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  • 51. Amaral, André F S
    et al.
    Newson, Roger B
    Abramson, Michael J
    Antó, Josep M
    Bono, Roberto
    Corsico, Angelo G
    de Marco, Roberto
    Demoly, Pascal
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Huerta, Ismael
    Janson, Christer
    Jõgi, Rain
    Kim, Jeong-Lim
    Maldonado, José
    Martinez-Moratalla Rovira, Jesús
    Neukirch, Catherine
    Nowak, Dennis
    Pin, Isabelle
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Raherison-Semjen, Chantal
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Urrutia Landa, Isabel
    van Ree, Ronald
    Versteeg, Serge A
    Weyler, Joost
    Zock, Jan-Paul
    Burney, Peter G J
    Jarvis, Deborah L
    Changes in IgE sensitization and total IgE levels over 20 years of follow-up2016In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 137, no 6, p. 1788-1795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of sensitization in older adults, but few longitudinal studies have examined whether this is an aging or a year-of-birth cohort effect.

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess changes in sensitization and total IgE levels in a cohort of European adults as they aged over a 20-year period.

    METHODS: Levels of serum specific IgE to common aeroallergens (house dust mite, cat, and grass) and total IgE levels were measured in 3206 adults from 25 centers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey on 3 occasions over 20 years. Changes in sensitization and total IgE levels were analyzed by using regression analysis corrected for potential differences in laboratory equipment and by using inverse sampling probability weights to account for nonresponse.

    RESULTS: Over the 20-year follow-up, the prevalence of sensitization to at least 1 of the 3 allergens decreased from 29.4% to 24.8% (-4.6%; 95% CI, -7.0% to -2.1%). The prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite (-4.3%; 95% CI, -6.0% to -2.6%) and cat (-2.1%; 95% CI, -3.6% to -0.7%) decreased more than sensitization to grass (-0.6%; 95% CI, -2.5% to 1.3%). Age-specific prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite and cat did not differ between year-of-birth cohorts, but sensitization to grass was most prevalent in the most recent ones. Overall, total IgE levels decreased significantly (geometric mean ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.58-0.68) at all ages in all year-of-birth cohorts.

    CONCLUSION: Aging was associated with lower levels of sensitization, especially to house dust mite and cat, after the age of 20 years.

  • 52. Amirian, E. Susan
    et al.
    Ostrom, Quinn T.
    Armstrong, Georgina N.
    Lai, Rose K.
    Gu, Xiangjun
    Jacobs, Daniel I.
    Jalali, Ali
    Claus, Elizabeth B.
    Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.
    Il'yasova, Dora
    Schildkraut, Joellen M.
    Ali-Osman, Francis
    Sadetzki, Siegal
    Jenkins, Robert B.
    Lachance, Daniel H.
    Olson, Sara H.
    Bernstein, Jonine L.
    Merrell, Ryan T.
    Wrensch, Margaret R.
    Johansen, Christoffer
    Houlston, Richard S.
    Scheurer, Michael E.
    Shete, Sanjay
    Amos, Christopher I.
    Melin, Beatrice S.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Bondy, Melissa L.
    Aspirin, NSAIDs, and Glioma Risk: Original Data from the Glioma International Case-Control Study and a Meta-analysis2019In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 555-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There have been few studies of sufficient size to address the relationship between glioma risk and the use of aspirin or NSAIDs, and results have been conflicting. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between glioma and aspirin/NSAID use, and to aggregate these findings with prior published studies using meta-analysis. Methods: The Glioma International Case-Control Study (GICC) consists of 4,533 glioma cases and 4,171 controls recruited from 2010 to 2013. Interviews were conducted using a standardized questionnaire to obtain information on aspirin/NSAID use. We examined history of regular use for >= 6 months and duration-response. Restricted maximum likelihood meta-regression models were used to aggregate site-specific estimates, and to combine GICC estimates with previously published studies. Results: A history of daily aspirin use for -6 months was associated with a 38% lower glioma risk, compared with not having a history of daily use [adjusted meta-OR = 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-0.70]. There was a significant duration-response trend (P = 1.67 -10 -17), with lower ORs for increasing duration of aspirin use. Duration-response trends were not observed for NSAID use. In the meta-analysis aggregating GICC data with five previous studies, there was a marginally significant association between use of aspirin and glioma (mOR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.70-1.02), but no association for NSAID use. Conclusions: Our study suggests that aspirin may be associated with a reduced risk of glioma. Impact: These results imply that aspirin use may be associated with decreased gliomarisk. Further research examining the association between aspirin use and glioma risk is warranted.

  • 53. Analitis, Antonis
    et al.
    De' Donato, Francesca
    Scortichini, Matteo
    Lanki, Timo
    Basagana, Xavier
    Ballester, Ferran
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Paldy, Anna
    Pascal, Mathilde
    Gasparrini, Antonio
    Michelozzi, Paola
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Synergistic Effects of Ambient Temperature and Air Pollution on Health in Europe: Results from the PHASE Project2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 1-11, article id E1856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the potential synergy between air pollution and meteorology and their impact on mortality in nine European cities with data from 2004 to 2010. We used daily series of Apparent Temperature (AT), measurements of particulate matter (PM10), ozone (O₃), and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and total non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths. We applied Poisson regression for city-specific analysis and random effects meta-analysis to combine city-specific results, separately for the warm and cold seasons. In the warm season, the percentage increase in all deaths from natural causes per °C increase in AT tended to be greater during high ozone days, although this was only significant for all ages when all causes were considered. On low ozone days, the increase in the total daily number of deaths was 1.84% (95% CI 0.87, 2.82), whilst it was 2.20% (95% CI 1.28, 3.13) in the high ozone days per 1 °C increase in AT. Interaction with PM10 was significant for cardiovascular (CVD) causes of death for all ages (2.24% on low PM10 days (95% CI 1.01, 3.47) whilst it is 2.63% (95% CI 1.57, 3.71) on high PM10 days) and for ages 75+. In days with heat waves, no consistent pattern of interaction was observed. For the cold period, no evidence for synergy was found. In conclusion, some evidence of interactive effects between hot temperature and the levels of ozone and PM10 was found, but no consistent synergy could be identified during the cold season.

  • 54. Andersen, Zorana J.
    et al.
    Pedersen, Marie
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Galassi, Claudia
    Jørgensen, Jeanette T.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Olsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Oftedal, Bente
    Aasvang, Gunn Marit
    Schwarze, Per
    Pyko, Andrei
    Pershagen, Göran
    Korek, Michal
    De Faire, Ulf
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Eriksen, Kirsten T.
    Poulsen, Aslak H.
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Vaclavik Bräuner, Elvira
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Jaensch, Andrea
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Lang, Alois
    Wang, Meng
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Grioni, Sara
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Migliore, Enrica
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Sokhi, Ranjeet
    Keuken, Menno
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Beelen, Rob
    Vineis, Paolo
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Long-term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Brain Tumor: the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)2018In: Neuro-Oncology, ISSN 1522-8517, E-ISSN 1523-5866, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 420-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and brain tumor risk is sparse and inconsistent.

    Methods: In 12 cohorts from 6 European countries, individual estimates of annual mean air pollution levels at the baseline residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5, ≤10, and 2.5–10 μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse), PM2.5 absorbance, nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx) and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations of air pollutant concentrations and traffic intensity with total, malignant, and nonmalignant brain tumor, in separate Cox regression models, adjusting for risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses.

    Results: Of 282194 subjects from 12 cohorts, 466 developed malignant brain tumors during 12 years of follow-up. Six of the cohorts also had data on nonmalignant brain tumor, where among 106786 subjects, 366 developed brain tumor: 176 nonmalignant and 190 malignant. We found a positive, statistically nonsignificant association between malignant brain tumor and PM2.5 absorbance (hazard ratio and 95% CI: 1.67; 0.89–3.14 per 10–5/m3), and weak positive or null associations with the other pollutants. Hazard ratio for PM2.5 absorbance (1.01; 0.38–2.71 per 10–5/m3) and all other pollutants were lower for nonmalignant than for malignant brain tumors.

    Conclusion: We found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 absorbance indicating traffic-related air pollution and malignant brain tumors, and no association with overall or nonmalignant brain tumors.

  • 55. Andersen, Zorana J.
    et al.
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Pedersen, Marie
    Galassi, Claudia
    Jørgensen, Jeanette T.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Olsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Oftedal, Bente
    Aasvang, Gunn Marit
    Aamodt, Geir
    Pyko, Andrei
    Pershagen, Göran
    Korek, Michal
    De Faire, Ulf
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Eriksen, Kirsten T.
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Plusquin, Michelle
    Key, Timothy J.
    Jaensch, Andrea
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Lang, Alois
    Wang, Meng
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Fournier, Agnes
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Baglietto, Laura
    Grioni, Sara
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Migliore, Enrica
    Tamayo-Uria, Ibon
    Amiano, Pilar
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Sokhi, Ranjeet
    Keuken, Menno
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Beelen, Rob
    Vineis, Paolo
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in 15 European cohorts within the ESCAPE project2017In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 125, no 10, article id 107005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and breast cancer risk is inconsistent.

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women.

    METHODS: In 15 cohorts from nine European countries, individual estimates of air pollution levels at the residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts – Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter (TRANSPHORM) projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5μm, ≤10μm, and 2.5–10μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively); PM2.5 absorbance; nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); traffic intensity; and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations between breast cancer and air pollutants using Cox regression models, adjusting for major lifestyle risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses.

    RESULTS: Of 74,750 postmenopausal women included in the study, 3,612 developed breast cancer during 991,353 person-years of follow-up. We found positive and statistically insignificant associations between breast cancer and PM2.5 {hazard ratio (HR)=1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 1.51] per 5 μg/m(3)}, PM10 [1.07 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.30) per 10 μg/m(3)], PMcoarse[1.20 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.49 per 5 μg/m(3)], and NO(2) [1.02 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.07 per 10 μg/m(3)], and a statistically significant association with NOx [1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 20 μg/m(3), p=0.04].

    CONCLUSIONS: We found suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women.

  • 56. Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Murgia, Nicola
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Berndt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Torén, Kjell
    Incidence of chronic bronchitis in a cohort of pulp mill workers with repeated gassings to sulphur dioxide and other irritant gases2013In: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 12, article id 113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to irritants is associated with chronic bronchitis. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether repeated peak exposures with respiratory symptoms, gassings, to sulphur dioxide (SO2) and other irritant gases could increase the risk of chronic bronchitis.

    METHODS: The study population comprised 3,060 Swedish pulp mill workers (84% males) from a cohort study, who completed a comprehensive questionnaire with items on chronic bronchitis symptoms, smoking habit, occupational history, and specific exposures, including gassings. 2,037 have worked in sulphite mills. Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) for the observation period, 1970-2000, in relation to exposure and the frequency of repeated gassings to SO2 and other irritant gases were calculated.

    RESULTS: The incidence rate for chronic bronchitis among workers with repeated gassings was 3.5/1,000 person-years compared with 1.5/1,000 person-years among unexposed workers (HR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-3.1). The risk was even higher in the subgroup with frequent gassings (HR 3.2, 95% CI 2.0-5.2), particularly among never-smokers (HR 8.7, 95% CI 3.5-22).

    CONCLUSIONS: Repeated gassings to irritant gases increased the incidence of chronic bronchitis in our study population during and after work in pulp mills, supporting the hypothesis that occupational exposures to irritants negatively affect the airways. These results underscore the importance of preventive actions in this work environment.

  • 57. Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Persson, Bodil
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Magnuson, Anders
    Torén, Kjell
    Wingren, Gun
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Cohort mortality study of Swedish pulp and paper mill workers-nonmalignant diseases2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 470-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine mortality among pulp and paper mill workers according to the main mill pulping process, department, and gender, particular reference being given to diseases of the circulatory and respiratory systems.

    Methods The cohort of 18 163 men and 2 291 women employed between 1939 and 1999 and with >1 year of employment was followed for mortality from 1952 to 2001 (acute myocardial infarction from 1969). Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by comparing the observed number of deaths with the expected number for the entire Swedish population. Exposure was assessed from personnel files in the mills. Data from an exposure measurement database are also presented.

    Results There were 5898 deaths in the cohort. Total mortality had an SMR of 1.02 (95% CI 0.98–1.06) for the men in the sulfate mills and an SMR of 0.93 (95% CI 0.90–0.97) for the men in the sulfite mills. Mortality from acute myocardial infarction was increased among the men in both the sulfate and sulfite mills [SMR 1.22 (95% CI 1.12–1.32) and SMR 1.11 (95% CI 1.02–1.21), respectively] and by department in sulfate pulping (SMR 1.29, 95% CI 1.07–1.54), paper production (SMR 1.26, 95% CI 1.06–1.49), and maintenance (SMR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02–1.30). Mortality from cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and nonmalignant respiratory diseases was not increased.

    Conclusions Death from acute myocardial infarction, but not cerebrovascular diseases, was increased in this cohort and was probably related to a combination of different occupational exposures (eg, dust, sulfur compounds, shift work, and noise).

  • 58.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Örebro Univ Hosp, Örebro, Sweden.
    Magnuson, Anders
    Clin Epidemiol & Biostat Unit, Örebro Univ Hosp, Örebro, Sweden.
    Persson, Bodil
    Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Linköping Univ Hosp, Linköping, Sweden; Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Univ Lund Hosp, Lund, Sweden.
    Cancer incidence among Swedish pulp and paper mill workers: a cohort study of sulphate and sulphite mills2013In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 86, no 5, p. 529-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Associations between various malignancies and work in the pulp and paper industry have been reported but mostly in analyses of mortality rather than incidence. We aimed to study cancer incidence by main mill pulping process, department and gender in a Swedish cohort of pulp and paper mill workers. The cohort (18,113 males and 2,292 females, enrolled from 1939 to 1999 with > 1 year of employment) was followed up for cancer incidence from 1958 to 2001. Information on the workers' department and employment was obtained from the mills' personnel files, and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated using the Swedish population as reference. Overall cancer incidence, in total 2,488 cases, was not increased by work in any department. However, risks of pleural mesothelioma were increased among males employed in sulphate pulping (SIR, 8.38; 95 % CI, 3.37-17) and maintenance (SIR, 6.35; 95 % CI, 3.47-11), with no corresponding increase of lung cancer. Testicular cancer risks were increased among males employed in sulphate pulping (SIR, 4.14; 95 % CI, 1.99-7.61) and sulphite pulping (SIR, 2.59; 95 % CI, 0.95-5.64). Female paper production workers showed increased risk of skin tumours other than malignant melanoma (SIR, 2.92; 95 % CI, 1.18-6.02). Incidence of pleural mesothelioma was increased in the cohort, showing that asbestos exposure still has severe health consequences, and highlighting the exigency of strict asbestos regulations and elimination. Testicular cancer was increased among pulping department workers. Shift work and endocrine disruptors could be of interest in this context.

  • 59.
    Andersson, Helén
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Increased expression of genes encoding proangiogenic and vasoconstriction factors in the cardiac tissues of rats following long‑term exposure to bisphenol AManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Andersson, Helén
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Proangiogenic Effects of Environmentally Relevant Levels of Bisphenol A in Human Primary Endothelial Cells2012In: Archives of Toxicology, ISSN 0340-5761, E-ISSN 1432-0738, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 465-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the manufacturing of consumer products such as plastic food containers and food cans. Experimental studies suggest a relationship between exposure to BPA and changes in metabolic processes and reproductive organs. Also, epidemiological studies report an association between elevated exposure to BPA and cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Although alterations in the vascular endothelium are implicated in pathological conditions associated with BPA, little is known about the effects of BPA in the human endothelium. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 0.1 nM-1 μM of BPA on selected biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The mRNA expression of biomarkers was assayed using qRT-PCR, and the production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species was measured using the H(2)DCFDA and the DAF-FM assays. The effect of BPA on phosphorylated eNOS was examined using Western blot and immunofluorescence, and the endothelial tube formation assay was used to investigate in vitro angiogenesis. BPA (≤1 μM) increased the mRNA expression of the proangiogenic genes VEGFR-2, VEGF-A, eNOS, and Cx43 and increased the production of nitric oxide in HUVEC. Furthermore, BPA increased the expression of phosphorylated eNOS and endothelial tube formation in HUVEC. These studies demonstrate that environmentally relevant levels of BPA have direct proangiogenic effects on human primary endothelial cells in vitro suggesting that the human endothelium may be an important target for BPA.

  • 61.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lund University Centre for Health Eco, LUCHE.
    Perception of own death risk: An analysis of road-traffic and overall mortality risks2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals' perception of their own road-traffic and overall mortality risks are examined in this paper. Perceived risk is compared with the objective risk of the respondents' peers, i.e. their own gender and age group, and the results suggest that individuals' risk perception of their own risk is biased. For road-traffic risk we obtain similar results to what have been found previously in the literature, overassessment and underassessment among low- and high-risk groups, respectively. For overall risk we find that all risk groups underestimate their risk. The results also indicate that men's risk bias is larger than women's.

  • 62.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies.
    Gunnarsson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hedlund, Ann
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies.
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies.
    Young People’s Attitudes to Attractive Work, During and After Upper Secondary School2017In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 55-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attractive work has been defined as a job position which an individual wants, where the employee experiences job stability and where employee identification and dedication are fostered. The present study is aimed at increasing knowledge about attitude changes to work during young people’s transition from school to work-life. A closed cohort, consisting of 225 pupils from graduating classes in 10 upper secondary schools in Sweden, was studied. The most significant result was found in the pupils’ expectations regarding work attractiveness while they were still attending school and in the subsequent year, after they had finished school. During school attendance, there were no differences between the groups, while those who did not find employment after school greatly reduced their demands regarding attractive work.Those who managed to get a job maintained the same level of expectation as during their school years, in terms of requirements for an attractive job. 

  • 63.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Gunnarsson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Role of Headmasters, Teachers, and Supervisors in Knowledge Transfer about Occupational Health and Safety to Pupils in Vocational Education2015In: Safety and health at work, ISSN 2093-7997, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 317-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Young people are at an increased risk for illness in working life. The authorities stipulate certain goals for training in occupational health and safety (OHS) in vocational schools. A previous study concluded that pupils in vocational education had limited knowledge in the prevention of health risks at work. The aim of the current study, therefore, was to study how OHS training is organized in school and in workplace-based learning (WPL).

    Methods

    The study design featured a qualitative approach, which included interviews with 12 headmasters, 20 teachers, and 20 supervisors at companies in which the pupils had their WPL. The study was conducted at 10 upper secondary schools, located in Central Sweden, that were graduating pupils in four vocational programs.

    Results

    The interviews with headmasters, teachers, and supervisors indicate a staggered picture of how pupils are prepared for safe work. The headmasters generally give teachers the responsibility for how goals should be reached. Teaching is very much based on risk factors that are present in the workshops and on teachers' own experiences and knowledge. The teaching during WPL also lacks the systematic training in OHS as well as in the traditional classroom environment.

    Conclusion

    Teachers and supervisors did not plan the training in OHS in accordance with the provisions of systematic work environment management. Instead, the teachers based the training on their own experiences. Most of the supervisors did not receive information from the schools as to what should be included when introducing OHS issues in WPL.

  • 64.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Gunnarsson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Högskolan Dalarna, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Moström Åberg, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Knowledge and Experiences of Risks among Pupils in Vocational Education2014In: SH@W Safety and Health at Work, ISSN 2093-7911, E-ISSN 2093-7997, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 140-146Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Andersson, John
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Road traffic noise, air pollution, and risk of dementia: results from the Betula project2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 166, p. 334-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is growing evidence for a negative impact of traffic-related air pollution on risk of dementia. However, the contribution of noise exposure to this association has been rarely examined.

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the individual and combined effect of noise and air pollution on risk of dementia.

    Methods: Data on dementia incidence over a 15 year period was obtained from the Betula project, a longitudinal study on health and ageing. Estimates of annual mean levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the participants’ residential address were obtained using a land-use regression model. Modelled data provided road traffic noise levels (Leq. 24 h) at the participants’ residential address at baseline. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR).

    Results: Of 1721 participants at baseline, 302 developed dementia during the follow up period. Exposure to noise levels (Leq. 24 h) > 55 dB had no significant effect on dementia risk (HR 0.95; CI: 0.57, 1.57). Residing in the two highest quartiles of NOx exposure was associated with an increased risk of dementia. The risk associated with NOx was not modified by adjusting for noise. Moreover, we found no significant interaction effects between NOx and road traffic noise on dementia risk.

    Conclusion: We found no evidence that exposure to road traffic noise, either independently or in combination with traffic air pollution, was associated with risk of dementia in our study area. Our results suggest that pollution should be considered the main component in the association between traffic related exposures and dementia.

  • 66.
    Andersson, Lena
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre (MTM), Department of Science, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ngo, Yen
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
    Ohlson, Carl-Göran
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Clinical Medicines, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Exposure assessment and modeling of quartz in Swedish iron foundries for a nested case-control study on lung cancer2012In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, ISSN 1545-9624, E-ISSN 1545-9632, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 110-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure assessment of quartz in Swedish iron foundries was performed based on historical and present measurement data. To evaluate the exposure response relationship between quartz exposure and lung cancer, we modeled quartz exposure from our database of measurements using determinants job title, time period and company. Based on these modeled exposure data, we conducted a nested case– control evaluation.

    In our database, the overall individual daily time-weighted average (TWA) quartz concentrations of current and historical data varied between 0.0018 and 4.9 mg/m3, averaging 0.083 mg/m3. The job titles with mean TWAs for the whole study period exceeding the European Union recommended occupational exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m3 were fettlers (0.087 mg/m3), furnace and ladle repair (0.42 mg/m3) and maintenance (0.054 mg/m3) workers.

    The mixed model analysis demonstrated significant determinants on the job level for furnace and ladle repair (β=4.06; 95% CI 2.78-5.93). For all jobs significantly higher exposure levels occurred only during the first time period, 1968-1979 (β=2.08; 95% CI 1.75-2.47), and a decreasing but not significant trend was noted for the three following 10 year time periods up to 2006 (β=1.0, 0.96 and 1, respectively). Two iron foundries had significantly higher quartz concentration levels than the others (β=1.31; 95% CI 1.00-1.71 and β=1.63; 95% CI 1.00-2.65, respectively). The individual cumulative quartz exposure measures were categorized in low, medium and high exposure (0.5-<1, 1-1.9 and ≥2 mg/m3 *years, respectively).

    In the nested case-control analysis, we found the highest odds ratios of lung cancer (OR 1.17; 95% CI 0.53-2.55) for the medium exposure group. No dose– response trend or significantly increased risk was determined for our high exposed group (≥2 mg/m3), representing 40 years of exposure at >0.05 mg/m3 of quartz. To conclude, certain foundry workers are still exposed to high levels of quartz, but an increased risk of lung cancer caused by quartz exposure in these Swedish iron foundries could not be confirmed at our exposure levels.

  • 67. Andersson, Lena
    et al.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Ohlson, Carl-Göran
    Nayström, Peter
    Lilja, Bengt-Gunnar
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Quartz and dust exposure in Swedish iron foundries2009In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, ISSN 1545-9624, E-ISSN 1545-9632, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 9-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to respirable quartz continues to be a major concern in the Swedish iron foundry industry. Recommendations for reducing the European occupational exposure limit (EU-OEL) to 0.05 mg/m3 and the corresponding ACGIH® threshold limit value (ACGIH-TLV) to 0.025 mg/m3 prompted this exposure survey. Occupational exposure to respirable dust and respirable quartz were determined in 11 Swedish iron foundries, representing different sizes of industrial operation and different manufacturing techniques. In total, 436 respirable dust and 435 respirable quartz exposure measurements associated with all job titles were carried out and are presented as time-weighted averages. Our sampling strategy enabled us to evaluate the use of respirators in certain jobs, thus determining actual exposure. In addition, measurements using real-time dust monitors were made for high exposure jobs. For respirable quartz, 23% of all the measurements exceeded the EU-OEL, and 56% exceeded the ACGIH-TLV. The overall geometric mean (GM) for the quartz levels was 0.028 mg/m3, ranging from 0.003 to 2.1 mg/m3. Fettler and furnace and ladle repair operatives were exposed to the highest levels of both respirable dust (GM = 0.69 and 1.2 mg/m3; range 0.076-31 and 0.25-9.3 mg/m3 and respirable quartz (GM = 0.041 and 0.052 mg/m3; range 0.004-2.1 and 0.0098-0.83 mg/m3. Fettlers often used respirators and their actual quartz exposure was lower (range 0.003-0.21 mg/m3, but in some cases it still exceeded the Swedish OEL (0.1 mg/m3. For furnace and ladle repair operatives, the actual quartz exposure did not exceed the OEL (range 0.003-0.08 mg/m3, but most respirators provided insufficient protection, i.e., factors less than 200. In summary, measurements in Swedish iron foundries revealed high exposures to respirable quartz, in particular for fettlers and furnace and ladle repair workers. The suggested EU-OEL and the ACGIH-TLV were exceeded in, respectively, 23% and 56% of all measurements regardless of the type of foundry. Further work on elimination techniques to reduce quartz concentrations, along with control of personal protection equipment, is essential.

  • 68.
    Andersson, Lena
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Burdorf, Alex
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Estimating trends in quartz exposure in Swedish iron foundries: predicting past and present exposures2012In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 362-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Swedish foundries have a long tradition of legally required surveys in the work place that, from the late 1960s onwards, included measurements of quartz. The availability of exposure data spanning almost 40 years presents a unique opportunity to study trends over that time and to evaluate the validity of exposure models based on data from shorter time spans. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate long term trends in quartz exposure over time, (ii) using routinely collected quartz exposure measurements to develop a mathematical model that could predict both historical and current exposure patterns, and (iii) to validate this exposure model with up-to-date measurements from a targeted survey of the industry.

    Methods: Eleven foundries, representative of the Swedish iron foundry industry, were divided into three groups based on the size of the companies, i.e. the number of employees. A database containing 2333 quartz exposure measurements for 11 different job descriptionswas used to create three models that covered time periods which reflected different work conditions and production processes: a historical model (1968– 1989), a development model (1990–2004), and a validation model (2005–2006). A linear mixed model for repeated measurements was used to investigate trends over time. In all mixed models, time period, company size, and job title were included as fixed (categorical) determinants of exposure. The within- and between-worker variances were considered to be random effects. A linear regression analysis was erformed to investigate agreement between the models. The average exposure was estimated for each combination of job title and company size.

    Results: A large reduction in exposure (51%) was seen between 1968 and 1974 and between 1975 and 1979 (28%). In later periods, quartz exposure was reduced by 8% per 5 years at best. In the first period, employees at smaller companies experienced ~50%higher exposure levels than those at large companies, but these differences became much smaller in later years. The furnace and ladle repair job were associated with the highest exposure, with 3.9–8.0 times the average exposure compared to the lowest exposed group. Without adjusting for this autonomous trend over time, predicting early historical exposures using our development model resulted in a statistically significant regression coefficient of 2.42 (R2 5 0.81), indicating an underestimation of historical exposure levels. Similar patterns were seen for other historical time periods. Comparing our development model with our validation model resulted in a statistically significant regression coefficient of 0.31, indicating an overestimation of current exposure levels.

    Conclusion: To investigate long-term trends in quartz exposure over time, overall linear trends can be determined by using mixed model analysis. To create individual exposure measures to predict historical exposures, it is necessary to consider factors such as the time period, type of job, type of company, and company size. The mixed model analysis showed systematic changes in concentration levels, implying that extrapolation of exposure estimates outside the range of years covered by measurements may result in underestimation or overestimation of exposure.

  • 69.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Not getting used to the smell – Chemical intolerance as lack of habituation2017In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 129, no Suppl. C, p. 377-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Chemical intolerance is a prevalent, medically unexplained symptom characterized by diverse symptoms following weak chemical exposure. The symptom-eliciting exposures are often odorous, and include perfume, fabric softeners and fragrant flowers. Several explanatory mechanisms have been proposed, but empirical data is scarce. By reanalyzing data from previous studies, we aimed to find a criterion for chemical intolerance based on reactions to actual chemical exposure.

    Method:

    We grouped participants from six previous studies based on their pattern of habituation to weak olfactory (amylacetate and n-butanol) and trigeminal (CO2 and acrolein) compounds. In two studies utilizing event-related potentials, and one functional magnetic resonance imaging study, stimuli were presented intranasally using a dynamic olfactometer. An exposure chamber that allowed full body exposure was used in the remaining three studies.

    Results:

    Individuals who did not habituate to weak chemical exposure, compared with those who did, reported (1) increasing symptoms during the course of the exposure, (2) greater problems with odors in everyday life, and (3) greater levels of everyday distress. They (4) performed worse on cognitively demanding tasks during exposure, and differed in measures of (5) the autonomic nervoussystem(respiratoryrateandpulseratevariability),(6)low-level inflammation and oxidative stress, and (7) the so called pain matrix of the brain.

    Discussion:

    Lack of habituation to weak chemical exposure may be a fruitful method of defining a sub-group of chemical intolerance.

  • 70.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Gentofte, Denmark; Department of Systems Biology, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Lind, Nina
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Chemosensory perception, symptoms and autonomic responses during chemical exposure in multiple chemical sensitivity2016In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a prevalent medically unexplained symptom characterized by symptom reactions to everyday chemical exposure below hygienic thresholds. The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of hyper-reactivity in MCS during whole-body exposure to low concentrations of the odorant n-butanol.

    METHODS: We exposed 18 participants with MCS and 18 non-ill controls to a low concentration of the odorant n-butanol using an exposure chamber. The first 10 min constituted blank exposure, after which the n-butanol concentration increased and reached a plateau at 11.5 mg/m(3).

    RESULTS: MCS participants, compared with controls, reported greater perceived odor intensities, more unpleasantness to the exposure and increasing symptoms over time. MCS participants also expressed higher pulse rate and lower pulse rate variability than controls did. No group differences were found for breathing rate or tonic electrodermal activity responses.

    CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that MCS sufferers differ from healthy controls in terms of autonomic responses, symptoms and chemosensory perception during chemical exposure.

  • 71.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Highlighting the large variation in perceived properties of odors over time2017In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, no 2, p. E26-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals differ considerably when rating the perceived properties of odors, especially over time. A second glance at previously published data-sets from our laboratory revealed that the same invariant exposure often produced both floor and roof effects. An odor that at the end of the exposure ses-sion was regarded as non-existent by one participant, could border the “absoulte maximum” rating category in another. We provide re-analyses from four exposure studies where we illustrate the perceptual variability over time, and outcomes associated with such ratings. We note that high, compared with low ratings of odor intensity over time is associated with ratings of unpleasantness and symptoms, but also with everyday distress, cognitive performance, autonomous nerv-ous system activity and deviating responses in the so-called pain or saliency matrix of the brain. We bring an open ques-tion to ECRO regarding how this considerable variability should be interpreted, and what the consequenced are for research and for setting exposure limits.

  • 72.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Effects of Task Demands on Olfactory, Auditory, and Visual Event-Related Potentials Suggest Similar Top-Down Modulation Across Senses2018In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 129-134, article id bjx082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A widely held view is that top-down modulation of sensory information relies on an amodal control network that acts through the thalamus to regulate incoming signals. Olfaction lacks a direct thalamic projection, which suggests that it may differ from other modalities in this regard. We investigated the late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) from 28 participants, elicited by intensity-matched olfactory, auditory and visual stimuli, during a condition of focused attention, a neutral condition, and a condition in which stimuli were to be actively ignored. Amplitudes were largest during the attend condition, lowest during the ignore condition, with the neutral condition in between. A Bayesian analysis resulted in strong evidence for similar effects of task across sensory modalities. We conclude that olfaction, despite its unique neural projections, does not differ from audition and vision in terms of task-dependent neural modulation of the LPC.

  • 73.
    Andersson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Oudin Åström, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Pettersson-Strömbäck, Anita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Med värme ihågkommen2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project has been to use an interview study and literature survey to show how the outdoor environment, public facilities and housing can be designed to reduce the risk for elderly and persons with disabilities to die prematurely during heat waves. The goal is to raise awareness and interest in the adaptation of the environment and buildings of the persons responsible for planning, housing stock, social service, health care and homes for elderly.

    Cities are generally warmer and less windy than the surrounding landscape. The urban "warmer climate" is mainly due to the greater heat storage that can be found in buildings, streets, sidewalks, etc., limited vegetation that can shade and release moisture and activities such as traffic and domestic heating, which generate heat. During heat waves the increase in mortality is larger in cities. To live alone, be confined to bed and stay on the top floor has been shown to be additional risk factors.

    Measures to reduce the city's urban heat island and effects on humans are sometimes divided into "soft measures" (information, warning systems for heat waves, interventions for vulnerable groups), "green actions" (make the city a greener environment) and “technical measures” (shaded structures, changes of the walls, refrigeration /air conditioning indoors, etc.), which all are complementary. In some countries, the care homes for elderly should have a common room that can be kept cool even during heat waves.

    The aim of the interview study was to describe how personnel in the elderly care experience these problems in Sweden. The data collection method was 20 semi structured interviews with elderly care

    Sid 3 (49)

    personnel in Botkyrka municipality during October 2011. Content analysis was performed on the transcribed interview data and categories and subcategories were created on repeated themes in the text. The conclusions suggest intensified education for and information to personnel in the elderly care sector and that already in the planning of new homes for elderly the personnel's knowledge and experience of the needs among the elderly should be taken into account. 

  • 74. Andersson, M.
    et al.
    Johansson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Minarik, D.
    Mattsson, S.
    Leide-Svegborn, S.
    An internal radiation dosimetry computer program, IDAC 2.0, for estimation of patient doses from radiopharmaceuticals2014In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 162, no 3, p. 299-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The internal dosimetry computer program internal dose assessment by computer (IDAC) for calculations of absorbed doses to organs and tissues as well as effective doses to patients from examinations with radiopharmaceuticals has been developed. The new version, IDAC2.0, incorporates the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP)/ICRU computational adult male and female voxel phantoms and decay data from the ICRP publication 107. Instead of only 25 source and target regions, calculation can now be made with 63 source regions to 73 target regions. The major advantage of having the new phantom is that the calculations of the effective doses can be made with the latest tissue weighting factors of ICRP publication 103. IDAC2.0 uses the ICRP human alimentary tract (HAT) model for orally administrated activity and for excretion through the gastrointestinal tract and effective doses have been recalculated for radiopharmaceuticals that are orally administered. The results of the program are consistent with published data using the same specific absorption fractions and also compared with published data from the same computational phantoms but with segmentation of organs leading to another set of specific absorption fractions. The effective dose is recalculated for all the 34 radiopharmaceuticals that are administered orally and has been published by the ICRP. Using the new HAT model, new tissue weighting factors and the new adult computational voxel phantoms lead to an average effective dose of half of its earlier estimated value. The reduction mainly depends on electron transport simulations to walled organs and the transition from the stylised phantom with unrealistic interorgan distances to more realistic voxel phantoms.

  • 75.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. The OLIN studies, Luleå, Sweden..
    Backman, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. The OLIN studies, Luleå, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hagenbjörk, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hedman, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. The OLIN studies, Luleå, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. The OLIN studies, Luleå, Sweden.
    Early life swimming pool exposure and asthma onset in children: a case-control study2018In: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 17, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Trichloramine exposure in indoor swimming pools has been suggested to cause asthma in children. We aimed to investigate the risk of asthma onset among children in relation to individual trichloramine exposure.

    METHODS: A longitudinal nested case-control study of 337 children with asthma (cases) and 633 controls aged 16-17 years was performed within a population-based cohort from The Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies (OLIN). Year of asthma onset and exposure time at different ages were obtained in telephone interviews. Trichloramine concentrations in the pool buildings were measured. Skin prick test results for inhalant allergens were available from previous examinations of the cohort. The risk for asthma was analyzed in relation to the cumulative trichloramine exposure before onset of asthma.

    RESULTS: Swimming pool exposure in early life was associated with a significantly higher risk of pre-school asthma onset. A dose-response relationship between swimming pool exposure and asthma was indicated in children with asthma onset at 1 year of age. Children who were both sensitized and exposed had a particularly high risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: Early life exposure to chlorinated swimming pool environments was associated with pre-school asthma onset.

  • 76. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Johansson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Eckerman, Keith
    Mattsson, Sören
    IDAC-Dose 2.1, an internal dosimetry program for diagnostic nuclear medicine based on the ICRP adult reference voxel phantoms2017In: EJNMMI Research, ISSN 2191-219X, E-ISSN 2191-219X, Vol. 7, article id 88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To date, the estimated radiation-absorbed dose to organs and tissues in patients undergoing diagnostic examinations in nuclear medicine is derived via calculations based on models of the human body and the biokinetic behaviour of the radiopharmaceutical. An internal dosimetry computer program, IDAC-Dose2.1, was developed based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-specific absorbed fractions and computational framework of internal dose assessment given for reference adults in ICRP Publication 133. The program uses the radionuclide decay database of ICRP Publication 107 and considers 83 different source regions irradiating 47 target tissues, defining the effective dose as presented in ICRP Publications 60 and 103. The computer program was validated against another ICRP dosimetry program, Dose and Risk Calculation (DCAL), that employs the same computational framework in evaluation of occupational and environmental intakes of radionuclides. IDAC-Dose2.1 has a sub-module for absorbed dose calculations in spherical structures of different volumes and composition; this sub-module is intended for absorbed dose estimates in radiopharmaceutical therapy. For nine specific alpha emitters, the absorbed dose contribution from their decay products is also included in the committed absorbed dose calculations. Results: The absorbed doses and effective dose of I-131-iodide determined by IDAC-Dose2.1 were validated against the dosimetry program DCAL, showing identical results. IDAC-Dose2.1 was used to calculate absorbed doses for intravenously administered F-18-FDG and orally administered Tc-99m-pertechnetate and I-131-iodide, three frequently used radiopharmaceuticals. Using the tissue weighting factors from ICRP Publication 103, the effective dose per administered activity was estimated to be 0.016 mSv/MBq for F-18-FDG, 0.014 mSv/MBq for Tc-99m-pertechnetate, and 16 mSv/MBq for I-131-iodide. Conclusions: The internal dosimetry program IDAC-Dose2.1 was developed and applied to three radiopharmaceuticals for validation against DCAL and to generate improved absorbed dose estimations for diagnostic nuclear medicine using specific absorbed fraction values of the ICRP computational voxel phantoms. The sub-module for absorbed dose calculations in spherical structures 1 mm to 9 cm in diameter and different tissue composition was included to broaden the clinical usefulness of the program. The IDAC-Dose2.1 program is free software for research and available for download at http://www.idac-dose.org.

  • 77.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hedman, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Heavy vehicle traffic is related to wheeze among schoolchildren: a population-based study in an area with low traffic flows2011In: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 10, no 91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An association between traffic air pollution and respiratory symptoms among children has been reported. However, the effects of traffic air pollution on asthma and wheeze have been very sparsely studied in areas with low traffic intensity in cold climate with poor dispersion. We evaluated the impact of vehicle traffic on childhood asthma and wheeze by objective exposure assessment.

    Methods: As a part of the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies, a questionnaire was sent to the families of all children attending first or second grade in Luleå (72,000 inhabitants) in Northern Sweden in 2006. The age of the children was 7-8 years and the participation rate was 98% (n = 1357). Skin prick tests were performed in 1224 (89%) children. The home addresses were given geographical coordinates and traffic counts were obtained from the local traffic authorities. A proximity model of average daily traffic and average daily heavy vehicle traffic within 200 meters from each participant's home address was used. The associations between traffic exposure and asthma and wheeze, respectively, were analysed in an adjusted multiple logistic regression model.

    Results: Exposure to high traffic flows was uncommon in the study area; only 15% of the children lived within 200 meters from a road with a traffic flow of ≥8000 vehicles per day. Living closer than 200 meters from a road with ≥500 heavy vehicles daily was associated with current wheeze, odds ratio 1.7 (confidence interval 1.0-2.7). A dose-response relation was indicated. An increased risk of asthma was also seen, however not significant, odds ratio 1.5 (confidence interval 0.8-2.9). Stratified analyses revealed that the effect of traffic exposure was restricted to the non-sensitized phenotype of asthma and wheeze. The agreement between self-reported traffic exposure and objective measurements of exposure was moderate.

    Conclusions: This study showed that already at low levels of exposure, vehicle traffic is related to an increased risk of wheeze among children. Thus, the global burden of traffic air pollution may be underestimated.

  • 78.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Selin, F
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Asbestos exposure and the risk of sinonasal cancer2016In: Occupational Medicine, ISSN 0962-7480, E-ISSN 1471-8405, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 326-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: While the increased risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma is well established, the relationship between exposure to asbestos dust and sinonasal cancer is less clear.

    AIMS: To study the risk of sinonasal cancer in relation to asbestos dust exposure.

    METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of construction workers, linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry. Participants were classified into four exposure groups; heavy, medium, low or very low exposure to asbestos, according to the incidence of pleural mesothelioma in their occupational group. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and relative risks (RRs) were analysed, adjusted for age and smoking habits. The risks of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were investigated separately.

    RESULTS: Among the 280222 subjects, there was no increased risk of sinonasal cancer compared to the general population [SIR 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.03], or any dose-response relationship with exposure to asbestos. The highest RR was found in the low exposure group (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69-2.28) and the lowest RR was found in the group with the highest exposure to asbestos (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.33-1.53). No significantly increased risk or dose-response association could be found for adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma when analysed separately.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study did not find an increased risk of developing sinonasal cancer after asbestos exposure.

  • 79.
    Andersson, N.
    et al.
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandström, Monica
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Umeå, Sweden.
    Berglund, André
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Umeå, Sweden.
    Amplitude modulation of light from various sources1994In: Lighting Research and Technology, ISSN 1477-1535, E-ISSN 1477-0938, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 157-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work was done to obtain basic knowledge about various light sources and specially about light modulation, or flicker. The study showed that the modulation of light varied a lot between different ordinary light sources. In general the 100 Hz component in the flickering light dominated. For incandescent lights the modulation increased with decreasing power and was in the range 10-22%. Light from the tungsten-halogen lamps had 2-6% modulation. The most common light sources (single-colour fluorescent light) had a modulation of about 20%. Fluorescent tubes with better colour rendering (full-colour fluorescent and full-colour special fluorescent tubes) had a higher modulation, 30-40%, while light from high-frequency (HF) fluorescent tubes had a modulation of 0.9%. Light from conventional compact fluorescent tubes had a modulation degree of about 44%, and for HF compact fluorescent tubes it was 2-7%. Modulation of light from HF compact fluorescent tubes had a tendency to decrease with increasing tube size. The modulation of light from discharge lamps was in the range of 52% up to 100% and the curve form of the light from low pressure sodium vapour lamp (100% modulation) contained several high frequency components.

  • 80.
    Andersson, T
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, Stockholm University, Sweden and Swedish Institute for National Food Agency (SLV), Sweden and Communicable Disease Control (SMI), Solna, Sweden.
    Bjelkmar, P
    Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control (SMI), Solna, Sweden, and Inera AB, Sweden.
    Hulth, A
    Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control (SMI), Solna, Sweden.
    Lindh, J
    Department of Microbiology, Tumour and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden and Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control (SMI), Solna, Sweden.
    Stenmark, Stephan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases. County Medical Officer, Västerbotten, Sweden.
    Widerström, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Syndromic surveillance for local outbreak detection and awareness: evaluating outbreak signals of acute gastroenteritis in telephone triage, web-based queries and over-the-counter pharmacy sales2014In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 142, no 2, p. 303-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the purpose of developing a national system for outbreak surveillance, local outbreak signals were compared in three sources of syndromic data - telephone triage of acute gastroenteritis, web queries about symptoms of gastrointestinal illness, and over-the-counter (OTC) pharmacy sales of antidiarrhoeal medication. The data sources were compared against nine known waterborne and foodborne outbreaks in Sweden in 2007-2011. Outbreak signals were identified for the four largest outbreaks in the telephone triage data and the two largest outbreaks in the data on OTC sales of antidiarrhoeal medication. No signals could be identified in the data on web queries. The signal magnitude for the fourth largest outbreak indicated a tenfold larger outbreak than officially reported, supporting the use of telephone triage data for situational awareness. For the two largest outbreaks, telephone triage data on adult diarrhoea provided outbreak signals at an early stage, weeks and months in advance, respectively, potentially serving the purpose of early event detection. In conclusion, telephone triage data provided the most promising source for surveillance of point-source outbreaks.

  • 81.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Strömberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Predictors of Well-being at work2016In: Scientific Programme: Wellbeing at Work 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity. Conditions in today’s working life make new approaches necessary in order to limit negative health effects of work and to enhance wellbeing and health at work. About 24 % of the working population in Sweden report to have had work-related disorders during the last twelve months. In order to achieve a sustainable working life it is likely that strategies and actions from different and new angles are needed.ObjectivesThe present study is a part of a larger study (the GodA –study; a Swedish acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) and aims to investigate how work environment factors, work ability, work motivation, work and life balance predict well-being at work.

    Methods

    The GodA study is a 2-year follow up study in Sweden with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers. One of the companies serves as “intervention-company”, the other two as controls. A baseline questionnaire was sent out 2013 and the results from the survey were reported back to the companies, which have been processing their results. In spring 2015 a follow up survey has been administered. Data have been analysed with univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses.

    Results

    A baseline multivariate linear regression model, which included background factors, perceived psychosocial work climate and work environmental factors (motivation, leadership, employee responsibilities, efficacy, work ability and management committed to employee health) and work life balance, showed that psychosocial work climate (B= .48, 95% CI=.27 – .69) leadership, (B= .27, 95% CI=.05– .49), work ability (B= -.12, 95% CI= .03 – .21), motivation (B= -33, 95% CI= .14 – .51) and work life balance (B= -.34, 95% CI=-.57– -.12), were signifi-cantly associated with well-being at work and explained 40% of the variance (Adjusted R2=.40, p<.001).

    Conclusions

    Results showed that not only work environment factors are important predictors. To maintain a healthy work place a promotion of balance between work and private life is needed.

  • 82.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Strömberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Predictors of well-being at work2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The concept of healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity. Conditions in today’s working life make new approaches necessary in order to limit negative health effects of work and to enhance wellbeing and health at work. About 24 % of the working population in Sweden report to have had work-related disorders during the last twelve months. In order to achieve a sustainable working life it is likely that strategies and actions from different and new angles are needed.

    The present study is a part of a larger study (the GodA –study; a Swedish acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) and aims to investigate how work environment factors, work ability, work motivation, work and life balance predict well-being at work.

    Methods

    The GodA study is a 2-year follow up study in Sweden with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers. One of the companies serves as “intervention-company”, the other two as controls. A baseline questionnaire was sent out 2013 and the results from the survey were reported back to the companies, which have been processing their results. In spring 2015 a follow up survey has been administered. Data from the baseline measurements have been analysed with univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses.

    Results

    A baseline multivariate linear regression model, which included background factors, perceived psychosocial work climate and work environmental factors (motivation, leadership, employee responsibilities, efficacy, work ability and management committed to employee health) and work life balance, showed that psychosocial work climate (B= .48, 95% CI=.27 – .69) leadership, (B= .27, 95% CI=.05– .49), work ability  (B= -.12, 95% CI= .03 – .21), motivation (B= -33, 95% CI= .14 – .51) and work life balance (B= -.34, 95% CI=-.57– -.12), were significantly associated with well-being at work and explained 40% of the variance  (Adjusted R2=.40, p<.001). Results from the two-year follow up will be presented at the conference.

    Conclusions

    Results showed that not only work environment factors are important predictors. To maintain ahealthy work place apromotion ofbalancebetween workand private life is needed.

  • 83.
    Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Centre for Health Care Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lundholm, Ulla Persson
    Nora Health Care Centre, Örebro County Council, Nora, Sweden.
    Kohn, Monica
    Nora Health Care Centre, Örebro County Council, Nora, Sweden.
    Westerdahl, Elisabeth
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Centre for Health Care Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Medical yoga: another way of being in the world-A phenomenological study from the perspective of persons suffering from stress-related symptoms2014In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 9, article id 23033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of stress-related illness has grown in recent years. Many of these patients seek help in primary health care. Yoga can reduce stress and thus complements pharmacological therapy in medical practice. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated patients' experiences of yoga treatment in a primary health care setting or, specifically, the experiences of yoga when suffering from stress-related illness. Thus, the aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of participating in medical yoga as a complementary treatment for stress-related symptoms and diagnosis in a primary health care setting. This study has a descriptive phenomenological design and took place at a primary health care centre in Sweden during 2011. Five women and one man (43-51 years) participated. They were recruited from the intervention group (n = 18) in a randomized control trial, in which they had participated in a medical yoga group in addition to standard care for 12 weeks. Data were collected by means of qualitative interviews, and a phenomenological data analysis was conducted. The essential meaning of the medical yoga experience was that the medical yoga was not an endpoint of recovery but the start of a process towards an increased sense of wholeness. It was described as a way of alleviating suffering, and it provided the participants with a tool for dealing with their stress and current situation on a practical level. It led to greater self-awareness and self-esteem, which in turn had an implicit impact on their lifeworld. In phenomenological terms, this can be summarized as Another way of being in the world, encompassing a perception of deepened identity. From a philosophical perspective, due to using the body in a new way (yoga), the participants had learnt to see things differently, which enriched and recast their perception of themselves and their lives.

  • 84.
    Annerbäck, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Sahlqvist, Lotta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD).
    Wingren, Gun
    A cross-sectional study of victimisation of bullying among schoolchildren in Sweden: background factors and self-reported health complaints2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 270-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To examine background factors for bullying and associations between bullying victimisation and health problems. Methods: A cross-sectional study on all pupils in grades 7 and 9 in a Swedish county was conducted in 2011 (n=5248). Data have been analysed with bi- and multivariate models. Results: 14% of the children reported that they had been bullied during the past 2 months. Background factors for bullying were: gender (girls more often); age (younger students more often); disability/disease; high body mass index, and having parents born abroad. There were strong associations between being bullied and poor health and self-harm. Associations with poor general health for boys and girls and mental health problems for girls showed stronger associations with higher frequency of bullying than with lower. For boys, physical bullying had stronger correlations with poor general health than written-verbal bullying. Conclusions: Bullying is a serious public health problem among young people and healthcare professionals have an important task in identifying exposed children. Children who are "different" are more exposed to bullying, which implies that school personnel, parents, and other adults in these children's social networks can play an important role in paying attention to and preventing the risk of bullying.

  • 85. Annesi-Maesano, Isabella
    et al.
    Norback, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Zielinski, Jan
    Bernard, Alfred
    Gratziou, Cristina
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Sestini, Piersante
    Viegi, Giovanni
    Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing homes (GERIE study) profile: objectives, study protocol and descriptive data.2013In: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 1828-695X, E-ISSN 2049-6958, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 71-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Indoor air pollution (IAP) constitutes a major global public health problem requiring increasing efforts in research and policymaking that may have special significance for elderly that are likely to spend most of their day indoors and appear to be particularly susceptible to adverse effects of chemical pollutants and bio-contaminants. Yet, evidence existing on the effects of IAP in elderly is scanty. The Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing homes (GERIE) study aimed to assess health effects of major indoor air pollutants and thermal conditions in elderly (> 70 years) living stably in nursing homes (NH) across Europe. Respiratory effects were particularly considered as airways and lung constitute the first target of air pollutants.

    OBJECTIVES: We describe here the rationale and the methods of the GERIE Study.

    METHODS: 8 nursing homes were randomly selected in 7 European countries. Twenty individuals were randomly selected in each nursing home. Major indoor and outdoor air chemical pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, PM0.1, formaldehyde, NO2; O3, VOC, CO2) and bio-contaminants (moulds, allergens) were assessed objectively with standardized procedures. Major health status indicators were assessed through a standardized questionnaire, non-invasive clinical tests and blood and urine biomarkers as well as saliva for ADN.

    RESULTS: The GERIE study has given the opportunity to publish two reviews on respiratory health effects of indoor and outdoor air pollution in elderly. In addition it has provided the inventory of air quality and thermal conditions in 50 nursing homes across Europe and data on respiratory health status in 600 elderly aged 82 years in mean. Major future results will include the relationships between NH environment and health in elderly.

    CONCLUSIONS: The main long-term purpose of the GERIE study is to improve the health of elderly who permanently reside in nursing homes or of those who are exposed to indoor air pollution because of reduced mobility.

  • 86.
    Anticona, Cynthia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lundh, Thomas
    Alegre, Yuri
    Sebastian, Miguel San
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lead exposure in indigenous communities of the Amazon basin, Peru2011In: International journal of hygiene and environmental health (Print), ISSN 1438-4639, E-ISSN 1618-131X, Vol. 215, no 1, p. 59-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2006, three studies have reported elevated levels of lead (Pb) among the indigenous population of the Corrientes river, in the Amazon basin of Peru. Due to the large evidence of environmental pollution related to oil exploitation in the area, this activity has been suggested as the source of exposure. This study aimed to evaluate Pb levels in the population and environment of two communities exposed and one community non-exposed to the oil exploitation activity. Blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by the instrument Leadcare. A comparison with the graphite furnace atomic absorption technique was performed in order to validate the Leadcare results. Environmental samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Among 361 capillary samples, the mean BLL was 9.4μg/dl. Mean BLL of the communities exposed (n=171, x¯=9.5μg/dl) and non-exposed (n=190, x¯=9.2μg/dl) to the oil activity were not significantly different. Pb levels in environmental samples were below the maximum permissible levels. The sources of exposure could not be identified. Elevated levels of Pb in the oil-non-exposed community pointed out at other sources not yet clarified.

  • 87.
    Anticona, Cynthia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Anemia and malnutrition in indigenous children and adolescents of the Peruvian Amazon in a context of lead exposure: a cross-sectional study2014In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Indigenous children and adolescents of the Peruvian Amazon live in precarious conditions that could increase the risk of malnutrition. A particular problem in the Corrientes river communities is the high exposure to lead among children and adolescents. Objective: This study aimed to determine the nutritional status of children and adolescents in indigenous communities in the Corrientes river basin and examine risk factors for anemia, stunting, underweight, and wasting. Design: This was a cross-sectional assessment in children and adolescents aged 0-17 years from six communities (n = 330). Data collection included measurement of hemoglobin levels, anthropometrics, blood lead levels (BLLs); a parental questionnaire including demographic and dwelling information; parents' occupation; and the child's duration of breastfeeding and food consumption. Analysis included univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression. Results: Overall, anemia prevalence was 51.0%, stunting (proxy for chronic malnutrition) 50.0%, and underweight 20.0%. Bivariate analysis showed that anemia and underweight prevalence was higher in the 0-4 years group (p<0.05). No association was found between anemia, stunting, or underweight with gender, community exposure to oil activity, or consumption of river water. Stunting prevalence was higher in the group whose BLLs were >5 mu g/dL (p<0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, no variable was associated with anemia or underweight. The group 5-11 years and >12 years had 1.9 and 3.1 times higher risk of stunting than the group under five years, respectively. Children and adolescents with BLLs >5 mu g/dL had twice the risk of stunting compared to those with lower BLLs. Conclusions: Half of the study population was found with anemia and stunting. Anemia was more prevalent in the 0- to 5-year age group and stunting in the 12- to 17-year group. The association between stunting and BLLs might be attributed to a direct effect of lead on human growth. Also, poor nutrition and other socioeconomic-related factors may contribute to the simultaneous existence of stunting and elevated BLLs.

  • 88. Antoniewicz, Lukasz
    et al.
    Brynedal, Amelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hedman, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Division of Nursing, Department of Health Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden..
    Lundbäck, Magnus
    Bosson, Jenny A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Acute Effects of Electronic Cigarette Inhalation on the Vasculature and the Conducting Airways2019In: Cardiovascular Toxicology, ISSN 1530-7905, E-ISSN 1559-0259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of electronic cigarettes has increased exponentially since its introduction onto the global market in 2006. However, short- and long-term health effects remain largely unknown due to the novelty of this product. The present study examines the acute effects of e-cigarette aerosol inhalation, with and without nicotine, on vascular and pulmonary function in healthy volunteers. Seventeen healthy subjects inhaled electronic cigarette aerosol with and without nicotine on two separate occasions in a double-blinded crossover fashion. Blood pressure, heart rate, and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity and pulse wave analysis were assessed at baseline, and then at 0 h, 2 h, and 4 h following exposure. Dynamic spirometry and impulse oscillometry were measured following vascular assessments at these time points, as well as at 6 h following exposure. e-Cigarette aerosol with nicotine caused a significant increase in heart rate and arterial stiffness. Furthermore, e-cigarette aerosol-containing nicotine caused a sudden increase in flow resistance as measured by impulse oscillometry, indicating obstruction of the conducting airways. Both aerosols caused an increase in blood pressure. The present study indicates that inhaled e-cigarette aerosol with nicotine has an acute impact on vascular and pulmonary function. Thus, chronic usage may lead to long-term adverse health effects. Further investigation is warranted.

  • 89.
    Antonsson, Ann-Beth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics (Closed 20130701).
    Christensson, Bengt
    KTH. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Berge, Johan
    Rättsmedicinalverket.
    Sjögren, Bengt
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Fatal Carbon Monoxide Intoxication After AcetyleneGas Welding of Pipes2013In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 662-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented.

  • 90.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    A systems analysis of a target group of enterprises: A new way forward for the dissemination of research results and sustainable technologies2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    An interactive Internet tool supporting risk management in SMEs: The Chemical Guide (KemiGuiden)2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Företagshälsovård2014In: Människan i arbetslivet: Teori och praktik / [ed] Eva Holmström, Kerstina Olsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB , 2014, 2:1, p. 199-223Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Improving work environment in small enterprises: The need for a holistic perspective and adaptation to small enterprise reality2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Interviews with employees reporting work-related injuries as the basis for intervention2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Kapitel 1.: Varför företagshälsovård?2011In: Framgångsrik företagshälsovård: Möjligheter och metoder, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2011Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Företagshälsovård, fhv, är en viktig aktör i välfärdssamhället. Den ska bidra både till att förebygga ohälsa och främja hälsa samt till att ska pagoda och säkra arbetsplatser där de anställda inte riskerar att skadas eller bli sjuka. Omvärldens förväntningar är höga. För att uppfylla dem krävs att fhv har en bred kompetens och att arbetet bygger på samarbete både mellan olika kompetenser inom den egna verksamheten och med de företag och organisationer som fhv arbetar för.

  • 96.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Kapitel 4: Att förstå kunden2011In: Framgångsrik företagshälsovård: Möjligheter och metoder, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2011Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Verksamhet, ekonomiska förutsättningar, drivkrafter och värderingar varierar för FHV:s kunder. För att lyckas i arbetet med att stödja kunden, behöver FHV förstå hur dessa faktorer påverkar arbetsmiljöarbetet och hur insatser bäst anpassas till varje kund.

  • 97.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Kapitel 9: Företagshälsovård och småföretag2011In: Framgångsrik företagshälsovård: Möjligheter och metoder, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2011Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Många företag med mindre än 50 anställda har någon form av avtal med FHV och de flesta är nöjda. Deras anställda står dock bara för en liten andel av alla arbetstagare som har tillgång till fhv. En stor del av småföretagen utnyttjar inte FHV:s breda kompetens utan anlitar dem främst för hälsoundersökningar. Det betyder att det finns en stor utvecklingspotential om man kan få de mindre företagen att efterfråga fler tjänster.

  • 98.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Procurement demands: a management strategy for sustainability2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Environmental Technology and Work Science.
    Relation to other tools for the working environment2004In: Working environment in life-cycle assessment / [ed] Poulsen, Pia Brunn; Jensen, Allan Astrup, Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), 2004, p. 3-8Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Antonsson Lundberg, Ann-Beth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Risk assessment tools for small enterprises: evaluation of uptake and effect2009In: USE 2009: Programme and abstract book, 2009, p. 118-118Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Risk assessment is a core component in the management of the working environment. Risk assessment helps identify and prioritize risks and reduce risks through implementation of control measures. Aim: To evaluate how tools for risk assessment are used by small enterprises and what the result is from using the tools. Method: Randomly selected small enterprises in printing and electroplating industry were contacted and asked to participate in an evaluation of tools for chemical risk assessment developed to suit small enterprises. An initial interview was made with the enterprises accepting to participate in the testing, aiming at surveying how they use to assess chemical risks. The enterprises were provided with one out of six tools. Ten enterprises in each sector were asked to test each tool, adding up to 20 enterprises testing each tool. After three and six months the enterprise was contacted. If they had tested the tool, a new interview was made, exploring their opinion on the tool and their experiences from using it. Enterprises not having tested the tools were also interviewed about the reasons why they did not use the tool they were provided. In enterprises having used the tools, an expert risk assessment was made and compared to the risk assessment of the enterprise in order to evaluate the quality of the risk assessment tool and the enterprise's use of it. Result: More than 60 % of the enterprises accepted to test the tools, reflecting an interest and concern for chemical risks in their work environment. The follow-up interviews are currently conducted and will be finished during April 2009. The results show how risk assessment works in practice in small enterprises. The study has revealed several problems with different tools and some unexpected results. One example is that several enterprises have concluded that they are content with their old method for risk assessment, which was using safety data sheets, reflecting a profound lack of understanding of what risk assessment is about. Results from the evaluation will be presented, showing how small enterprises perceive the different kinds of tools tested and what the outcomes in terms of quality are of the tested tools. The results will be discussed in relation to the enterprises and their previous experience of and knowledge about risk assessment.

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