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  • 5001. Weigand, Hans
    et al.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Bergholtz, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Accounting for service value - An ontological approach2015In: 2015 IEEE 9th International Conference on Research Challenges in Information Science (RCIS): Proceedings / [ed] Colette Roland, Dimosthenis Anagnostopoulos, Pericles Loucopoulos, Cesar Gonzalez-Perez, IEEE Computer Society, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing importance of services in the modern enterprise there is a need for innovating traditional management accounting practices. In the Service Science literature, some work has been devoted to service accounting but mainly on a conceptual level. To address this research challenge, we have built an integrated service accounting framework on top of the business ontology REA. The e3value model is a useful tool to give an overall picture of a service network, which can be combined smoothly with the more detailed REA model. The result has been evaluated on the basis of the requirements and with an example from online gaming. As far as we know, it is the first worked out service accounting framework in Service Science and allows giving often-used concepts as value-in-use a precise definition.

  • 5002. Weigand, Hans
    et al.
    Lind, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    On the Pragmatics of Network Communication2008In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on the Pragmatic Web, ACM DL , 2008, p. 49-58Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of globalization and the rise of Internet, the competitive environment of firms is undergoing a fundamental change. Firms are increasingly forced to collaborate in networks. At the same time, social networks are growing tremendously in use and in functionality. In this paper, the current network era is perceived from a communication perspective. How do people communicate in a network? How could the communication be improved? For the analysis we draw on the Language Action Perspective (LAP). Central to this analysis is the question what people try to achieve by communication in social terms. At its inception, LAP was used in an intra-organizational context. The question is whether the same analysis and the same models are also applicable in a network context.

  • 5003.
    Weigand, Hans
    et al.
    Tilburg University, The Netherlands.
    Lind, Mikael
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    On the Pragmatics of Network Communication2008In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on the Pragmatic Web, ACM Digital Libraries , 2008, p. 49-58Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of globalization and the rise of Internet, the competitive environment of firms is undergoing a fundamental change. Firms are increasingly forced to collaborate in networks. At the same time, social networks are growing tremendously in use and in functionality. In this paper, the current network era is perceived from a communication perspective. How do people communicate in a network? How could the communication be improved? For the analysis we draw on the Language Action Perspective (LAP). Central to this analysis is the question what people try to achieve by communication in social terms. At its inception, LAP was used in an intra-organizational context. The question is whether the same analysis and the same models are also applicable in a network context.

  • 5004.
    Weilenmann, Alexandra
    et al.
    Göteborg University, , .
    Juhlin, Oskar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Time to Revisit Mobility in Mobile HCI?2011In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5005.
    Weilenmann, Alexandra
    et al.
    Göteborg University, , .
    Juhlin, Oskar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Understanding People and Animals: On Ordinary Human-Canine Interaction and the Use of a Positioning System in the Wild2011In: 29th ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animals are increasingly integrated in interactive contexts depending on digital technologies. The current and future use of such technologies is a relevant topic for HCI research. However, the field is struggling with the inherent problem of ‘interaction’ in understanding interaction with animals. We argue for a way forward based on critical anthropomorphism informed by ethnomethodology, with a focus on manifest interaction. Drawing upon a field study of hunters’ use of a GPS dog tracking-device, we discuss how interaction between dogs and humans is affected when new technology is introduced. The GPS data is situated and interpreted by the dog handler, and supports the hunter’s work of dealing with the dogs’ intentions. This opens up for new forms of interactions with the dog. When studying and designing for interaction between humans and animals we should move beyond merely looking at dyadic relationships, and also consider the social organization of the interaction.

  • 5006. Weilenmann, Alexandra
    et al.
    Säljö, Roger
    Engström, Arvid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mobile Video Literacy: Negotiating the Use of a New Visual Technology2014In: Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, ISSN 1617-4909, E-ISSN 1617-4917, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 737-752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we examine the practice of learning to produce video using a new visual technology. Drawing upon a design intervention at a science centre, where a group of teenagers tried a new prototype technology for live mobile video editing, we show how the participants struggle with both the content and the form of producing videos, i.e. what to display and how to do it in a comprehensible manner. We investigate the ways in which video literacy practices are negotiated as ongoing accomplishments, and explore the communicative and material resources relied upon by participants as they create videos. Our results show that the technology is instrumental in this achievement and that as participants begin to master the prototype, they start to focus more on the narrative aspects of communicating the storyline of a science centre exhibit. The participants are explicitly concerned with such issues as how to create a comprehensible storyline for an assumed audience, what camera angles to use, how to cut and other aspects of the production of a video. We consider these observed activities to be candidate steps in an emerging mobile video literacy trajectory that involves developing a capacity to document and argue by means of this specific medium.

  • 5007.
    Wennström, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signals and Systems Group.
    On MIMO Systems and Adaptive Arrays for Wireless Communication: Analysis and Practical Aspects2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with the use of multiple antenna elements in wireless communication over frequency non-selective radio channels. Both measurement results and theoretical analysis are presented. New transmit strategies are derived and compared to existing transmit strategies, such as beamforming and space-time block coding (STBC). It is found that the best transmission algorithm is largely dependent on the channel characteristics, such as the number of transmit and receive antennas and the existence of a line of sight component. Rayleigh fading multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channels are studied using an eigenvalue analysis and exact expressions for the bit error rates and outage capacities for beamforming and STBC is found. In general are MIMO fading channels correlated and there exists a mutual coupling between antenna elements. These findings are supported by indoor MIMO measurements. It is found that the mutual coupling can, in some scenarios, increase the outage capacity. An adaptive antenna testbed is used to obtain measurement results for the single input multiple output (SIMO) channel. The results are analyzed and design guidelines are obtained for how a beamformer implemented in hardware shall be constructed. The effects of nonlinear transmit amplifiers in array antennas are also analyzed, and it is shown that an array reduces the effective intermodulation distortion (IMD) transmitted by the array antenna by a spatial filtering of the IMD. A novel frequency allocation algorithm is proposed that reduces IMD even further. The use of a low cost antenna with switchable directional properties, the switched parasitic antenna, is studied in a MIMO context and compared to array techniques. It is found that it has comparable performance, at a fraction of the cost for an array antenna.

  • 5008.
    Westergren, Ulrika H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Managing an outsourcing partnership: important stages in the process2010In: Industrial informatics design, use and innovation: perspectives and services / [ed] J. Holmström, M. Wiberg, and A. Lund, Hershey: IGI Global, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5009.
    Westergren, Ulrika H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Partnership outsourcing evolution: The process of creating and maintaining  a network of actors2007In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth European Conference on Information Systems: University of St. Gallen, Switzerland / [ed] Österle H, Schelp J, Winter R, 2007, p. 1179-1189Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an attempt to build on and extend existing outsourcing research by focusing on the process of managing an outsourcing partnership. Furthermore, it considers the role of information technology and the importance of establishing interorganizational trust in order to provide a deeper understanding of the partnership outsourcing phenomenon. The outsourcing partnership in focus in this paper is between Alpha Corp., a large minerals group, and RDC, its remote service provider. The paper shows that Alpha Corp.’s strategy for creating, maintaining and evolving the partnership with RDC occurs in three different stages: black-boxing of technology, establishing interorganizational trust, and performance based contracting. This study provides support for McFarlan and Nolan’s (1995, p. 22) claim that “What determines success or failure is managing the relationship less as a contract and more as a strategic alliance”. However, given the multiple roles information technology assumes in an outsourcing alliance, this paper also shows that understanding and managing the role of IT is just as crucial in maintaining a successful partnership. In addition, given the documented importance of information technology in outsourcing partnerships, there is a need to include trust in technology as yet another dimension in establishing interorganizational trust.

  • 5010.
    Westergren, Ulrika H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Holmström, Jonny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Outsourcing as open innovation: Exploring preconditions for the open innovation model in the process industry2008In: Twenty Ninth International conference on information systems, Paris 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The open innovation model embraces the purposive flow of internal and external ideas as a ground for innovation and network formation. While the open innovation paradigm has been successfully applied in high-tech settings, there is a gap in the research on adopters of open innovation in other settings. This research was conducted in a process industry setting, performed as a case study at Alpha Corp., a large minerals group, and Remote Diagnostics Centre, its service provider, where ICT is being increasingly used to monitor the process line, resulting in the creation of new value networks. The underlying question is: Why and how do open innovation projects develop over time? Our findings show that adoption of the open innovation model is grounded in developing organizational environments that are conducive to innovation, including expertise in creating a culture for knowledge sharing, building a trustful environment, and a resourceful use of interaction technologies.

  • 5011.
    Westin, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    500 gamers access2010In: Computer Games, Multimedia and Allied Technology 10 Proceedings, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5012.
    Westin, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Community Driven Adaptation of Game Based Learning Content for Cognitive Accessibility2016In: Proceedings of The 10th European Conference on Games Based Learning: The University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, Scotland, 6-7 October 2016 / [ed] Thomas Connolly, Liz Boyle, Academic Conferences Publishing, 2016, p. 781-787Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer games have great potential both for learning purposes and to overcome cognitive disabilities such as dyslexia, but many games are unnecessarily inaccessible by design for many gamers. There are few games accessible for people with cognitive impairments and cognition is also less researched regarding game accessibility. This gap is especially problematic when using games in educational contexts; both regarding universal human rights of education and equality but also because understanding content is central in a learning situation. Furthermore, game based learning projects often have very limited budgets, restraining to what extent game content can be adapted by the developers. However, computer games are increasingly required to be accessible due to legislation in the USA, which will benefit all gamers to different degrees. The problem is that adapting content usually requires human intervention and extra resources, which are limited for all game developers but especially so for GBL developers and independent entertainment game developers. Involving the game community could be a possible approach for many developers, but how community driven adaptation of textbased content for cognitive accessibility could be achieved is not a trivial question. A possible approach to close the gap in a sustainable way is a community driven adaption of content such as transforming text into a simplified form, while maintaining meaning of the text and keeping the game balanced. This interdisciplinary, theoretical study discusses these issues based upon academic papers in computer games, learning, social psychology, linguistics, biology, human computer interaction and accessibility. The findings explain what simplified text is and what it means in the context of games, as well as how game balance can be achieved in different approaches of games and learning. Furthermore, the findings are discussed regarding motivations for the game community for contributing with simplified texts, and how to create accessible interfaces for selecting the highest-rated simplified texts. Concluding remarks are that community based adaptation can be preferred to – or be used in conjunction with – automated and/or individual solutions. Also, how to design a ranking system for acknowledging authors is discussed as well as what social psychology techniques can be used to increase user participation. Handling abuse of the system is important, as well as considering different challenges for different forms of games (real-time/turn-based, multi-player/single-player) and different approaches to games and learning. Finally, future work with participatory action research and potential benefits for people with other disabilities is discussed.

  • 5013.
    Westin, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Large Scale Game Accessibility: A survey of possible engine independent solutions2012In:  :  , 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This was a keynote presentation at the International Conference on Translation and Accessibility in Video Games and Virtual Worlds. Computer games use various modalities for interaction, depending on e.g. the platform or game genre. Keys or buttons (mouse, keyboard, controllers etc), gestures (joystick, mouse, body), voice commands, speech feedback (samples or syntheziser), interactive music, haptics, biofeedback (EMG, EEG, EOG signals). The list goes on. The Sony Playstation Eyetoy and Singstar, the Nintendo Wii, the Apple iPhone and the Microsoft Kinect are all examples of commercial success for multimodal interaction. Multimodality has reached the masses thanks to this development of consumer affordable hardware. Game accessibility relies on multimodal interaction. Sight disabled gamers use e.g. braille, speech synthezis, voice commands and spatial audio to interact with games. Gamers with mobility or dexterity disabilities use a range of different special or modified hardware controllers. Deaf gamers rely on subtitles, closed captioning, visualization of sounds or modifications to represent audio with haptics. Some solutions are included in operative systems while other solutions are more or less affordable. Some solutions require technical expertise by the gamer or by the game developers to implement. Compared with a PC, game consoles and handhelds as well as tablets and phones are harder to adapt due to a more closed system design. On the PC platform accessibility is more independent of the original designer. Game accessibility has been improved by a number of developers and researchers over the years. All of these contributions are important and often done with small or no funding. However, it has proven hard to create accessibility solutions on a large scale, say for an entire game genre across platforms or for all games on a specific platform. Design guidelines exist inspired by the W3C guidelines for web accessibility. Game engines may use XML for various purposes but there is far from a standard markup language across engines and platforms, as is the case with the web. This is one of many reasons a generic approach is harder to implement for games. The question then, is: How may game accessibility be achieved on a large scale for as many disabled as possible, in the near future? Based upon the above some conclusions can be made. Game accessibility may benefit from affordable and common multimodal consumer products. Other available software and hardware on the PC platform may be used to enhance accessibility, e.g. automated translation, analysis and transformation of content to be accessible to the user’s needs. User generated content can be used to improve where the automated approach fails (e.g. Google Translate and corrections by users). A first large-scale attempt should be made for PCs, which are easier to modify than consoles, tablets or phones. This paper presents a concept the author calls engine independence (EI). This means that the accessibility solutions act in parallell to the game, rather than being directly integrated with the game engine. This way, game accessibility solutions may be scaled without the need of standardization.

  • 5014.
    Westin, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Return of the Gamer: Perceptions of the Digital Room2012In: Designs for Learning 2012: 3rd International Conference Exploring Learning Environments. Conference Proceedings, København: Aalborg Universitet København , 2012, p. 171-173Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an ethnographic study of the Digital Room, a secondary education designed for “gamers”. They are pupils who had left school and have a strong interest in digital culture, mainly commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) computer games. The study is based on interviews with, and observations of pupils. The problem of the traditional school is investigated through their perception of what makes the Digital Room work

  • 5015.
    Westin, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Bierre, Kevin
    Rochester Institute of Technology, , Department of Interactive Games and Media.
    Gramenos, Dimitris
    Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas, , .
    Hinn, Michelle
    Pursuit of Happiness Foundation, , .
    Advances in Game Accessibility from 2005 to 20102011In: HCI International, Florida: Springer , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research in the area of game accessibility has grown significantly since the last time it was examined in 2005. This paper examines the body of work between 2005 and 2010. We selected a set of papers on topics we felt represented the scope of the field, but were not able to include all papers on the subject. A summary of the research we examined is provided, along with suggestions for future work in game accessibility. It is hoped that this summary will prompt others to perform further research in this area.

  • 5016.
    Westin, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Dupire, Jerome
    Design of a Curriculum Framework for Raising Awareness of Game Accessibility2016In: Computers Helping People with Special Needs: 15th International Conference, ICCHP 2016, Linz, Austria, July 13-15, 2016, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Klaus Miesenberger, Christian Bühler, Petr Penaz, 2016, p. 501-508Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While game accessibility is well researched, many game developers lack awareness of issues and solutions and there is no framework to support educators in teaching about game accessibility. This study is based on an international survey to accessibility researchers, as well as people in the game industry and related communities. The quantitative data shows the most weighted topics in a curriculum, and the qualitative data provides detailed quotes to explain how a curriculum framework could be designed. Results also show that there is a need to change attitudes to game accessibility, but also to focus on practice, basic concepts and needs of disabled in an introductory course, while an advanced course could focus more on theory and solutions which are harder to implement. Future research is to follow-up this study to further validate our conclusions.

  • 5017.
    Westin, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Dupire, Jerome
    Evaluation and Redesign of a Curriculum Framework for Education About Game Accessibility2016In: Entertainment Computing - ICEC 2016: 15th IFIP TC 14 International Conference, Vienna, Austria, September 28-30, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Günter Wallner, Simone Kriglstein, Helmut Hlavacs, Rainer Malaka, Artur Lugmayr, Hyun-Seung Yang, 2016, p. 217-222Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Game Accessibility (GA) has been brought to the front of the video game landscape thanks to a recent but major change in the US law called the Communications and Video Accessibility Act; GA is now a legal obligation for game developers in the US. However, there is a gap between legislation and practice of GA. This study is based upon a previous tentative curriculum framework (TCF) for GA. The questions are: What are the opinions among educators and game developers regarding the TCF? How could the TCF be redesigned? To answer the questions, the TCF was surveyed with practitioners and researchers in the GA community. This paper presents an evaluation and redesign of the TCF, divided into different categories, depending on the students’ profiles, scopes and skills. Furthermore, how the curriculum content can be created and shared is also discussed, as well as future work.

  • 5018.
    Westin, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Furöstam, Malin
    Yasasindhu, Roy
    Norberg, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Balancing Game Universes for Playing Without Sight or Hearing2015In: AAATE 2015, IOS Press , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5019.
    Westin, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Lange, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Gamers versus the Index2012In: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 3, no 8B, p. 25-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an ethnographic study of pupils within a trial programme (P2), aimed at developing an upper secondary education for so-called ‘gamers’ who had ‘dropped out’ of school. It was done to fol-low up a previous trial programme (P1), since many young persons have problems with school. The main question examined here is: If we found situations where the learning worked, by means of social respon-sitivity, what components were active? How were meaningful affordances created? The trials may be un-derstood from a historical perspective on orality and literacy. Print enabled words to be embedded in space as indexes (tables, lists etc) rather than in time (as orality implies). The index is practiced at the core of traditional school today, with attendance lists and schedules (controlling time and space) and school-books (finalizing the word). Digital culture challenges these structures where the word is not as finalized, and literacy may include other modalities than writing. School is a culture conservative context, which fights back this transformation with more control, through the use of indexes and constraints on digital culture. As contrast, P2 replaced the schedule with full workdays. This enabled the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) computer games, especially massively multiplayer online (MMO) games, as re-placement for schoolbooks (not all books). The study is based on interviews with the pupils as well as daily participatory observations for two years. Further, data about attendance over two years and grades at the start and end of P2 are presented. The results show that most of the pupils returned to school, became interested in learning again and got grades. They expressed a sense of freedom, which is closely related to the voluntary aspect of playing a game. In other words, to do things for the sake of the actitivity itself, ra-ther than some external learning goal. The paper concludes with a comparison between P2 and traditional school, based upon the study and suggests future research. A review of related research is also included.

  • 5020.
    Westin, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Lange, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Norberg, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    System Design Requirements for Formal Education Based on COTS Entertainment Computer Games2015In: ECGBL 2015, Academic Conferences Publishing , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer games can be designed as tools for school, but formal education can also be game-oriented based on dialogue enabling the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) entertainment games. The latter design was applied in two upper-secondary school trial educations, called the Digital Room. A problem is that teachers have to grade pupils based on assessment of the learning process through playing COTS games together with the pupils, while retaining compliance with the school regulations which can also change over time. The question is: what are the requirements for designing a system supporting teachers in bridging this gap? This paper describes and compares two trials of the Digital Room, enabling a long-term study between 2003-2013 with secondary school pupils and teachers. To answer the question in this paper, teachers from both trials were interviewed and situations were analysed based on a critical realist approach. Lack of time to manage and reflect on the documentation for assessment was a critical part of the results, and a teacher support system was explicitly asked for. Knowing what to document was crucial as games have many modes of expression, and understanding how to assess what has been documented was the hardest part. Conclusions are that a knowledge management system (KMS) could aid teachers in supporting each pupil to fulfil their goals and the requirements of the existing school system. Due to the expressed lack of time for management and assessment of documentation, the KMS should compile the data of each pupil’s actions in the game as basis for grading. Further, this KMS could be used for further learning by combining explicated knowledge from the socialisation process. Pupils could also add explicit information to the KMS about findings on the Internet and from oral dialogue with peers and teachers. Thus, the KMS must enable multimodal expressions to be as accessible as possible, including pupils with impairments. Information must be searchable and sortable which can be a challenge to achieve with other modes of expression than text. Further, the KMS design has to include both pupils and teachers in evaluations, and be easy to adapt when new regulations create new conditions. Future research includes implementing and evaluating the system in a similar game-oriented formal education context outside of traditional school.

  • 5021.
    Westin, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Männikkö Barbutiu, Sirkku
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perera, Harsha
    Anuradha, Upul
    Game Based Learning of Programming in Underprivileged Communities of Sri Lanka2016In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Games Based Learning: The University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, Scotland, 6-7 October 2016 / [ed] Thomas Connolly, Liz Boyle, Academic Conferences Publishing, 2016, p. 773-780Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Game based learning (GBL) has emerged during the last decade in so-called high-income countries with good access to computers, while many low and middle-income countries are starting to explore GBL and its potential in education. For instance, the increased use of smartphones in Sri Lanka provides better opportunities to play games. Furthermore, a first GBL course at the University of Colombo was organised in 2015. In this study, an effort to raise awareness of the various possibilities of ICTs within underprivileged communities of Sri Lanka was made. A free, web-based game for learning programming was used at two different telecentres during three workshops, with three different age groups: 1) 14 students aged 10-18; 2) 19 students aged 8-16; and 3) 18 school leavers aged 15-20. Telecentres are places providing access to computers, Internet and various services. The progress of participants through the game was observed and notes were taken during the workshops, followed up by group interviews, and a survey of all participants. Our findings show that the participants found the game to be fun and of medium difficulty level. They also expressed that they need to learn English better and improve their computer skills to be able to learn more programming. Despite the limited Internet access, limited number of computers, and language barriers, most students and school leavers completed between 10 to 15 puzzles, including programming concepts of commands, conditions and events. The youngest participants (8 years old) completed at least 5 puzzles. From our results we conclude that without prior programming experience, all the participants became motivated to learn more about programming within the 1.5 hours of the workshop with this GBL approach. This indicates that the learning curve of the GBL approach to learn programming is considerably low whereas the motivation to learn through GBL is high. Furthermore, the GBL approach has good potential to raise awareness of learning opportunities at telecentres. Skills in programming games and related ICT skills can be beneficial for the whole community; it may enable further development of services and designs addressing the local needs. In our future work we aim to follow-up through online communication with the participants regarding how they can continue to learn more about programming and other ICT skills.

  • 5022.
    Westin, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Return on Investment in Game Accessibility for Cognition Impairments2013In: Assistive Technology: From Research to Practice / [ed] Pedro Encarnação, Luís Azevedo, Gert Jan Gelderblom, Alan Newell, Niels-Erik Mathiassen, IOS Press, 2013, p. 577-582Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The computer game industry sales are counted in billions of dollars, and gamers with disabilities play more casual games than non-disabled gamers. Yet many potential gamers are excluded and gamers with cognition impairments have not been in focus for research and development. With recently published game accessibility guidelines as a framework, professional game producers were surveyed about the number of man-hours needed to implement basic guidelines for cognition. The survey data was compared with a previous survey on the number of people with cognition impairments constituting barriers to gaming, showing that return on investment may be achieved.

  • 5023.
    Westin, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Norberg, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Regression from game-oriented to traditional school2015In: Journal of Educational Technology Systems, ISSN 0047-2395, E-ISSN 1541-3810, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 349-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pupils in Sweden are socialized in commercial off-the-shelf games, and, therefore, game-oriented formal education can constitute a foundation for further socialization of pupils excluded in school. However, digital illiteracy and traditional views among school staff forced a regression from the game-oriented formal trial education in this study back to the traditional education form. Research questions were as follows: How did the pupils act upon the consequences of the regression? How can these acts inform the design of education in digital culture? These questions were addressed using ethnography over 3 years. The pupils' acts differed depending on their socialization in school and in games. While the game-oriented formal education included all in the socialization process, the regression caused half of the pupils to drop out. The pupils' acts are discussed with a conceptual framework. Conclusions show the need for digital literacy and understanding pupils' perspectives on education among school staff.

  • 5024.
    Wettergren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kjellin, Harald
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Using video in online education - evaluation of formats2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5025.
    Wettergren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Boström, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hansen, Preben
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nenzén, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Framework for implementation of learning analytics projects in higher education2014In: DSV writers hut 2014: proceedings, August 21-22, Åkersberga, Sweden, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University , 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5026.
    Wettergren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Making campus education flexible: Adapting to student needs2011In: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (SITE) 2011 Nashville, Tennessee, USA March 7, 2011, Chesapeake, VA: AACE , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of students that attend higher education is increasing (10.6% increase in Sweden), students are getting older, and have a different social situation than before. This changes the way universities should deliver education to its students. We currently use a very university centered approach that ignores the needs of the students, this must change to a more student centered delivery model. We believe that we must move into a form of flexible learning that allows students to be in control of their lives. In this article we explain such a model, the rational, how we rebuilt our lectures halls to handle flexible learning, and we concluded by presenting the lessons we learned along the way. We aim at presenting an example of how flexible learning can be incorporated into campus education by offering students three ways of taking part in lectures and other activities. (1) On campus in the lecture hall, (2) At home watching live streaming, or (3) Watching the recorded video after the fact.

  • 5027.
    Wettergren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Larsson, Ken
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Näckros, Kjell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Glimbert, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Designing the physical learning space with digital resources The best of two worlds?2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5028.
    Wettergren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Leontaridis, Lefteris
    Prentza, Andriana
    D3.4 – Piloting Handbook2017Report (Other academic)
  • 5029.
    Wettergren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Åkerlund, Kent
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Aligning pedagogy with economics: An empirical study of the economical value of lowering the teacher-student ratio2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an empirical study and trial conducted at the department of Computer and Systems Sciences (DSV) at Stockholm University. The study was conducted during the spring term of 2012. The overall goal of the paper is to evaluate the economical feasibility in decreasing the student teacher ratio in an online course in project management. The context for this study is the Swedish university system where universities are 100% state funded based on registration and performance. This study only accounts for cost and revenue connected to the course, i.e. for delivering the course itself not the cost for overhead. The rational for this is that 50% of the total financing for a student is given at registration and used within the department to cover overhead and indirect costs. The remaining 50% of the total financing is given upon completion of course credits and is in this study used as the basis for revenue calculations.

  • 5030.
    Wiberg, M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Interaction, Interruptions, and Lightweight Support for Availability Management – A pre-study of Issues Related to the Fluidity of Work in the Interaction Society.2002Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5031.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Interaction per se: understanding “the ambience of interaction” as manifested and situated in everyday & ubiquitous IT-use2010In: International Journal of Ambient Computing and Intelligence, ISSN 1941-6237, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction is a core concept in the fields of Ubiquitous computing, Ambient systems design, and generally in the fields of HCI and Interaction Design. Despite this, a lack of knowledge about the fundamental character of interaction still exists. Researchers have explored interaction from the viewpoints of user-centered design and design of graphical user interfaces, where interaction stands for the link between technology and humans or denotes the use aspect. A framework is proposed for exploring interaction as a design space in itself between a human and the technology. It is proposed that this framework for interaction as a design space for Interaction Design, in which the very form of the in-between, the interaction, be explicitly targeted. It is an opportunity to go beyond user and usability studies to seek answers to fundamental questions concerning the form and character of interaction as implemented in today’s interactive systems. Moreover, this framework is an opportunity to expand and explain a new design space for Interaction Design. The proposed framework, anchored in two exemplifying cases, illustrates the character and the form of interaction as it situates itself in online, ubiquitous and everyday IT use.

  • 5032.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Interactive Textures for Architecture and Landscaping: Digital Elements and Technologies2011Book (Other academic)
  • 5033.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Interactive textures for architecture and landscaping: digital elements and technologies2010Book (Other academic)
  • 5034.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Landscapes, long tails & digital materialities: Implications for mobile HCI research2012In: International Journal of Mobile Human Computer Interaction, ISSN 1942-390X, E-ISSN 1942-3918, ISSN 1942-390X, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile HCI is changing. From being about, for example, UI design for small devices, interaction via limited input modalities, and design for small screens, these important aspects of mobile HCI are now heavily interwoven in complex arrangements of computational devices, platforms and services. With a point of departure taken in these processes of current development, this paper sets out to describe and envision a research agenda for mobile HCI carefully crafted out in relation to three specific and recent developments in this field. More specifically, these strands of developments include the formation of new interaction landscapes, the long tail of interaction, and digital materialities. This paper presents the background of each followed by examples illustrating how these three manifest themselves in practice. With a point of departure taken in these three cornerstones a research agenda is presented followed by a discussion on the implications of this agenda for mobile HCI research.

  • 5035.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Making the case for “Architectural Informatics”: A new research horizon for ambient computing?2011In: International Journal of Ambient Computing and Intelligence, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5036.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Mobile media for heterogeneous interaction landscapes: towards integrated liquid media objects2009In: Third international conference on digital society: ICDS 2009, proceedings, Umea Univ, Dept Informat, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.: IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 208-216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, media objects have been restrained to specific media containers (e.g. media players, libraries, and technological platforms). In this paper we argue that this is due to a tradition of treating media as content separated from, but physically aligned to a certain form. However, due to the digital character of modern media, and due to current developments towards file sharing communities, media convergence and cross-media interaction design we argue that there are several good reasons now for exploring the design space beyond a container view of media. In our exploration of this design space we take a point of departure in media objects where form and content is integrated, instead of separated and we take contemporary theories of liquidity and an innovation-oriented focus group study as two sources of inspiration for exploring the design space of truly liquid media. The exploration is then summarized into a vision of midget design, i.e. design of small, lightweight, interactive and integrated media objects that can live across heterogeneous media platforms.

  • 5037.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Robles, Erica
    Department of Media, Culture, and Communication at New York University, New York, USA.
    Computational compositions: aesthetics, materials, and interaction design2010In: International Journal of Design, ISSN 1991-3761, E-ISSN 1994-036X, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 65-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper advocates re-focusing interaction design towards aesthetics and compositions. Inspired by current movements within human-computer interaction, product design, materials science, and architecture, we argue that a central problematic concerned with reconciling the digital and physical has always shaped the field. Rather than bridging atoms and bits, an approach that systematically keeps the digital and physical apart, we advocate thinking of design as composition. Doing so will require articulating an aesthetic vocabulary that formally relates diverse materials whether digital or physical. Texture, a word that applies across materials, substrates, and scales, is advanced as a candidate term within our approach. We provide a model for thinking about texture as a relation and then ground the model through a design project, Icehotel X, rendered in ice and digital displays. Texture guided the quality of composition achieved in the final design executed by a team of diverse experts. This approach opens new avenues for the analysis and practice of interaction design.

  • 5038.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Zaslavsky, Arkady
    Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering Computer Science, Luleå University of Technology .
    Landscaping future interaction: special issue on mobile and ubiquitous multimedia2010In: IEEE Multimedia, ISSN 1070-986X, E-ISSN 1941-0166, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 12-15Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5039. Wicander, G.
    et al.
    Sundén, S.
    The BOP-people on the Global IT-arena2003Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5040.
    Wicander, Gudrun
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Sundén, S.
    Challenges for the BOP-people in the ICT Society - Critical Success Factors2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5041.
    Wicander, Gudrun
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Sundén, Susanne
    ICT in Developing Countries: to be sustainable or not - is that the question?2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5042.
    Wicander, Gudrun
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Sundén, Susanne
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    ICT Use in a Rural Zambian Context - Local Conceptions Expressed as Critical Success Factors2004In: Proceedings of the IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/11.7 Summer School on Risks and Challenges of the Network Society / [ed] Duquennoy, P., Fischer-Hübner, S., Holvast, J., Zuccato, A, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2004, Vol. 2004:35Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to contribute to the analysis of the ICT situation in rural Zambia. The study aims to identify Critical Success Factors essential for ICT implementation and use within a district in Zambia. Data was collected during a two-month field study in the eastern part of Zambia. We carried out interviews with people from different areas of activities. The study provides a characterization of the ICT situation in a rural Zambian context based on conceptions expressed in interviews with local people. The factors range from national to local level. Notably, the Critical Success Factors are not limited to technology. In fact, most Critical Success Factors in our study relate to socio-cultural and governmental issues, which need to be addressed before and parallel to technological solutions

  • 5043.
    Wigren, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Input-output data sets for development and benchmarking in nonlinear identification2010Report (Other academic)
  • 5044.
    Wijkman, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Contributions to Evolutionary Computation1997Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present in this thesis (1) an alternative model in the field of evolutionary computation, and (2) an experimental platform that can be used to evaluate and compare many different models in evolutionary computation.

    The presented model is, like other models in evolutionary computation, based on the principle of natural selection. The difference between the presented model and the other models is a difference in the interpretation of the principle of natural selection. Traditional models in evolutionary computation provide only a partial interpretation of the principle of natural selection, while the presented model is based on a more complete interpretation. As a consequence, the presented model can deal with the problem of local optima in a novel way.

    We have built an experimental platform in such a way that a large number of different evolutionary models can be simulated and tested in parallel. We present the result of a number of such simulations. In the construction of this platform, we divided the platform into different modules so that new evolutionary mechanisms and new problem modules easily can be added.

  • 5045.
    Wiklander, Levi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Intertextuella strövtåg i Akademia: måhända som en galaktisk reseskildring anno 19981998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is a thematic presentation of the academic world, of Academia. The work on it has neither been directed by any specific research problem and research plan, nor structured by any established research method. It is, on the contrary, an attempt to reach beyond the type of paradox that may appear when a researcher who is part of the academic world is studying exactly that. It has been an intertextual journey among texts about various phenomena in Academia. The result is a so-called demi-text, which contains a number of disparate themes: fuzzy, incomplete and intertextually contaminated verbal pictures that carry no pretensions of depicting actual conditions, states or events, but that have the ambition of not making Academia a research object that becomes a victim of its own favoured methods. These texts may give form (Gestalt) to complexity, paradoxes, chaos, dilemmas, various possibilities, threats and obstacles within Academia. They may (as a research object) encourage reflective reactions, associations, preliminary thoughts, and controversial questions, as well as expose some quiet assumptions about Academia, and give further reasons for exploring talks or conversations among professors, researchers, students, teachers and others at universities and colleges in Sweden.

    This dissertation is produced in two different forms: one static and paper-bound, and one electronic and loose. The latter offers a network of possible electronic browsing paths. It is also open for reader comments and complementary or contrasting contributions. It is accessible through the author's home page at http://www.fek.su.se/home/lew/. It is submitted with an extended copyright for the reader. 

  • 5046.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Behavioural Changes in Students Participating in an Upper Secondary Education Program Using Unmodified Computer Games as the Primary Teaching Tool2005In: Proceedings of CGAMES 2005, 7:th International Conference on Computer Games, 28-30 November 2005 / [ed] Mehdi, Q., Gough, N., and Natkin S., Wolverhampton: University of Wolverhampton, School of Computing and Information Technologies , 2005, p. 66-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extensive use of computer games have been suggested to induce behavioural differences in the players as a result of neuroplasticity. Such changes, if present, suggests that computer games may be ideally suited as teaching tools for students having grown up with this technology. Using computer games extensively in the education system would in turn increase the gaming exposure significantly, even further accentuating any such neuroplastically mediated behavioural changes. To obtain information on possible changes in student behaviour patterns in key areas, an empirical study was conducted. Students participating in a test project extensively using computer games as teaching tools, were interviewed about both games related and other key behaviours. Results show some changed behaviours in the studied areas, such as decreased television watching habits and a shift from FPS to MMORPG as favourite game genre. While being consistent with computer games being able to induce behavioural changes through neuroplasticity, other factors may also have contributed in the studied case, and more research is needed.

  • 5047.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Computer game use and communication habit changes2007In: Proceedings of CGAMES 2007. 10:th International Conference on Computer Games: AI, Animation, Mobile, Educational and Serious Games / [ed] Mehdi,Q. and Elmaghraby, A., Wolverhampton: The University of Wolverhampton, School of Computing and Information Technology , 2007, p. 31-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive use of computer games have been suggested to induce behavioural differences in the players, either as a result of neuroplasticity or through social mechanisms. The usage patterns of computer mediated communication channels, such as internet chat rooms and web based forums, as well as other communication channels enabled by recent technological advances, such as voice and SMS text messages through mobile phones, are of interest in this game related context. Also, any potential changes in the usage patterns of traditional media such as books an television are of interest when linked to computer game use. To obtain information on possible changes in student communication patterns, an empirical study was conducted. Students participating in a test project extensively using computer games as teaching tools, were interviewed about both games related and communication related behaviours. The acquired data was then compared to previously obtained data regarding the corresponding communication behaviours prior to joining the game-intensive project. Results show that communication through web based chat and dedicated chat programs showed only minor changes, while web based forums, email, and SMS text messages showed various degrees of increased use. Television viewing habits continued the decreasing trend seen in previous papers in this series, particularly regarding entertainment related television programs that are now down to only 53.9% of the viewing time prior to entering the game project. A dramatic difference is seen between fans of MMORPG and FPS games, the former viewing only 17.5% as much television as the latter group.

  • 5048.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Game Mediated Communication: Multiplayer Games as the Medium for Computer Based Communication2005In: Proceedings of DIGRA 2005, Changing Views: Worlds in Play, 2:nd International Digital Games Research Association Conference, June 16:th-20:th, 2005, Vanvouver, Canada.: Digital Games Research Organisation , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As multiplayer games evolve in functionality and with respect to the number of participants, ingame communication between players is increasing. As in-game communication increases, games may be considered the natural medium for computer based communication in general. Special issues may arise due to the real-time nature of many games, as intraplayer communication must not interfere with other parts of the gameplay. To obtain information on the extent to which computer based chat is spontaneously associated with multiplayer games, an empirical study was conducted. Children from age 10 to age 15 were interviewed about their computer based communications. To ensure unbiased results, game related issues were never brought up by the interviewer. Results show that multiplayer games were spontaneously pinpointed by 16.83% of the interview subjects being asked about their computer chat habits. Positive remarks dominated, but some negative aspects were also mentioned, such as difficulty chatting and playing simultaneously.

  • 5049.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Games and Peer-to-Peer File Sharing: Attitudes Towards Illegal Distribution of Computer Games2004In: Proceedings of CGAIDE 2004, 5:th International Conference on Computer Games, Artificial Intelligence, Design and Education / [ed] Mehdi, Q., and Gough, N., Wolverhampton: The University of Wolverhampton, School of Computing and Information Technology , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As peer-to-peer file sharing is a widespread and user friendly technique ideally suited to distribute illegally produced copies of computer games, the users attitudes towards acquiring games through this medium is of great interest. To obtain information on the extent to which peer-to-peer file sharing is associated with computer games distribution, and the nature of these associations, an empirical study was conducted. Children from age 10 to age 15 were interviewed about their computer based communication habits and attitudes. To ensure unbiased results, games and games related issues were never brought up by the interviewer. Results show that the distribution of computer games were spontaneously pinpointed by 15.58% of the interview subjects being asked about their peer-to-peer file sharing habits. Younger students showed a significantly more positive attitude towards this activity, while a majority of the older students pointed out negative aspects of acquiring computer games this way. Through the negative quotes given, the concept of empathy with game designers is identified as having potential as a possible counterfactor.

  • 5050.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perception of Computer Games in Non-Gaming Contexts2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As computer games have evolved from single-player entities to complex, highly communicative on-line game worlds, their potential to fill different roles in society has grown. One aspect of this change is that various forms of computer mediated communication may become increasingly associated with games in various ways. Another issue is that of extensive exposure to computer games possibly leading to behavioural change through the mechanism of neuroplasticity, as argued by some researchers. Finally, since experiences from using game-like software designed explicitly for teaching purposes, edutainment, have been reported to be somewhat disappointing, the alternative to use unmodified straight-from-the-shelf computer games as learning environments in school is an interesting option.

    To investigate these issues a series of empirical studies were conducted, the first of which were dual interview studies with students of various ages in schools in two different regions, mapping their communication habits and associations of these with games. Secondly, a series of longitudal studies were performed during the course of a four-year experimental school project, where a class of upper secondary education students used regular computer games as their main didactic environment in school.

    Results show that computer mediated chat, as well as peer-to-peer file sharing, is in various ways spontaneously associated with computer games to a substantial degree. Empathy with game developers’ efforts is identified as a possible countermeasure against software piracy of games, as opposed to legislation. The theory of neuroplasticity induced behavioural change as a result of extensive exposure to computer games is corroborated by empirical observations, but not proven since other possible mechanisms are also present. The longitudal data indicates a high didactic potential in regular computer games used as learning tools in school. The teacher’s role is not marginalized but is perceived as essential by participating students, and a systematic model for evaluating the didactic potential of multimodal media such as computer games is needed.

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