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  • 51.
    Aid, Graham
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Industrial Ecology Methods within Engagement Processes for Industrial Resource Management2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global use of resources such as materials, energy, and water has surpassed sustainable levels by many accounts.  The research presented here was explicitly normative in its aim to improve the understanding of, and make sustainable change toward highly systemic issues of resource management.  The core methods chosen to work toward this aim were bottom up action research procedures (including stakeholder engagement processes) and industrial ecology analysis tools.  These methods were employed and tested in pragmatic combination through two of the author’s case study projects. The first case study, performed between 2009 and 2012, employed a multi-stakeholder process aimed at improving the cycling of construction and demolition waste in the Stockholm region.  The second case study produced a strategic tool (Looplocal) built for facilitating more efficient regional industrial resource networks. While the highly participative aim of the cases required a larger contribution of resources than that of more closed studies, it is arguable that the efficacy of approaching the project aims is improved through their employment. 

  • 52.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Lysenkovac, Mariya
    Smedberg, Niklas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Looplocal: a Heuristic Visualization Tool for the Strategic Facilitation of Industrial Symbiosis2012In: Greening of Industry Netowrk Proceedings / [ed] Leo Baas, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) developments have been differentiated as ‘self organized’, ‘facilitated’, and ‘planned’. This article introduces a tool that has been built with objectives to support the strategic facilitation of IS. ‘Looplocal’ is a visualization tool built to assist in 1) the identification of regions prone to new industrial symbiosis activities 2) market potential exchanges to key actors and 3) assist aspiring facilitators to assess the various strategies and social methodologies available for the initial phases of a facilitated industrial symbiosis venture. This tool combines life cycle inventory (LCI) data, waste statistics, and national industrial data (including geographic, activity, economic, and contact information) to perform a heuristic analysis of raw material and energy inputs and outputs (wastes). Along with an extensive list of ‘waste to raw material’ substitutions (which may be direct, combined, or upgraded) gathered from IS uncovering studies, IS organizations, and waste and energy professionals; heuristic regional output to input ‘matching’ can be visualized. On a national or regional scale the tool gives a quick overview of what could be the most interesting regions to prioritize resources for IS facilitation. Focusing in on a regional level, the tool visualizes the potential structure of the network in that region (centralized, decentralized, or distributed), allowing a facilitator to adapt the networking approach correspondingly. The tool also visualizes potential IS transfer information, along with key stakeholder data. The authors have performed a proof of concept run of this tool in the ‘industrial disperse’ context of Sweden. In its early stages of application, the method has proven capable of identifying regions prone to the investment of facilitators’ resources. The material focus and custom possibilities for the tool show potential for a wide spectrum of potential facilitators: from waste management companies (using the tool as a strategic market analysis tool) to national or regional authorities looking to lower negative environmental impacts, to ‘sustainable’ industry sectors looking to strengthen market positioning. In conjunction with proper long term business models, such a tool could be reusable itself over the evolution of facilitation activities and aims.

  • 53.
    Aidinnezhad, Negin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Stendahl, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Optimering av sjötransport: Logistikflöde av prefabricerade brodelar i Mälaren2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of Sweden´s most trafficated railway section stretches between Stockholm Central to the Stockholm South Station. Getingmidjan is the name of the renovation work that is taking place in the central part of Stockholm. The Swedish Transport Administration acts as a client and needs to ensure the long-term durability of the Söderströms Bridge (part of Getingmidjan project). To do so they initiated a sub-project to handle the sea transport of the steel bridge that will replace the old Söderströms bridge. This thesis puts its focus on the maritime transport. The sub-project is responsible for shipping logistics of the three bridge sections between Tallinn to Riddarfjärden. This report aims to identify and visualize potential routes by mapping the cargo transportation in lake Mälaren, Stockholm. The transfer will firstly pass by Västerås before it arrives in Riddarfjärden. The writers look into alternative ports to Västerås – where the two bridge sections SS1 and SS2 are welded together. The shipping configuration consists of; pusher, tugboat, barge and bridge. Where the analyze will consider; width, length, depth below and height above the water surface in the mapping process. Results from the study has shown that the quay length is the bottleneck and delimits the possibility for bridge section SS1 and SS2 to be welded together. There are two ports that satisfy the requirements, the port of Köping and Västerås. This empirical study intends to find a visualization tool that improves communication and can be implemented at the Swedish Transport Administration. The research uses observations, interviews and a questionnaire survey for applicants at the coordination meeting. Our findings suggest that the initiation phase in general was problematic, furthermore there are some difficulties in having an open discussion between partners. It was clear that leadership played a key role for the team in these situations. The results from the survey indicates that there is substantial room for improvements. In general participant at the meeting mainly listens to their own agendas and not to others. This may cause misunderstandings and irritation in the group. All the group members also found that a weekly meeting was enough. Empirical data supports that the protocol of the meeting need to be modernized. Both small and large-scale project uses same project management tools regardless of the size of the project. An analysis was therefore made in accordance to these aspects to find an appropriate lean solution. It turned out that the visual planning was a great tool to use in the coordination meetings. The writers came to the conclusion that the Swedish Transport Administration should take a further look at Kanban and Peab´s project management model to modernize their team leading. This report is not intended to produce waterproof solutions. This piece of work will provide materials and useful information for communication and sea transportation. The writers decided to look over a future possibility for shipping. Underås, Enhörna was found to be ideal for transports through Södertälje. It is centrally located in Mälaren and may result in lead time reduction for large configurations. Furthermore, the interview will present how third parties may be affected by the project, especially public transportation, shipping and roads nearby. As well as risks that have occurred and may occur in the construction, sea transportation and lastly in the planned traffic shutdown.

  • 54.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH.
    Are commuter train timetables consistent with passengers’ valuations of waiting times and in-vehicle crowding?2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many models have been developed and used to analyse the costs and benefits of transport investments. Similar tools can also be used for transport operation planning and capacity allocation. An example of such use is the assessment of commuter train operations and service frequency. In this study, we analyse the societally optimal frequency for commuter train services. The aim is to reveal the implicit valuation (by the public transport agency) of the waiting time and the in-vehicle crowding in the commuting system. We use an analytic CBA model to formulate the societal costs of a certain service frequency and analyse the societally optimal frequencies during peak and off-peak hours. Comparing the optimal and the actual frequencies allows to reveal the implicit valuations of waiting time and crowding. Using relevant data from the commuter train services in Stockholm on a typical working day in September 2015 (e.g., OD matrix, cost parameters), we perform a numerical analysis on certain lines and directions. We find the societally optimal frequency and the implicit valuation of waiting time and crowding. The results suggest that the public transport agency in Stockholm (i.e., SL) adopted service frequencies that are generally slightly higher than societally optimum which can be explained by a higher implicit valuation of waiting time and crowding. We also find that the optimal frequencies are more sensitive to the waiting time valuation rather than that of crowding.

  • 55.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Lindberg, Per Olov
    KTH.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Aronsson, Martin
    Disaggregation in Bundle Methods: Application to the Train Timetabling Problem2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bundle methods are often used to solve dual problems that arise from Lagrangian relaxations of large scale optimization problems. An example of such problems is the train timetabling problem. This paper focuses on solving a dual problem that arises from Lagrangian relaxation of a train timetabling optimization program. The dual problem is solved using bundle methods. We formulate and compare the performances of two different bundle methods: the aggregate method, which is a standard method, and a new, disaggregate, method which is proposed here. The two methods were tested on realistic train timetabling scenarios from the Iron Ore railway line. The numerical results show that the new disaggregate approach generally yields faster convergence than the standard aggregate approach.

  • 56.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet.
    Pricing commercial train path requests based on societal costs2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On deregulated railway markets, efficient capacity allocation is important. We study the case where commercial trains and publicly controlled traffic (“commuter trains”) use the same railway infrastructure and hence compete for capacity. We develop a method that can be used by an infrastructure manager trying to allocate capacity in a socially efficient way. The method calculates the loss of social benefits incurred by changing the commuter train timetable to accommodate a commercial train path request and based on this calculates a reservation price for the train path request. If the commercial operator’s willingness-to-pay for the train path exceeds the loss of social benefits, its request is approved. The calculation of social benefits takes into account changes in commuter train passengers’ travel times, waiting times, transfers and crowding, and changes in operating costs for the commuter train operator(s). The method is implemented in a microscopic simulation program, which makes it possible to test the robustness and feasibility of timetable alternatives. We show that the method is possible to apply in practice by demonstrating it in a case study from Stockholm, illustrating the magnitudes of the resulting commercial train path prices. We conclude that marginal societal costs of railway capacity in Stockholm are considerably higher than the current track access charges.

  • 57.
    Akililu, Meaza Negash
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Verification of Rural Traffic Simulator, RuTSim 22012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic models based on micro-simulation are becoming increasingly important as traffic analysistools. Due to the detailed traffic description, different micro-simulation models are needed tosimulate different traffic environments. The Rural Traffic Simulator, RuTSim, is a unique microtrafficsimulation model for traffic on rural roads. RuTSim is developed at VTI with support fromthe Swedish Transport Administration. Currently, a new version of the RuTSim model has beenimplemented based on the earlier one but with some enhancements. Due to these enhancements,the new implementation of RuTSim should be verified before being used to analyze real worldproblems.

    In this master’s thesis, a verification of the new implementation of the RuTSim model, RuTSim 2,has been carried out. This paper includes a description of traffic micro-simulation models forrural roads in general and a description of RuTSim model in particular. Common verificationtechniques of the simulation models are also discussed in this study.

    Based on the theoretical assessments, a model-to-model comparison verification scheme isselected to verify the RuTSim 2 model. That is, the model verification is performed by comparingthe simulation outputs from RuTSim 2 to the old version of RuTSim (RuTSim 1), since RuTSim1 is well verified and calibrated. Statistical hypothesis tests are used to check whether the meanand standard deviation differences of the simulation outputs between the two simulators aresignificant or not.

    Based on the verification results, the new version of the RuTSim model has comparable modelingof vehicle-vehicle and vehicle-infrastructure interactions as the old version. Furthermore, thehypothesis test results show that the differences of the mean simulation results of the twosimulators are not significant. Therefore, the new implementation of RuTSim model, RuTSim 2,has been proven to be equivalent model as the old version.

  • 58.
    Al Doory, Omar
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management. Jönköping University.
    Freytag, Daniel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management. Jönköping University.
    Developing waste-to-energi in Brazil: A pre-feasbility study for a waste-to-energi plant in Santa Catarina, Brazil2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 59.
    Al Haji, Ghazwan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fowler, Scott
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Smart traffic calming measures for smart cities - a pre-study2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic calming measures, such as speed bumps and elevated crossing points, are used to reduce speed, to prevent overtaking and generally contribute to a safer traffic situation. However, they might also cause increased response times for rescue vehicles (e.g. ambulances or fire trucks). An alternative to the conventional traffic calming measures is so-called smart traffic calming measures. These can determine when a vehicle approaches, whose journey should not be hindered, and adjust to allow for free passage for this vehicle.

    This report gives an overview of the problem, and some examples of smart  traffic calming measures are discussed. Special focus is put on the wireless communication necessary to detect emergency vehicles. Furthermore, existing challenges and possible solutions for traffic calming measures and the communication needed to make them smart are discussed.

  • 60.
    Alam, Assad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fuel-Efficient Heavy-Duty Vehicle Platooning2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The freight transport industry faces big challenges as the demand for transport and fuel prices are steadily increasing, whereas the environmental impact needs to be significantly reduced. Heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) platooning is a promising technology for a sustainable transportation system. By semi-autonomously governing each platooning vehicle at small inter-vehicle spacing, we can effectively reduce fuel consumption, emissions, and congestion, and relieve driver tension. Yet, it is not evident how to synthesise such a platoon control system and how constraints imposed by the road topography affect the safety or fuel-saving potential in practice.

    This thesis presents contributions to a framework for the design, implementation, and evaluation of HDV platooning. The focus lies mainly on establishing fuel-efficient platooning control and evaluating the fuel-saving potential in practice. A vehicle platoon model is developed together with a system architecture that divides the control problem into manageable subsystems. Presented results show that a significant fuel reduction potential exists for HDV platooning and it is favorable to operate the vehicles at a small inter-vehicle spacing. We address the problem of finding the minimum distance between HDVs in a platoon without compromising safety, by setting up the problem in a game theoretical framework. Thereby, we determine criteria for which collisions can be avoided in a worst-case scenario and establish the minimum safe distance to a vehicle ahead. A systematic design methodology for decentralized inter-vehicle distance control based on linear quadratic regulators is presented. It takes dynamic coupling and engine response delays into consideration, and the structure of the controller feedback matrix can be tailored to the locally available state information. The results show that a decentralized controller gives good tracking performance and attenuates disturbances downstream in the platoon for dynamic scenarios that commonly occur on highways. We also consider the problem of finding a fuel-efficient controller for HDV platooning based on road grade preview information under road and vehicle parameter uncertainties. We present two model predictive control policies and derive their fuel-saving potential. The thesis finally evaluates the fuel savings in practice. Experimental results show that a fuel reduction of 3.9–6.5 % can be obtained on average for a heterogenous platoon of HDVs on a Swedish highway. It is demonstrated how the savings depend on the vehicle position in the platoon, the behavior of the preceding vehicles, and the road topography. With the results obtained in this thesis, it is argued that a significant fuel reduction potential exists for HDV platooning.

  • 61. Alam, Assad
    et al.
    Besselink, Bart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Turri, Valerio
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Heavy-Duty Vehicle Platooning for Sustainable Freight Transportation A COOPERATIVE METHOD TO ENHANCE SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY2015In: IEEE CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE, ISSN 1066-033X, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 34-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current system of global trade is largely based on transportation and communication technology from the 20th century. Advances in technology have led to an increasingly interconnected global market and reduced the costs of moving goods, people, and technology around the world [1]. Transportation is crucial to society, and the demand for transportation is strongly linked to economic development. Specifically, road transportation is essential since about 60% of all surface freight transportation (which includes road and rail transport) is done on roads [2]. Despite the important role of road freight transportation in the economy, it is facing serious challenges, such as those posed by increasing fuel prices and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the integration of information and communication technologies to transportation systems-leading to intelligent transportation systems-enables the development of cooperative methods to enhance the safety and energy efficiency of transportation networks. This article focuses on one such cooperative approach, which is known as platooning. The formation of a group of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) at close intervehicular distances, known as a platoon (see Figure 1) increases the fuel efficiency of the group by reducing the overall air drag. The safe operation of such platoons requires the automatic control of the velocity of the platoon vehicles as well as their intervehicular distance. Existing work on platooning has focused on the design of controllers for these longitudinal dynamics, in which simple vehicle models are typically exploited and perfect environmental conditions, such as flat roads, are generally assumed. The broader perspective of how platooning can be effectively exploited in a freight transportation system has received less attention. Moreover, experimental validations of the fuel-saving potential offered by platooning have typically been performed by reproducing the perfect conditions as assumed in the design of the automatic controllers. This article focuses on these two aspects by addressing the following two objectives.

  • 62.
    Al-ani, Neeran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Boutros, Mireille
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Flerpatientbesök – ett förbättringsförslag baserat på en analys av den dagligaverksamheten vid vårdcentralen Cityhälsan Söder: En kartläggning på Blodtrycksmottagning och Astma/KOL- mottagning med hjälp av Lean2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Östergötland County Council has begun to implement “Lean-Thinking" in healthcare service. Staff at healthcare service has experienced new challenges. Health care quality cannot anymore be measured only by medical treatment results, other factors are of importance, for example accessibility.

    The management of the health centre “Cityhälsan Söder” wished to identify problems that affect patient flow and requested proposals for improvements which could increase the number of patients cared for at Blood Pressure-department and Asthma/COL- department.

    For the mapping of the activities performed by a nurse during a working day, two data collection methods were used: observation and survey. Collected data were analysed in relation to the frame of reference concerning theories of Lean healthcare and logistics. Focus in the identification of problems was to improve the utilization of nursing time to allow more patient visits. 

    In the analysis eight types of wastes are especially used: overproduction, waiting, transportation, extra-processing, inventory, motion, defects and non-utilised skills. From the healthcare logistics point of view, the cancelations problem, lack of resources and matching capacity with demand was also analysed.

    To increase staff knowledge of how service may work better it was suggested to take advantage of the staff's creativity by expanding the personnel’s perception of patient flow in order to match capacity with demand. Other proposals concerned waiting-list management, which aims to introduce direct time booking of upcoming patient visits at both departments, freeing administrative time that can be spent to accommodate more patients. To standardize medical examinations on Asthma/COL-departments is also a proposal.

    IT-solutions for both departments may also create opportunities for more patient visits. A film that prepares the patient by teaching the correct blowing technique for the visit on Asthma/COL-department may accelerate medical examinations and free time that can be used better.

  • 63.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Enabling socio-technical transitions – electric vehicles and high voltage electricity grids as focal points of low emission futures2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today humankind is facing numerous sustainability challenges that require us to question CO2 intensive practices like those present in the transport and energy sector. To meet those challenges, many countries have adopted ambitious climate targets. Achieving such targets requires an understanding of the wider socio-technical context of transitions. The aim of this licentiate thesis is therefore to analyse such socio-technical transitions towards low-emission futures enabled by the electrification of passenger cars and high voltage grid development.

    A combination of different transitions theories (for ex. Multi-level perspective and Technological innovation systems) and institutional theory has been used. To reach the aim paper I analyses the climate impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and policy measures to achieve a breakthrough scenario for EVs. The results show that a mixture of short and long term policies are needed that take into account the technology development stage and behavioural aspects of EV adopters. Paper II addresses the need to include the high voltage transmission grid and its planning procedures as a central part of debates on transitions. Therefore the opportunities, challenges and reasons for conflict in the established regime are studied. The results show that in order to achieve a sustainable grid development regime, it is necessary to spend time on achieving legitimacy and social sustainability. The third paper uses semi-structured expert interviews and focuses on innovation dynamics for EV adoption. By focusing on dynamics instead of single policy measures, it is possible to grasp interactions within a niche, but also in between a niche, regime and landscape. The results show that strong initial technology legitimacy was needed to start substantial innovation dynamics. This could be further strengthened with a strong and broad coalition of actors. Both those factors led, if present, to an improved variety and match of policy instruments.

    As such this thesis has shown that transitions are not just about technology or policy instruments as such but about the dynamics and processes needed to enable them. This can be relevant in other transitions that otherwise may underestimate the importance of these components.

  • 64.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    System innovation dynamics around electric vehicles. The cases of Norway, Denmark and Sweden.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the comparison of electric car innovation patterns in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Doing so, it takes a closer look at what the most essential dynamics in the systems were over time and what enabled those dynamics. The main research aim is to contribute to a wider understanding of why Norway is so much ahead of Sweden and Denmark in electric car adoption. The purpose is also to adopt a perspective that goes beyond a mere focus on economic policy instruments. In order to do so different theory elements are combined in a framework. These elements stem from the transition theory literature field, especially the technological innovation system (TIS) and the multi-level perspective (MLP). This combination allows analysing the development behind a dynamic, not just when it comes to an innovation itself but also with regards to the established regime. The data is gathered through analysis of existing documents and data as well as a series of 27 expert interviews conducted in the three case countries. The findings suggest that there are important differences in transition patterns that can account for the electric vehicle (EV) diffusion situation we can find nowadays in the three Nordic countries. An important stepping stone was the need for a very strong legitimacy of the original EV vision that is also anchored in a coordinated, sector overarching coalition of actors that thinks strategically and long term. Moreover some general beneficial dynamics could be identified across the countries in question. In Norway these beneficial dynamics can be summarised as a systems motor, in Denmark as a failed entrepreneurial motor that shifted towards a constrained municipal motor and in Sweden as a loosely, coordinated and weaker version of a systems motor.

  • 65.
    Albrecht, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Electrification of vehicles – policy drivers and impacts in two scenarios.2013In: Grid Integration of Electric Vehicles in Open Electricity Markets / [ed] Qiuwei Wu, John Wiley & Sons, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines current policy drivers of battery electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid EVs, the current and anticipated impacts on carbon emissions, as well as what potential role policy can play in enhancing the innovation system and market development around such vehicles in the future. We start with a policy review of key targets in the Nordic countries and the EU, up to 2030, and discuss to what extent they are consistent with industry and expert estimates of how the systems can grow. On the basis of this, the second part elaborates two simple scenarios of EV development in the EU: one breakthrough expansion scenario and one incremental expansion scenario. Building on that is an analysis of the climate impacts of the two scenarios, given different assumptions relating to, for example, electricity production as well as EV penetration in the fleet. The third part examines what policy drivers might be needed to enable the breakthrough scenario, using a technological innovation systems perspective to describe the needed processes, drivers and developments.

  • 66.
    Al-Dabbas, Khaled
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Analysis of GHG emissions reduction from road transport: a case study of the German passenger vehicles2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation and energy play an essential role in modern society. Since the Industrial Revolution, fossil fuels have enabled great advancements in human society. Within this process, Internal Combustion Engines Vehicles (ICEVs) played a significant role in guaranteeing reliable and affordable long-distance transportation. However, the subsequent increase of the Motorized Private Transport resulted in undesired effects such as pollution. One instrument in reducing the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of the transport sector is to shift from the conventional ICEVs toward zero local emission vehicles. Electric Vehicles (EVs) are being promoted worldwide as a suitable powertrain technology that could replace the ICEVs. However, unless combined with electricity from renewable generation technologies the EVs will not effectively reduce GHG emissions. Through the simulation of future transport and energy sector scenarios in Germany, the GHG emission reductions have been analyzed. Techno-economic and environmental characteristics for several powertrain technologies under several vehicles charging strategies are evaluated. The thesis explores the impact of charging EVs on the electrical grid. The result show that EVs using smart charging strategies that support Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) are capable of fulfilling mobility needs of users while providing substantial flexibility to the electrical grid. Such flexibility can facilitate the future expansion of non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources (RES).

  • 67.
    Aldin, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Luna Case within Bergman & Beving Tools: Changes in Logistics Management2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies conducting business in multiple marketing channels need logistics and IT solutions that support their wide array of strategy and operations. Those, and other firms, do not solely rely on new concepts but also on continuously developing their businesses in the interaction between marketing and logistics. This case study will show on these aspects - how marketing and logistics may be integrated in such a channel environment by continuously developing the business as well as through new approaches in information technology - electronic commerce.

    The Luna case Within Bergman & Beving Tools illustrates the development of a medium sized distributor from catalogue based firm to flow co-ordinator in a group constellation, a change from a single steady going to a multiple requirement demanding marketing channel. Luna is a transaction intensive distributor of tools and machinery equipment with long experience in logistics and information technology. The company is guarantor for assortment quality, fast and reliable logistics through sophisticated IT solutions as well as value added competence in its trade relations with dealers and end customers. Independent dealers and end customers are found in Nordic industrial, construction, engineering, administration and consumer sectors. Bergman & Beving Tools is parent company to seven distributors of which Luna is the largest.

    To start with, this case describes the background development of the business in the fields of marketing, logistics and information technology until 1993. The second part between 1993 and 2001 describes how the marketing agenda has changed, how electronic commerce has been used to develop the business and changes in logistics, both on operational and strategic levels. As a whole the case describes changes in logistics management and how that has interacted with market development.

  • 68.
    Aldén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odebo, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The use of ground equipment at airports2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    För att flygplatser ska kunna ha så hög kapacitet som möjligt krävs effektivisering av alla delar av flygplatsverksamheten. Denna studie har identifierat problem och utvecklingsområden av användningen av markutrustning på flygplatser. I studien har det även analyserats effektiviseringsmöjligheter. Några exempel på problem och utvecklingsområden som funnits är att utrustningen är utspridd på flygplatsen och att det finns för mycket utrustning. Ett av lösningsförslagen som föreslås i rapporten är att en tredjepartsaktör äger all markutrustning på flygplatsen och sedan bedriver uthyrning av utrustningen till användarna.

  • 69.
    Alemu, Beakal Tadesse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Collocation of Infrastructuresin Stockholm Airport City: Collocation of infrastructures to foster implementation ofnew transportation systems2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 70.
    Alexandra Markovic, Markovic
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Arvid, Edforss
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    An evaluation of current calculations for safety stock levels2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 71.
    Alfonsetti, Elisabetta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Weeraddana, P. C.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Min-max fair car-parking slot assignment2015In: Proceedings of the WoWMoM 2015: A World of Wireless Mobile and Multimedia Networks, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical studies show that cruising for car parking accounts for a non-negligible amount of the daily traffic, especially in central areas of large cities. Therefore, mechanisms for minimizing traffic from cruising directly affect the dynamics of traffic congestions. One way to minimizing cruising traffic is efficient car-parking-slot assignment. Usually, the related design problems are combinatorial and the worst-case complexity of optimal methods grows exponentially with the problem sizes. As a result, almost all existing methods for parking slot assignment are simple and greedy approaches, where each car or the user is assigned a free parking slot, which is closer to its destination. Moreover, no emphasis is placed to optimize any form of fairness among the users as the a social benefit. In this paper, the fairness as a metric for modeling the aggregate social benefit of the users is considered. An algorithm based on Lagrange duality is developed for car-parking-slot assignment. Numerical results illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm compared to the optimal assignment and a greedy method.

  • 72.
    Alfredsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Ramboll Sverige AB.
    Arnehed, Filip
    Ramboll Sverige AB.
    Östman, Ebba
    Ramboll Sverige AB.
    Delad mobilitet i Norden: utmaningar och möjliga lösningar2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of a subproject called Dialogue meetings, exchanges of experiences and recommendations to create attractive and climate-smart transportation in cities, within the overarching project Sustainable Nordic Cities with Focus on Climate Smart Mobility, one of Sweden’s projects within the Nordic Council of Ministers.

  • 73.
    Alfredsson, Nina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Angvarson, Josefin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An analysis of the robustness of SAS crew schedules2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Scandinavian Airlines (SAS) är nordens största flygbolag och har en besättning på 5 000 personer med baser i Danmark, Norge och Sverige. SAS besättningsscheman för kabinpersonal med bas Stockholm samt piloter med samma bas och kvalifikationer för flygplanstypen Boeing 737 har analyserats. Genomförda förändringar efter att scheman publicerats under 2013 och 2014 har kartlagts. Förändringarna har utretts för att fastställa hur stor andel av ett schema som genomförs som planerat. Vidare har ett mätetal som även tar hänsyn till antalet ändringar som sker från planerad ledighet och sjukdom till någon form av produktion tagits fram, mätetalet kallas förändringskvot. Andelen avvecklat enligt plan och förändringskvoten är beräknade per produktionsdag. Mätetalens resultat är relativt jämna för 2013 och 2014. År 2013 avvecklades i genomsnitt 75 % av panerade produktionsdagar och förändringskvoten utgjorde i genomsnitt 30 %. Motsvarande siffror för år 2014 var 77 % och 29 %.

  • 74.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Even more possibilities to combine demand models2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    New models for high speed rail forecasting2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    What is the monetary value of security?2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Algers, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Modelling choice of flight and booking class - a study using Stated Preference and Revealed Preference data2001In: International Journal of Services Technology and Management, Vol. 2, no 1/2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Algers, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301).
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301).
    Is it time to use activity-based urban transport models? A discussion of planning needs and modelling possibilities2005In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 767-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For some decades now, transport researchers have put considerable efforts into developing what is called activity-based approaches for modelling urban travel demand. The basic idea is that travel demand is derived from people's desires to take part in different activities. In particular, the interrelationships among different activities with respect to temporal and spatial constraints are in focus. It means that such models treat the activities and the travelling of the households with respect to where and when the activities can be carried out and how they may be scheduled, given characteristics of the households and potential opportunities, the transport networks and various institutional constraints. We discuss what demands we see on future travel demand models, with a focus on urban analysis. This discussion is somewhat biased towards what role activity-based models could play in meeting these demands. We then review in some detail three prominent and distinctly different representatives of operational activity-based models to give an indication of what new modelling possibilities they offer. Theoretical appeal, empirical validity, usefulness for planning, need for data and easiness of implementation are discussed. In the final section we draw some conclusions about the prospects of these models and of their descendants.

  • 79.
    Algers, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Östlund, Bo
    Sampers: erfarenheter och utvecklingsmöjligheter på kort och lång sikt2009Report (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Algers, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Petz, M.
    Embedded parks in Quiet Zones2012In: 41st International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2012, INTER-NOISE 2012: Volume 4, 2012, 2012, p. 3024-3035Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the targets of the European project "CityHush Acoustically Green Road Vehicles and City Areas" under the 7th Framework Program is to support city administrations to eliminate harmful effects of noise exposure and decrease levels of transport noise, especially in urban areas. A particular attention has been paid to investigating boundary conditions and maximum noise gains especially for parks embedded in Q-zones where only quiet low emission vehicles are tolerated. Other vehicles are banned or subject to a noise fee for entering the quiet zone. Within the CityHush project existing noise levels in different parks of European cities were determined and the influence of local parameters on the noise situation, such as size of a Qzone, was investigated. Moreover a variation of noise fees and traffic restrictions as well as different percentages of low noise vehicle ownerships inside the Q-zone and outside (countrywide) was evaluated. Based on different noise and annoyance criteria possibilities and limits to reduce noise in the city environment will be shown, based on studies carried out for 5 European cities.

  • 81. Alhasan, Ilyas
    et al.
    Matthews, Brian
    Towner, Jeremy
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Evaluation of intercounty integrated ticketing scheme, the case of Movingo in Sweden2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 82. Allström, A.
    et al.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. cVTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Smartphone based travel diary collection: Experiences from a field trial in Stockholm2017In: Emerging technologies and models for transport and mobility 44th European Transport Conference Selected Proceedings, Casa Convalescència, Barcelona, Spain, 5-7 October 2016, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 26, p. 32-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, there is a great need for new methods to collect travel data. Traditional methods have considerable drawbacks and, at the same time, the models used to analyse the transport system require more and more detailed and high-quality data. An alternative method that stands out as very promising is to capture raw data from devices that can use any positioning technology (e.g., GPS, WiFi positioning, GSM, etc.), followed by transforming the raw data into meaningful travel data. Since most smartphones are equipped with various sensors that can be used to determine the location of the smartphone, and since smartphones are integrated in the daily life of most people, they provide an unprecedented opportunity for large-scale travel data collection. This method has a great potential to solve the problems related to the estimation of distance/travel time, geographic coding of departure/destination locations and forgotten trips and it will also provide a more detailed and extensive data set. In a recently completed research project the feasibility of replacing or complementing the traditional travel diary, with a suite of tools that make use of smartphone collected travel data has been evaluated. The advantages and disadvantages of the traditional method and the proposed method were studied. For a fair comparison, both methods have been tested in the same city, at the same time, and with the same respondents. To achieve the objectives of the project, MEILI, a system that consists of a smartphone application for capturing the movement of users and a web application for allowing the users to annotate their movement, has been deployed. The recruitment of respondents is a critical phase for traditional travel diaries and, as expected, this was the case also for the smartphone based method. A lesson learnt was that it is important to simplify the registration process as much as possible. In total 2142 trips were collected and annotated by 171 users. 51 of the users annotated trips covering more than a week. The experiences from the field trial shows that a smartphone based travel diary collection is a very useful complement to traditional travel diary collection methods since it appeals to a different age group and collects more detailed travel data for a longer period. The main findings of the paper are that smartphone based data collection is feasible, that the algorithms to save battery work well and that trips of the same respondent vary considerably depending on day of the week.

  • 83.
    Allström, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Highway Traffic State Estimation and Short-term Prediction2016Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic congestion is increasing in almost all large cities, leading to a number of negative effects such as pollution and delays. However, building new roads is not a feasible solution. Instead, the use of the existing road network has to be optimized, together with a shift towards more sustainable transport modes. In order to achieve this there are several challenges that needs to be addressed. One challenge is the ability to provide accurate information about the current and future traffic state. This information is an essential input to the traffic management center and can be used to influence the choices made by the travelers. Accurate information about the traffic state on highways, where the potential to manage and control the traffic in general is very high, would be of great significance for the traffic managers. It would help the traffic managers to take action before the system reaches congestion and limit the effects of it. At the same time, the collection of traffic data is slowly shifting from fixed sensors to more probe based data collection. This requires an adaptation and further development of the traditional traffic models in order for them to handle and take advantage of the characteristics of all types of data, not just data from the traditionally used fixed sensors.

    The objective of this thesis is to contribute to the development and implementation of a model for estimation and prediction of the current and future traffic state and to facilitate an adaptation of the model to the conditions of the highway in Stockholm. The model used is a version of the Cell Transmission Model (CTM-v) where the velocity is used as the state variable. Thus, together with an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) it can be used to fuse different types of point speed measurements. The model is developed to run in real-time for a large network. Furthermore, a two-stage process used to calibrate the model is implemented. The results from the calibration and validation show that once the model is calibrated, the estimated travel times corresponds well with the ground truth travel times collected from Bluetooth sensors.

    In order to produce accurate short-term predictions for various networks and conditions it is vital to combine different methods. We have implemented and evaluated a hybrid prediction approach that assimilates parametric and non-parametric short-term traffic state prediction. To predict mainline sensor data we use a neural network, while the CTM-v is ran forward in time in order to predict future traffic states. The results show that both the hybrid approach and the CTM-v prediction without the additional predicted mainline sensor data is superior to a naïve prediction method for longer prediction horizons.

  • 84.
    Allström, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Archer, Jeffery
    Sweco Infrastructure, Sweden.
    Bayen, Alexandre
    University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Blandin, Sebastian
    University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Butler, Joe
    California Center for Innovative Transportation. USA.
    Gundlegård, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Koutsopoulose, Haris N
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Lundgren, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rahmani, Mahmood
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Tossavainen, Olli-Pekka
    NAVTEQ LLC, USA.
    Mobile Millennium Stockholm2011In: 2nd International Conference on Models and Technologies for Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Allström, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Barceló, Jaume
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
    Ekström, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet.
    Grumert, Ellen
    Linköpings universitet.
    Gundlegård, David
    Linköpings universitet.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linköpings universitet.
    Traffic management for smart cities2016In: Designing, developing, and facilitating smart cities: urban design to IoT solutions / [ed] Vangelis Angelakis, Elias Tragos, Henrich C. Pöhls, Adam Kapovits and Alessandro Bassi, Switzerland: Springer, 2016, p. 211-240Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart cities, participatory sensing as well as location data available in communication systems and social networks generates a vast amount of heterogeneous mobility data that can be used for traffic management. This chapter gives an overview of the different data sources and their characteristics and describes a framework for utilizing the various sources efficiently in the context of traffic management. Furthermore, different types of traffic models and algorithms are related to both the different data sources as well as some key functionalities of active traffic management, for example short-term prediction and control.

  • 86.
    Allström, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barceló, Jaume
    Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
    Ekström, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Grumert, Ellen
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gundlegård, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Traffic management for smart cities2017In: Designing, developing, and facilitating smart cities: urban design to IoT solutions. Part III / [ed] Vangelis Angelakis, Elias Tragos, Henrich C. Pöhls, Adam Kapovits and Alessandro Bassi, Switzerland: Springer, 2017, p. 211-240Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart cities, participatory sensing as well as location data available in communication systems and social networks generates a vast amount of heterogeneous mobility data that can be used for traffic management. This chapter gives an overview of the different data sources and their characteristics and describes a framework for utilizing the various sources efficiently in the context of traffic management. Furthermore, different types of traffic models and algorithms are related to both the different data sources as well as some key functionalities of active traffic management, for example short-term prediction and control.

  • 87.
    Allström, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sweco TransportSystem, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bayen, Alexandre M.
    University of California Berkeley, USA.
    Fransson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sweco TransportSystem, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gundlegård, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Patire, Anthony D.
    University of California Berkeley, USA.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandin, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Calibration Framework based on Bluetooth Sensors for Traffic State Estimation Using a Velocity based Cell Transmission Model2014In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 3, p. 972-981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The velocity based cell transmission model (CTM-v) is a discrete time dynamical model that mimics the evolution of the traffic velocity field on highways. In this paper the CTM-v model is used together with an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for the purpose of velocity sensor data assimilation. We present a calibration framework for the CTM-v and EnKF. The framework consists of two separate phases. The first phase is the calibration of the parameters of the fundamental diagram and the second phase is the calibration of demand and filter parameters. Results from the calibrated model are presented for a highway stretch north of Stockholm, Sweden.

  • 88.
    Allström, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekström, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gundlegård, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ringdahl, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bayen, Alexandre M.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California.
    Patire, Anthony D.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California.
    A hybrid approach for short-term traffic state and travel time prediction on highways2016In: TRB 95th annual meeting compendium of papers, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic management and traffic information are essential in urban areas, and require a good knowledge about both the current and the future traffic state. Both parametric and non-parametric traffic state prediction techniques have previously been developed, with different advantages and shortcomings. While non-parametric prediction has shown good results for predicting the traffic state during recurrent traffic conditions, parametric traffic state prediction can be used during non-recurring traffic conditions such as incidents and events. Hybrid approaches, combining the two prediction paradigms have previously been proposed by using non-parametric methods for predicting boundary conditions used in a parametric method. In this paper we instead combine parametric and non-parametric traffic state prediction techniques through assimilation in an Ensemble Kalman filter. As non-parametric prediction method a neural network method is adopted, and the parametric prediction is carried out using a cell transmission model with velocity as state. The results show that our hybrid approach can improve travel time prediction of journeys planned to commence 15 to 30 minutes into the future, using a prediction horizon of up to 50 minutes ahead in time to allow the journey to be completed.

  • 89.
    Allström, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekström, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gundlegård, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ringdahl, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bayen, Alexandre M.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Patire, Anthony D.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Hybrid Approach for Short-Term Traffic State and Travel Time Prediction on Highways2016In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 2554, p. 60-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic management and traffic information are essential in urban areas and require reliable knowledge about the current and future traffic state. Parametric and nonparametric traffic state prediction techniques have previously been developed with different advantages and shortcomings. While nonparametric prediction has shown good results for predicting the traffic state during recurrent traffic conditions, parametric traffic state prediction can be used during nonrecurring traffic conditions, such as incidents and events. Hybrid approaches have previously been proposed; these approaches combine the two prediction paradigms by using nonparametric methods for predicting boundary conditions used in a parametric method. In this paper, parametric and nonparametric traffic state prediction techniques are instead combined through assimilation in an ensemble Kalman filter. For nonparametric prediction, a neural network method is adopted; the parametric prediction is carried out with a cell transmission model with velocity as state. The results show that the hybrid approach can improve travel time prediction of journeys planned to commence 15 to 30 min into the future, with a prediction horizon of up to 50 min ahead in time to allow the journey to be completed

  • 90.
    Allström, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gundlegård, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluation of travel time estimation based on LWR-v and CTM-v: A case study in Stockholm2012In: 15th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), 2012, Piscataway, N.J, USA: IEEE , 2012, p. 1644-1649Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time estimations of current and future traffic states are an essential part of traffic management and traffic information systems. Within the Mobile Millennium project considerable effort has been invested in the research and development of a real-time estimation system that can fuse several sources of data collected in California. During the past year this system has been adapted to also handle traffic data collected in Stockholm. This paper provides an overview of the model used for highways and presents results from an initial evaluation of the system. As part of the evaluation process, GPS data collected in an earlier field-test and estimations generated by the existing system used by the TMC in Stockholm, are compared with the estimations generated by the Mobile Millennium system. Given that the Mobile Millennium Stockholm system has not undergone any calibration, the results from the evaluation are considered promising. The estimated travel times correspond well to those measured in the field test. Furthermore, the estimations generated by the Mobile Millennium system can be regarded as superior to those of existing traffic management system in Stockholm. The highway model was found to perform well even with a reduction in the number of sensors providing data. The findings of this study indicate the robustness of the Mobile Millennium system and demonstrate how the system can be migrated to other geographical areas with similar sources of available data.

  • 91.
    Allström, Andreas
    et al.
    Sweco.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH.
    Smartphone based travel diary collection: Experiences from a field trial in Stockholm2017In: Transportation Research Procedia, Elsevier B.V. , 2017, Vol. 26, p. 32-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, there is a great need for new methods to collect travel data. Traditional methods have considerable drawbacks and, at the same time, the models used to analyse the transport system require more and more detailed and high-quality data. Since most smartphones are equipped with various sensors that can be used to determine the location of the smartphone, and since smartphones are integrated in the daily life of most people, they provide an unprecedented opportunity for large-scale travel data collection. This method has a great potential to solve the problems related to the estimation of distance/travel time, geographic coding of departure/destination locations and forgotten trips and it will also provide a more detailed and extensive data set.

    In a recently completed research project the feasibility of replacing or complementing the traditional travel diary, with a suite of tools that make use of smartphone collected travel data has been evaluated. The advantages and disadvantages of the traditional method and the proposed method were studied. For a fair comparison, both methods have been tested in the same city, at the same time, and with the same respondents. To achieve the objectives of the project, MEILI, a system that consists of a smartphone application for capturing the movement of users and a web application for allowing the users to annotate their movement, has been deployed. In total 2142 trips were collected and annotated by 171 users. 51 of the users annotated trips covering more than a week. The main findings of the paper are that smartphone based data collection is feasible, that the algorithms to save battery work well and that trips of the same respondent vary considerably depending on day of the week.

  • 92. Allström, Andreas
    et al.
    Rahmani, Mahmood
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Gundlegård, David
    Archer, Jeffery
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Mobile Millennium Stockholm2011In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Models and Technologies for ITS, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Alm, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Lindberg, Erik
    Banverket.
    Kollektivtrafik i storstad -: undviker människor att resa på grund av otrygghet?2003Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A questionnaire, including questions pertaining to perceived attractiveness, feelings of unsafety and different types of risks connected to different transport modes (car, city bus, tram, regional bus, commuter train and subway), was filled out by 59 respondents. The results showed that perceived attractiveness might be affected by perceived risks and worry of being bothered, threatened or attacked by fellow passengers to a higher extent than perceived risks and worry of being involved in traffic accidents. Different circumstances, for instance the bus stop etc being remotely situated, were considered to contribute to feelings of unsafety when walking to and waiting at the bus stop etc. When travelling with different public transport modes the participants stated that they feel unsafe if for example drivers/personnel do not supervise their vehicle. Women stated to a higher extent than men that different circumstances contribute to feelings of unsafety when walking to and waiting at the bus stop etc. as well as when travelling with different public transport modes. A majority of the respondents stated that they avoid travelling with the red subway-line during night-time, especially during weekends. The respondents stated that they had a more positive attitude towards tram than towards regional bus and commuter train, which was not the case in a similar study conducted in Norrköping. This result might be explained by a successful introduction of a new tramway-line (Tvärbanan) in Stockholm.

  • 94.
    Alm, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Plantin Vantell, My
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Problems and potential improvements of the order- and delivery process at Region Östergötland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Region Östergötland (RÖ) har många olika order- och leveransprocesser varav en kallas för den yttre order- och leveransprocessen. Denna process är det informations- och materialflöde där beställning går direkt till leverantör och inte via den centraldepå som finns. Det är många personer som är inblandade och som ansvarar för olika delar av den yttre order- och leveransprocessen, samtidigt som personerna i fråga även arbetar på olika avdelningar. Detta tillsammans med att delar av processen sköts av en extern aktör har lett till att ingen ansvarar för hela processen i sig, och således finns inte heller en sammanhållen bild över processen. Syftet med rapporten är att ge en sammanhållen bild av den yttre order- och leveransprocessen samt belysa eventuella problem och ge förslag på förändringar som kan förbättra processen.

  • 95.
    Alm, Jonathan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    von Kiöhling, Marcus
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Lagerstyrningsmetoders påverkan på totalkostnad: Möjliga ufall för lager med säsongsvarierad efterfrågan2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To analyze the impact on total cost by inventory control methods under the influence of seasonal demand. The purpose will be answered with following research questions:

    1. What inventory control methods can be used when there is seasonal demand?

    2. What is the impact of inventory control methods on total cost under the influence of seasonal

      demand?

    Method – The study was conducted as a case study and the empirical data was collected through interviews and document study. Both of these contributed to the basis for the analysis and for the calculations in the test of the study. Literature study was conducted and included theories for inventory control methods to answer the first research question, as well as formulas for the methods used to answer the second research question.

    Findings – It appears from the study, the inventory control methods that can be used when there is seasonal demand and during current planning environment is periodic ordering system and cycle service method. These have been tested further in the study. Seasonal index was considered an important method since it dimensions demand which to a high degree regulate the inventory levels and thereby the result of the inventory control methods. Further the study compares none theoretical inventory control methods and theoretical inventory control methods impact on total cost. It is shown that carrying costs, as a part of total cost, can be reduced by 25% during the peak season and 62% during off-season. This without changing the deliverability. Alternatively, the deliverability can be increased by 10% by using inventory control methods without increasing the total cost of the inventory.

    Implications – The theoretical contribution of the study is that it has increased the knowledge concerning inventory control methods when there is seasonal demand, and the possible results they might bring. The empirical contribution of the study is that companies can use the study as an indication of the economic benefits and motivation for implementing theoretical inventory control methods.

    Limitations – The tested inventory control methods did not alter the ordering cost, which to a high degree can have an impact on the total cost. The study also shows a possible impact on the inventory control during the current planning environment. If the planning environment changes, the result of the study can be different.

  • 96. Almroth, Andreas
    et al.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Engelsson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Canella, Olivier
    Flötteröd, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    West, Jens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. SWECO, Sweden.
    Further development of SAMPERS and modeling of urban congestion2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The need to more precisely represent the consequences of congestion mitigation policies in urban transport systems calls for replacement of the static equilibrium assignment by DTA in the integrated travel demand and traffic assignment models. Despite of the availability of DTA models and despite of the conceptual clarity of how such integration should take place, only few operational model systems have been developed for large-scale applications. We report on replacement of the static traffic assignment by two different DTAs in the four stage demand model for the Greater Stockholm region: the macroscopic analytic Visum DUE and microscopic simulation Transmodeler. First results show that even without systematic calibration the DTA is in reasonable agreement with observed traffic counts and travel times. The presented experiments did not reveal striking difference between using macroscopic and microscopic assignment package. However, given the clear trend to microscopic modeling and simulation on the travel demand side, the use of micro-simulation-based DTA package appears more natural from system integration perspective.

  • 97.
    Almström, Peter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System analysis and economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Three essays on transport CBA uncertainty2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) has for a long time been used in transport planning, but it is often questioned. One main argument against CBA is that the results depend largely on assumptions regarding one or a few input factors, as for example the future fuel price or valuation of CO2 emissions.

    The three papers included in this thesis investigate some aspects of uncertainty in transport CBA calculations. The two first papers explore how changes in input data assumptions affect the CBA ranking of six rail and road investments in Stockholm. The first paper deals with the effect of different land-use assumptions while the second deals with the influence of economic growth, driving cost and public transport fare. The third paper investigates how alternative formulations of the public transport mode choice and route choice affect travel flows, ticket revenues and consumer surplus. These are important factors previously known to affect CBA results.

    The findings of the first two papers suggest that CBA results are robust concerning different land-use scenarios and single input factors. No change in rank between a road and a rail object is observed in the performed model calculations, and only one change between two road objects. The fact that CBA results seem robust regarding input assumptions supports the use CBA as a tool for selecting transport investments. The results in the third paper indicate that if there is detailed interest in, for example, number of boardings and ticket income from a certain transit line, or the total benefit of a price change, a more detailed formulation of the public transport mode choice and route choice will provide more reliable results. On the other hand, this formulation requires substantially more data on the transit line and price structure than the conventional formulation used in Swedish transport planning, especially in areas with many different pricing systems.

  • 98. Almström, Peter
    et al.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Land use planning and transport investment appraisal2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 99. Almström, Peter
    et al.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Land use planning and transport investment appraisal2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 100. Almström, Peter
    et al.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The impact of land use planning on Cost-Benefit Analysis rankings2011In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
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