper I estimate sibling spillovers in education—that is, the effect of an older sibling's schooling on their younger sibling's schooling. To estimate causal effects, I use a compulsory school reform in Sweden in the 1950s to instrument for the older sibling's schooling. I am unable to detect statistically significant sibling spillovers, implying that any such spillovers must be relatively small.

    Essay 3: (with Che-Yuan Liang) The implementation of a copyright protection reform in Sweden in April 2009 suddenly increased the risk of being caught and prosecuted for illegal file sharing. This paper uses the reform to investigate the effects of illegal file sharing on music and movie sales. We find that the reform decreased Internet traffic by 16 percent during the subsequent six months. It also increased music sales by 36 percent. Furthermore, it had no significant effects on movie sales. We conclude that pirated music is a strong substitute to legal music whereas the substitutability is less for movies.

    Essay 4: (with Magnus Gustavsson) This paper shows that between 1975 and 2005, Sweden exhibited a pattern of job polarization with expansions of the highest and lowest paid jobs compared to middle-wage jobs. The most popular explanation for such a pattern is the hypothesis of "task-biased technological change", where technological progress reduces the demand for routine middle-wage jobs but increases the demand for non-routine jobs located at the tails of the job-wage distribution. Our estimates, however, do not endorse this explanation for the 1970s and 1980s. Stronger evidence for task biased technological change, albeit not conclusive, is found for the 1990s and 2000s. In particular, there is both a statistically and economically significant growth of non-routine jobs and a decline of routine jobs. No link between wage changes and routine tasks, as would be expected from task-biased technological change, can however be established.

  • 79.
    Adermon, Adrian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Har illegal fildelning orsakat minskad skivförsäljning i Sverige?: En empirisk studie2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats genomförs en empirisk analys av den svenska skivmarknaden och den nedgång i skivförsäljningen som skett under senare år. Fokus ligger på att undersöka om nedgången orsakats av illegal fildelning, eller om andra faktorer kan ligga bakom. Analysen sker genom en genomgång av relevanta aggregerade data för skivförsäljning, videoförsäljning, internetanvändande m.m. En enkel ekonometrisk analys görs också, och sammantaget visar resultaten att den växande konkurrensen från DVD-film troligen är en viktig orsak till den minskade skivförsäljningen. Inga tydliga bevis för att fildelningen haft en signifikant påverkan hittas. Brist på detaljdata gör dock att alla slutsatser måste tolkas försiktigt.

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  • 80.
    Adermon, Adrian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Ek, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Graetz, Georg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Yakymovych, Yaroslav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Understanding occupational wage growthManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a new identification strategy, we jointly estimate the growth in occupationalwage premia as well as time-varying occupation-specific life-cycle profiles for Swedishworkers 1996–2013. We document a substantial increase in between-occupation wageinequality due to differential growth in premia. The association of wage premiumgrowth and employment growth is positive, suggesting that premium growth ispredominantly driven by demand side factors. We also find that wage growth dueto occupation-specific skill acquisition was more dispersed in the early years of thesample period. Our results are robust to allowing for occupation-level changes inreturns to cognitive and psycho-social skills.

  • 81.
    Adermon, Adrian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Gustavsson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Job Polarization and Task-Biased Technological Change: Evidence from Sweden, 1975–20052015In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 117, no 3, p. 878-917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows that between 1975 and 2005, Sweden exhibited a pattern of job polarization with expansions of the highest and lowest paid jobs compared to middle-wage jobs. The most popular explanation for such a pattern is the hypothesis of ‘task-biased technological change’, where technological progress reduces the demand for routine middle-wage jobs but increases the demand for non-routine jobs located at the tails of the job-wage distribution. Our estimates, however, do not support this explanation for the 1970s and 1980s. Stronger evidence for task biased technological change, albeit not conclusive, is found for the 1990s and 2000s. In particular, there is both a statistically and economically significant growth of non-routine jobs and a decline of routine jobs. Results for wages are, however, mixed; while task-biased technological change cannot explain changes in between-occupation wage differentials, it does have considerable explanatory power for changes in within-occupation wage differentials.

  • 82.
    Adermon, Adrian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Gustavsson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Job Polarization and Task-Biased Technological Change: Sweden, 1975–20052011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the connection between the Swedish wage profile of net job creation and Autor, Levy, and Murnane’s (2003) proposed substitutability between routine tasks and technology. We first show that between 1975 and 2005, Sweden exhibited a pattern of job polarization with expansions of the highest and lowest paid jobs compared to middle-wage jobs. We then use cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of job-specific employment to map out the importance of routine versus nonroutine tasks for these changes. Results are consistent with substitutability between routine tasks and technology as an important explanation for the observed job polarization during the 1990s and 2000s, but not during the 1970s and 1980s. In particular, the overrepresentation of routine tasks in middle-wage jobs can potentially explain 44 percent of the growth of low-wage jobs relative to middle-wage jobs after 1990 but largely lacks explanatory power in earlier years.

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  • 83.
    Adermon, Adrian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU).
    Hensvik, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Gig-jobs: Stepping stones or dead ends?2022In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 76, article id 102171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How useful is work experience from the gig economy for labor market entrants searching for traditional wage jobs? We conducted a correspondence study in Sweden, comparing callback rates for recent high school graduates with (i) gig-experience, (ii) traditional experience, and (iii) unemployment history. We also study heterogeneous responses with respect to perceived foreign background. Our findings suggest that gig-experience is more valuable than unemployment, but less useful than traditional experience for majority applicants. Strikingly however, no form of labor market experience increases the callback rate for minority workers.

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  • 84.
    Adermon, Adrian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Liang, Che-Yuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Fildelning och musikförsäljning: effekten av piratjägarlagen IPRED2015In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 29-39Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Adermon, Adrian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Liang, Che-Yuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Piracy and Music Sales: The Effects of An Anti-Piracy Law2014In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 105, p. 90-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of a copyright protection reform in Sweden in April 2009 suddenly increased the risk of being caught and punished for illegal file sharing. This paper investigates the impact of the reform on illegal file sharing and music sales using a difference-in-differences approach with Norway and Finland as control groups. We find that the reform decreased Internet traffic by 16% and increased music sales by 36% during the first six months. Pirated music therefore seems to be a strong substitute to legal music. However, the reform effects disappeared almost completely after six months, likely because of the weak enforcement of the law.

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    fulltext
  • 86.
    Adermon, Adrian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Liang, Che-Yuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Piracy, Music, and Movies: A Natural Experiment2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the effects of illegal file sharing (piracy) on music and movie sales. The Swedish implementation of the European Union directive IPRED on April 1, 2009 suddenly increased the risk of being caught and prosecuted for file sharing. We investigate the subsequent drop in piracy as approximated by the drop in Swedish Internet traffic and the effects on music and movie sales in Sweden. We find that the reform decreased Internet traffic by 18 percent during the subsequent six months. It also increased sales of physical music by 27 percent and digital music by 48 percent. Furthermore, it had no significant effects on the sales of theater tickets or DVD movies. The results indicate that pirated music is a strong substitute for legal music whereas the substitutability is less for movies.

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  • 87.
    Adermon, Adrian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS).
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS). Univ Gothenburg, Dept Econ, Gothenburg, Sweden; CESifo, Munich, Germany; IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Palme, Mårten
    CESifo, Munich, Germany; IZA, Bonn, Germany; Stockholm Univ, Dept Econ, Stockholm, Sweden; IFS, London, England.
    Dynastic Human Capital, Inequality, and Intergenerational Mobility2021In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 111, no 5, p. 1523-1548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate long-run intergenerational persistence in human capital using information on outcomes for the extended family: the dynasty. A dataset including the entire Swedish population, linking four generations, allows us to identify parents' siblings and cousins, their spouses, and spouses' siblings. Using various human capital measures, we show that traditional parent-child estimates underestimate long-run intergenerational persistence by at least one-third. By adding outcomes for more distant ancestors, we show that almost all of the persistence is captured by the parental generation. Data on adoptees show that at least one-third of -long-term persistence is attributed to environmental factors.

  • 88.
    Adermon, Adrian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU).
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU).
    Waldenström, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Intergenerational Wealth Mobility and the Role of Inheritance: Evidence from Multiple Generations2018In: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 128, no 612, p. F482-F513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study estimates intergenerational wealth correlations across up to four generations and examines the degree to which the wealth association between parents and children can be explained by inheritances. Using a Swedish data set with newly hand-collected data on wealth and bequests, we find parent-child rank correlations of 0.3-0.4 and grandparent-grandchild rank correlations of 0.1-0.2. Bequests and gifts appear to be central in this process, accounting for at least half of the parent-child wealth correlation while earnings and education can account for only a quarter.

  • 89. Adetula, Victor
    et al.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Laakso, Liisa
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Levin, Jörgen
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    The legacy of Pan-Africanism in African integration today2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pan-Africanism was a vital force in the decolonisation and liberation struggles of the African continent. Today, some regional integration initiatives are part of the legacy of Pan-Africanism. Nevertheless, a retreat in Pan-Africanist consciousness justifies the on-going reform of the African Union and other related platforms for African regional integration, peace and development.

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  • 90.
    Adewumi, Sarumi
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    The Impact of FDI on Growth in Developing Countries: An African Experience2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper examines the contribution of foreign direct investment to economic growth in Africa using graphical and regression analysis. Data for the entire continent and data for eleven countries within the continent were used for the empirical analysis. The time series data is from 1970-2003. It was discovered that the contribution of FDI to growth is estimated to be positive in most of the countries but not significant.

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  • 91.
    Adey, E.A.
    et al.
    University of Exeter.
    Shail, R.K.
    University of Exeter.
    Wall, F.
    University of Exeter.
    Varul, M.
    University of Exeter.
    Whitbread-Abrutat, P.
    Eden Project.
    Baciu, C.
    University of Babes-Bolyai.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lovric, I.
    University of Mostar.
    Udachin, V.
    Institute of Mineralogy.
    Corporate social responsibility within the mining industry: case studies from across Europe and Russia2011In: Proceedings of the Aachen International Mining Symposia (AIMS): 5th International Conference – Sustainable Development in the Minerals Industry (SDIMI 2011), Aachen, 14-17 June 2011, Aachen: Aachen University , 2011, p. 153-170Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responsible mining requires a company to engage with local communities throughout all stages of their operations, from exploration phases through to post mining planning. Assessment of current and potential future social impacts allows a company to maximize the positive impacts they can have on a community, whilst minimizing negative social impacts from mining. Initiating and upholding effective stakeholder relations are key to a company`s ability to obtain and maintain their "social license" to operate. The level of interaction between mining companies and stakeholders, including local communities, varies substantially between and within countries. As part of the EU funded Framework 7 "ImpactMin" Project (Impact Monitoring of Mineral Resources Exploitation), we have examined the level of community engagement in mining and related processing industries at sites across Europe, including Romania (Rosia Montana), Sweden (Kristineberg), the UK (Cornwall), Bosnia Herzegovina (Vihovici) and Russia (Karabash, Gay and Mednogorsk). These sites reflect different stages in mining and therefore reveal a diverse range of issues and differing levels of community engagement. Our aim has been to focus not only on how practice varies, but also to try to explain the complex reasons behind the relationships that exist between mining companies and different stakeholders. Findings of questionnaires undertaken across the sites (between June - October 2010), and results of interviews and focus groups of different people linked to the mining industry, will also be discussed. The expectations that "mining" communities have of their local mining company vary substantially, directly relating to what the community believes the mine company owes them. These examples highlight that the notion of corporate social responsibility in the mining sector in Europe and Russia is fluid and changes according to the differing expectations and goals of stakeholders. We will present highlights of initial results. For example, Rosia Montana Gold Corporation, in Romania, is trying to reopen closed state gold mines. They have seen international media attention relating to campaigns by NGOs to oppose the mines reopening. Our results will help reveal what samples of different stakeholder groups really think of the mines reopening. This example contrasts distinctly with a mine in Kristineberg, Sweden, where Kristineberg village was built alongside the mine. There are now distinct issues felt within the community due to the decline in the number of people employed at the mine.

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  • 92.
    Adinugrahan, Sapto
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Ridwan, Mochamad
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Efficiency of Foreign Debt Portfolio Management in Emerging Economies2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fluctuation of exchange rate has affected the increasing burden of foreign debt payment in emerging economies. This issue has negatively influenced the economic growth. It has been a severe obstacle considering that governments have to issue public debt denominated in foreign currency to finance the budget deficit. Hence, there is an urgent necessity to implement an efficient public debt management to minimize the exchange rate exposure. This thesis analyses how efficient the foreign debt portfolio management is in the 14 emerging economies under examination in the period of 1990-2013. Panel Dynamic Fixed-effect Estimator and Granger Causality approach are applied to analyze how responsive the currency composition of foreign debt portfolio to the exchange rates movement. The thesis examines the four biggest foreign debt shares that are denominated in US dollar, Euro, British pound, and Japanese yen, and the related exchange rates movement in the economies under consideration. The observation concludes that the foreign debt portfolio management in these emerging economies is not efficient or not optimal. The evidences prove that changes in the exchange rates of Euro, British pound, and Japanese yen relative to US dollar Granger cause changes in respected debt shares. It means that there is no substitution effects from the appreciation of the currencies vis-à-vis the US dollar during the year of observation.

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    Efficiency of Foreign Debt Portfolio Management in Emerging Economies
  • 93.
    Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Scocco, Sandra
    Regional labour market effects of immigration on low-skilled workers: the case of Sweden 1990–20032021In: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 456-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of immigration on the labour market outcomes of low-educated natives (i.e. residents without a university diploma). Using the labour market competition theory, which argues that the labour market effects of natives depend on the skill set of immigrants, the paper addresses whether immigrants are complementary to or substitutes for native workers.

    Design/methodology/approach: Longitudinal matched employer–employee data on Sweden are used to estimate how low-educated natives, in regions experiencing the greatest influx of refugees from the Balkan wars, responded to this supply shock with regard to real wages, employment and job mobility between 1990 and 2003.

    Findings: First, the analysis shows that low-educated native workers respond to the arrival of immigrants with an increase in real wages. Second, although employment prospects in general worsened for low-skilled workers in most regions, this is not attributable to the regions experiencing the largest supply shock. Third, there are indications that low-skilled natives in immigration-rich regions are more likely to change workplace, particularly in combination with moving upwards in the wage distribution.

    Originality/value: Rather than seeing an emergence of the commonly perceived displacement mechanism when an economy is subject to a supply shock, the regional findings suggest that high inflows of immigrants tend to induce a mechanism that pulls native workers upwards in the wage distribution. This is important, as the proportion of immigrants is seldom evenly distributed within a nation.

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  • 94.
    Adjei, Evans Korang
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Department of Economics and Centre for Regional Science (CERUM) Umeå University.
    The effects of a large industrial investment on employment in a remote and sparsely populated area using a synthetic control approach2023In: Regional Science Policy & Practice, E-ISSN 1757-7802, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 1553-1576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the impact of establishing a large industrial manufacturing entity on employment and the labor market in a remote, sparsely populated part of Sweden, focusing on how it affects total regional employment because industrial policies aiming to attract investment and reignite employment in stagnating regions have been a central policy tool. The empirical analysis is based on the synthetic control method, which enables the estimation of place-specific causal effects. Using aggregated microdata from 1995 to 2019, the results indicate that employment in the treated region, as compared to synthetic regions, has been negatively affected by the manufacturing establishment. However, the short- and long-term effects differ across different labor market segments (same, related, and unrelated industries) and according to firm size. Overall, the findings suggest that large manufacturing investment does not necessarily have a positive or instantaneous impact on total regional employment. It does, however, provide some potential for long-term diversification because employment in related activities grows in the long run.

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  • 95.
    Adler Westin, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Abnormal returns of credit rating announcements2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies abnormal returns of credit rating changes. The purpose is to examine whether downgrades and upgrades lead to abnormal stock market returns. German data is used from the time period 1998-2018. This thesis examines ratings from all large credit rating agencies. These are Standard and Poor’s, Moody’s and Fitch. There is a total of 362 company rating changes during this period. After sorting the data, the remaining changes to be studied are 143 downgrades and 93 upgrades. An event study approach is used to examine changes during the whole period, combined with a comparison before and after the financial crisis in 2008. The comparison is interesting due to the criticism towards credit rating agencies before and during the crisis. Downgrades do not show any significant abnormal returns. Upgrades show positive (negative) abnormal return 15 days before (after) the announcement. One potential explanation is that upgrades might already be anticipated by the market participants and subsequently followed with an effect of overreaction. There is no significant change close to the event date. The comparison between before and after the crisis does lack significance to prove differences.

  • 96.
    Adler Westin, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Den svenska spelregleringen: -Finns det incitament till en omreglering?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The gambling regulation in Sweden is a controversial topic. The thesis compares the Swedish gambling regulation with current regulation in Britain and Denmark. Cost-benefit analysis is used to analyze the various differences between the regulations. Primarily information is used from surveys, interviews and legal texts to explain the existing problems related to the gambling market. This thesis compares the conditions in the different countries and differences in various gambling types. The thesis also sets out the conditions for the private companies and differences in socio-economic benefits. The conclusion is that the present regulation is not as economically efficient as the comparison countries’ gambling regulations.

  • 97.
    Adlersson, Albert
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lindén, Gustav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Att pendla eller inte pendla, det är frågan: Minskar införandet av det svenska jobbskatteavdraget år 2007 nettopendlingen från Sverige till Danmark?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen undersöker jobbskatteavdragets effekt på pendlingen från Sverige till Danmark. Detta görs genom att mäta nettopendlingen året innan samt efter reformens införande år 2007. Nettopendlingen för en kommun ges av skillnaden mellan antalet som pendlar ut från kommunen och antalet som pendlar till en kommunen. Vi är endast intresserade av pendling mellan länderna så vi tittar därmed inte på inrikes pendling. Efter detta steg så summerar vi nettopendlingen för kommunens alla pendlingsvägar till det motsatta landet till ett enda tal som då mäter nettopendlingen från en kommun till det andra landet. Uppsatsens hypotes är att nettopendlingen från Sverige till Danmark år 2007 skulle minska, relativt från Sverige till Danmark år 2006. Uppsatsens frågeställning är; Minskar införandet av det svenska jobbskatteavdraget år 2007 nettopendlingen från Sverige till Danmark? Jobbskatteavdraget är en skattereduktion som enligt teorin ska öka arbetsutbudet genom att minska reservationslönen. Nettopendling från Sverige till Danmark ska enligt teorin minska, och nettopendlingen Danmark till Sverige istället öka, om reservationslönen i Sverige går ned. Om vi observerar en minskning i nettopendlingen från Sverige till Danmark så indikerar det således även att en minskning i reservationslönen skett i Sverige. Detta indikerar möjligtvis en ökning i arbetsutbudet, allt annat lika. Resultatet gick emot hypotesen och visade istället en ökning i nettopendling för Sverige år 2007. Uppsatsens placeboestimat blev dock signifikant så vi kan inte urskilja om uppsatsens empiriska modell verkligen fångat upp effekten av jobbskatteavdraget eller inte.

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  • 98.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Abandoning intolerance in a tolerant society: the influence of length of residence on the recognition of political rights among immigrants2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and empirically evaluates the idea that individual level political tolerance is influenced by the overall tolerance in society. Hence, the expectation is that more politically tolerant attitudes would be developed as a consequence of exposure to a social environment in which people in general are more inclined to accept freedom of speech, also when the message (or the messenger as such) challenges one’s own values and beliefs. The theoretical base of the analyses is a learning model, according to which more broad-minded and permissive attitudes, from a democratic point of view, are adopted as a result of (1) an adjustment stimulated by mere observation of an overall high-level of political tolerance in society (‘passive learning’), and (2) an adjustment due to cognition and interaction within important spheres in society (‘active learning’). Using surveydata, we explore empirically how length of residence among immigrants in high-tolerance Sweden are related to attitudinal measures of political tolerance, and to what extent a time-related effect is mediated through participation in ‘learning institutions’ of education, working-life, civil society and political involvement. In concert with expectations, the empirical findings suggest that an observed positive effect of time in Sweden on political tolerance may be explained by a gradual adoption of the principle that political rights should be recognized. Such an adoption, however, seems to require participation in activities of learning institutions, as we find that passive learning alone is not sufficient.

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  • 99.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Can’t, won’t, or no one to ask?: Explaining why more recently arrived immigrants know less about Swedish politics2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigrants in Western countries in general participate less in politics, and show lower levels of political efficacy, than native-born citizens. Research is scarce when it comes to immigrants’ knowledge about politics and public affairs in their new home country, and about what happens with this knowledge over the years. This paper focuses on immigrants in Sweden, a country known for ambitious multicultural policies, but where immigrants also face disadvantages in areas such as labor and housing markets. Utilizing particularly suitable survey data we find that immigrants in general know less about Swedish politics than natives, but also that this difference disappears with time. Exploring the positive influence of length of residence on political knowledge, the paper shows that the positive effect of time in Sweden among immigrants remains after controlling for an extensive set of background factors. Moreover, the paper examines this political learning effect through the lens of an Ability– Motivation–Opportunity (AMO) model. The findings suggest that the development of an actual ability to learn about Swedish politics—via education in Sweden, and by improved Swedish language skills—is an especially important explanation for the increase in political knowledge.

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  • 100.
    Adnot, Thibault
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Project Management within start-ups: Literary review and case studies in Stockholm, Sweden2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the way start-ups use Project Management, what their needs in this field are, and what tools they use to support it. In the first part of this paper, a comprehensive literature review is performed, divided into three main parts. First, Project Management in general is studied; second its benefits to SMEs are pinpointed; and finally its application to startups are reviewed. The second part of this paper is based on three case studies of start-ups in the Stockholm-region. Five representatives of these start-ups were interviewed, and the results of these face-to-face conversations are first exposed and then discussed by the author.

    In the end, this paper shows the traditional phase-based approach to Project Management does not suit start-ups. Instead, a more agile and iterative method is put forward, such as SCRUM. It is argued that such strategy should be kept by start-ups when growing and tapping other markets outside Sweden, although it is recognized that Project Management should become more formal than the general “on the go” approach witnessed in the three start-ups.

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