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  • 51.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Asylsökande barn med uppgivenhetssymtom: trauma, kultur, asylprocess2006Report (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Hessle, Marie
    Mannikoff, Anna
    Asylsökande barn med uppgivenhetssymtom: ett svenskt fenomen åren 2001-20062006Report (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Aho, Nikolas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Victimization, Prevalence, Health and Peritraumatic Reactions in Swedish Adolescents2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to expand the knowledge of victimization in children and youth in Sweden. Victimization, prevalence, health and peritraumatic reactions were explored in a cross sectional, representative sample of 5,960 second grade high school students in Sweden. A computerized survey was developed and administered in class room setting.

    Lifetime victimization was found in 84.1% of the sample (m=83.0%, f=85.2%), and, in relation to the five domains, 66.4% had experienced conventional crime, 24% child maltreatment, 54.4% peer and sibling victimization, 21.8% sexual victimization, and 54% had experienced witness victimization. Females experienced significantly more child maltreatment, peer and sibling victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessed victimization, males more conventional crime (p<0.001). Using logistic regression risk factors for victimization were confirmed by a significant increase OR regarding gender, environment and lack of both parents.

    Symptoms (TSCC), were clearly associated with both victimizations per se and the number of victimizations. The results indicated a relatively linear increase in symptoms with an increase in number of events experienced. Mental health of the polyvictimized group was significantly worse than that of the non-polyvictimized group, with significantly elevated TSCC scores (t<0.001). Hierarchical regression analysis resulted in beta value reduction when polyvictimization was introduced supporting the independent effect on symptoms. Social anxiety was found in 10.2 % (n = 605) of the total group (n = 5,960). A significant gender difference emerged, with more females than males reporting social anxiety. Elevated PTSS was found in 14.8 % (n=883). Binary logistic regression revealed the highest OR for having had contact with child and adolescent psychiatry was found for the combined group with social anxiety and elevated PTSS (OR = 4.88, 95 % CI = 3.53–6.73, p<001). Significant associations were also found between use of child and adolescent psychiatry and female gender (OR = 2.05, 95 % CI = 1.70–2.45), Swedish birth origin (OR = 1.68, 95 % CI = 1.16–2.42) and living in a small municipality (OR = 1.33, 95 % CI = 1.02–1.73).

    Mediation models used peritraumatic reactions (PT): total, physiological arousal (PA), peritraumatic dissociation (PD), and intervention thoughts (IT) and JVQ and TSCC. Of the n=5,332 cases, a total of n=4,483 (84.1%) reported at least one victimizing event (m = 83.0%, f = 85.2%). Of these, 74.9% (n=3,360) also experienced a PT reaction of some kind. The effect mediated by PT tot was b= 0.479, BCa CI [0.342 – 0.640], representing a relatively small effect of 7.6%, κ2=0.076, 95% BCa CI [0.054- 0.101]. The mediating effect of JVQ on TSCC was mediated by PD more for males (b=0.394 BCa CI [0.170-0.636]) than for females (b=0.247, BCa CI [0.021-0.469]). The indirect effect of the JVQ on the TSCC tot mediated by the different PT reactions was significant for PD (b=0.355, BCa CI [0.199- 0.523]. In males a mediating effect of PD could be seen in the different models, while females had a more mixed result. IT did not show any indirect effect in males, but had a mixed effect for females.

    The empirical findings in this thesis lead to the conclusion that victimization is highly prevalent in children and youth and is related to health issues. The association of victimization on symptoms was mediated by peritraumatic reactions. Using a comprehensive instrument such as the JVQ provides the researcher or clinician the opportunity to acquire more complete measurement and also makes it possible to identify polyvictimization, a high-level category of events with severe impact on health.  

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  • 54.
    Aho, Nikolas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Proczkowska Björklund, Marie
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Peritraumatic reactions in relation to trauma exposure and symptoms of posttraumatic stress in high school students2017In: European Journal of Psychotraumatology, ISSN 2000-8198, E-ISSN 2000-8066, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 1380998Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exposure to traumatic events is clearly associated with a diversity of subsequent mental health problems, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as the most prevalent disorder. Epidemiologically, trauma exposure rates are more prevalent than PTSD, indicating that most trauma victims do not develop PTSD. More knowledge is needed to understand the development of the different posttraumatic pathways including the significance of pretraumatic, peritraumatic and posttraumatic risk factors. Objective: To study peritraumatic reactions in relation to trauma exposure and symptoms of posttraumatic stress and to enhance our understanding of peritraumatic reactions as mediators between trauma and later symptomatology. Method: The study was composed of a representative community sample of 5332 second year high school students (mean age 17.3 years) who completed the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (SAQ/JVQ), Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) and answered questions about peritraumatic reactions. Mediation effects of peritraumatic reactions on the trauma exposure relationship to symptoms was tested using the PROCESS macro for SPSS. Results: Traumatic events are common (84.1%) and are accompanied in three-quarters of the students with at least one form of peritraumatic reaction. Peritraumatic reactions, especially peritraumatic dissociative reactions, mediate the relationship between trauma exposure and symptoms, and gender moderates the effect of peritraumatic dissociation. This moderating effect was found to be larger for boys than for girls, indicating gender differences in response to trauma. Conclusions: The results indicate the need to screen for peritraumatic reactions as early as possible after a traumatic event in order to identify those at risk for PTSD.

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  • 55.
    Aho, Nikolas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Victimization, polyvictimization , and health in Swedish adolescents2016In: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, ISSN 1179-318X, Vol. 7, p. 89-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization.

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  • 56.
    Ahonen, Lia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA, USA.
    Loeber, Rolf
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA, USA.
    Dating violence in teenage girls: parental emotion regulation and racial differences2016In: CBMH. Criminal behaviour and mental health, ISSN 0957-9664, E-ISSN 1471-2857, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 240-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Teen dating violence (TDV) is a common phenomenon of great public concern. TDV may lead to severe long-term consequences for victims and offenders, and even more so for females than for males.

    Aim: The aim of this paper is to investigate possible underlying factors for involvement in TDV either as a perpetrator or a victim. Social learning theory is commonly used to explain internalisation of parents' behaviour on children's behavioural expressions, but less so on parents' emotion regulation as a direct link to later TDV.

    Method: We used longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (N=2450) to investigate if and how parents' positive and negative emotion regulation is related to TDV, controlling for early aggression and race.

    Results: Results show a moderately strong association between parents' negative emotion regulation and their daughters' involvement in serious dating violence. We also found that many more African American girls were involved in TDV compared to Caucasian girls, both as a perpetrator and victim.

    Conclusions and practical implications: We discuss directions for future research focusing on emotion regulation and dating violence. Copyright (c) 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 57.
    Ahorsu, Daniel Kwasi
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Imani, Vida
    Pediatric Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Potenza, Marc N.
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Chen, Hsin-Pao
    Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, E-DA Hospital, I-Shou University, School of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Mediating Roles of Psychological Distress, Insomnia, and Body Image Concerns in the Association Between Exercise Addiction and Eating Disorders2023In: Psychology Research and Behavior Management, E-ISSN 1179-1578, Vol. 16, p. 2533-2542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Exercising can promote good health. However, excessive exercising may have downsides. This study examined the association between exercise addiction and eating disorders and whether the identified association was mediated by psychological distress, insomnia (including sleep quality), and body image concern.

    Methods: A total of 2088 adolescents (mean age of 15.3 years) participated in this cross-sectional study by questions assessing exercise addiction, eating disorders, psychological distress, insomnia, sleep quality, and body image concern.

    Results: There were significantly positive relationships between the variables (r=0.12-0.54, p<0.01) with effect sizes from small to large. The four potential mediators (ie, insomnia, sleep quality, psychological distress, and body image concern), individually and in total, significantly mediated the association between exercise addiction and eating disorders.

    Conclusion: The findings suggest that exercise addiction in adolescents may influence eating disorders through multiple pathways, such as insomnia, psychological distress, and body image concerns. Future research should examine these relationships longitudinally and use gathered information to inform intervention development. Clinicians and healthcare workers are encouraged to assess exercise addiction when treating individuals with eating disorders.

  • 58.
    Ahorsu, Daniel Kwasi
    et al.
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Imani, Vida
    Tabriz Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Nygardh, Annette
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Broström, Anders
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology. Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Hamilton, Kyra
    Griffith Univ, Australia.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden; Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Testing an app-based intervention to improve insomnia in patients with epilepsy: A randomized controlled trial2020In: Epilepsy & Behavior, ISSN 1525-5050, E-ISSN 1525-5069, Vol. 112, article id 107371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Insomnia has adverse effects on people with epilepsy. We aimed to test a novel cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) app-based intervention on insomnia symptoms and social psychological factors in people with epilepsy and to examine the possible mechanisms among the factors. Methods: Participants were recruited from neurology clinics in Iran and comprised individuals diagnosed with epilepsy and having moderate to severe insomnia. A two-arm randomized controlled trial design was used, consisting of a treatment group (CBT-I; n = 160) and control group (patient education; n = 160). Primary outcomes were self-reported sleep quality, insomnia severity, and sleep hygiene behavior and objective sleep characteristics measured by actigraphy. Secondary outcomes were attitude, perceived behavioral control, intention, action planning, coping planning, behavioral automaticity, self-monitoring, anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QoL). All outcomes were measured at baseline, and at one, three, and six months postintervention, except objective sleep, which was assessed at baseline, and one and six months postintervention. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models. Results: Current findings showed that sleep quality, insomnia severity, sleep hygiene behavior, and sleep onset latency were significantly improved in the CBT-I group compared with the patient education group at all measurement points. Also, the CBT-I group had significantly improved anxiety, depression, and QoL compared with the patient education group. Mediation analyses showed that attitude, intention, coping planning, self-monitoring, and behavioral automaticity significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on sleep outcomes. Conclusion: Results support the use of the CBT-I app to improve sleep outcomes among people with epilepsy. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 59.
    Ahrén, Jennie C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Chiesa, Flaminia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Magnusson, C.
    Goodman, A.
    We are family - parents, siblings and eating disorders: Introducing the Stockholm Youth Cohort2012In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 27, no S1, article id P-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Eating disorders (ED) are among the leading causes of disease burden, especially in women.

    Objectives: The overall aim is to explore role of parental social characteristics and family composition in the development of ED in adolescent males and females.

    Aims: We investigated associations of parental socioeconomic position, family type, number of siblings and half-siblings and history of psychiatric disease in parents with the incidence of eating disorders at age 12–23 years.

    Methods: The Stockholm Youth Cohort (N = 589,114) is a database created by record-linkage for all children and adolescents, 0–17 years, resident in Stockholm County during the period 2001–2007, their parents and siblings. Hazard rations were calculated using Cox regression. Cases of ED were identified in outpatient care.

    Results: A total of 3251 cases of ED (2971 females and 280 males) were recorded among 249,884 study subjects. There was an increased risk of ED in both male and female offspring of parents who had a history of alcohol and drug abuse or psychiatric ill-health. Higher parental education was a risk factors in females. Increasing number of full siblings had a protective effect (fully adjusted HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87–0.96, per sibling) while increasing number of half-siblings appeared to increase risk of eating disorders in females.

    Conclusions: Risk factors for ED seem to differ between females and males. While parental psychiatric health is related to risk of ED in both sexes, family socioeconomic position and relationships within family appear to be of more importance for influencing risk of ED in females.

  • 60.
    Ahrén, Jennie C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Chiesa, Flaminia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Dalman, Christina
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Goodman, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
    We are family - parents, siblings, and eating disorders in a prospective total-population study of 250,000 Swedish males and females2013In: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 693-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We examined how parental characteristics and other aspects of family background were associated with the development of eating disorders (ED) in males and females.

    Method: We used register data and record linkage to create the prospective, total-population study the Stockholm Youth Cohort. This cohort comprises all children and adolescents who were ever residents in Stockholm County between 2001 and 2007, plus their parents and siblings. Individuals born between 1984 and 1995 (N = 249, 884) were followed up for ED from age 12 to end of 2007. We used Cox regression modeling to investigate how ED incidence was associated with family socioeconomic position, parental age, and family composition.

    Results: In total, 3,251 cases of ED (2,971 females; 280 males) were recorded. Higher parental education independently predicted a higher rate of ED in females [e.g., adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.69 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.02) for degree-level vs. elementary-level maternal education], but not in males [HR 0.73 (95% CI: 0.42, 1.28), p < 0.001 for gender interaction]. In females, an increasing number of full-siblings was associated with lower rate of ED [e.g., fully adjusted HR 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.97) per sibling], whereas an increasing number of half-siblings was associated with a higher rate [HR 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.09) per sibling].

    Discussion: The effect of parental education on ED rate varies between males and females, whereas the effect of number of siblings varies according to whether they are full or half-siblings. A deeper understanding of these associations and their underlying mechanisms may provide etiological insights and inform the design of preventive interventions

  • 61.
    Ahrén-Moonga, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    von Blixten, Nils
    Rönnelid, Johan
    Holmgren, Sven
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in severely ill patients with eating disorders2011In: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 8-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The underlying pathophysiology of eating disorders (ED) is dependent on complex interactions between psychological, biological and social factors. The purpose of the present study was to examine a possible increase in cytokines indicating inflammation, as measured by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in ED patients, and to explore possible relationships between cytokines and self-reported personality traits. Methods: Female patients with severe ED (n = 26) were recruited consecutively from an inpatient clinic and were compared to age-matched healthy females (n = 12). Commercial ELISA tests developed for the measurement of serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were employed. Personality traits were measured using Karolinska Scales of Personality. Results: The patient group displayed increased levels of the cytokine TNF-α and a tendency towards increased IL-6 levels. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to examine possible relationships between levels of cytokines and personality traits. The results showed that IL-6 levels were positively related to both somatic and psychic anxiety and to aggression scales, such as irritability and suspicion. Increased levels of TNF-α, in turn, were significantly correlated with high scores on the depression-related anxiety scale Inhibition of Aggression. However, increased levels of cytokines in the ED group did not seem to be mainly associated with symptoms of depression. Conclusion: We cannot rule out the possibility that comorbid conditions in the group contribute to the higher cytokine values. Further studies need to explore the possible influence of cytokines on the severity of ED and whether this might be mediated or moderated by specific personality traits.

  • 62.
    Ahti, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Finland.
    Kieseppä, Tuula
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Finland; Mental Health Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Suvisaari, Jaana
    Mental Health Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Suokas, Kimmo
    Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Tampere, Finland.
    Holm, Minna
    Mental Health Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wegelius, Asko
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Finland; Mental Health Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland; Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ahola-Olli, Ari
    Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, The Broad Institute of MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and Harvard, MA, Cambridge, United States; Analytical and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, MA, Boston, United States.
    Häkkinen, Katja
    Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Niuvanniemi Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Kampman, Olli
    Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Tampere, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Tampere, Finland.
    Lähteenvuo, Markku
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Niuvanniemi Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Paunio, Tiina
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Finland; Mental Health Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Tiihonen, Jari
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Niuvanniemi Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Center for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm City Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari
    Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Isometsä, Erkki
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Finland.
    Differences in psychosocial functioning between psychotic disorders in the Finnish SUPER study2022In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 244, p. 10-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Psychotic disorders differ in their impact on psychosocial functioning. However, few studies have directly compared psychosocial functioning and its determinants between schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder (SAD), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder with psychotic features (psychotic MDD). Objective: We compared rates of independent living, employment, marriage, and having children between these diagnostic groups in a large national sample of participants with psychotic disorders in Finland.

    Methods: A cross-sectional substudy of participants (N = 9148) aged 18 to 65 years in the Finnish SUPER study, recruited nationwide from health- and social care settings and with advertisements. Psychosis diagnoses, age of onset, and hospitalizations were collected from healthcare registers. Participants were interviewed for psychosocial functioning. Associations of age of onset, hospitalizations, gender, and education with psychosocial functioning were analyzed using logistic regression models.

    Results: Of participants, 13.8% were employed or studying, 72.0% living independently and 32.5% had children. Overall, BD was associated with best, SAD and psychotic MDD with intermediate, and schizophrenia with worst level of psychosocial functioning. Greatest differences were found in independent living (OR 4.06 for BD vs. schizophrenia). In multivariate models, gender and number of hospitalizations predicted employment, marriage, and independent living in all diagnostic categories, and age of onset in some diagnostic categories.

    Conclusions: Level of functioning and psychosocial outcomes differed markedly between psychotic disorders, particularly in independent living. Outcomes were worst for schizophrenia and best for BD. Across all psychotic disorders, female gender and lifetime number of hospitalizations had strong independent associations with marriage, employment, and independent living.

  • 63.
    Aila Gustafsson, Sanna
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Edlund, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Kjellin, Lars
    Örebro universitet.
    Norring, Claes
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Characteristics measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory for children at risk and protective factors for disordered eating in adolescent girls2010In: International Journal of Women's Health, E-ISSN 1179-1411, Vol. 2, p. 375-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine longitudinally the role of characteristics measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory-Child version (EDI-C) to find early predictors that might constitute risk and protective factors in the development of disordered eating.

    Method: Participants were divided into three groups based on eating attitudes at T2: disordered eating (n = 49), intermediate eating concern (n = 260), and healthy eating attitudes (n = 120). EDI-C from T1 (four to five years earlier) was then analyzed to find predictors of group classification at T2.

    Results: Drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction emerged as risk factors at T1, while drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and interoceptive awareness emerged as protective factors after controlling for initial eating concerns and body mass index.

    Discussion: Eating disorders should not be seen as a result of a premorbid personality type. Rather we should take a more social-psychological perspective to explain how individual and sociocultural factors work together in the development of these conditions.

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  • 64. Aila Gustafsson, Sanna
    et al.
    Edlund, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Kjellin, Lars
    Norring, Claes
    Risk and protective factors for disturbed eating in adolescent girls: aspects of perfectionism and attitudes to eating and weight2009In: European eating disorders review, ISSN 1072-4133, E-ISSN 1099-0968, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 380-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to longitudinally examine the role of personal standards, self-evaluation, perceived benefits of thinness and attitudes to eating and weight in the development of healthy versus disturbed eating in adolescent girls. In a longitudinal study, girls who participated in two assessments, four to five years apart, were divided into three groups according to the attitudes to eating that they manifested at the second evaluation: those with disturbed eating patterns (DE-group, n = 49), those with intermediate concerns about eating (IE-group, n = 260) and those with healthy eating attitudes (HE-group, n = 120). Variables concerning attitudes to eating and weight and physical self-evaluation emerged as risk factors, whereas personal standards or self-evaluation in general did not. Protective factors were a low BMI, healthy eating attitudes, an accepting attitude towards body size and a positive self-evaluation, particularly with regard to physical and psychological characteristics. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of early risk and protective factors for eating disturbances in girls.

  • 65.
    Ajob, Leith
    et al.
    Sunderby sjukhus, Luleå, Sverige.
    Brännström, Ingrid
    Sunderby sjukhus, Luleå, Sverige.
    Ott, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Werneke, Ursula
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry. Fellow of the Royal College of Psychiatrists (FRCPsych).
    ABC om Wernickes encefalopati: [Wernicke encephalopathy]2017In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 114, article id ELZTArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 66. Akerblad, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Finn
    von Knorring, Lars
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ekselius: Psychiatry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Cervenka: Psychiatry.
    Response, remission and relapse in relation to adherence in primary care treatment of depression: a 2-year outcome study.2006In: International Clinical Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0268-1315, E-ISSN 1473-5857, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 117-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-adherence to antidepressant drug treatment is common. In a recent study in depressed primary care patients, we reported a strong relationship between adherence and response after 6 months. With the use of a naturalistic design, the patients in that study were prospectively followed for 2 years. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the patients' long-term outcome and, in particular, to examine the impact of patients' treatment adherence on response, remission and relapse. Of the 1031 patients in the intent-to-treat (ITT) sample, 835 completed the study. After 2 years, the overall remission rate defined as a Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score of nine or less was 68% in the ITT sample analysed with the last observation carried forward (LOCF) technique, and 75% in observed cases. In total, 34% of the responders experienced at least one relapse. Response rates (LOCF) were significantly higher in adherent compared to non-adherent patients at week 24 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 21.4-32.1], year 1 (95% CI = 12.3-22.2) and year 2 (95% CI = 9.2-19.0). Remission rates (LOCF) were also significantly higher in the group of adherent patients at week 24 (95% CI = 9.6-21.5), year 1 (95% CI = 10.0-21.5) and year 2 (95% CI = 11.0-22.0). No relationship between adherence and relapse rate was observed, although the mean time from response to first sign of relapse was significantly longer in the adherent patients (95% C I= 9-97 days). In conclusion, this 2-year follow-up study showed superior long-term recovery in patients who were adherent to antidepressant medication compared to non-adherent patients.

  • 67.
    Akgül, Özge
    et al.
    Izmir Democracy Univ, Fac Arts & Sci, Dept Psychol, Izmir, Turkiye..
    Fide, Ezgi
    Dokuz Eylul Univ, Dept Neurosci, Izmir, Turkiye..
    Özel, Fatih
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiology and Environmental Toxicology.
    Alptekin, Köksal
    Dokuz Eylul Univ, Dept Neurosci, Izmir, Turkiye.;Dokuz Eylul Univ, Fac Med, Dept Psychiat, Izmir, Turkiye..
    Bora, Emre
    Dokuz Eylul Univ, Dept Neurosci, Izmir, Turkiye.;Dokuz Eylul Univ, Fac Med, Dept Psychiat, Izmir, Turkiye..
    Akdede, Berna Binnur
    Dokuz Eylul Univ, Dept Neurosci, Izmir, Turkiye.;Dokuz Eylul Univ, Fac Med, Dept Psychiat, Izmir, Turkiye..
    Yener, Görsev
    Dokuz Eylul Univ, Brain Dynam Multidisciplinary Res Ctr, Izmir, Turkiye.;Izmir Univ Econ, Fac Med, Dept Neurol, Izmir, Turkiye.;Dokuz Eylul Univ, Izmir Int Biomed & Genome Inst, Izmir, Turkiye.;Izmir Univ Econ, Fac Med, Dept Neurol, TR-35340 Izmir, Turkiye..
    Enhanced Punishment Responses in Patients With Schizophrenia: An Event-Related Potential Study2024In: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, ISSN 1550-0594, E-ISSN 2169-5202, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 219-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that abnormal reward processing is a characteristic feature of various psychopathologies including schizophrenia. Reduced reward anticipation has been suggested as a core symptom of schizophrenia. The Monetary Incentive Delay Task (MID) is frequently used to detect reward anticipation. The present study aims to evaluate the amplitude and latency of event-related potential (ERP) P300 in patients with schizophrenia (SCH) compared to healthy controls during the MID task. Twenty patients with SCH and 21 demographically matched healthy controls (HC) were included in the study. ERP P300 amplitude and latency values were compared between groups using an MID task in which reward and loss cues were presented. Relations between P300 and clinical facets were investigated in the patient group. SCH group had enhanced mean P300 amplitudes and delayed peak latency in the punishment condition compared with HC. These higher responses were also associated with negative symptoms. SCH group showed altered reward processing as being more sensitive to loss of reward conditions as firstly evidenced by electrophysiological methods, possibly due to abnormality in various systems including social withdrawal, social defeat, and behavioral inhibition system.

  • 68.
    Akgül, Özge
    et al.
    Izmir Democracy Univ, Dept Psychol, Fac Arts & Sci, Izmir, Turkiye..
    Fide, Ezgi
    Dokuz Eylul Univ, Dept Neurosci, Izmir, Turkiye..
    Özel, Fatih
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiology and Environmental Toxicology.
    Alptekin, Köksal
    Dokuz Eylul Univ, Dept Neurosci, Izmir, Turkiye.;Dokuz Eylul Univ, Fac Med, Dept Psychiat, Izmir, Turkiye..
    Bora, Emre
    Dokuz Eylul Univ, Dept Neurosci, Izmir, Turkiye.;Dokuz Eylul Univ, Fac Med, Dept Psychiat, Izmir, Turkiye..
    Akdede, Berna Binnur
    Dokuz Eylul Univ, Dept Neurosci, Izmir, Turkiye.;Dokuz Eylul Univ, Fac Med, Dept Psychiat, Izmir, Turkiye..
    Yener, Görsev
    Dokuz Eylul Univ, Dept Neurosci, Izmir, Turkiye.;Izmir Univ Econ, Fac Med, Dept Anat, Izmir, Turkiye.;Izmir Int Biomed & Genome Inst, Izmir, Turkiye..
    Reduced Reward Processing in Schizophrenia: A Comprehensive EEG Event-Related Oscillation Study2024In: Brain Topography, ISSN 0896-0267, E-ISSN 1573-6792, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 126-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that abnormal reward processing is a characteristic feature of various psychopathologies including schizophrenia (SZ). Reduced reward anticipation has been suggested as a core symptom of SZ. The present study aims to evaluate the event-related oscillations (EROs) delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma in patients with SZ during the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task, which elicits the neural activity of reward processing. Twenty-one patients with SZ and twenty-two demographically matched healthy controls were included in the study. EROs were compared between groups and correlation analyses were conducted to determine a possible relationship between clinical scores and ERO values. Compared with healthy controls, the SZ group had reduced (1) delta and theta amplitudes in the reward condition (2) total beta and non-incentive cue-related beta amplitudes, and (3) incentive cue-related frontal gamma amplitudes. These reductions can be interpreted as impaired dopaminergic neurotransmission and disrupted cognitive functioning in the reward processing of SZ. In contrast, SZ patients showed higher incentive cue-related theta and occipital gamma amplitudes compared to controls. These increments may reflect negative symptoms in SZ. Moreover, theta amplitudes showed a negative correlation with Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia scores and a positive correlation with attentional impulsivity. This is the first study showing the impairments of SZ patients in EROs from delta to gamma frequency bands compared with healthy controls during reward anticipation. Being the first comprehensive study, our results can be interpreted as providing evidence for disrupted brain dynamics in the reward processing of SZ studied by EROs. It may become possible to help patients' wellness by improving our understanding of reward processing in schizophrenia and developing innovative rehabilitation treatments based on these findings.

  • 69.
    Alabaf, Setareh
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundström, Sebastian
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,Gothenburg, Sweden. Center for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Råstam, Maria
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Lund, Sweden..
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Center for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Correction to: Physical health in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.2019In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 96-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in Fig. 2 part labels, the label "d" was incorrectly labelled as "c" and the subsequent labels should be corrected as d, e, and f. The corrected Fig. 2 is given below.

  • 70.
    Alabaf, Setareh
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundström, Sebastian
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Center for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Råstam, Maria
    University of Gothenburg, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Lund, Sweden.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Center for Ethics, Law and Mental health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Physical health in children with neurodevelopmental disorders2019In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 83-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing numbers of children being diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) attention has been drawn to these children's physical health. We aimed to identify the prevalence of defined physical problems (epilepsy, migraine, asthma, cancer, diabetes, psoriasis, lactose intolerance, celiac disease, diarrhea, constipation, daytime enuresis, encopresis) in a nationwide population of 9- and 12-year-old twins subdivided into those with and without indications of NDDs. Parents of 28,058 twins participated in a well-validated telephone interview regarding their children's mental health and answered questions about their physical problems. The results indicate a high rate of physical problems in children with NDDs, particularly in those with indications of the presence of combinations of several NDDs.

  • 71.
    Alaie, Iman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Adulthood Outcomes of Child and Adolescent Depression: From Mental Health to Social Functioning2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Depression is a common mental disorder affecting people across the lifespan, with first onset frequently occurring in the teenage years. The disorder is costly to society and constitutes one of the leading causes of disability in youths and adults worldwide. Research demonstrates that depression in childhood or adolescence is linked to adverse adult consequences, including mental health problems, physical health issues, various social difficulties, and economic hardships. While the specific factors and mechanisms associated with these long-term adversities are not well understood, previous studies point to the relevance of considering the heterogeneity in early-life depression.

    The overarching aim of this doctoral thesis was to shed more light on long-term outcomes of childhood and adolescent depression across multiple life domains. This work made use of extensive follow-up data gathered in Sweden and USA, as part of two community-based longitudinal cohort studies of depressed and nondepressed youths prospectively followed into adulthood. In the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study, participants were interviewed around age 16 (n=631) and age 31 (n=409). Using linkage to nationwide population-based registries, participants were followed up around age 40 (n=576). In the Great Smoky Mountains Study, participants were interviewed at repeated occasions in childhood and adolescence (n=1,420), and at further follow-ups in adulthood extending up to age 30 (n=1,336).

    Findings from this work suggest that childhood/adolescent depression can have long-lasting associations with a broad spectrum of adverse outcomes. First, the risk of adult depression is known to be elevated among those exposed to depression in early life; however, depressed youths experiencing major conflicts with parents may be at an additionally increased risk of subsequent depression recurrence. Second, early-life depression was found to be associated with higher levels of adult psychiatric disorders, and also with worse health, criminal, and social functioning, even when accounting for a multitude of potential confounders. Third, early-life depression was predictive of poor labor market outcomes, especially for those with persistent depression. This link was partially mediated by the course of depression. Fourth, the welfare burden associated with early depression amounted to considerable public expenditures in adulthood, particularly for those with persistent depression or comorbid psychiatric conditions such as anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders.

    The adverse long-term consequences in the wake of early-life depression underscore the importance of prevention and treatment approaches that are both efficacious and cost-effective. Such targeted efforts may have the potential to avert later ill-health, impairment, and possibly also economic disadvantage.

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  • 72.
    Alaie, Iman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Karolinska Institutet Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, and Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bohman, Hannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, and Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Parent-youth conflict as a predictor of depression in adulthood: a 15-year follow-up of a community-based cohort2020In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 527-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiencing conflictual relations with one's parents while growing up has been linked to onset, recurrence, and worse treatment outcome of adolescent depression. While this suggests that significant problems in the parent-youth relationship make depressive disorders more relentless, it is not clear whether this effect lasts into adulthood. Our aim was to examine if major and minor conflict with parents while growing up predicts depression in adulthood in youth with and without a history of depression. We utilized data from the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study. This community-based cohort was assessed with structured diagnostic interviews both at age 16-17 and at follow-up 15 years later. The analyses included 382 individuals (227 with a history of child or adolescent depression; 155 peers without such a history). Binary logistic regression was used, adjusting for sex, disruptive behavior disorders, and additional family-related adversities. Among individuals with adolescent depression, major conflict with parents was strongly associated with adult depression (adjusted OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.07-4.87). While major conflict with parents was rare among non-depressed controls, a non-significant association of similar magnitude was still observed. Minor conflict, on the other hand, was not significantly associated with adult depression. Overall, conflict with parents did not predict adult anxiety disorders, substance use, suicidal behavior, somatoform disorders, or psychotic disorders. In conclusion, major parent-youth conflict during upbringing seems to be linked with an increased risk of depression in adulthood. These findings underscore the need to consider contextual/familial factors in the prevention and clinical management of early-life depression.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 73. Alaie, Iman
    et al.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Bohman, Hannes
    Parent-youth conflict as a predictor of depression in adulthood: a 15-year follow-up of a community-based cohort2020In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 527-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiencing conflictual relations with one's parents while growing up has been linked to onset, recurrence, and worse treatment outcome of adolescent depression. While this suggests that significant problems in the parent-youth relationship make depressive disorders more relentless, it is not clear whether this effect lasts into adulthood. Our aim was to examine if major and minor conflict with parents while growing up predicts depression in adulthood in youth with and without a history of depression. We utilized data from the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study. This community-based cohort was assessed with structured diagnostic interviews both at age 16-17 and at follow-up 15 years later. The analyses included 382 individuals (227 with a history of child or adolescent depression; 155 peers without such a history). Binary logistic regression was used, adjusting for sex, disruptive behavior disorders, and additional family-related adversities. Among individuals with adolescent depression, major conflict with parents was strongly associated with adult depression (adjusted OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.07-4.87). While major conflict with parents was rare among non-depressed controls, a non-significant association of similar magnitude was still observed. Minor conflict, on the other hand, was not significantly associated with adult depression. Overall, conflict with parents did not predict adult anxiety disorders, substance use, suicidal behavior, somatoform disorders, or psychotic disorders. In conclusion, major parent-youth conflict during upbringing seems to be linked with an increased risk of depression in adulthood. These findings underscore the need to consider contextual/familial factors in the prevention and clinical management of early-life depression.

  • 74.
    Alaie, Iman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Hartvig, Per
    Tillfors, Maria
    Eriksson, Elias
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Serotonin Synthesis Rate and the Tryptophan Hydroxylase-2 G-703T Polymorphism in Social Anxiety Disorder2014In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 75, no 9, p. 357S-357SArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Alaie, Iman
    et al.
    Dept Psychol, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Frick, Andreas
    Dept Psychol, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linköping Univ, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hartvig, Per
    Dept Drug Design & Pharmacol, Univ Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Eriksson, Elias
    Dept Pharmacol, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Dept Psychol, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Dept Psychol, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Serotonin Synthesis Rate and the Tryptophan Hydroxylase-2 G-703T Polymorphism in Social Anxiety Disorder2014In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 75, no 9, p. 357S-357SArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Alaie, Iman
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet.
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Linköping University.
    Hartvig, Per
    Copenhagen University.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet.
    Eriksson, Elias
    Gothenburg University.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet.
    Serotonin Synthesis Rate and the Tryptophan Hydroxylase-2 G-703T Polymorphism in Social Anxiety Disorder2014In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 75, no 9, p. 357S-357SArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Alaie, Iman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ramklint: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Philipson, Anna
    University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ssegonja, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Copeland, William E.
    Department of Psychiatry, Vermont Center for Children, Youth, and Families, University of Vermont, Burlington, USA.
    Ramklint, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ramklint: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Bohman, Hannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ramklint: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ramklint: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Karolinska Institutet Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, and Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adolescent depression and adult labor market marginalization: a longitudinal cohort study2022In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 31, no 11, p. 1799-1813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescent depression is linked to adult ill-health and functional impairment, but recent research suggests that individual/contextual factors might account for this association. This study aimed to test whether the clinical heterogeneity of adolescent depression is related to marginalization from the labor market across early to middle adulthood. Data were drawn from the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study, a community-based cohort initially assessed with structured clinical interviews at age 16-17. The cohort (n = 321 depressed; n = 218 nondepressed) was followed up after 2+ decades through linkage to nationwide population-based registries. Outcomes included consecutive annual data on unemployment, work disability, social welfare recipiency, and a composite marginalization measure, spanning from age 21 to 40. Longitudinal associations were examined using logistic regression analysis in a generalized estimating equations modeling framework. Subsequent depressive episodes and educational attainment in early adulthood were explored as potential pathways. The results showed that adolescent depression was associated with adult marginalization outcomes, but the strength of association varied across depressed subgroups. Adolescents with persistent depressive disorder had higher odds of all outcomes, including the composite marginalization measure (adjusted OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4-2.7, p < 0.001), and this was partially (31%) mediated by subsequent depressive episodes in early adulthood. Exploratory moderation analysis revealed that entry into tertiary education mitigated the association with later marginalization, but only for adolescents with episodic major depression. In conclusion, the risk for future labor market marginalization is elevated among depressed adolescents, particularly those presenting with persistent depressive disorder. Targeted interventions seem crucial to mitigate the long-lasting impact of early-onset depression.

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    fulltext
  • 78.
    Alaie, Iman
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Philipson, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. University Health Care Research Center.
    Ssegonja, Richard
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Child Health and Parenting (CHAP), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory-, Allergy-, and Sleep Research Unit, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Copeland, William E.
    Department of Psychiatry, Vermont Center for Children, Youth, and Families, University of Vermont, Burlington, USA.
    Ramklint, Mia
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bohman, Hannes
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, and Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Adolescent depression and adult labor market marginalization: a longitudinal cohort study2022In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 31, p. 1799-1813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescent depression is linked to adult ill-health and functional impairment, but recent research suggests that individual/contextual factors might account for this association. This study aimed to test whether the clinical heterogeneity of adolescent depression is related to marginalization from the labor market across early to middle adulthood. Data were drawn from the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study, a community-based cohort initially assessed with structured clinical interviews at age 16-17. The cohort (n = 321 depressed; n = 218 nondepressed) was followed up after 2+ decades through linkage to nationwide population-based registries. Outcomes included consecutive annual data on unemployment, work disability, social welfare recipiency, and a composite marginalization measure, spanning from age 21 to 40. Longitudinal associations were examined using logistic regression analysis in a generalized estimating equations modeling framework. Subsequent depressive episodes and educational attainment in early adulthood were explored as potential pathways. The results showed that adolescent depression was associated with adult marginalization outcomes, but the strength of association varied across depressed subgroups. Adolescents with persistent depressive disorder had higher odds of all outcomes, including the composite marginalization measure (adjusted OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4-2.7, p < 0.001), and this was partially (31%) mediated by subsequent depressive episodes in early adulthood. Exploratory moderation analysis revealed that entry into tertiary education mitigated the association with later marginalization, but only for adolescents with episodic major depression. In conclusion, the risk for future labor market marginalization is elevated among depressed adolescents, particularly those presenting with persistent depressive disorder. Targeted interventions seem crucial to mitigate the long-lasting impact of early-onset depression.

  • 79.
    Alaie, Iman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Philipson, Anna
    Orebro Univ, Univ Hlth Care Res Ctr, Fac Med & Hlth, Orebro, Sweden.
    Ssegonja, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Hagberg, Lars
    Orebro Univ, Univ Hlth Care Res Ctr, Fac Med & Hlth, Orebro, Sweden.
    Feldman, Inna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Sampaio, Filipa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Moller, Margareta
    Orebro Univ, Univ Hlth Care Res Ctr, Fac Med & Hlth, Orebro, Sweden.
    Arinell, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ekselius: Psychiatry.
    Ramklint, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ekselius: Psychiatry.
    Päären, Aivar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    von Knorring, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ekselius: Psychiatry.
    Olsson, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    von Knorring, Anne-Liis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Bohman, Hannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Inst KIND, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Ctr Neurodev Disorders,Pediat Neuropsychiat Unit, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study (ULADS)2019In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 3, article id e024939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To present the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study, initiated in Uppsala, Sweden, in the early 1990s. The initial aim of this epidemiological investigation was to study the prevalence, characteristics and correlates of adolescent depression, and has subsequently expanded to include a broad range of social, economic and health-related long-term outcomes and cost-of-illness analyses.

    Participants: The source population was first-year students (aged 16-17) in upper-secondary schools in Uppsala during 1991-1992, of which 2300 (93%) were screened for depression. Adolescents with positive screening and sex/age-matched peers were invited to a comprehensive assessment. A total of 631 adolescents (78% females) completed this assessment, and 409 subsequently completed a 15year follow-up assessment. At both occasions, extensive information was collected on mental disorders, personality and psychosocial situation. Detailed social, economic and health-related data from 1993 onwards have recently been obtained from the Swedish national registries for 576 of the original participants and an age-matched reference population (N=200 000).

    Findings to date: The adolescent lifetime prevalence of a major depressive episode was estimated to be 11.4%. Recurrence in young adulthood was reported by the majority, with a particularly poor prognosis for those with a persistent depressive disorder or multiple somatic symptoms. Adolescent depression was also associated with an increased risk of other adversities in adulthood, including additional mental health conditions, low educational attainment and problems related to intimate relationships.

    Future plans: Longitudinal studies of adolescent depression are rare and must be responsibly managed and utilised. We therefore intend to follow the cohort continuously by means of registries. Currently, the participants are approaching mid-adulthood. At this stage, we are focusing on the overall long-term burden of adolescent depression. For this purpose, the research group has incorporated expertise in health economics. We would also welcome extended collaboration with researchers managing similar datasets.

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  • 80.
    Alaie, Iman
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Philipson, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. University Health Care Research Centre.
    Ssegonja, Richard
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Child Health and Parenting (CHAP), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Lars
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. University Health Care Research Centre.
    Feldman, Inna
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Child Health and Parenting (CHAP), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sampaio, Filipa
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Child Health and Parenting (CHAP), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Möller, Margareta
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. University Health Care Research Centre.
    Arinell, Hans
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ramklint, Mia
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Päären, Aivar
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    von Knorring, Lars
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olsson, Gunilla
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    von Knorring, Anne-Liis
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bohman, Hannes
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders at Karolinska Institutet (KIND), Pediatric Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study (ULADS)2019In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 3, article id e024939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To present the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study, initiated in Uppsala, Sweden, in the early 1990s. The initial aim of this epidemiological investigation was to study the prevalence, characteristics and correlates of adolescent depression, and has subsequently expanded to include a broad range of social, economic and health-related long-term outcomes and cost-of-illness analyses.

    Participants: The source population was first-year students (aged 16-17) in upper-secondary schools in Uppsala during 1991-1992, of which 2300 (93%) were screened for depression. Adolescents with positive screening and sex/age-matched peers were invited to a comprehensive assessment. A total of 631 adolescents (78% females) completed this assessment, and 409 subsequently completed a 15year follow-up assessment. At both occasions, extensive information was collected on mental disorders, personality and psychosocial situation. Detailed social, economic and health-related data from 1993 onwards have recently been obtained from the Swedish national registries for 576 of the original participants and an age-matched reference population (N=200 000).

    Findings to date: The adolescent lifetime prevalence of a major depressive episode was estimated to be 11.4%. Recurrence in young adulthood was reported by the majority, with a particularly poor prognosis for those with a persistent depressive disorder or multiple somatic symptoms. Adolescent depression was also associated with an increased risk of other adversities in adulthood, including additional mental health conditions, low educational attainment and problems related to intimate relationships.

    Future plans: Longitudinal studies of adolescent depression are rare and must be responsibly managed and utilised. We therefore intend to follow the cohort continuously by means of registries. Currently, the participants are approaching mid-adulthood. At this stage, we are focusing on the overall long-term burden of adolescent depression. For this purpose, the research group has incorporated expertise in health economics. We would also welcome extended collaboration with researchers managing similar datasets.

  • 81.
    Alaie, Iman
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ssegonja, Richard
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Child Health and Parenting (CHAP), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Philipson, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. University Health Care Research Center.
    von Knorring, Anne-Liis
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Möller, Margareta
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. University Health Care Research Center.
    von Knorring, Lars
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ramklint, Mia
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bohman, Hannes
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Feldman, Inna
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Child Health and Parenting (CHAP), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Lars
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. University Health Care Research Center.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet,, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adolescent depression, early psychiatric comorbidities, and adulthood welfare burden: a 25-year longitudinal cohort study2021In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 56, no 11, p. 1993-2004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Depression at all ages is recognized as a global public health concern, but less is known about the welfare burden following early-life depression. This study aimed to (1) estimate the magnitude of associations between depression in adolescence and social transfer payments in adulthood; and (2) address the impact of major comorbid psychopathology on these associations.

    METHODS: This is a longitudinal cohort study of 539 participants assessed at age 16-17 using structured diagnostic interviews. An ongoing 25-year follow-up linked the cohort (n = 321 depressed; n = 218 nondepressed) to nationwide population-based registries. Outcomes included consecutive annual data on social transfer payments due to unemployment, work disability, and public assistance, spanning from age 18 to 40. Parameter estimations used the generalized estimating equations approach.

    RESULTS: Adolescent depression was associated with all forms of social transfer payments. The estimated overall payment per person and year was 938 USD (95% CI 551-1326) over and above the amount received by nondepressed controls. Persistent depressive disorder was associated with higher recipiency across all outcomes, whereas the pattern of findings was less clear for subthreshold and episodic major depression. Moreover, depressed adolescents presenting with comorbid anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders evidenced particularly high recipiency, exceeding the nondepressed controls with an estimated 1753 USD (95% CI 887-2620).

    CONCLUSION: Adolescent depression is associated with considerable public expenditures across early-to-middle adulthood, especially for those exposed to chronic/persistent depression and psychiatric comorbidities. This finding suggests that the clinical heterogeneity of early-life depression needs to be considered from a longer-term societal perspective.

  • 82.
    Alaie, Iman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ramklint: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Ssegonja, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Philipson, Anna
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, University Health Care Research Center, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    von Knorring, Anne-Liis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ramklint: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Möller, Margareta
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, University Health Care Research Center, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    von Knorring, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Cervenka: Psychiatry.
    Ramklint, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ramklint: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Bohman, Hannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ramklint: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Feldman, Inna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Hagberg, Lars
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, University Health Care Research Center, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ramklint: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Karolinska Institutet Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, & Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adolescent depression, early psychiatric comorbidities, and adulthood welfare burden: a 25-year longitudinal cohort study2021In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 56, no 11, p. 1993-2004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Depression at all ages is recognized as a global public health concern, but less is known about the welfare burden following early-life depression. This study aimed to (1) estimate the magnitude of associations between depression in adolescence and social transfer payments in adulthood; and (2) address the impact of major comorbid psychopathology on these associations.

    METHODS: This is a longitudinal cohort study of 539 participants assessed at age 16-17 using structured diagnostic interviews. An ongoing 25-year follow-up linked the cohort (n = 321 depressed; n = 218 nondepressed) to nationwide population-based registries. Outcomes included consecutive annual data on social transfer payments due to unemployment, work disability, and public assistance, spanning from age 18 to 40. Parameter estimations used the generalized estimating equations approach.

    RESULTS: Adolescent depression was associated with all forms of social transfer payments. The estimated overall payment per person and year was 938 USD (95% CI 551-1326) over and above the amount received by nondepressed controls. Persistent depressive disorder was associated with higher recipiency across all outcomes, whereas the pattern of findings was less clear for subthreshold and episodic major depression. Moreover, depressed adolescents presenting with comorbid anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders evidenced particularly high recipiency, exceeding the nondepressed controls with an estimated 1753 USD (95% CI 887-2620).

    CONCLUSION: Adolescent depression is associated with considerable public expenditures across early-to-middle adulthood, especially for those exposed to chronic/persistent depression and psychiatric comorbidities. This finding suggests that the clinical heterogeneity of early-life depression needs to be considered from a longer-term societal perspective.

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  • 83. Albrecht, Daniel S.
    et al.
    Forsberg, Anton
    Sandstrom, Angelica
    Bergan, Courtney
    Kadetoff, Diana
    Protsenko, Ekaterina
    Lampa, Jon
    Lee, Yvonne C.
    Hoglund, Caroline Olgart
    Catana, Ciprian
    Cervenka, Simon
    Akeju, Oluwaseun
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Cohen, George
    Halldin, Christer
    Taylor, Norman
    Kim, Minhae
    Hooker, Jacob M.
    Edwards, Robert R.
    Napadow, Vitaly
    Kosek, Eva
    Loggia, Marco L.
    Brain glial activation in fibromyalgia - A multi-site positron emission tomography investigation2019In: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 75, p. 72-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a poorly understood chronic condition characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and cognitive difficulties. While mounting evidence suggests a role for neuroinflammation, no study has directly provided evidence of brain glial activation in FM. In this study, we conducted a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) study using [C-11]PBR28, which binds to the translocator protein (TSPO), a protein upregulated in activated microglia and astrocytes. To enhance statistical power and generalizability, we combined datasets collected independently at two separate institutions (Massachusetts General Hospital [MGH] and Karolinska Institutet [KI]). In an attempt to disentangle the contributions of different glial cell types to FM, a smaller sample was scanned at KI with [C-11]-L-deprenyl-D2 PET, thought to primarily reflect astrocytic (but not microglial) signal. Thirty-one FM patients and 27 healthy controls (HC) were examined using [C-11]PBR28 PET. 11 FM patients and 11 HC were scanned using [C-11]-L-deprenyl-D2 PET. Standardized uptake values normalized by occipital cortex signal (SUVR) and distribution volume (V-T) were computed from the [C-11]PBR28 data. [C-11]-L-deprenyl-D2 was quantified using lambda k(3). PET imaging metrics were compared across groups, and when differing across groups, against clinical variables. Compared to HC, FM patients demonstrated widespread cortical elevations, and no decreases, in [C-11]PBR28 ITT and SUVR, most pronounced in the medial and lateral walls of the frontal and parietal lobes. No regions showed significant group differences in [C-11]-L-deprenyl-Ds signal, including those demonstrating elevated [C-11] PBR28 signal in patients (p's >= 0.53, uncorrected). The elevations in [C-11]PBR28 V-T and SUVR were correlated both spatially (i.e., were observed in overlapping regions) and, in several areas, also in terms of magnitude. In exploratory, uncorrected analyses, higher subjective ratings of fatigue in FM patients were associated with higher [C-11] PBR28 SUVR in the anterior and posterior middle cingulate cortices (p's < 0.03). SUVR was not significantly associated with any other clinical variable. Our work provides the first in vivo evidence supporting a role for glial activation in FM pathophysiology. Given that the elevations in [C-11]PBR28 signal were not also accompanied by increased [C-11]-deprenyl-D2 signal, our data suggests that microglia, but not astrocytes, may be driving the TSPO elevation in these regions. Although [C-11]-L-deprenyl-D2 signal was not found to be increased in FM patients, larger studies are needed to further assess the role of possible astrocytic contributions in FM. Overall, our data support glial modulation as a potential therapeutic strategy for FM.

  • 84.
    Albrecht, Sophie Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Ojajärvi, Anneli
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Härmä, Mikko
    Association of work-time control with sickness absence due to musculoskeletal and mental disorders: An occupational cohort study2020In: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585, Vol. 62, no 1, article id e12181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Work-time control is associated with lower sickness absence rates, but it remains unclear whether this association differs by type of diagnosis and sub-dimension of work-time control (control over daily hours and control over time off) and whether certain vulnerable groups benefit more from higher levels of work-time control.

    Methods: Survey data from the Finnish 10-town study in 2004 were used to examine if baseline levels of work-time control were associated with register data on diagnose-specific sickness absence for 7 consecutive years (n = 22 599). Cox proportional hazard models were conducted, adjusted for age, sex, education, occupational status, shift work including nights, and physical/mental workload.

    Results: During follow-up, 2,818 individuals were on sick leave (>= 10 days) due to musculoskeletal disorders and 1724 due to mental disorders. Employees with high (HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.87; HR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.70-0.82, respectively) and moderate (HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.77-0.90; HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.91, respectively) levels of control over daily hours/control over time off had a decreased risk of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders. Sub-group analyses revealed that especially workers who were older benefitted the most from higher levels of work-time control. Neither sub-dimension of work-time control was related to sickness absence due to mental disorders.

    Conclusions: Over a 7-year period of follow-up, high and moderate levels of work-time control were related to lower rates of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders, but not due to mental disorders.

  • 85.
    Alegiry, Mohamed H.
    et al.
    King Abdulaziz Univ KAU, Fac Sci, Dept Biol Sci, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Hajrah, Nahid H.
    King Abdulaziz Univ KAU, Fac Sci, Dept Biol Sci, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Alzahrani, Nada A. Y.
    King Abdulaziz Univ, Ctr Excellence Bionanosci Res, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Shawki, Hossam H.
    Nagoya City Univ, Grad Sch Med Sci, Dept Comparat & Expt Med, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan; Agr Res Ctr ARC, Natl Gene Bank Egypt NGB, Giza, Egypt.
    Khan, Muhammadh
    King Abdulaziz Univ KAU, Fac Sci, Dept Biol Sci, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; King Abdulaziz Univ, Ctr Excellence Bionanosci Res, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Zrelli, Houda
    King Abdulaziz Univ KAU, Fac Sci, Dept Biol Sci, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; King Abdulaziz Univ, Ctr Excellence Bionanosci Res, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Atef, Ahmed
    King Abdulaziz Univ KAU, Fac Sci, Dept Biol Sci, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Kim, Youngil
    ROHTO Pharmaceut Co Ltd, Food Business Promot Div, Osaka, Japan.
    Alsafari, Ibrahim A.
    Univ Hafr Al Batin, Coll Sci, Dept Biol, Hafar al Batin, Saudi Arabia.;Univ Hafr Al Batin, Coll Sci, Dept Chem, Hafar al Batin, Saudi Arabia.
    Arfaoui, Leila
    King Abdulaziz Univ, Fac Appl Med Sci, Clin Nutr Dept Fac, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Alharby, Hesham F.
    King Abdulaziz Univ KAU, Fac Sci, Dept Biol Sci, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Hajar, Abdulrahman S.
    King Abdulaziz Univ KAU, Fac Sci, Dept Biol Sci, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    El-Seedi, Hesham
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    Juneja, Lekh Raj
    ROHTO Pharmaceut Co Ltd, Food Business Promot Div, Osaka, Japan.
    Sabir, Jamal S. M.
    King Abdulaziz Univ KAU, Fac Sci, Dept Biol Sci, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; King Abdulaziz Univ, Ctr Excellence Bionanosci Res, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    El Omri, Abdelfatteh
    King Abdulaziz Univ KAU, Fac Sci, Dept Biol Sci, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; King Abdulaziz Univ, Ctr Excellence Bionanosci Res, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Attitudes Toward Psychological Disorders and Alternative Medicine in Saudi Participants2021In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 12, article id 577103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study was designed to investigate Saudis' attitudes toward mental distress and psychotropic medication, attribution of causes, expected side effects, and to analyze participants' expectations toward alternative or complementary medicine using aromatic and medicinal plants, through a survey.

    Method: The study included 674 participants (citizens and residents in Saudi Arabia) who were randomly contacted via email and social media and gave their consent to complete a questionnaire dealing with 39 items that can be clustered in six parts. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square for cross-tabulation were generated using SPSS.

    Results: Among the 664 participants, 73.4% believed that there are some positive and negative outcomes of psychotropic medication. Participants (72.0%) think that the most important reason leading to psychological disorders is mainly due to the loss of a relative or beloved person, and 73.9% considered psychic session as one of the possible treatments of psychological disorders. Surprisingly, only 18.8% of the participants agreed that medicinal and aromatic plants could be a possible treatment of the psychological disorder. Participants (82%) consider that physicians are the most trustful and preferred source of information about alternative and complementary medicine.

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  • 86.
    Alem, Atalay
    et al.
    Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Araya, Mesfin
    Kebede, D
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    How are mental disorders seen and where is help sought in a rural Ethiopian community? A key informant study in Butajira, Ethiopia.1999In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, ISSN 0065-1591, E-ISSN 1600-5473, Vol. 100, no S397, p. 40-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One hundred key informants were interviewed about their awareness, attitudes and practices regarding mental illness using the Key Informant Questionnaire developed by WHO. Case vignettes of seven common neuropsychiatric disorders were presented to the key informants. Informants' awareness about these disorders and help-seeking practices for mental and physical symptoms or conditions were assessed. An additional question on the prototype symptoms of mental disorders was also posed. Among the presented seven conditions, epilepsy was perceived as the most common condition and major depression was regarded as the least common one. Schizophrenia was judged as the most severe problem, and mental retardation was considered the second most severe condition. Talkativeness, aggression and strange behaviour were the most frequently perceived prototype symptoms of mental illness. Traditional treatment methods were preferred more often for treating symptoms of mental disorders and modern medicine was preferred more often for treating physical diseases or symptoms. Findings of this study are similar to other studies conducted in socio-culturally different communities. Working in close connection with traditional healers would give the primary health care worker a better opportunity to gain acceptance from the community and modify certain harmful practices.

  • 87. Alem, Atalay
    et al.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Hanlon, Charlotte
    Community-based mental health care in Africa: mental health workers' views2008In: World Psychiatry, ISSN 1723-8617, E-ISSN 2051-5545, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 54-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has for long proposed the development of community-based mental health services worldwide. However, the progress toward community mental health care in most African countries is still hampered by a lack of resources, with specialist psychiatric care essentially based in large, centrally located mental hospitals. It is again time to reconsider the direction of mental health care in Africa. Based on a small inquiry to a number of experienced mental health professionals in sub-Saharan Africa, we discuss what a community concept of mental health care might mean in Africa. There is a general agreement that mental health services should be integrated in primary health care. A critical issue for success of this model is perceived to be provision of appropriate supervision and continuing education for primary care workers. The importance of collaboration between modem medicine and traditional healers is stressed and the paper ends in a plea for WHO to take the initiative and develop mental health services according to the special needs and the sociocultural conditions prevailing in sub-Saharan Africa.

  • 88.
    Alem, Atalay
    et al.
    Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Kebede, D
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Awareness and attitudes of a rural Ethiopian community toward suicidal behaviour. A key informant study in Butajira, Ethiopia.1999In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, ISSN 0065-1591, E-ISSN 1600-5473, Vol. 100, no S397, p. 65-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One hundred key informants were interviewed regarding their awareness and attitudes toward suicidal behaviour. Eighty-eight informants were male, 58 were Muslim and 42 were Christian. Informants on average, claimed to know more persons who had completed suicide than those who had attempted suicide. Almost all informants mentioned more than one cause for suicide. Of these, frustration was the most frequently mentioned cause. Most informants believed that suicide attempters are cruel, feared and not trustworthy. Their attitude toward suicide completers was expressed as condemned sinners, do not deserve funeral ceremony, and should be buried separately from others. Christians gave importance to the funeral issue more than did the Muslims. Generally, the attitudes of informants were punitive and disapproving.

  • 89.
    Alem, Atalay
    et al.
    Arnanuel Psychiatric Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Kebede, D
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Suicide attempts among adults in Butajira, Ethiopia.1999In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, ISSN 0065-1591, E-ISSN 1600-5473, Vol. 100, no S397, p. 70-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a cross-sectional survey, 10,468 adults of a rural and semi-urban community were interviewed to determine lifetime suicide attempts. Among the study population, 58% were female, 74.4% were Muslim and 79.3% had had no formal education. The majority of the population were in the age group 25-59 years. Lifetime suicide attempt was reported by 3.2% (n = 332) of the study population. Of these, 63% (n = 208) were women. The most frequent age of attempt was between 15 and 24 years and the frequency of attempt decreased with increasing age. Hanging and poisoning were the most frequently reported methods of attempting suicide. Marital or family conflict was the most frequently reported cause for attempting suicide and most of those who reported this cause were women (Chi-square = 17.42; P < 0.001). Men were significantly more likely to use hanging to attempt suicide than women (Chi-square = 8.21; P < 0.001). Among Christians 3.9% had a lifetime suicide attempt compared to 2.9% among Muslims (Chi-square = 6.15; P < 0.05). People who currently had mental distress and problem drinking reported lifetime suicide attempt more often than others.

  • 90.
    Alem, Atalay
    et al.
    Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Kebede, D
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    The epidemiology of problem drinking in Butajira, Ethiopia.1999In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, ISSN 0065-1591, E-ISSN 1600-5473, Vol. 100, no S397, p. 77-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of problem drinking, a total of 10,468 persons aged 15 and above, most residing in a rural district, were interviewed using the CAGE questionnaire as an important element of a general mental health survey. Twenty-three per cent of the respondents admitted that they currently drank alcohol. The prevalence of alcohol drinking was 15% for women and 36% for men. Among those who drank, 16% met the criterion for problem drinking as defined by two or more positive responses to the CAGE. The overall prevalence for problem drinking was found to be 3.7%. Stratified analysis for sex showed that Christian religion, male sex, being ethnically non-Gurage, and smoking were strongly associated with problem drinking in both sexes. Marital status, mental distress and income were found to be associated factors with problem drinking only in men.

  • 91.
    Alem, Atalay
    et al.
    Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Kebede, D
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    The prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of khat chewing in Butajira, Ethiopia.1999In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, ISSN 0065-1591, E-ISSN 1600-5473, Vol. 100, no S397, p. 84-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A house-to-house survey was carried out in a rural Ethiopian community to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of khat use. A total of 10,468 adults were interviewed. Of these, 58% were female, and 74% were Muslim. More than half of the study population (55.7%) reported lifetime khat chewing experience and the prevalence of current use was 50%. Among current chewers, 17.4% reported taking khat on a daily basis; 16.1% of these were male and 3.4% were female. Various reasons were given for chewing khat; 80% of the chewers used it to gain a good level of concentration for prayer. Muslim religion, smoking and high educational level showed strong association with daily khat chewing.

  • 92.
    Alem, Atalay
    et al.
    Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Kebede, D
    Woldesemiat, G
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    The prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of mental distress in Butajira, Ethiopia.1999In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, ISSN 0065-1591, E-ISSN 1600-5473, Vol. 100, no S397, p. 48-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 10,468 rural and semi-urban adults in an Ethiopian district using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) to detect the prevalence of mental distress and its association with socio-demographic risk factors. Fifty-eight per cent of the study population were women, 74% were Muslim, 79% were illiterate. Those experiencing 11 or more symptoms out of the 20 SRQ items were considered as having mental distress. Accordingly, the prevalence of mental distress was 17%, which is comparable with the previous hospital-based studies in Ethiopia and elsewhere. However, it was higher than the previous community-based studies in Ethiopia. Mental distress was more prevalent among women. Part of the explanation was that women in the study population were older and that they were more often widowed or divorced, which were factors associated with mental distress. Illiteracy, which was more common among women and older individuals, was also independently associated with mental distress.

  • 93.
    Alem, Atalay
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Pain, Clare
    Araya, Mesfin
    Hodges, Brian D
    Co-creating a psychiatric resident program with Ethiopians, for Ethiopians, in Ethiopia: the Toronto Addis Ababa Psychiatry Project (TAAPP)2010In: Academic Psychiatry, ISSN 1042-9670, E-ISSN 1545-7230, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 424-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important issue that underscores such a partnership is the risk of simply exporting Western, America-centric psychiatric training versus creating culturally appropriate models of education.

  • 94.
    Alenius, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hartvig, Per
    Lindström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Knowledge and insight in relation to functional remission in patients with long-term psychotic disorders2010In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 523-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Patients with psychotic symptoms often respond poorly to treatment. Outcomes can be affected by biological, physiological and psychological factors according to the vulnerability-stress model. The patient's coping strategies and beliefs have been correlated with outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the knowledge and insight in relation to treatment response. METHODS: A naturalistic study was performed using patient interviews and information gathered from patient drug charts. Apart from the rating scales used for classification of treatment response (CANSEPT method), the SPKS knowledge of illness and drugs rating scale was utilized. RESULTS: In the group of patients in functional remission (FR; n = 38), 37% had insight into their illness as compared to 10% among those not in functional remission (non-FR; n = 78; P < 0.01). As much as 23% of the non-FR group had no strategy for responding to warning signs versus 8% in the FR group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Better treatment outcomes appear to be associated with better insight into illness, higher knowledge of warning signs and better coping strategies.

  • 95.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Englund, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Parling, Thomas
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tailored Text Message Prompts to Increase Therapy Homework Adherence: A Single-Case Randomised Controlled Study2019In: Behaviour change, ISSN 0813-4839, E-ISSN 2049-7768, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 180-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Psychotherapy homework completion is associated with positive treatment outcomes, but many patients show low adherence to prescribed assignments. Whether text-message prompts are effective in increasing adherence to assignments is unknown. Aims: To evaluate whether tailored daily text-message prompts can increase homework adherence in a stress/anxiety treatment. Method: This study used a randomised controlled single-case alternating treatment design with parallel replication in seven participants. Participants received a five-week relaxation program for stress and anxiety with daily exercises. The intervention consisted of daily text messages tailored for each participant. Phases with or without text messages were randomly alternated over the study course. Randomisation tests were used to statistically analyse differences in mean number of completed relaxation exercises between phases. Results: There was a significant (combined p = .018) effect of daily text messages on homework adherence across participants with weak to medium effect size improvements. No negative effects of daily text messages were identified. Conclusions: Tailored text messages can marginally improve adherence to assignments for patients in CBT. Further studies may investigate how text messages can be made relevant for more patients and whether text messages can be used to increase homework quality rather than quantity.

  • 96.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm Cty Council, Dept Clin Neurosci,Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm Cty Council, Dept Clin Neurosci,Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Norra Stationsgatan 69, SE-11364 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fagernäs, Simon
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm Cty Council, Dept Clin Neurosci,Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sjöstrand, Gabriella
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm Cty Council, Dept Clin Neurosci,Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tyrberg, Mårten J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Västmanland Hospital, Västerås.
    Psychotherapist Variables That May Lead to Treatment Failure or Termination: A Qualitative Analysis of Patients' Perspectives2023In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 431-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A substantial number of patients do not improve from psychotherapy, some even deteriorate, and some terminate treatment prematurely. Identifying therapist variables that may lead to treatment failures from patients' perspectives can inform how psychotherapists can increase effectiveness. Using a semistructured protocol, we interviewed 24 patients who had experienced unsatisfying individual face-to-face psychotherapy within the last 2 years. The study procedures were guided by the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research. The manifest content analysis provided 13 subcategories grouped into four categories: (a) psychotherapists' negative traits (inflexible, unengaged, unemphatic, insecure), (b) unprofessionalism (superficial, violating personal boundaries, breaking confidentiality, nontransparent), (c) incompetence (unstructured, poor assessment or understanding, poor knowledge, too passive), and (d) mismatch (therapist-patient mismatch). To reduce the risk of treatment failure, psychotherapists may need a multifaceted set of relational skills, theoretical and technical competence, ethical sensitivity, and engagement. Some of the identified subcategories were complex constructs (e.g., unengaged) that may need time and effort to develop for psychotherapists. Other identified subcategories were obvious inappropriate behaviors in professional psychotherapy (e.g., breaking confidentiality). However, the categories found in this study need further quantitative investigation to assess the validity, frequency, and relative impact on treatment outcomes. Clinical Impact Statement Question: What psychotherapist shortcomings do patients perceive are associated with treatment failure? Findings: Patients' perception could be grouped into four main categories: negative traits, unprofessionalism, incompetence, and mismatch. Meaning: Psychotherapists and clinical supervisors may need to be aware of the therapist shortcomings identified in this study to increase the quality of their clinical work and reduce the risk of patient dropout. For example, psychotherapists may need to ensure that they convey warmth and empathy while supervisors may need to monitor potential violations of therapist-patient confidentiality. Next Steps: These qualitative results need to be replicated and validated by large-scale quantitative data collection to assess the prevalence of the different therapist shortcomings. Means to counter therapist shortcomings need to be developed and implemented in quality assurance systems.

  • 97.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm City Cty, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mardula, Karolina
    Psychiat Northwest, POB 98, SE-19122 Sollentuna, Region Stockhol, Sweden..
    Toll, Christine
    Psychiat Northwest, POB 98, SE-19122 Sollentuna, Region Stockhol, Sweden..
    Isaksson, Martina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Wolf-Arehult, Martina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Psychiatry. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm City Cty, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The self-efficacy in distress tolerance scale (SE-DT): a psychometric evaluation2022In: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation, E-ISSN 2051-6673, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Skills training is believed to be essential in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and is also offered as a standalone intervention. There is a need to better understand each skills module's separate contribution to treatment outcomes. Several assessment instruments are available, but none of them provides specific information about patients' perceived ability to use skills promoting distress tolerance. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a Swedish adaptation of the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE) for skills use in distress tolerance - the Self-Efficacy in Distress Tolerance scale (SE-DT).

    Methods: Cross-sectional and longitudinal data were gathered in a non-clinical (NC) community sample (n = 407) and a clinical psychiatric (CP) sample (n = 46). Participants in the NC sample were asked to complete a set of 19 self-report instruments, including the SE-DT, and 45 participants repeated the assessment after 2 weeks. The patients in the CP sample filled out a subset of eight instruments; twenty patients repeated the assessment after completing a treatment intervention including mindfulness skills and distress tolerance skills or emotion regulation skills.

    Results: The analyses showed that the SE-DT is unidimensional with high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .92) and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation = .74). The SE-DT also showed good convergent and divergent validity, demonstrating positive correlations with general self-efficacy and self-compassion, and negative correlations with difficulties in emotion regulation, psychiatric symptoms, and borderline symptoms. The SE-DT showed sensitivity to change, when pre- and post-treatment assessments were compared (Cohen's d = 0.82).

    Discussion: This is preliminary evidence that the SE-DT has adequate to good psychometric properties, supporting the use of a total sum score. The results indicate that the SE-DT can adequately measure the construct of self-efficacy with regard to dealing with distress and emotional crises. The instrument enables continued investigation of standalone skills training and the specific contribution of distress tolerance skills to treatment outcomes in DBT. Further studies are needed to investigate whether these results are valid in other populations. In addition, the field would benefit from a common definition of distress tolerance.

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  • 98.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundbom, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Is age a better predictor of weight loss one year after Gastric bypass than symptoms of disordered eating, depression, adult ADHD, and alcohol consumption?2014In: Eating Behaviors, ISSN 1471-0153, E-ISSN 1873-7358, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 644-647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION:

    Findings regarding psychological risk factors for low weight loss after bariatric surgery have been inconsistent. The association between gender and weight outcome is unclear while younger age has been consistently shown to be associated with better weight outcome. The aim of this study was to analyze the interactions between gender and age on the one hand and symptoms of disordered eating, depression, adult ADHD and alcohol consumption on the other hand in regard to weight loss after gastric bypass.

    METHODS:

    Bariatric surgery patients were recruited and asked to fill out self-report questionnaires regarding behavioral risk factors before and twelve months after surgery. Data from one hundred and twenty-nine patients were analyzed.

    RESULTS:

    After controlling for age, no psychological variable measured prior to surgery could predict weight loss after twelve months. After surgery, there was an interaction effect between age, gender and specific eating disorder symptoms. Specifically, loss of control over eating was a risk factor for low weight loss among older, but not among younger, female participants. Symptoms of adult ADHD were associated with elevated alcohol consumption after surgery.

    DISCUSSION:

    These results indicate that age and gender may moderate the effects of potential risk factors for inferior weight outcome. This interaction could potentially be one of the reasons behind the mixed findings in this field. Thus, there are important gender differences in the bariatric population that should be considered. The present study is the first to show that symptoms of adult ADHD may not be a risk factor for inferior weight loss but for alcohol risk consumption after gastric bypass.

  • 99.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Stockholm Cty Council, Karolinska Inst & Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Winai, Ebba
    Reg Stockholm, Psychiat Northwest, Sollentuna, Sweden.
    Collin, Emelie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala Univ Hosp, Eating Disorder Unit Adults, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Martina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Wolf-Arehult, Martina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form: Psychometric evaluation in one non-clinical and two clinical Swedish samples2023In: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, ISSN 1063-3995, E-ISSN 1099-0879, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 631-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Self-compassion has been defined as the ability to be with one's feelings of suffering in a warm and caring way. Research has shown a negative association between self-compassion and mental illness, and that low self-compassion can make psychotherapeutic effects less likely. The ability to measure a patient's self-compassion in a fast and reliable way is therefore important in investigating effects of psychotherapies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF) in both non-clinical (NC) and clinical samples.

    Methods: Cross-sectional data were gathered in a NC community sample (n = 1,089), an eating disorder (ED) sample (n = 253) and a borderline personality disorder (BPD) sample (n = 151). All participants were asked to complete a number of questionnaires, including the SCS-SF, and 121 participants in the NC sample repeated the assessment after 2 weeks for test-retest analysis.

    Results: Confirmatory factor analyses supported the first-order model suggested in previous research. Good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.78-0.87) and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation = 0.84) were demonstrated for the entire scale. Results also showed good convergent validity, demonstrating moderate negative associations between self-compassion and mental illnesses, as expected, and acceptable divergent validity, demonstrating weak positive associations between self-compassion and quality of life and mindfulness.

    Discussion: The correlations between the SCS-SF and the instruments used for validation were weaker in the clinical samples than the NC sample. This may be due to difficulties measuring these constructs or that the associations differ somewhat between different populations, which could warrant further research. The results added some support to the assumption that self-compassion may overlap with mindfulness yet still represents a distinct construct.

    Conclusions: Analyses of the SCS-SF provided evidence of adequate to good psychometric properties, supporting use of the scale's total sum score and a first-order factor structure. This is in accordance with previous evaluations of the SCS-SF, suggesting that it is a reliable and time-efficient instrument for measuring a general level of self-compassion. This may be important when evaluating psychotherapy and investigating self-compassion and its influence on psychiatric illness.

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  • 100.
    Alfvén, G
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physical Activity and Health. Karolinska institutet, Department of Neuroscience, Stockholm.
    The Dangerous Staircase of Stress2021In: Anesthesia & Pain Research, ISSN 2639-846X, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 1-6Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic negative stress may be the start of a progress of illness, that may end in serious troubles for the affected. In this Perspective we highlight the steps in such a progress, what we call a staircase of stress. This underlines the importance of recognition, understanding and therapeutic measures at an early stage of the stress disorders. 

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