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  • 51.
    Alwin, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eckard, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fixartjänster i Sveriges kommuner: Kartläggning och samhällsekonomisk analys. Regeringsuppdrag2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with so called minor home help services. These services are primarily meant for older persons with the aim to prevent injuries caused by falling in domestic environments (ones home). The minor home help services are mostly provided by the municipalities in Sweden, although it is not mandatory to provide these services. The extent of the provision and use of minor home help services has previously not been studied on a national level. The aim of this study was to delineate the minor home help services run by the municipalities in Sweden and further to examine and estimate the societal costs and consequences of providing these services.

    Out of the 290 municipalities in Sweden, 191 (66 %) offer minor home help services to their citizens. The tasks carried out are primarily aimed at preventing falls from furniture such as step stools or ladders, removing items that may cause falls (cords, carpets etc.) and providing an overhaul of injury risks in the home. A few municipalities also offer outdoor services such as removing snow in wintertime. In the majority of the municipalities (58 %) the services are offered free of charge but the user has to pay for the materials, in 32 % the services are completely free of charge and in 9 % of the municipalities an amount is charged for the services. The minor home help services are organized in various ways in the municipalities: the services can be completely run by the municipality where the services are carried out by one or several employed persons, by persons with disabilities (involved in daily activity programmes in the municipality) or by persons involved in work programmes; or the minor home help services can be carried out by the community rescue service or companies paid by the municipality to offer these services to the citizens. There are also organizations with volunteers that carry out minor home help services, these are however not included in the main results since the focus in this report is on municipal minor home help services. Ninety nine municipalities do not offer minor home help services to their citizens. Reasons for this are e.g. economic restraints and low demand.

    Experienced gains with minor home help services from the perspectives of the municipalities are prevention of falls, facilitation of the possibility to remain living in one’s own home, contribution to social wellbeing and being able to offer meaningful work tasks for persons in work programmes or persons with disabilities. Problems that have been brought forward are low demand of the services, problems with providing the target group with information and difficulties to measure the effect on fall injuries.

    A socioeconomic model was constructed for the analysis of costs and consequences of fall injuries. The model includes the large cost items as well as outcomes such as mortality and loss of quality of life when affected by a fall injury. The total direct costs in Sweden for fall injuries has previously been calculated to approximately 5 billion SEK, which includes only the direct costs during the first year of the injury. A calculation exercise was performed and applied to a hypothetical municipality with 50 000 inhabitants. This calculation exercise shows that if only a small amount of falls that lead to serious injuries (fractures) can be prevented by minor home help services, then the costs saved are approximately equivalent to the mean budget of minor home help services with one employed person. Calculations using real data including both costs and effects need to be performed.

  • 52.
    Amer, Ahmed
    et al.
    University Health Care Research Center, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kakooza-Mwesige, A.
    Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda; Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jarl, Gustav
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. University Health Care Research Center, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Tumwine, J. K.
    Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.
    Forssberg, H.
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, A.-C.
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Liselotte
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    The Ugandan version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI-UG). Part II: Psychometric properties2018In: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) has been recommended as a gold standard in paediatric rehabilitation. A Ugandan version of PEDI (PEDI-UG) has been developed by culturally adapting and translating the original PEDI. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the PEDI-UG in Ugandan children by testing the instrument's rating scale functioning, internal structure, and test-retest reliability.

    Methods: Two hundred forty-nine Ugandan children (125 girls) aged 6 months to 7.5 years (Mean = 3.4, SD = 1.9) with typical development were tested using the PEDI-UG. Forty-nine children were tested twice to assess test-retest reliability. Validity was investigated by Rasch analysis and reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient.

    Results: The PEDI-UG domains showed good unidimensionality based on principal component analysis of residuals. Most activities (95%) showed acceptable fit to the Rasch model. Six misfit items were deleted from the Functional Skills scales and one from the Caregiver Assistance scales. The category steps on the Caregiver Assistance scales' rating scale were reversed but functioned well when changed from a 6-point to 4-point rating scale. The reliability was excellent; intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.87-0.92 for the domains of the Functional Skills scales and 0.86-0.88 for the domains of the Caregiver Assistance scales.

    Conclusion: The PEDI-UG has good to excellent psychometric properties and provides a valid measure of the functional performance of typically developing children from the age of 6 months to 7.5 years in Uganda. Further analysis of all items, including misfit and deleted items, in children with functional disability is recommended.

  • 53.
    Andersen, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ståhl, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Anderzen, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kristiansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjerstin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Positive experiences of a vocational rehabilitation intervention for individuals on long-term sick leave, the Dirigo project: a qualitative study2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The process of returning to work after long-term sick leave can sometimes be complex. Many factors, (e.g. cooperation between different authorities and the individual as well as individual factors such as health, emotional well-being and self-efficacy) may have an impact on an individuals ability to work. The aim of this study was to investigate clients experiences with an individually tailored vocational rehabilitation, the Dirigo project, and encounters with professionals working on it. The Dirigo project was based on collaboration between rehabilitation authorities, individually tailored interventions and a motivational interviewing approach. Methods: A descriptive qualitative design was used with data collected through interviews. Fourteen individuals on long-term sick leave took part in individual semi-structured interviews. The interviews were analysed using content analysis. Results: The analysis showed overall positive experience of methods and encounters with professionals in a vocational rehabilitation project. The positive experiences were based on four key factors: 1. Opportunities for receiving various dimensions of support. 2. Good overall treatment by the professionals. 3. Satisfaction with the working methods of the project, and 4. Opportunities for personal development. Conclusions: The main result showed that the clients had an overall positive experience of a vocational rehabilitation project and encounters with professionals who used motivational interviewing as a communication method. The overall positive experience indicated that their interactions with the different professionals may have affected their self-efficacy in general and in relation to transition to work. The knowledge is essential for the professionals working in the area of vocational rehabilitation. However, vocational rehabilitation interventions also need a societal approach to be able to offer clients opportunities for job training and real jobs.

  • 54.
    Andersson, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Terapeuter rapporterar om bildterapi i fallstudier2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of this study has been first to investigate whether common characteristics exist in the field of art therapy or not, and second to illustrate the way art therapists write reports about their sessions.

    Methods: A literature study was made. Ten case studies were selected and analysed.

    Results: The results of the study showed that the art therapists often went beyond the concepts of the traditional therapy room and of materials used in their sessions. The results also showed shortcomings in the way art therapists reported.

    Conclusion: Art therapists need to refine and develop their way of writing reports in order for these reports to become more scholarly. Both general studies and investigations of more depth are needed to confirm or falsify the results of this study.

  • 55.
    Andersson, Elinor
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vad är speciellt med handledare vid klinisk undervisningsavdelning (KUA)?-En kvalitativ studie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Supervising students in a clinical training ward (CTW) has been used for some 20 years. Studies show that interprofessional learning gives students an opportunity to get a comprehensive view of a particular patient’s health-care needs, as well as an increased and mutual understanding of their colleague’s position and knowledge. Only a few studies have focused on the supervisor’s view of his or her own role within the activity of the CTW. The purpose of the study was to describe the CTW supervisor and his or her own perception of her role as an interprofessional supervisor as well as to describe interprofessional learning on its own at the CTW. A qualitative method was used, and 19 interprofessional supervisors from and within occupational therapy, along with physicians, physiotherapists, and nurses, were interviewed.

    The texts were content-analysed. Three categories were identified: ‘the supervisor’, ‘the supervision’, and ‘the concept of CTW’. It turned out that the interprofessional supervisor has a genuine interest and commitment to supervise, to work pedagogically, to collaborate, and to work with students. The supervisors all used different strategies, and they worked with the team in focus, partly for the benefit of the students but also to show the team’s importance in relation to the patient’s health care situation. The CTW concept requires lots of time and dedication from the supervisor, but it is perceived as a good concept where students can develop interprofessional collaboration. The supervisor’s understanding and approach to student learning makes a huge difference in the process of supervision. Being an interprofessional supervisor requires a pedagogical knowledge and understanding of a group and of the group process. The student’s team knowledge influences the CTW, which affects the supervision. The concept of the CTW has a positive impact on the supervisors, and the interprofessional supervision is perceived to be stimulating and challenging.

  • 56.
    Andersson, Ingalena
    et al.
    Obesity Unit, M73, Huddinge University Hospital.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Swedish Dairy Association, Karolinska Institute.
    Rössner, Stephan
    Obesity Unit, M73, Huddinge University Hospital.
    Meal pattern and risk factor evaluation in one-year completers of a weight reduction program for obese men: The 'Gustaf' study2000In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 247, no 1, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate changes in meal patterns and in obesity related risk factors after 1 year of treatment in obese men. Design: Data from two 24-h dietary recalls, performed at base-line and after 1 year of treatment, were related to changes in medical risk factors. Setting: Academic obesity unit. Subjects: Sixty-three men, aged 44 (eight) years (mean [SD]) and Base- line Body Mass Index (BMI) 37.4 (4.6) kg m-2, who had completed 1 year of treatment. The men were subdivided by tertiles according to weight change: tertile I (n = 21), mean +0.3 kg, tertile II (n = 21), mean -5.8 kg and tertile III (n = 21), mean -14.2 kg. Main outcome measures: Weight loss, changes in meal patterns and in obesity related medical risk factors. Results: The reported mean energy intake decreased after treatment in tertiles II and III by 700 (1300) kcal (P < 0.05) and 700 (900) kcal (P = 0.001), respectively. In tertile III the energy-% from fat decreased (P < 0.05) with a reciprocal increase in energy-% from protein (P < 0.05). The frequency of snacks of a low nutritional quality decreased (P < 0.01) in tertile III together with an increase in energy-% from 'hot meals of good quality' (P < 0.05). Obesity related risk factors (anthropometry, blood pressure, serum lipid concentrations, blood glucose and plasma insulin) improved in a beneficial way only in tertile III. Conclusions: The weight loss in the successful tertile III men was to a great extent explained by fewer low quality snacks but more energy from high quality meals. These changes reflected the behaviour modification strategy recommended.

  • 57. Andersson, Kajsa
    et al.
    Bergvall, Ulrika
    Seniorers motivation till gruppträning: En kvantitativ studie om fysiska, psykiska och sociala motivationsfaktorer2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur vi tränar och hur vi motiveras till att träna är mycket individuellt. Vissa är lagindivider och trivs bäst i grupp där man kan hålla motivationen uppe emellan sig, andra är ensamvargar och tränar helst utan sällskap. Vad vi än väljer att göra är det viktigaste att vi rör på oss, detta även när vi når en högre ålder. Syftet med studien är att undersöka vilka motivationsfaktorer som är mest betydelsefulla för seniorer  till att delta i gruppträning. Vi utförde en kvantitativ undersökning på ett träningscenter där vår enkät innehöll frågor kring motivation av fysiska, psykiska och sociala faktorer samt vad som leder till att seniorer oftare deltar i gruppträning. Genom studien kunde vi konstatera att de psykiska faktorerna främst motiverar till deltagandet i gruppträning och att det är regelbunden träning som leder till hög motivation. Ett samband mellan ett tidigare fysiskt aktivt liv och hur mycket seniorer är aktiva idag kunde påvisas, därmed vikten av regelbunden träning. Vi vill med detta examensarbete öka förståelsen för hur viktigt det är för äldre att de tränar och behåller god kondition samt lyfta fram vad som kan öka seniorers motivation och vilja till att utföra fysisk aktivitet.

  • 58.
    Andersson, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Brannelid, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Kylda matlådor inom äldreomsorgen: En studie om kundernas upplevelse kring beställning, leverans och mat2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background"Food is more than just the amount of food you eat” read the headline on an article from Skåne magazine from January 2014. The article arose because of the criticism levelled against the refrigerated lunch boxes served in senior care. The lunch boxes that were send to the elderly people were not assessed for nutrient content so there could be a lack of nutrients in the boxes. There were also a lack of procedures and controls, to show how much of the food they ate. Not getting enough nutrients and energy can lead to complications such as impaired immune system and depression.

     

    Objective The purpose of the study was to find out how customers in senior care in a selected municipality in the middle of Sweden experienced ordering, delivery, and the food that the municipality distributed them.

     

    Method A questionnaire was designed in collaboration with the dietician at the selected municipality. During the spring of 2014 170 questionnaires were distributed. It was calculated median and mean some of the results were compared with previous studies conducted in the municipality.

     

    Results From the 170 questionnaires sent out 89 samples were returned. The study came to consist of 39 male and 49 women. The informants felt overall that the food tasted good and they were satisfied with the order, delivery and food. There was some differences between the genders, men were more satisfied then the women.

     

    Conclusion The study shows that the customers in the municipality overall were satisfied with the lunch boxes. No major changes had occurred since previous studies carried out in the municipality. This indicates that the food was of good standard. What we saw in the comments were that the costumers were complaining about the vegetables that are included in the lunch boxes.  We believe that these complaints need to be resolved by the municipality. We also believe that further studies should be conducted to get at deeper picture of the consumers food experience. 

  • 59.
    Andersson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jansson, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anhörigas upplevelser av att leva nära en person med depression: En systematisk litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Fler människor drabbas av depression, till följd av detta blir fler personer anhöriga till individer med depression. Anhöriga blir i olika utsträckning påverkade av detta, vilket vi vill undersöka med vår studie.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att belysa upplevelsen av att vara anhörig till en person med depression.

    Metod: Systematisk litteraturstudie utifrån 8 artiklar av kvalitativ samt kvantitativ ansats.

    Resultat: Studiens resultat visar på förändringar i upplevelse och vardag för anhöriga som lever nära en deprimerad. Studien utmynnade i följande kategorier Att inte förstå, Depressionens påverkan på den anhörige, Anhörigas upplevelse av kommunikation, Sätta sig själv i andra hand samt Ta på sig för mycket. Påverkan av relationer i olika aspekter upptäcktes. Att anhöriga ofta sätter sina egna behov åt sidan är ett utmärkande resultat för studien. Kommunikation upplevs som en stor del i förmågan att förstå den deprimerade och på så sätt uppleva en ökad känsla av sammanhang för den anhörige.

    Slutsats: Att vara anhörig till en deprimerad är utmanande på många områden, inte minst när det gäller svårigheten i att prioritera mellan sig själv och patienten. Vi anser efter studiens gång att mer forskning bör ske för att bistå med kunskap och underlätta anhörigas situation.

  • 60.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    Department of Systems Biology, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte.
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Chemosensory perception, symptoms and autonomic responses during chemical exposure in multiple chemical sensitivity2016In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a prevalent medically unexplained symptom characterized by symptom reactions to everyday chemical exposure below hygienic thresholds. The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of hyper-reactivity in MCS during whole-body exposure to low concentrations of the odorant n-butanol.

    Methods: We exposed 18 participants with MCS and 18 non-ill controls to a low concentration of the odorantn-butanol using an exposure chamber. The first 10 min constituted blank exposure, after which then-butanol concentration increased and reached a plateau at 11.5 mg/m3.

    Results: MCS participants, compared with controls, reported greater perceived odor intensities, more unpleasantness to the exposure and increasing symptoms over time. MCS participants also expressed higher pulse rate and lower pulse rate variability than controls did. No group differences were found for breathing rate or tonic electrodermal activity responses.

    Conclusions: We conclude that MCS sufferers differ from healthy controls in terms of autonomic responses, symptoms and chemosensory perception during chemical exposure.

  • 61.
    Andersson, Mikael
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Johansson, Josefine
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    "Where I come from cannot make me who I want to be”: A Minor Field Study in the townships of Cape Town2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The purpose of this thesis is to describe peer educators’ experiences from the training given to them by The Leadership South Programme. The aim is also to describe the participants’ perceived self-empowerment and perceptions about their own learning and experiences of being a peer educator. The study also aims to explore how peer educators share their skills with others.

    Methods: Grounded Theory is the method used for the research presented in this thesis. The data collection was done by open-ended questionnaires followed by qualitative interviews.

    Results: The results show that the peer educators who participated in our study show increased self-esteem and motivation. The training has also given them increased knowledge in communicating, listening and facilitating others. Furthermore peer educators experienced increased self-awareness and learned how to motivate and support their peers and share information.

  • 62.
    Andersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy, Uppsala University.
    Stridsman, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Rönmark, Eva
    National Institute for Working Life, Norrbottens Läns Landsting, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, The OLIN Unit, Umeå University, Karolinska Institutet, Lung and Allergy Research.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Norrbottens Läns Landsting, OLIN studies, Sunderby Hospital, Sunderby sjukhus, Luleå, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Medicine, Umeå University.
    Emtner, Margareta
    Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy, Uppsala University.
    Physical activity and fatigue in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A population based study2015In: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 109, no 8, p. 1048-1057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background In subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), symptoms of fatigue, concomitant heart disease and low physical activity levels are more frequently described than in subjects without COPD. However, there are no population-based studies addressing the relationship between physical activity, fatigue and heart disease in COPD. The aim was to compare physical activity levels among subjects with and without COPD in a population based study, and to evaluate if concomitant heart disease and fatigue was associated to physical activity. Methods In this, 470 subjects with COPD and 659 subjects without COPD (non-COPD) participated in examinations including structured interview and spirometry. A ratio of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/best of forced vital capacity (FVC) and vital capacity (VC) < 0.7 was used to define COPD. Physical activity was assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and fatigue with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Fatigue scale (FACIT-F). Results The prevalence of low physical activity was higher among subjects with FEV1 < 80% predicted compared to non-COPD subjects (22.4% vs. 14.6%, p=0.041). The factors most strongly associated with low physical activity in subjects with COPD were older age, OR 1.52, (95% CI 1.12 – 2.06), a history of heart disease, OR 2.11 (1.10 - 4.08), and clinically significant fatigue, OR 2.33 (1.31 - 4.13); while obesity was the only significant factor among non-COPD subjects, OR 2.26 (1.17 – 4.35). Conclusion Physical activity levels are reduced when lung function is decreased below 80% of predicted, and the factors associated with low physical activity are different among subject with and without COPD. We propose that the presence of fatigue and heart disease are useful to evaluate when identifying subjects for pulmonary rehabilitation.

  • 63.
    Andersson, P.
    et al.
    Kristianstad Univ, Dept Hlth & Soc, SE-29188 Kristianstad, Sweden..
    Hakeberg, M.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Odontol, Dept Behav & Community Dent, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Res Ctr, Publ Dent Serv, Vastra Gotaland, Sweden..
    Karlberg, G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Dept Hlth & Environm Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Östberg, A-L
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Res Ctr, Publ Dent Serv, Vastra Gotaland, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Dept Hlth & Environm Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Clinical correlates of oral impacts on daily performances2010In: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, E-ISSN 1601-5037, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 219-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between oral health measures and oral health-related quality of life as captured by OIDP (oral impacts on daily performances). Methods: The study was performed in three dental clinics in Sweden and included 204 patients, 43.8% men and 56.2% women (aged 20-86 years), consecutively recruited in connection with their routine dental examination. The patients were interviewed using the OIDP followed by a clinical examination. Four bite-wing radiographs were taken in two of the clinics (n = 154). A self-administered questionnaire provided information about socio-economic data. Results: Subjects 60 years had significantly more missing teeth, lesser maximal jaw opening, higher number of sites with alveolar bone loss and proportionally more filled teeth than younger individuals. Impacts related to the oral health that affected their daily life were reported in 39.7%. Multivariate logistic regressions analysis showed that missing teeth (>= 10) and a limited jaw opening (<40 mm) were significantly associated with having one or more impact as measured with the OIDP [odds ratio (OR) 6.50, 95% CI 1.48-28.43 and OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.03-7.96, respectively]. Conclusions: Individuals with diminished functional oral health status (missing teeth and limited jaw opening) had significantly more often one or more oral impacts on daily life than those with fewer than 10 missing teeth and a jaw opening >= 40 mm. The OIDP instrument may be valuable for use in routine dental check-ups in patients with related problems to determine possible oral impacts on daily life.

  • 64.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Kavakure, Jules
    Region Skåne.
    Lingström, Peter
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborg.
    The impact of oral health on daily performances and its association with clinical variables in a population in Zambia2017In: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, E-ISSN 1601-5037, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 128-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate oral impacts on daily performance and to relate these data to oral clinical variables.

    Material and methods: The study was performed at a dental clinic in Livingstone, Zambia, and included 78 subjects (mean age 28, range 15–48 years) consecutively recruited in connection witha dental care visit. Data were collected through a structured interview using the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP) index measuring oral health-related quality of life followed by a clinical examination.

    Results: Oral health affected one or more daily performances during the last 6 months for 61.5% of the subjects. ‘Difficulty of eating and enjoying food’ was the performance reported most frequently (42.3%), and ‘speaking and pronouncing clearly’ was least often reported (10.3%). DMFT was 3.8, 3.6 (mean  SD; range0–15). A majority of the individuals had periodontal pockets ≥4mm (mean 4.3, 2.6) (94.9%) and gingival bleeding on probing >20%(88.5%). Two or more decayed teeth were shown to be significantly associated (OR 4.6, CI 1.2–17.1) with one or more oral impacts on daily performances in a multivariate logistic regression analysis.

    Conclusions: This study shown that there is a significant association between decayed teeth and oral impacts on daily performances. More research is needed, however, for deeper understanding of oral health problems and their impacts on daily life in Zambia.

  • 65.
    Andersson, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitets betydelse för hälsan: Hur arbetar pedagoger inom årskurs 1-3 med detta?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet fokuserar på fysisk aktivitet och hälsa inom årskurs 1–3. Syftet är att belysa på vilka sätt pedagoger arbetar för att öka elevers förståelse kring fysisk aktivitets betydelse för hälsan och vilken påverkan detta har på eleverna. Urvalsgruppen är verksamma pedagoger. Undersökningen är en kvalitativ forskningsansats med semistrukturerade intervjuer som har kompletterats med ”critical incidents” observationer. Resultatet visar att pedagogerna ofta upprepar fysisk aktivitets betydelse för hälsan för att öka elevernas förståelse kring detta, genom samtal och fysiska aktivitets upplevelser. Kunskap om människokroppen anses även behövas. Slutsatser är att kroppsuppfattning - kunskap om människokroppen, förmåga att använda sin kropp och fysiska aktiviteter - är viktigt för barns förståelse om dess betydelse för hälsan. Studiens resultat ger idéer till pedagoger inom skolan om olika arbetssätt kring fysisk aktivitet för att skapa förståelse, främja hälsosamma vanor och bättre förutsättningar för lärande. Resultatet antyder att elevers totala skolprestationer förbättras av fysisk aktivitet.

  • 66.
    Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Egger, Amanda
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Kartläggning av sjukfrånvaro på en distributionscentral2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to identify patterns in the absence due to illness at a distribution center with higher absence due to illness compared to other companies in the same industry, and to investigate how managers work with routines for absence due to illness. To achieve the purpose, it has been divided into two research questions:

    1. Which patterns in absence due to illness can be found at a distribution center with higher sick leave compared to other companies in the same industry?

    2. How do managers work with routines regarding the absence due to illness at a distribution center with higher sick leave compared to other companies in the same industry?

    Method – Theories about sick leave, work environment, psychosocial health, motivation, organization and leadership were collected to fulfil the purpose of the study. A case study was carried out to collect empirical data on the basis of interviews and document studies which then were compared with the theory for further analysis.

    Findings – The study identifies patterns that were found after mapping the statistics of the absence due to illness on the case company. The result shows that women have higher absence due to illness than men, mostly younger women and older men. Permanent and temporary employees have more absence due to illness than workers on deputy posts and that employees who have worked one to three years have more absence due to illness than other groups. The mapping also shows that employees have the highest sick leave in the fall, on Mondays and only one day is most prevalent. There are clear routines regarding sick leave and rehabilitation at the case company. Improvements can be made with the documentation in the web-portal for sick leave, how the first day reporting sick should be done, and that a comprehensive action plan could be designed for managers to use. The study shows that the managers who are committed and have a higher focus on creating a good group dynamic through activities generally have lower absence due to illness. By creating a satisfying work environment where employees have the opportunity to participate, influence, take responsibility, develop and be seen and heard can therefore improve productivity, motivation and workplace health.

    Implications – A mapping of absence due to illness can improve the same work on other companies and create a greater understanding of why some groups have higher absence due to illness in the workplace than others. This case study also shows that the work environment, motivation and leadership are essential to encourage health in the workplace which can be applied on companies in several sectors.

    Limitations – Deviation may have occurred as a large amount of data during the study was processed. To do a mapping is considered generalizable but the result may differ between companies, therefore is the study not applicable in all contexts. The authors consider however that the study could be applied in general to other businesses as work environment and absence due to illness is an issue in all industries. 

  • 67.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Linjechefens samarbete med Human Resource, företagshälsovården och Försäkringskassan i rehabiliteringsarbetet: - En kvalitativ intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 68.
    Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Audiological Research Centre, Region Örebro County, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; The Swedish Institute for Disability Research (SIDR), Örebro, Sweden.
    CHARGE syndrome: a five case study of the syndrome characteristics and health care consumption during the first year in life2015In: Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, ISSN 0882-5963, E-ISSN 1532-8449, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 6-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CHARGE syndrome is characterized by impaired vision and hearing, as well as physical malformations. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of the malformations and the health care consumption during the first year, in a Swedish sample having CHARGE syndrome. Three of the five individuals fulfilled all the traditional criteria for a clinical diagnosis of CHARGE syndrome. All infants were hospitalized from 26 to 230. days, subjected to 10-34 different diagnostic procedures and prescribed 10-28 different medications during their first year. Coordinated and individually adapted care is urged, as these infants and their families are in of need multiple health care contacts.

  • 69.
    Andréen, Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Socialt välbefinnade hos barnmorskor inom förlossnings-/ BB-vård: En tvärsnittsstudie baserad på Job Related Social Well-being Scale2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 70.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Hasle, Peter
    Aalborg Universitet.
    How can the context affect what strategies are effective in improving the working environment in small companies?2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Hasle, Peter
    Aalborg Universitet.
    What kind of knowledge do small companies need to improve their working environment?2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Antzutkin, Oleg
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Wong, Alan
    Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK CV4 7AL.
    Dupree, Ray
    Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK CV4 7AL.
    Solid-state 17O, 13C and 15N NMR: from tackling structure of Alzheimer's Aβ fibrils to studies on anti-inflammatory drugs, Indomethacin-saccharin cocrystal2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Uttröttning - vad säger lagen?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Each year people are injured or killed in crashes caused by sleepy drivers. It is debatable whether the existing regulatory framework is clear enough to lead to punishment but also if it is clear enough for the drivers to know when it is inappropriate to drive. The aim of the project was to investigate the concept of "fatigue" with a focus on clarifying what is required for a driver who caused an accident where fatigue was a contributing factor, to be punished. In addition, the aim has been to define the term so that road users know when there may be a risk of fatigue and thus refrain from driving. An expert group with representatives from a police district, the national police, prosecutors, the Swedish Transport Administration, Swedish Transport Agency, clinicians / researchers in sleep medicine (Sahlgrenska University Hospital), VTI and Stress Research (SU) discussed pre-prepared questions at three occasions. The Swedish law stated that it is not legal to drive when you are fatigued. However, there is no clear definition of what is meant by fatigued. The conclusion was that the regulations that exist today are not enough to trap fatigued drivers or fatigued drivers that cause a crash, especially not if they are private drivers. The view is that as long as there is no trustable and objective way to measure either fatigue or performance, it is not possible to find a better solution than the regulations that exist today. A future change should be in the demands on the ability to objectively determine whether fatigue of the driver has been a contributing factor.

  • 74.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Thornthwaite, Sian
    STC Ltd., Derby, UK.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Is European school transport safe?: the need for a "door-to-door" perspective2011In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 75-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To identify and establish the number and aetiology behind children being killed or injured during school transport from a door-to-door perspective by using experience from Sweden and the UK.

    Methods Available crash data were analysed. Results In total, 361 children in Sweden during 1994–2001, i.e. 24% of the 1,515 identified children aged 6–16 who were injured or killed were identified in 256 school transport events. The predominant reason for being killed or injured when travelling on school transportation was when children were outside the bus (74%), either when passing the bus to cross the street, running in front of the bus (21%) or behind the bus (30%). Contrary to the general belief that children older than 12 are mature enough to handle traffic, more than 50% of the fatal injuries in Sweden affected children aged 13–16. Similar results were found in the UK. The afternoon school journeys, pedestrians after alighting from the bus, and those in situations that deviated from their normal routine were found to be particularly vulnerable.

    Conclusions The travel chain perspective/or door to door perspective offers a promising approach for understanding school transport risks and for identifying effective countermeasures; including around bus stops and on the way to/from the bus stop. Data collection needs to be revised to reflect this approach.

  • 75.
    Areda, Martha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    The role of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of schizophrenia through modification of membrane phospholipids2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the emergence of the hypothesis that linked the aetiology of schizophrenia with abnormal membrane phospholipids composition, an increasing number of evidences have suggested reduced membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with schizophrenia. This has led to a conduct of several studies to evaluate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplement in the modification of membrane phospholipids and treatment of schizophrenia. The two main omega-3 fatty acid classes, EPA and DHA, play a vital role in membranes. This project work reviews omega-3 fatty acid studies and summarizes their outcomes. Eight original articles (nine studies) were reviewed. Six out of nine studies measured RBC membrane fatty acids levels and all six studies reported a significant increase in EPA after EPA supplement. Two studies reported increased DHA post omega-3 fatty acid and DHA supplement, respectively. One study observed a dose-dependent increment in DHA after EPA supplement. Improved symptoms were observed in seven studies, while one study found a worsening of symptoms in patients with low baseline PUFA. Moreover, out of the six studies that evaluated the correlation between symptom change and membrane fatty acids change, three studies observed a correlation between increased EPA and symptom improvement. One study reported an increased AA associated with improved symptoms, in contrast to another study, which found a correlation between increased AA and worsened symptoms. The conclusion from this project work is that EPA supplement can increase the EPA levels in membranes; however, its therapeutic effect in schizophrenia requires further investigation using larger studies.

  • 76.
    Ariane, Mostapha
    et al.
    School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham.
    Kassinos, Stavros
    Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus.
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Alexiadis, Alessio
    School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham.
    Discrete multi-physics simulations of diffusive and convective mass transfer in boundary layers containing motile cilia in lungs2018In: Computers in Biology and Medicine, ISSN 0010-4825, E-ISSN 1879-0534, Vol. 95, p. 34-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the mass transfer coefficient (permeability) of boundary layers containing motile cilia is investigated by means of discrete multi-physics. The idea is to understand the main mechanisms of mass transport occurring in a ciliated-layer; one specific application being inhaled drugs in the respiratory epithelium. The effect of drug diffusivity, cilia beat frequency and cilia flexibility is studied. Our results show the existence of three mass transfer regimes. A low frequency regime, which we called shielding regime, where the presence of the cilia hinders mass transport; an intermediate frequency regime, which we have called diffusive regime, where diffusion is the controlling mechanism; and a high frequency regime, which we have called convective regime, where the degree of bending of the cilia seems to be the most important factor controlling mass transfer in the ciliated-layer. Since the flexibility of the cilia and the frequency of the beat changes with age and health conditions, the knowledge of these three regimes allows prediction of how mass transfer varies with these factors.

  • 77. Arlinger, Stig
    et al.
    Nordqvist, Peter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Öberg, Marie
    International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids: Data From a Large Swedish Quality Register Database2017In: American Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1059-0889, E-ISSN 1558-9137, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 443-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze a database of completed International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) questionnaires obtained from over 100,000 clients fitted with new hearing aids in Sweden during the period of 2012-2016. Mean IOI-HA total scores were correlated with degree of hearing loss, unilateral versus bilateral fitting, first-time versus return clients, gender, and variation among dispensing clinics. The correlations with expectations, service quality, and technical functioning of the hearing aids were also analyzed. Method: Questionnaires containing the 7 IOI-HA items as well as questions concerning some additional issues were mailed to clients 3-6 months after fitting of new hearing aids. The questionnaires were returned to and analyzed by an independent research institute. Results: More than 100 dispensing clinics nationwide take part in this project. A response rate of 52.6% resulted in 106,631 data sets after excluding incomplete questionnaires. Forty-six percent of the responders were women, and 54% were men. The largest difference in mean score (0.66) was found for the IOI-HA item "use" between return clients and first-time users. Women reported significantly higher (better) scores for the item "impact on others" compared with men. The bilaterally fitted subgroup reported significantly higher scores for all 7 items compared with the unilaterally fitted subgroup. Experienced users produced higher scores on benefit and satisfaction items, whereas first-time users gave higher scores for residual problems. No correlation was found between mean IOI-HA total score and average hearing threshold level (pure-tone average [ PTA]). Mean IOI-HA total scores were found to correlate significantly with perceived service quality of the dispensing center and with the technical functionality of the hearing aids. Conclusions: When comparing mean IOI-HA total scores from different studies or between groups, differences with regard to hearing aid experience, gender, and unilateral versus bilateral fitting have to be considered. No correlation was found between mean IOI-HA total score and degree of hearing loss in terms of PTA. Thus, PTA is not a reliable predictor of benefit and satisfaction of hearing aid provision as represented by the IOI-HA items. Identification of a specific lower fence in PTA for hearing aid candidacy is therefore to be avoided. Large differences were found in mean IOI-HA total scores related to different dispensing centers.

  • 78.
    Arlinger, Stig
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nordqvist, Peter
    Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Öberg, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids: Data From a Large Swedish Quality Register Database2017In: American Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1059-0889, E-ISSN 1558-9137, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 443-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze a database of completed International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) questionnaires obtained from over 100,000 clients fitted with new hearing aids in Sweden during the period of 2012-2016. Mean IOI-HA total scores were correlated with degree of hearing loss, unilateral versus bilateral fitting, first-time versus return clients, gender, and variation among dispensing clinics. The correlations with expectations, service quality, and technical functioning of the hearing aids were also analyzed. Method: Questionnaires containing the 7 IOI-HA items as well as questions concerning some additional issues were mailed to clients 3-6 months after fitting of new hearing aids. The questionnaires were returned to and analyzed by an independent research institute. Results: More than 100 dispensing clinics nationwide take part in this project. A response rate of 52.6% resulted in 106,631 data sets after excluding incomplete questionnaires. Forty-six percent of the responders were women, and 54% were men. The largest difference in mean score (0.66) was found for the IOI-HA item "use" between return clients and first-time users. Women reported significantly higher (better) scores for the item "impact on others" compared with men. The bilaterally fitted subgroup reported significantly higher scores for all 7 items compared with the unilaterally fitted subgroup. Experienced users produced higher scores on benefit and satisfaction items, whereas first-time users gave higher scores for residual problems. No correlation was found between mean IOI-HA total score and average hearing threshold level (pure-tone average [ PTA]). Mean IOI-HA total scores were found to correlate significantly with perceived service quality of the dispensing center and with the technical functionality of the hearing aids. Conclusions: When comparing mean IOI-HA total scores from different studies or between groups, differences with regard to hearing aid experience, gender, and unilateral versus bilateral fitting have to be considered. No correlation was found between mean IOI-HA total score and degree of hearing loss in terms of PTA. Thus, PTA is not a reliable predictor of benefit and satisfaction of hearing aid provision as represented by the IOI-HA items. Identification of a specific lower fence in PTA for hearing aid candidacy is therefore to be avoided. Large differences were found in mean IOI-HA total scores related to different dispensing centers.

  • 79.
    Arnell, Susann
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. University Health Care Research Center (UFC) Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Jerlinder, K.
    Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, University of Gävle, Gävle , Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. University Health Care Research Center (UFC) Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Participation in physical activities -a multilevel challenge for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Physical inactivity is one of the biggest current public health problems. Few adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) achieve the recommendation of daily physical activity (PA). The reasons for not being physically active depend on several complex factors, yet not comprehensively described from the adolescents’point of view. The absence of their perspective means that intervention strategies for health enhancing physical activity may not encompass the experiences of the adolescents themselves. Therefore the purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the perceptions, experiences and reflections of adolescents with ASDs’participation in PA.

    Participants and methods: Twenty-four adolescents, diagnosed with ASD without a co-occurring intellectual disability, aged 12-16 years, participated in the study.Data was collected using qualitative interviews and inductively analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Adolescents with ASD were a heterogeneous group in regard to their current PA habits and preferences. Their willingness to participate in PA was conditioned regarding; what, where, when and with whom. They described challenges in the activity and the social context during PA, especially during the mandatory physical education. Perceived demands, freedom of choice, physical ability and sense of control affected their PA participation.

    Conclusion: Findings indicate that the adolescents’willingness to participate was associated with interacting and individual-related conditions, which can be misinterpreted as unwillingness to participate in PA. Thus aspects of autonomy and knowledge about individual conditions and needs have to be recognized when intervention strategies for health enhancing physical activities are planned for this population.

  • 80.
    Arnetz, Judith E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Hamblin, Lydia
    Ager, Joel
    Aranyos, Deanna
    Upfal, Mark J.
    Luborsky, Mark
    Russell, Jim
    Essenmacher, Lynnette
    Application and Implementation of the Hazard Risk Matrix to Identify Hospital Workplaces at Risk for Violence2014In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 57, no 11, p. 1276-1284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundA key barrier to preventing workplace violence injury is the lack of methodology for prioritizing the allocation of limited prevention resources. The hazard risk matrix was used to categorize the probability and severity of violence in hospitals to enable prioritization of units for safety intervention. MethodsProbability of violence was based on violence incidence rates; severity was based on lost time management claims for violence-related injuries. Cells of the hazard risk matrix were populated with hospital units categorized as low, medium, or high probability and severity. Hospital stakeholders reviewed the matrix after categorization to address the possible confounding of underreporting. ResultsForty-one hospital units were categorized as medium or high on both severity and probability and were prioritized for forthcoming interventions. Probability and severity were highest in psychiatric care units. ConclusionsThis risk analysis tool may be useful for hospital administrators in prioritizing units for violence injury prevention efforts.  

  • 81.
    Arnoldsson, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Logopedi.
    Aronsson, Bente
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Logopedi.
    Femåringar berättar på svenska och engelska: Referensdata och jämförelse med 6- och 7-åringar2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2009, the EU research network COST Action IS0804 has been working towards gaining more knowledge about bilingual language acquisition in typically and atypically developing children, and towards creating assessment tools which are specifically adapted to bilingual children. Within COST Action, one working group, Narrative and discourse, focuses on narratives as a way to assess children’s language. Narratives provide more naturalistic language samples than item-based tests and are less biased against bilingual children compared to other language assessments. The Narrative and discourse group developed the assessment tool MAIN (Multilingual Assessment Instrument for Narratives). MAIN examines children’s production and comprehension of narratives on a macrostructural level (i.e. overall story structure) within the framework of story grammar (SG). One current hypothesis is that macrostructure is language independent and can therefore be compared across languages. In the current study, 16 simultaneous bilingual children (ages 4:11- 5:8, mean 5:4 years) with the language combination Swedish-English were assessed with MAIN. Their results were compared with the results of bilingual 6-7 year olds with the same language combination (Härdelin & Naylor, 2012). Results showed no significant difference regarding macrostructure between the children’s two languages, neither in production(p= 0,084) nor in comprehension (p= 0,21). However, there was a significant difference between the younger and the older children, both in production (p= 0,00099) and comprehension (p= 0,0072). Non-targetlike structures due to cross-linguistic influence,e.g. transfer and code-mixing, were noticed for both age groups. Cross-linguistic influence should thus not be mistaken for language impairment, but rather be treated as a natural part of bilingual language acquisition. In conclusion, differences in macrostructure seemed to be related to age rather than to language. The results of the current study provide insight into the performance of five-year-olds on MAIN, which has not previously been studied in a Swedish context. By comparing the results with older children, the study documents the narrative development of Swedish-English bilinguals from age 5 to 7.

  • 82.
    Aronsson, Mariana
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Lindström, Åsa
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    "Du får lite att fundera över liksom": En intervjustudie av medarbetarnas upplevelse av reflektion som arbetsmetod inom äldreomsorgen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate the employees' experience of reflection as a work method. The sample for the study consisted of 16 employees (women aged 25-55 years) from four special housing care of the elderly who regularly work with the reflection as a work method. The methodology for this study was qualitative in nature, inspired by a phenomenological approach. The empirical data collected consisted of 16 banded individual semi-structured interviews. The asked questions have been open to give the respondents the opportunity to develop their views and thoughts and to give the study a depth. All 16 interviews were then transcribed and analyzed to arrive a result.

    The theoretical framework for this study includes literature and previous research about the importance of reflection for learning and skills development in the workplace.

    The result has three overarching themes emerged;

    Learning, professionally approach and Culture. These themes summarize the categories that have emerged in the study. The study shows that reflection as a work method provides the group with a better fellowship where they learn from each other and a respectful attitude towards each other. For the individual person, the method gives greater self-insight, improved communication skills and increased competence. The conclusion of the study show that the reflective work method can be considered as a tool that lays the foundation for a common learning where employees have the opportunity to develop both elderly care as common values in order to strengthen and develop the quality of health care.

  • 83.
    Arrabi, Nathalie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    KVINNORS KUNSKAP OM CERVIXCANCER: En litteraturstudie med kvantitativ ansats2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Bakgrund: Varje år dör ungefär 150 kvinnor i Sverige på grund av cervixcancer. Ändå har dödsfallen minskat sedan cellprovtagning infördes som svensk prevention. Trots detta är det endast 80 % av de kvinnor som blir erbjudna cellprovtagning som deltar i denna typ av kontroll. Kvinnors kunskapsnivå om hur cervixcancer kan förebyggas genom att gå på regelbundna cellprovtagningar påverkade deltagandet i dessa undersökningar.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att beskriva kvinnors kunskap om cervixcancer.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie med kvantitativ ansats baserad på 9 vetenskapliga originalartiklar.  Texten analyserades enligt Forsberg och Wengström (2008) och Fribergs (2006) riktlinjer för analys av artiklar vid en modifierad systematisk litteraturstudie.

    Resultat: Studien tar upp kunskapsläget hos kvinnor om cervixcancer under kategorierna, HPV och sambandet med livmoderhalscancer, prevention och faktorer som har samband med kunskapsnivån av cervixcancer. I stort sågs brister hos kvinnor i alla dessa kategorier, dock varierade hur stort andelen kvinnor var som hade bristande kunskap.

    Slutsatser: Enligt författaren är det inte möjligt för kvinnorna som har en mycket bristfällig kunskap om cervixcancer att medvetet inneha ett förebyggande beteende gentemot denna typ av cancer. Därmed ses sjuksköterskans ansvar att informera som en viktig faktor för att förbättra preventionen.

  • 84. Arvidsson, Julia
    Difference in Jump Height and Jump Length in Youth Soccer Players Selected or Not Selected for the National Team2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With the aim of professional status and sporting success, selection processes and talent identification in youth players are common in football clubs and national teams. Football requiring different types of abilities, standing out in certain abilities can be important in the selection process for national teams. Physical abilities including maximal power can differ between players in the same age group due to growth and maturation and might therefore be important factors in the selection process. Previous studies have mentioned maximal power as one of many performance indicators for football performance. However, few studies have investigated its importance regarding youth players selected or not selected for the national team. Aim: The study was designed to measure and compare jump height and jump length in three different jump tests between youth soccer players selected or not selected for the national team. Methods: Twenty-two (n=22) players, eleven national players and eleven non-national players performed three different jump tests. The players were 17±2 years old from the club Halmstads BK, Halmstad. The study was an observational crosssectional study that was designed to measure and compare jump height and jump length in three different jump tests between youth soccer players selected or not selected for the national team. The jump tests that were used in the present study was Countermovement Jump (CMJ), Abalakov Jump (AJ) and Standing Long Jump (SLJ). Mean scores for the tests in both groups were analyzed and compared and the criterion level for significance was set to p ≤ 0.05. Results: The results showed a significant difference between the groups regarding jump height in CMJ (p=0.013) and in AJ (p=0.010). No significant difference was found regarding jump length in SLJ (p=0.084). Conclusion: The findings of this study showed a significant difference in Countermovement Jump (CMJ) and Abalakov Jump (AJ) between national players (NP) and non-national players (NNP). The study found no significant difference between the groups in Standing Long Jump (SLJ). The results indicate the use of maximal power as a performance indicator and part of the selection of players to national teams. Anthropometric data (age, weight and height) was similar between the groups, therefore, other maturation and growth factors together with biological age are aspects that might have influenced the results. Future studies are suggested to investigate maturation status and its importance for maximal power in national players and non-national players. 

  • 85.
    Arvidsson Lindvall, Mialinn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Physiotherapeutic perspectives on balance control after stroke: exercises, experiences and measures2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate physiotherapeutic perspectives on balance after stroke, in terms of exercises, experiences and measurements. Study I was a pilot randomized controlled trial with 46 persons who had had a stroke, 24 of whom were included in the intervention group and 22 who were included in the control group. The intervention consisted of 8 weeks of body awareness therapy (BAT). There were no significant differences over time between the groups in the outcome measures of balance, walking, self-reported balance confidence and quality of life. Study II had a qualitative design using content analysis. Participants in the intervention group from Study I and the four physiotherapists who had been in charge of the BAT were interviewed. One overall theme emerged: "Simple yet challenging", which was based on six categories. Study III investigated the validity and test-retest reliability of the Six-Spot Step test (SSST), an instrument used to assess the ability to take load on each leg. A cross-sectional design with 81 persons who had had stroke was performed. The convergent validity was strong to moderate, and the test-retest reliability was good. In Study IV a mixed method design including both qualitative and quantitative data collection was used. The participants’ experiences of balance and its influence in everyday life were presented in two themes: "Feeling dizzy and unstable is a continuous challenge" and "Feeling trust and confidence despite dizziness and unsteadiness". Taken together, the different data sets provided complementary and confirmatory information about balance. All participants experienced the balance limitations as a continuous challenge in everyday life, yet they also felt trust and confidence.

    In summary, BAT can be a complement in physiotherapeutic stroke rehabilitation and the SSST can be used as a measuring instrument of walking balance in persons with stroke. Living with balance limitations was experienced as a challenge but the participants were still able to manage their everyday life and activities.

  • 86.
    Arvidsson Lindvall, Mialinn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Appelros, Peter
    Department of University Health Care Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Anette
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Validity and test-retest reliability of the Six-Spot Step Test in persons after strokeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 87.
    Arvidsson Lindvall, Mialinn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Forsberg, Anette
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Appelros, Peter
    Department of University Health Care Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    "I can still manage": a mixed-method study of balance after strokeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Arvidsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Jonköping University, Sweden; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jonköping University, Sweden; University of Oslo, Norway.
    Thyberg, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    How are the activity and participation aspects of the ICF used? Examples from studies of people with intellectual disability2015In: NeuroRehabilitation (Reading, MA), ISSN 1053-8135, E-ISSN 1878-6448, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 45-49Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Interdisciplinary differences regarding understanding the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) concepts activity/participation may hinder its unifying purpose. In the ICF model, functioning (and disability) is described as a tripartite concept: 1) Body structures/functions, 2) Activities, and 3) Participation. Activities refer to an individual perspective on disability that does not tally with the basic structure of social models. OBJECTIVE: To review how activity and participation are actually used in studies of intellectual disability (ID). CONCLUSION: Based on 16 papers, four different usages of activity/participation were found. 1) Theoretical reference to tripartite ICF concept with attempts to use it. 2) Theoretical reference to tripartite ICF concept without actual use of activities. 3) "Atheoretical" approach with implicit focus on participation. 4) Theoretical reference to bipartite concept with corresponding use of terms. The highlighted studies have in common a focus on participation. However, the usage of the term "activity" differs both within and between studies. Such terminology will probably confuse interdisciplinary communication rather than facilitating it. Also, the use of an explicit underlying theory differs, from references to a tripartite to references to a bipartite concept of disability. This paper is focused on ID, but the discussed principles regarding the ICF and interdisciplinary disability theory are applicable to other diagnostic groups within rehabilitation practices.

  • 89.
    Arvidsson, Susann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Gilljam, Britt-Mari
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing. Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Nygren, Jens
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Ruland, Cornelia Maria
    The Centre for Shared Decision Making and Collaborative Care Research (CSDM), Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway & University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Nordby-Bøe, Trude
    The Centre for Shared Decision Making and Collaborative Care Research (CSDM), Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Redesign and Validation of Sisom, an Interactive Assessment and Communication Tool for Children With Cancer2016In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 4, no 2, article id e76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Children with cancer undergo intensive and long treatment periods that expose them and their families to a number of difficult physical, mental, and social challenges. Empowering children by actively involving them in their care can help them to cope with these challenges. It can, however, be difficult for children to be involved and talk about their illness experiences in a "traditional" conversation with health care professionals, especially for younger children. Sisom (Norwegian acronym "Si det som det er" or "Tell it how it is") is an interactive computer-based assessment and communication tool to give children (aged 6-12 years) with cancer a "voice" in their care. Because of technological advances and widespread use of mobile devices Sisom had to be redesigned to better meet the needs of children of today.

    OBJECTIVE: To redesign Sisom for use on mobile devices and to validate and adapt it for use in a Swedish population of children with cancer.

    METHODS: A user-experience design was used. Content adaptation included forward-backward translation by Swedish and Norwegian translators. Healthy children (n=5), children with experiences of cancer treatment (n=5) and their parents (n=5), and pediatric nurses (n=2) were then involved in culturally adapting Sisom to the Swedish context. The iterative low- and high-fidelity evaluation was supported by a think aloud method, semistructured interviews, and drawings to capture children's views of Sisom. The redesign and evaluation continued until no further changes or improvements were identified by the participants or the researchers.

    RESULTS: Children, parents, and pediatric nurses offered many suggestions for improvements to the original version in terms of content, aesthetics, and usability of Sisom. The most significant change that emerged through user input was a modification that entailed not using problem-focused statements in the assessment items. The parents and pediatric nurses considered the revised assessment items to be general and less diagnosis specific. The evaluation of aesthetics resulted in brighter colors and more positive and exciting details in the animations. The evaluation of usability included improvements of the verbal instructions on how to navigate in Sisom 2, and also that the answers to assessmentitems in Sisom 2 should be saved to provide the children with the option to pause and to continue answering the remaining assessment items at a later stage.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this paper describes the process of using user-experience design with children in order to redesign and validate an interactive assessment and communication tool and how the outcomes of this process resulted in a new version, Sisom 2. All participants confirmed the usability and qualities of using the final version. Future research should be directed toward the implementation of Sisom 2 in clinical practice and to evaluate outcomes from individual and organizational levels.

  • 90.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001.2001Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The international conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents in Moscow,19-–21 September 2001, was organised jointly by the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), the State Scientific and Research Institute of Motor Transport in Moscow (NIIAT), U.S. Transportation Research Board (TRB), the South African Council for Scientific Industrial Research (CSIR), South Africa, and Forum of European Road Safety Research Institutes (FERSI). The Moscow conference was the 12th in this conference series. Conference sessions covered a number of road traffic safety issues:

    - Advanced road safety technology

    - Road safety audits

    - Policy and programmes

    - Traffic engineering

    - Vulnerable and old road users

    - Alcohol, drugs and enforcement

    - Human performance and education

    - Behaviour and attention

    - Data and models

    - Cost and environment

    - Speed and speed management

  • 91.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: del 1. Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 2000-01-12-13 beträffande: inledning - den transportpolitiska beslutsprocessen - inriktningsplaneringen och utvecklingen av de transportpolitiska målen - på väg mot hållbar utveckling? - hållbara transporter i Europa. Europa MaTs - "de elva punkterna för ökad trafiksäkerhet m.m." - trafiksäkerhet-allmänt - fler resenärer via incitamentavtal2000Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Asp, Monica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Arbete i glädje och sorg: En kvalitativ studie om arbetsglädje för personal på ett äldreboende2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Behovet av personal inom vård- och omsorg beräknas öka. Personal som arbetar i denna sektor står bakom de flesta av anmälningarna av arbetsskada. Det är betydelsefullt att arbeta förebyggande med arbetsmiljö både för att främja anställdas hälsa och utveckla verksamheter. Personal inom äldreomsorg utför ett viktigt arbete för de äldre som är i behov av vård. Syftet i denna uppsats är att genom kvalitativa intervjuer beskriva vårdpersonalens upplevelse av arbetsklimatet och ha Aaron Antonovskys teori om känsla av sammanhang - KASAM som teoretisk modell för att se vad som kan göras för att verka för ett gott arbetsklimat.

    Resultatet visar att den uppskattning personalen får av de boende gör att arbetet upplevs som meningsfullt. Det finns resursbrist i form av personalbrist men även ekonomiska enligt personalens utsagor vilket påverkar hanterbarheten. Personalen upplever att det finns få möjligheter att få utbildning i arbetet och att vidareutbildning i yrket inte lönar sig.

  • 93.
    Axelsson, Anna Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and their participation in family activities2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Families are essential parts of any community and throughout childhood one’s family serves as the central setting wherein opportunities for participation are offered. There is a lack of knowledge about participation of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) in family activities and how improved participation can be reached. Gathering such knowledge could enable an improvement in child functioning and wellbeing and also ease everyday life for families of a child with PIMD.

    Aim. The overall aim of this thesis was to explore participation seen as presence and engagement in family activities in children with PIMD and to find strategies that might facilitate this participation.

    Material and Methods. The research was cross-sectional and conducted with descriptive, explorative designs. First a quantitative, comparative design was used including questionnaire data from 60 families with a child with PIMD and 107 families with children with typical development (TD) (I, II). Following that, a qualitative, inductive design was used with data from individual interviews with parents of 11 children with PIMD and nine hired external personal assistants (III). Finally a mixed method design was conducted where collected quantitative data was combined with the qualitative data from the previous studies (IV).

    Results. It was found that children with PIMD participated less often, compared to children with TD, in a large number of family activities, however they participated more often in four physically less demanding activities. Children with PIMD also participated in a less diverse set of activities. Additionally, they overall had a lower level of engagement in the activities; however, both groups of children showed higher engagement in enjoyable, child-driven activities and lower engagement in routine activities. The motor ability of the child with PIMD was found to be the main child characteristic that affected their presence in the family activities negatively and child cognition was found to be the personal characteristic that affected their engagement in the activities. The child’s presence and engagement were influenced to a lesser extent by family socio-economic factors when compared to families with children with TD. Parents and hired external personal assistants described several strategies to be used to improve participation of the children with PIMD, such as by showing engagement in the activities oneself and by giving the child opportunities to influence the activities. The role of the hired external personal assistant, often considered as a family member for the child, was described as twofold: one supporting or reinforcing role in relation to the child and one balancing role in relation to the parents/the rest of the family, including reducing the experience of being burdened and showing sensitivity to family life and privacy.

    Conclusion. A child with PIMD affects the family’s functioning and the family’s functioning affects the child. Child and environmental factors can act as barriers that have the result that children with PIMD may experience fewer and less varied activities that can generate engaged interaction within family activities than children with TD do. Accordingly, an awareness and knowledge of facilitating strategies for improved participation in family activities is imperative. There needs to be someone in the child’s environment who sets the scene/stage and facilitates the activity so as to increase presence and engagement in proximal processes based on the child’s needs. The family, in turn, needs someone who can provide respite to obtain balance in the family system. External personal assistance includes these dual roles and is of importance in families with a child with PIMD.

  • 94.
    Axelsson, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Tigerström, L
    Does rapid eye movement (REM) sleep prepare the brain for wakening?2014In: Journal of sleep research, Special issue: 22nd Congress of the European Sleep Research Society, 16-20 September, 2014, Tallinn, Estonia, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 95.
    Axelsson, Julia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Khadem, Sanna
    Familjens erfarenheter av att ha en anhörig med Parkinsons sjukdom: En systematisk litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    Bakgrund: Parkinsons sjukdom är en kronisk neurologisk sjukdom som gradvis försämrar rörelseförmågan. Tidigare forskning visade att familjen kände stress i samband med sjukdomen och upplevde brist av stöd från omgivningen. Medan andra kände frihet när de fick stöd från hemtjänsten. Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva familjens erfarenheter av att ha en anhörig med Parkinsons sjukdom. Metod: En systematisk litteraturstudie med nio artiklar, varav åtta var av kvalitativ ansats och en hade mixed-method. Det utfördes en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Systemteori används som teoretisk referensram. Resultat: Familjen kände att de var i behov av mer information gällande Parkinsons sjukdom. Familjer som hade sin anhöriga med Parkinsons sjukdom på vårdhem kände att personalen behövde mer kunskap om sjukdomen. Familjerna behövde mer tid för sig själva för att kunna hantera deras vardag. Med Parkinsons sjukdom kom ansvar och skuldänslor för familjen, många kände sig bunda till deras roll som vårdgivare. Slutsats: Vårdpersonalen kan visa öppenhet för att ge mer information och samt erbjuda hälsostödjande samtal till familjen. Det kan ge en möjlighet för familjen att öppna sig för hur de känner och även lyssna till de andra familjemeddlemarna. Detta kan skapa en trygghet för familjen och minska deras rädsla inför framtiden.

  • 96.
    Backman, Ellen
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), The Wigforss Group.
    Ätutveckling hos barn – en gemensam utmaning för barn och dess vårdnadshavare2016In: Små & stora nyheter, ISSN 1400-4186, no maj, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 97.
    Backman, Ellen
    et al.
    Region Halland, Kungsbacka, Sverige.
    Eberhart, Barbara
    Västerbottens läns landsting, Umeå, Sverige.
    Gustafsson, Carin
    Region Skåne, Malmö, Sverige.
    Häggström Qvist, Camilla
    Västra Götalandsregionen, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Lindberger, Lena
    Stockholms läns landsting, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Nolemo, Maria
    Landstinget Västmanland, Västerås, Sverige.
    Nylander, Eva-Marie
    Västra Götalandsregionen, Vänersborg, Sverige.
    Ragnar, Catarina
    Region Kronoberg, Växjö, Sverige.
    Metoder för att stimulera språk och kommunikation hos barn, ungdomar och vuxna inom habiliteringen2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Språkliga och kommunikativa begränsningar är vanligt förekommande vid ett flertal av de diagnoser och tillstånd som återfinns hos personer inom habiliteringsverksamheter i Sverige och förutsätter en tvärprofessionell och långvarig insats. Syftet med föreliggande arbete är att systematiskt beskriva bästa tillgängliga evidens avseende interventioner fokuserade på språklig och kommunikativ förmåga för personer med medfödda funktionsnedsättningar från sex års ålder och uppåt inom habiliteringsverksamhet. Arbetet kan ses som en fortsättning på EBH-rapporten ”Tidiga kommunikations- och språkinsatser till förskolebarn”.Internationellt publicerade interventionsstudier från de senaste 15 åren med fokus på språkliga och kommunikativa förmågor vid typiskt förekommande diagnoser inom habiliteringsverksamhet granskades och sammanfattades. Initialt inkluderades endast översiktsartiklar och metaanalyser, men då dessa till största delen hade fokus på autism och/eller Alternativ och Kompletterande Kommunikation (AKK) utökades sökningen till att även inkludera ett antal primärstudier med annat fokus. Rapporten omfattar 67 studier.Resultatet visar att ”stark rekommendation att använda” (enligt GRADE) endast förekommer i begränsad utsträckning, och när det förekommer är det vid insatser relaterade till autism och/eller AKK. ”Stark rekommendation att inte använda” finns vid insatser relaterade till akupunktur/akupressur och faciliterad kommunikation. Det kan konstateras att det finns en stor brist på studier avseende vuxna personer respektive intellektuell funktionsnedsättning.Detta arbete tillför ytterligare kunskap till området för evidensbaserade insatser vid svårigheter när det gäller kommunikation och språk, och visar att evidens i strikt bemärkelse är svår att erhålla bland annat beroende på de små och heterogena patientgrupperna och, som en konsekvens av detta, en brist på stora randomiserade studier.

  • 98.
    Backman, Ellen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Regional Habilitation Center, Region Halland, Kungsbacka, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Ann-Kristin
    Department of Research and Development, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Sjögreen, Lotta
    Mun-H-Center Orofacial Resource Center for Rare Diseases, Public Dental Service, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gastrostomy tube feeding in children with developmental or acquired disorders: A longitudinal comparison on health care provision, and eating outcomes four years after gastrostomy2018In: Nutrition in clinical practice, ISSN 0884-5336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies on long‐term feeding and eating outcomes in children requiring gastrostomy tube feeding (GT) are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe children with developmental or acquired disorders receiving GT and to compare longitudinal eating and feeding outcomes. A secondary aim was to explore healthcare provision related to eating and feeding.

    Methods: This retrospective cohort study reviewed medical records of children in 1 administrative region of Sweden with GT placement between 2005 and 2012. Patient demographics, primary diagnoses, age at GT placement, and professional healthcare contacts prior to and after GT placement were recorded and compared. Feeding and eating outcomes were assessed 4 years after GT placement.

    Results: The medical records of 51 children, 28 boys and 23 girls, were analyzed and grouped according to “acquired” (n = 13) or “developmental” (n = 38) primary diagnoses. At 4 years after GT placement, 67% were still using GT. Only 6 of 37 (16%) children with developmental disorders transferred to eating all orally, as opposed to 10 of 11 (91%) children with acquired disorders. Children with developmental disorders were younger at the time of GT placement and displayed a longer duration of GT activity when compared with children with acquired disorders.

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates a clear difference between children with developmental or acquired disorders in duration of GT activity and age at GT placement. The study further shows that healthcare provided to children with GT is in some cases multidisciplinary, but primarily focuses on feeding rather than eating.

  • 99.
    Backman, Helena
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, The OLIN Unit, Umeå University.
    Jansson, Sven-Arne
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine/the OLIN Unit, Umeå University.
    Stridsman, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Muellerova, Hana
    Real-World Evidence&Epidemiology, GSK R&D.
    Wurst, Keele
    Real-World Evidence&Epidemiology, GSK R&D.
    Hedman, Linnea
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine/the OLIN Unit, Umeå University.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Medicine/the OLIN Unit, Umeå University.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine/the OLIN Unit, Umeå University.
    Chronic airway obstruction in a population-based adult asthma cohort: Prevalence, incidence and prognostic factors2018In: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 138, p. 115-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Asthma and COPD may overlap (ACO) but information about incidence and risk factors are lacking. This study aimed to estimate prevalence, incidence and risk factors of chronic airway obstruction (CAO) in a population-based adult asthma cohort.

    Methods

    During 1986–2001 a large population-based asthma cohort was identified (n = 2055, 19-72y). Subsamples have participated in clinical follow-ups during the subsequent years. The entire cohort was invited to a clinical follow-up including interview, spirometry, and blood sampling in 2012–2014 when n = 983 subjects performed adequate spirometry. CAO was defined as post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC<0.7.

    Results

    At study entry, asthmatics with prevalent CAO (11.4%) reported more respiratory symptoms, asthma medication use, and ischemic heart disease than asthmatics without CAO (asthma only). Subjects who developed CAO during follow-up (17.6%; incidence rate of 16/1000/year) had a more rapid FEV1 decline and higher levels of neutrophils than asthma only. Smoking, older age and male sex were independently associated with increased risk for both prevalent and incident CAO, while obesity had a protective effect.

    Conclusions

    In this prospective adult asthma cohort, the majority did not develop CAO. Smoking, older age and male sex were risk factors for prevalent and incident CAO, similar to risk factors described for COPD in the general population.

  • 100.
    Backman, Helena
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, The OLIN Unit, Umeå University.
    Räisänen, Petri
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine/the OLIN unit, Umeå University.
    Hedman, Linnea
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine/the OLIN unit, Umeå University.
    Stridsman, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Andersson, Martin
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, The OLIN Unit, Umeå University.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Medicine/the OLIN unit, Umeå University.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Krefting Research Centre, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine/the OLIN unit, Umeå University.
    Increased prevalence of allergic asthma from 1996 to 2006 and further to 2016: results from three population surveys2017In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 47, no 11, p. 1426-1435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    During the latter half of the 20th century, the prevalence of asthma and many other allergic diseases has increased. Information on asthma prevalence trends among adults after 2010, especially regarding studies separating allergic asthma from non-allergic asthma, is lacking.

    Objective

    The aim was to estimate prevalence trends of current asthma among adults, both allergic and non-allergic, from 1996 to 2016.

    Methods

    Three cross-sectional samples from the same area of Sweden, 20-69 years, participated in surveys with the same questionnaire in 1996 (n=7104 participants, 85% response rate), 2006 (n=6165, 77%) and 2016 (n=5466, 53%), respectively. Allergic rhino-conjunctivitis (ARC) was used as a marker for allergic sensitization to define allergic asthma.

    Results

    The prevalence of current asthma increased from 8.4% (95% CI: 7.8-9.0) in 1996 to 9.9% (95% CI: 9.2-10.6) in 2006 and 10.9% (95% CI: 10.1-11.7) in 2016 (P<.001). Allergic asthma increased from 5.0% (95% CI: 4.5-5.5) in 1996 to 6.0% (95% CI: 5.4-6.6) in 2006 and further to 7.3% (95% CI: 6.6-8.0) in 2016 (P<.001), while the prevalence of non-allergic asthma remained stable around 3.4%-3.8%. The increase in current asthma was most pronounced among women and among the middle-aged. Physician-diagnosed asthma, asthma medication use and ARC also increased significantly, while the prevalence of symptoms common in asthma such as wheeze and attacks of shortness of breath decreased slightly or was stable. The prevalence of current smoking decreased from 27.4% in 1996 to 12.3% in 2016.

    Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

    The prevalence of allergic asthma increased from 1996 to 2006 and further to 2016, while the prevalence of non-allergic asthma remained on a stable prevalence level. The prevalence of symptoms common in asthma decreased slightly or was stable despite a substantial decrease in the prevalence of current smoking. Clinicians should be aware that the previously observed increase in prevalence of allergic asthma is still ongoing.

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