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  • 501.
    von Hofer, Hanns
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Ole-Jørgen Skog: Skam og skade2009In: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, ISSN 0029-1528, Vol. 96, no 2, p. 203-205Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 502.
    von Hofer, Hanns
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    On background and causes of juvenile crime in Sweden2013In: Zbornik za Alenko Šelih : kazensko pravo, kriminologija, človekove pravice = Essays in honour of Alenka Šelih : criminal law, criminology, human rights / [ed] Matjaz Ambroz, Katja Filipcic, Ales Zavrsnik, Ljubljana: Institut za kriminologijo pri Pravni fakulteti , 2013, p. 413-425Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 503.
    von Hofer, Hanns
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Prison Polulations as Political Constructs: The Case of Finland, Holland, and Sweden.2008In: Global Criminology and Criminal Justice: Current Issues and Perspectives / [ed] Nick Larsen & Russell Charles Smandyck, Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press , 2008, p. 415-432Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries such as Finland, Holland and Sweden have witnessed similar economic and social developments and have been affected by similar crime trends. However, over the past 50 years, the daily prison populations in these three Northern European countries have developed very differently. An attempt is made here to discuss these diverse developments in the light of a perspective that treats daily prison populations as political constructs.

  • 504.
    von Hofer, Hanns
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Punishment and Crime in Scandinavia, 1750-2008.2011In: Crime and Justice in Scandinavia. / [ed] Michael Tonry and Tapio Lappi-Seppälä, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press , 2011, p. 33-107Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Denmark, Finland, Norway, andSweden have collected criminal justice data since at least the first half of the nineteenth century. These data can be used to describe basic trends in criminal justice interventions as regards violent and property offenses. They can also be used to screen the potential effects of criminal justice interventions on crime compared with more basic structural factors such as urbanization, industrialization, migration, and control of substance use. The marginal effects of changes in criminal sanctions appear to be negligible for the development of recorded crime. These changes include use and abolition of the death penalty, the gradual replacement of imprisonment with alternative sanctions, and the shifting use of fines. The influence of urbanization and industrialization appears to be insignificant, but measures to control alcohol use have had a great effect on violence, as have changes in the opportunity structure on theft. Viewed over the long term,  criminal justice interventions during the twentieth century were inefficient in controlling the development of crime and criminals in Scandinavia.

  • 505.
    von Hofer, Hanns
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Schweden2010In: Kriminalität, Kriminalpolitik, strafrechtliche Sanktionspraxis und Gefangenenraten im europäischen Vergleic / [ed] Frieder Dünkel, Tapio Lappi-Seppälä, Christine Morgenstern, Dirk van Zyl Smit, Mönchengladbach: Forum Verlag Godesberg , 2010, Band 2, p. 761-781Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 506.
    von Hofer, Hanns
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Sweden2010In: Crime and Punishment Around the World: Europe / [ed] Marcelo F. Aebi and Véronique Jaquier, Volume editors, Graeme R. Newman, General editor, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, LLC , 2010, p. 332-342Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 507.
    von Hofer, Hanns
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Sweden and the Death Penalty: Witn annotations in Chinese2013In: Unpublished version. Verbal Presentation Only., 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    1. This short presentation discussed the impact of the death penalty on deadly violence in Sweden, Finland, (Denmark, Norway), the US, and Eastern Europe during varying time periods. 2. The simple result is that the application as well as the abolition of the death penalty in these countries evidently exerted no impact on the level or developmentof deadly violence during the periods studied. 3. Thus, the use of the death penalty as an efficient deterrent is not proved as an empirical fact in these countries. 4. The use of the death penalty appears first and foremost as a question of values and political considerations. 5. The death penalty has been abolished in all the countries studied here – with the exception of the US. 6. Alcohol consumption and political instability appear as strong determinants of deadly violence.

  • 508.
    von Hofer, Hanns
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    The lives of others: Swedish incarceration rates, 1910-20112013In: Kriminologie, Kriminalpolitik und Strafrecht aus internationaler Perspektive: Festschrift für Martin Killias zum 65. Geburtstag / [ed] André Kuhn, Pierre Margot, Marcelo F. Aebi, Christian Schwarzenegger, Andreas Donatsch, Daniel Jositsch, Bern: Stämpfli Verlag , 2013, p. 1183-1189Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 509.
    von Hofer, Hanns
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Undret i New York.2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 510.
    von Hofer, Hanns
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Åtgärder mot ungdomsbrottslighet2013In: Den svenska ungdomsbrottsligheten / [ed] Felipe Estrada, Janne Flyghed, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 3, p. 333-349Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bidraget tar upp en teoretisk och principiell diskussion kring vad som är möjligt respektive önskvärt beträffande samhällets åtgärder mot ungdomsbrottsligheten.

  • 511.
    von Hofer, Hanns
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Bogestam, Nadja
    Brottsförebyggande rådet .
    Påföljdsutvecklingen2012In: Brottsutvecklingen i Sverige 2008-2011 / [ed] Johanna Hagstedt, Stockholm: Brottsförebyggande rådet , 2012, p. 304-331Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Påföljdsutvecklingen i Sverige under åren 1975–2011 kan sammanfattasi följande punkter:• Det svenska påföljdssystemet kännetecknas av många olikapåföljder och påföljdskombinationer.• De flesta lagföringar avser böter i någon form, vilket speglardet faktum att många brott som lagförs är av lindrigare slag.• Användningen av andra påföljder än böter har överlag varitmycket stabil.• Villkorlig dom är dock den påföljden som har ökat mest.• Samtidigt som allt färre unga personer lagförs för brott, lagförsde allt oftare inför domstol (istället för att få ett strafföreläggandeeller en åtalsunderlåtelse).• Användningen av fängelsestraff har minskat i antal, medanden utdömda strafftiden har blivit längre. Det har inneburitatt antalet intagna på fängelserna har ökat.• Fängelsepopulationen består idag i huvudsak av personersom dömts för befattning med narkotika samt för vålds- ochsexualbrott. Stöldbrott är numera ovanliga som intagningsgrund.

  • 512.
    von Hofer, Hanns
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Lappi-Seppälä, Tapio
    The development of crime in light of Finnish and Swedish criminal justice statistics, circa 1750-2010:  2014In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 169-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses four historical time series on homicide, assault, robbery and theft from Finnish and Swedish vital and conviction (judicial) statistics. It is suggested that long-term criminal justice statistics – at least in Finland and Sweden  – are highly usable and that they add relevant basic knowledge to important current criminological and crime policy issues. It is concluded that law reforms are greatly influential in terms of changes in the sanctioning system (strong evidence of policy impact); but law reforms do not contribute to lasting changes in the development of crime as measured by conviction statistics (no substantiated evidence of crime impact). In the long run, crime seems to persistently evade the manifold legislative efforts to ‘combat’ it.

  • 513.
    von Hofer, Hanns
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Lappi-Seppälä, Tapio
    Westfelt, Lars
    Nordic Criminal Statistics 1950-2010: Summary of a report. 8th revised edition2012 (ed. 8)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a joint Nordic project, criminal statistics from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden were compiled under the auspices of the Nordic Committee on Criminal Statistics (NUK) and were published under the title Nordisk kriminalstatistik 1950-1980 in 1982.

    In December of 1982, the first abbreviated English language version of this report was published.  For this 8th edition of the English version, the original data have been updated for the years up to and including 2010 and now cover 61 years of Nordic criminal justice statistics.

    This edition has been furnished with an updated summary on crime and punishment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. An Appendix is discussing the pitfalls of ad hoc chart reading.

  • 514.
    von Hofer, Hanns
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Brott i välfärden: Om brottslighet, utsatthet och kriminalpolitik : Festskrift till Henrik Tham2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 515.
    von Hofer, Hanns
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Tham, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Lag och rätt2011In: Exposé: Samhällskunskap 1 och 2 / [ed] Mats Andersson, Michaela Arlt, Fuat Deniz, Kjell Engelbrekt, Hanns von Hofer, Ci Holmgren, Fredrika Lagergren Wahlin, Rolf Lidskog, Börge Ring, Annika Svensson, Henrik Tham, Stockholm: Liber , 2011, 4, p. 82-114Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 516.
    von Hofer, Hanns
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Tham, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Lag och rätt2009In: Exposé: Samhällskunskap Kurs AB, Stockholm: Liber , 2009, 3:e, p. 66-98Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 517.
    von Hofer, Hanns
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Tham, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology. European Society of Criminology, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Punishment in Sweden: A Changing Penal Landscape2013In: Punishment in Europe: A Critical Anatomy of Penal Systems / [ed] Vincenzo Ruggiero, Mick Ryan, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, p. 33-57Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 518.
    von Hofer, Hanns
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Tham, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    "Strafftiden för våldsbrott har ökat dramatiskt"2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Professorer i kriminologi underkänner regeringens utredningsförslag om höjda straff för våldsbrott: Med dagens långa fängelsetider har regeringens syften redan uppnåtts.

  • 519.
    von Hofer, Hanns
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Tham, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Stöld i Sverige 1831-20082010In: Samhällsproblem / [ed] Ted Goldberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 7, p. 407-429Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 520.
    Wadenheim, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    ”They all come back”: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om KRIS betydelse för fem medlemmar beträffande deras återanpassning till samhället efter anstaltsvistelse2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag vill genom denna undersökning om återanpassning ta reda på hur situationen ser ut för personer som har kommit i kontakt med en ideell hjälporganisation med avsikt att lämna sina gamla liv bakom sig och påbörja en laglydig livsstil. Syftet med denna studie är således att ta reda på vilka faktorer som kan tänkas vara av betydelse för individer som ska återanpassas till samhället efter tidigare fängelsevistelser. Till min hjälp har jag haft kontakt med medlemmar ur två av KRIS (Kri-minellas Revansch i Samhället) lokalföreningar. Min frågeställning lyder: Vilken betydelse för de före detta kriminella har KRIS i återanpassningen till samhället?Den valda metoden för denna undersökning är kvalitativa intervjuer med fem medlemmar ur KRIS. Intervjuerna har handlat om föreningens betydelse för intervjudeltagarna med avseende på områden som jag utifrån tidigare forskning har identifierat som relevanta för en individs återanpassning; sysselsättning, socialt kontaktnät, boende och fritid. De teorier som används för att analysera inter-vjuernas innehåll är Travis Hirschis teori om sociala band och Howard, S. Beckers stämplingsteori.Resultaten visar att KRIS har varit och är väldigt betydelsefulla för sina medlemmar i deras integre-ring in i samhället, men att intervjudeltagarna upplever hjälpen de får på olika sätt. Samtliga med-lemmar har fått någon form av heltidssysselsättning genom föreningen. Medlemmarnas upplevelser av sysselsättningens betydelse varierar från att innebära en mjukstart inför sökande av ”vanliga” arbeten till en vilja att jobba kvar och vidareutvecklas inom föreningen. Den sociala gemenskapen inom KRIS som grundar sig på medlemmars gemensamma erfarenheter vad gäller brott och droger upplevs mestadels som något positivt då det finns ett behov av att kunna samtala med någon förstå-ende om de svåra stunderna i livet. Vidare kan man se starka känslomässiga band mellan medlem-marna. De har varandra som förebilder och stöttar varandra i strävan efter förändring. Beträffande medlemmarnas bostadssituation har KRIS inte spelat någon större roll. Intervjudeltagarna har på egen hand lyckats ordna en fast bostad där de trivs, men de är medvetna om att föreningen ställer upp om det behövs. Angående fritidens betydelse visar intervjudeltagarna en stark vilja att vara del-aktiga i de aktiviteter som anordnas genom KRIS. Känslan att kunna träffa andra människor och visa omgivningen att de är motiverade till förändring är mycket påtaglig. Genom ovanstående om-råden har KRIS ökat styrkan i de sociala banden hos medlemmarna och jag tolkar det som att de har kommit en bra bit på vägen i att återta en plats i samhället.

  • 521.
    Wahlgren, Paula
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    De laglydiga: Om skolans brottsförebyggande fostran2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Politicians and scholars often frame schooling as one of society’s most important crime preventive measures. The object of the study is to examine and problematize the hopes and ambitions that have evolved around what the study conceptualizes as the crime preventive educational task of public schooling and its historical trajectory as articulated in government publications. Drawing on governmentality theory, the study focuses on the liberal conception of the autonomous and self-regulating subject, and how the liberal mode of government works through the governing of freedom. The study identifies three discourses on crime preventive education: The emancipatory (1970s onwards), the deterrence (late 1980s onwards) and the safety/security discourse (21st century). The discursive shifts identified are further analysed in respect to how i) the explanation of crime, and the relationship between the deviant and the law-abiding subject, ii) control and iii) freedom and responsibility, are conceptualized over time. The conceptualization of criminal behaviour goes from being caused by social deprivation, becoming instead a calculated rational act. Subsequently, the deviant is altered from a person in need of reintegration to a deterrent example and a risk. The problematization of control has a trajectory from being a matter of social control and integration, ending instead as a matter of risk control and prudentialism. The conceptualization of the kind of freedom and responsibility the crime preventive education should foster is also reframed, from a strategy to counter a lack of democracy and influence, to a way of making prudent citizens. In this, the notion of a collective responsibility has been superseded by a belief in individual responsibility. The key problematization vindicating the process has gone from how to integrate youths into a society in constant flux, to how to restore control if lost and how to protect a pre-given social order.

  • 522.
    Westfelt, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    International Crime Trends: Sources of Comparative Crime Data and Postwar Trends in Western Europe2005In: Transnational and Comparative Criminology in a Global Context / [ed] Sheptycki, J. & Wardak, A, Glasshouse Press , 2005, p. 19-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 523.
    Westfelt, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Migration som straff?: Utvisning på grund av brott 1973-2003 med fokus på flyktingskydd2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Deportation due to criminal activity is often viewed as a neutral administrative practice and has to date received little research attention. This study views the phenomenon as part of a broader field focused on regulating people’s mobility. It also looks at the balance between the state’s interest in deporting non-citizens who commit crime and the goal of protecting refugees. Deportation due to criminal activity is first discussed from five perspectives: as alien control, as punishment and the spatial separation of criminal “others”, as migratory movement and forcible repatriation, in relation to human rights and as a “second asylum hearing”, and as border practice. The study then examines deportation in district courts between 1973 and 2003, via a quantitative study of all convictions involving deportation. Deportation practice differs between persons who are and are not registered as residents. Residents are deported for more serious offences than others and increasingly often over time for crimes against the person and drug crime. The number of non-residents deported increases greatly from 1985, which cannot be explained by an increase in convictions or by legislative changes. The study finally examines the reasoning of courts on possible impediments to deportation when the person convicted had refugee or equivalent status. The court collected an opinion from the Swedish Immigration Board in 80 percent of such cases. The opinions are very brief, often identical for different individuals and seem to be based on general guidelines for different countries rather than the individual’s fear of persecution at sentencing time. In the other cases the court makes its own assessment of impediments to deportation, but the risks faced by those convicted are rarely discussed in the court judgements. In 17 cases, the individual was deported despite the Board’s opinion noting a risk of persecution.

  • 524.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Arbetslivet som arena för våld: en lägesbeskrivning2012In: Viktimologisk forskning: brottsoffer i teori och metod / [ed] Anita Heber, Eva Tiby, Sofia Wikman, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 27-54Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 525.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Boganmeldelse - Vold mod offentligt ansatte: Editors: Kruize, Peter; Sorensen, David Woodrow Mattson; Lassen, David Dreyer.2009In: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, ISSN 0029-1528, no 3Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 526.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Hot och våld i vård och omsorg - åtgärdsförslag i arbetsskadeanmälningar 1987, 1997 och 20072012In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 19, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace violence is a complex occupational hazard that nursing staff face in today’s health care environment. This study examines staff-recommended safety measures in the wake of violence and threat-related injuries in occupational injury reports. The results suggest that intervention measures concerning psychosocial factors and structural job aspects such as adequate staffing are far more important than surveillance, staff training and penal sanctions.

  • 527.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Hårdare tag i arbetslivet?: Beskrivningar av föreslagna åtgärder mot våld i arbetslivet i facklig press 1978-2004.2009In: NSfk:s 51th Research Seminar Gilleleje, Denmark 2009: “Efter løsladelse””Nyere forskning i ungdomskriminalitet””Kriminalitetskontrol og nordisk kriminalpolitik/-Nordisk komparativ forskning””Ungdomskriminalitet – nye kriminalpolitiske tendenser” / [ed] Kristin Hobson, Oslo: Nordisk Samarbeidsråd for Kriminologi , 2009, p. 91-101Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 528.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Hårdare tag i arbetslivet? Åtgärder mot arbetsrelaterat våld i facklig press 1978-20042011In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 51-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preventing violence at work. A study of descriptions of safety measures in Swedish trade union journals 1978-2004

    The purpose of this study is to examine if perceptions of interventions aimed at violence in the workplace have changed since the 1970s. In the beginning of the study period, structural factors are seen as the dominating explanation for workplace violence. The crime perspective rises in the 1990’s and methods of intervention becomes the control- and justice functions of larger society. The result shows search for accountability to be a salient factor for understanding the development towards an increasing use of penal sanctions.

  • 529.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Joel, P. E., Mad-doctors in the dock: Defending the diagnosis, 1760–1913, Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 20162017In: International Criminal Justice Review, ISSN 1057-5677, E-ISSN 1556-3855, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 222-223Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 530.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Mer personal -TACK!: En studie över åtgärder som hot och våldsutsatta vård- och omsorgsanställda anger i arbetsskadeanmälningar 1987, 1997 och 20072011In: NSfKs 53 Forskerseminar Balingsholm, Sverige 2011: Kriminalpolitik och Højrepopulism, Prostitution och aktuel forskning / [ed] Ragnheiður Bragadóttir, Háskólaprent ehf., 2011, p. 77-94Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace violence is a complex occupational hazard that nurses are facing working in today's health care environment. Workplace safety is also undergoing a process of ‘responsibilization’. The purpose of this study is to examine the character of the incidents reported as occupational injuries due to violence and threats, over time and what safety measures that are recommended by the staff. The result suggest interventions measures concerning psychosocial factors and structural job aspects such as adequate staffing to be far more important than surveillance, staff training and penal sanctions.

  • 531.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Mer personal, TACK!: En studie över åtgärder som hot och våldsutsatta vård- och omsorgsanställda anger i arbetsskadeanmälningar år 1987, 1997 och 2007.2011In: The Scandinavian Research Council for Criminology 53th Research Seminar. : Kriminalpolitik och Högerpopulism / [ed] Ragnheiður Bragadóttir, Islands Universitet / Det juridiske fakultet, Reykjavik: Nordisk Samarbejdsråd for Kriminologi , 2011, p. 77-94Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 532.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Preventing Violence at Work: Descriptions of Safety Measures from Swedish Trade Union Journals 1978-20042010In: 67th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology: Crime and Social Institutions, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased focus on the crime victim in the political sphere, has made it possible to develop an individualized criminal policy, where responsibility is emphasized. The main purpose of this study is to examine whether perceptions of interventions aimed at violence in the workplace have changed since the 1970s as portrayed by Swedish trade union journals. The occupational health perspective is the most common. Here threats and violence are seen as something preventable, and are mainly dealt with within the workplace. In the beginning of the study period, structural factors are seen as the dominating explanation for workplace violence and methods of intervention take this perspective. The crime perspective rises in the 1990s – even though the “perpetrator” now can be non-traditional (such as nurses or the elderly). It is characterized by individualization and an increasing focus on the crime victim. Within this perspective, the method of intervention becomes the control- and justice functions of larger society. Interestingly, organizational violence (corporate neglect) emerges as a new form of violence that challenges individualization as the major explanation to this development. The result shows search for accountability as a salient factor for understanding the development towards an increasing use of penal sanctions.

  • 533.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    The Scandinavian Research Council for Criminology (NSfK) 49th Research Seminar: Våld med eller utan mening. Violence2006In: Våld i arbetslivet — ett samhällsproblems uppkomst / [ed] Nordiska Samarbetsrådet för Kriminologi (Nsfk)/Mia Söderbärj, Scandinavian Research Council for Criminology, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 534.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Violence in Healthcare: A Study of Occupational Injury Incidents in Sweden 1987, 1997 and 20072011In: 68th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace violence is a complex occupational hazard that nurses are facing working in today's health care environment. Workplace safety is also said to be undergoing a process of ‘responsibilization’. The purpose of this study is to examine the character of the incidents reported as occupational injuries due to violence and threats, over time and what safety measures that are recommended by the staff. The result suggest interventions measures concerning psychosocial factors and structural job aspects such as adequate staffing to be far more important than surveillance, staff training and penal sanctions.

  • 535.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Våld i arbetslivet: Utveckling, uppmärksamhet och åtgärder2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past two decades, violence at work has become the object of an increasing level of attention. The objective of the thesis is to analyse how the development of violence at work as a social problem might be understood. The studies in the thesis examine trends in exposure to violence at work among different occupational groups (I), the attention focused on violence at work in trade journals (II), the measures proposed to combat the problem in trade journal articles (III) and in the occupational injury reports made by the victims themselves (IV).

    The first study shows that, according to victim surveys, levels of exposure to work-related violence have increased since the beginning of the 1980s. The increases are greatest in relation to the female-dominated occupations found in the care provision sectors. Study II presents a quantitative content analysis of trade journals from the period 1978–2004. The results show that there has been an increase in the amount of attention focused on violence at work. The results indicate that definitions of violence have expanded and that attention has become focused on new groups of victims and perpetrators. Study III examines the ways in which trade journals describe measures to combat violence at work. The results indicate that there has been a shift from viewing violence as a problem that should be resolved at the workplace as a health-and-safety issue, to increasingly viewing it as a problem that should be resolved externally with the help of the justice system. Study IV is based on an analysis of occupational injury reports from staff in the care sector who have been exposed to violence at work. Irrespective of the nature of the risk situation that preceded the violent incident, the staff who have been exposed to violence at work would prefer to see the problem resolved internally at the workplace.

  • 536.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Våld på jobbet: Beskrivningar av våld i arbetslivet 1978-2004 i facklig press2008In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, no 3, p. 6-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Violence at work as a social problem. A study of the media coverage on workplace violence in Swedish trade union journals 1978-2004.

    The main purpose of this study was to find out the extent of the unions media coverage on workplace violence and the ways in which the topic was framed. The study shows that the reporting of violence in the workplace described in journals is on a stable level during the period 1978-98. However from the year 2000 and onwards, there is a clear increase in the attention. Four categories of workplace violence were used to identify and recognize different types of violence: intrusive-, consumer-, relationship- and organizational violence. This shows that much of the attention over time has shifted from intrusive violence to organizational violence and consumer violence. What seems to have happened is that workplace violence has become more than just robberies and assaults in the retail business. The stereotypical image of the criminal is challenged by non-traditional criminals like nurses, elderly people and companies. Certain groups, e g care workers, come to account for an increasing proportion of attention, both as perpetrators and victims of violence. This study is an important step in understanding the increased reports of workplace violence in Sweden.

  • 537.
    Wikman, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Våld i arbetslivet: En kriminologisk kunskapsöversikt2010Report (Other academic)
  • 538.
    Wikman, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Tiby, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Heber, Anita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Inledning2012In: Viktimologisk forskning: brottsoffer i teori och metod / [ed] Anita Heber, Eva Tiby & Sofia Wikman, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 17-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 539.
    Wrangbäck, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Brott eller norm?: En kvalitativ studie med ett genusperspektiv på mäns fysiska handlingar inom fotbollen2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har fokus legat på mäns handlingar inom sporten fotboll. Definitionen på begreppet handling har i undersökningen syftat enbart till fysiska handlingar som vid för grov användning skulle kunna leda till brott, t.ex. misshandel. Centralt i undersökningen har varit att ta reda på hur intervjudeltagarna beskriver var gränsen mellan aggressivitet och våld går, samt se varför spelare handlar på ett visst sätt i match- och träningssituationer. Frågeställningarna studien utgått ifrån är:

    Varför handlar manliga spelare på ett visst sätt i match- och träningssituationer?

    Hur definierar de skillnaden på att vara aggressiv och att vara våldsam?

    Undersökningen utgår från ett socialkontruktionistiskt perspektiv, där genusteori står i fokus. De tre centrala begreppen i studien var: hegemonisk maskulinitet, iscensättning av maskulinitet och kroppen som erfarenhet. Det senare begreppet hämtat ur kroppsteori. Studien är genomgående kvalitativ. Fem intervjuer har gjorts med män i 20-25 års ålder, tre spelade i division 3 och två personer spelade i division 2. Intervjuerna spelades in för att sedan föras över i text. Den analysenhet som således analyserats är fem stycken transkriberingar. Den analysmetod som används är kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Sju kategorier skapades ur materialet, vilka representerar det centrala budskapet i transkriberingarna. I undersökningen har det framkommit; att aggressivitet hör hemma på fotbollsplanen. Det har visat sig att det finns flera olika orsaker till varför en spelare väljer att agera på ett fysiskt sätt. Koderna: hämnd, spelarens insats, ilska och avreaktion framkom som orsaker till aggressivitet. Det har visat sig att aggressiviteten i sig är en blandning mellan sportvalet och hur benägna männen är i att förhålla sig, omedvetet eller medvetet, till de rådande genusnormerna i samhället. Det finns avsevärda skillnader i värderingar mellan division 3 och 2 spelare när det kommer till tränings- och matchsituationer. Division 3 spelarna menade att de gick in mjukare i närkamper på träning, man ville inte skada någon i det egna laget. Division 2 spelarna menade däremot att ”det man gör på träning, gör man också på match”, vilket gjorde att de gick in till100% i varje närkamp. Gränsen mellan aggressivitet och våld har visat sig vara hårfin. I studien har det framkommit att domaren och bollen har en stor roll i vad som skall klassas som aggressivitet och våld. När en spelare vidrör bollen i samband med en tackling har det ur studien framkommit att detta enbart är aggressivitet. Om tacklingen däremot görs utan att röra bollen klassas detta som en våldshandling. Skillnader och likheter gentemot damfotbollen har gjorts och det har fastslagits att det är mer likheter än skillnader. Är aggressiviteten brott eller norm? Studien visar på att i fotbollens kontext ses aggressivitet som en del av vardagen. De aggressiva handlingarna är normen och inget man ser allvarligt på, utan något man förbiser med tanke på sportvalet. I annan kontext skulle dessa handlingar ses som brott.

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