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  • 451.
    Cöster, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Algorithms and Representations for Personalised Information Access2005Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Personalised information access systems use historical feedback data, such as implicit and explicit ratings for textual documents and other items, to better locate the right or relevant information for individual users.

    Three topics in personalised information access are addressed: learning from relevance feedback and document categorisation by the use of concept-based text representations, the need for scalable and accurate algorithms for collaborative filtering, and the integration of textual and collaborative information access.

    Two concept-based representations are investigated that both map a sparse high-dimensional term space to a dense concept space. For learning from relevance feedback, it is found that the representation combined with the proposed learning algorithm can improve the results of novel queries, when queries are more elaborate than a few terms. For document categorisation, the representation is found useful as a complement to a traditional word-based one.

    For collaborative filtering, two algorithms are proposed: the first for the case where there are a large number of users and items, and the second for use in a mobile device. It is demonstrated that memory-based collaborative filtering can be more efficiently implemented using inverted files, with equal or better accuracy, and that there is little reason to use the traditional in-memory vector approach when the data is sparse. An empirical evaluation of the algorithm for collaborative filtering on mobile devices show that it can generate accurate predictions at a high speed using a small amount of resources.

    For integration, a system architecture is proposed where various combinations of content-based and collaborative filtering can be implemented. The architecture is general in the sense that it provides an abstract representation of documents and user profiles, and provides a mechanism for incorporating new retrieval and filtering algorithms at any time.

    In conclusion this thesis demonstrates that information access systems can be personalised using scalable and accurate algorithms and representations for the increased benefit of the user.

  • 452.
    Dahl, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Özkan, Atilla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Pathology text mining - on Norwegian prostate cancer reports2016Ingår i: 2016 IEEE 32nd International Conference on Data Engineering Workshops (ICDEW): Proceedings, IEEE Computer Society, 2016, 84-87 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pathology reports are written by pathologists, skilled physicians, that know how to interpret disorders in various tissue samples from the human body. To obtain valuable statistics on outcome of disorders, as for example cancer and effect of treatment, statistics are collected. Therefore, cancer pathology reports interpreted and coded into databases at cancer registries. In Norway is this task carried out by the Cancer Registry of Norway (Kreftregisteret) by 25 different human coders. There is a need to automate this process. The authors of this article received 25 prostate cancer pathology reports written in Norwegian from the Cancer Registry of Norway, each documenting various stages of prostate cancer and the corresponding correct manual coding. A rule-based algorithm was produced that processed the reports in order to prototype automation. The output of the algorithm was compared to the output of the manual coding. The evaluation showed an average F-Score of 0.94 on four of these data points namely Total Malign, Primary Gleason, Secondary Gleason and Total Gleason and a lower result with on average F-score of 0.76 on all ten data points. The results are in line with previous research.

  • 453.
    Dahl, Gudrun
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Socialantropologiska institutionen.
    Danielson, MatsStockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm University: 1964-20142014Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 454.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hägglund, Sture
    Jansson, Carl-Gustaf R
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ohlsson, Kjell
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Severinsson-Eklundh, Kerstin
    HMI: The Graduate School for Human Machine Interaction2005Ingår i: CHI' 2005, 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 455.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Clinical text retrieval: an overview of basic building blocks and applications2014Ingår i: Professional search in the modern world: COST action IC1002 on multilingual and multifaceted interactive information access / [ed] Georgios Paltoglou, Fernando Loizides, Preben Hansen, Springer , 2014, 147-165 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes information retrieval, natural language processing and text mining of electronic patient record text, also called clinical text. Clinical text is written by physicians and nurses to docu- ment the health care process of the patient. First we describe some char- acteristics of clinical text, followed by the automatic preprocessing of the text that is necessary for making it usable for some applications. We also describe some applications for clinicians including spelling and grammar checking, ICD-10 diagnosis code assignment, as well as other applications for hospital management such as ICD-10 diagnosis code validation and detection of adverse events such as hospital acquired infections. Part of the preprocessing makes the clinical text useful for faceted search, al- though clinical text already has some keys for performing faceted search such as gender, age, ICD-10 diagnosis codes, ATC drug codes, etc. Pre- processing makes use of ICD-10 codes and the SNOMED-CT textual descriptions. ICD-10 codes and SNOMED-CT are available in several languages and can be considered the modern Greek or Latin of medical language. The basic research presented here has its roots in the chal- lenges described by the health care sector. These challenges have been partially solved in academia, and we believe the solutions will be adapted to the health care sector in real world applications.

  • 456.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Improving search engine retrieval using a compound splitter for Swedish2005Ingår i: In the proceeding of Nodalida 2005 - 15th Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics, 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 457.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Sök och sammanfatta i Norden2006Ingår i: Sprogteknologi i dansk perspektiv: en samling artikler om sprogforskning og automatisk sprogbehandling / [ed] Anna Braasch, København: Reitsel , 2006Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 458.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    To search and summarize in Scandinavia2004Ingår i: In the proceedings of The First Baltic Conference, Human Language Technologies - the Baltic Perspective, Riga, Latvia, April 21-22, 2004, 2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]
    Automatic text summarization is the method where a computer summarizes a text. A text is given to the computer and it returns a non-redundant shorter text. Text summarization can be used to summarize news in the Business Intelligence domain, automatically edit news in the news paper setting domain and summarize news down to a length suitable for SMS and WAP but also to summarize news before they are synthetically read. In 1999 we created the first text summarizer for Swedish news-paper text – SweSum. SweSum has since then been ported to the following seven languages Danish, Norwegian, English, Spanish, French, German and Farsi. SweSum is freely available as a demo on the Internet and has about 2 200 users per month. A spin-off from SweSum is SiteSeeker - a commercial search engine for websites and intranets SiteSeeker has built in spelling support, stemming for Swedish, Danish and English as well as presentation of document’s extracts in the hit list. SiteSeeker is used at over 50 public websites in Sweden.
  • 459.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    To Search and Summarize on Internet with Human Language Technology2005Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]
    More and more text are available on the Internet and we need tools to tame this flow. Automatic text summarization is one solution, a text is given to the computer and it returns a non-redundant shorter text. Automatic text summarization can also be used in search engines to decrease time finding documents. To further improve search engines one can use human language technology in form of word analysis as stemming and spell checking. Other methods that can be used are multilingual or cross language information retrieval in searching and finding documents written in other languages than the languages one has knowledge in. In understanding foreign languages one can use machine translation techniques that today had become good enough for practical use. Machine translation (MT) is the technique where the computer translates automatically between natural languages. The MT-techniques have been developed since the early 50’ies.
  • 460.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Boström, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Releasing a Swedish Clinical Corpus after Removing all Words – De-identification Experiments with Conditional Random Fields and Random Forests2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Building and Evaluating Resources for Biomedical Text Mining (BioTxtM 2012), 2012, 45-48 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Patient records contain valuable information in the form of both structured data and free text; however this information is sensitive since it can reveal the identity of patients. In order to allow new methods and techniques to be developed and evaluated on real world clinical data without revealing such sensitive information, researchers could be given access to de-identified records without protected health information (PHI), such as names, telephone numbers, and so on. One approach to minimizing the risk of revealing PHI when releasing text corpora from such records is to include only features of the words instead of the words themselves. Such features may include parts of speech, word length, and so on from which the sensitive information cannot be derived. In order to investigate what performance losses can be expected when replacing specific words with features, an experiment with two state-of-the-art machine learning methods, conditional random fields and random forests, is presented, comparing their ability to support de-identification, using the Stockholm EPR PHI corpus as a benchmark test. The results indicate severe performance losses when the actual words are removed, leading to the conclusion that the chosen features are not sufficient for the suggested approach to be viable.

  • 461.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hassel, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Henriksson, Aron
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Skeppstedt, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Stockholm EPR Corpus: A Clinical Database Used to Improve Health Care2012Ingår i: Proceedings of SLCT 2012: The Fourth Swedish Language Technology Conference, 2012, 17-18 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The care of patients is well documented in health records. Despite being a valuable source of information that could be mined by computers and used to improve health care, health records are not readily available for research. Moreover, the narrative parts of the records are noisy and need to be interpreted by domain experts. In this abstract we describe our experiences of gaining access to a database of electronic health records for research. We also highlight some important issues in this domain and describe a number of possible applications, including comorbidity networks, detection of hospital-acquired infections and adverse drug reactions, as well as diagnosis coding support.

  • 462.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hassel, MartinStockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.Velupillai, SumithraStockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Louhi 2010: Special issue on Text and Data Mining of Health Documents2011Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The papers presented in this supplement focus and reflect on computer use in every-day clinical work in hospitals and clinics such as electronic health record systems, pre-processing for computer aided summaries, clinical coding, computer decision systems, as well as related ethical concerns and security. Much of this work concerns itself by necessity with incorporation and development of language processing tools and methods, and as such this supplement aims at providing an arena for reporting on development in a diversity of languages. In the supplement we can read about some of the challenges identified above.

  • 463.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hassel, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Velupillai, Sumithra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    The Stockholm EPR Corpus – Characteristics and Some Initial Findings2009Ingår i: ISHIMR 2009, Symposium on Health Information Management Research, Kalmar, Sweden: Peter A Bath, Göran Petterson & Thomas Steinschaden , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 464.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Henriksson, Aron
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Kvist, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Velupillai, Sumithra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Weegar, Rebecka
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    HEALTH BANK - A Workbench for Data Science Applications in Healthcare2015Ingår i: Industry Track Workshop, CEUR Workshop Proceedings , 2015, Vol. 1381, 1-18 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The enormous amounts of data that are generated in the healthcare process and stored in electronic health record (EHR) systems are an underutilized resource that, with the use of data science applica- tions, can be exploited to improve healthcare. To foster the development and use of data science applications in healthcare, there is a fundamen- tal need for access to EHR data, which is typically not readily available to researchers and developers. A relatively rare exception is the large EHR database, the Stockholm EPR Corpus, comprising data from more than two million patients, that has been been made available to a lim- ited group of researchers at Stockholm University. Here, we describe a number of data science applications that have been developed using this database, demonstrating the potential reuse of EHR data to support healthcare and public health activities, as well as facilitate medical re- search. However, in order to realize the full potential of this resource, it needs to be made available to a larger community of researchers, as well as to industry actors. To that end, we envision the provision of an in- frastructure around this database called HEALTH BANK – the Swedish Health Record Research Bank. It will function both as a workbench for the development of data science applications and as a data explo- ration tool, allowing epidemiologists, pharmacologists and other medical researchers to generate and evaluate hypotheses. Aggregated data will be fed into a pipeline for open e-access, while non-aggregated data will be provided to researchers within an ethical permission framework. We believe that HEALTH BANK has the potential to promote a growing industry around the development of data science applications that will ultimately increase the efficiency and effectiveness of healthcare.

  • 465.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Knutsson, Ola
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Using human language technology to support the handling officers at the Swedish Social Insurance Agency2009Ingår i: Workshop on Design & Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services (DEGAS’2009), 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 466.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Nilsson, Gunnar
    Velupillai, Sumithra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Is De-identification of Electronic Health Records Possible? OR Can We Use Health Record Corpora for Research?2009Ingår i: Virtual Healthcare Interaction - VHI 09/ AAAI 2009 Fall Symposium Series, Westin Arlington Gateway, Arlington, VA, USA – November 4-7, 2009: Nancy Green & Donia Scott , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 467.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Névéol, Aurélie
    Savova, Guergana
    Zweigenbaum, Pierre
    Didactic Panel: clinical Natural Language Processing in Languages Other Than English2014Ingår i: AMIA Annual Symposium 2014: proceedings, American Medical Informatics Association , 2014, S 84- s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural Language Processing (NLP) of clinical free-text has received a lot of attention from the scientific community. Clinical documents are routinely created across health care providing institutions and are generally written in the official language(s) of the country these institutions are located in. As a result, free-text clinical information is written in a large variety of languages. While most of the efforts for clinical NLP have focused on English, there is a strong need to extend this work to other languages, for instance in order to gain medical information about patient cohorts in geographical areas where English is not an official language. Furthermore, adapting current NLP methods developed for English to other languages may provide useful insight on the generalizability of algorithms and lead to increased robustness. This panel aims to provide an overview of clinical NLP for languages other than English, as for example French, Swedish and Bulgarian and discuss future methodological advances of clinical NLP in a context that encompasses English as well as other languages.

  • 468.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Informationssystem.
    Rimka, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Kann, Viggo
    Using Uplug and SiteSeeker to construct a cross language search engine for Scandinavian2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents how we adapted a website search engine for cross language information retrieval, using the Uplug word alignment tool for parallel corpora.We first studied the monolingual search queries posed by the visitors of the website of the Nordic council containing five different languages. In order to compare how well different types of bilingual dictionaries covered the most common queries and terms on the website we tried a collection of ordinary bilingual dictionaries, a small manually constructed trilingual dictionary and an automatically constructed trilingual dictionary, constructed from the news corpus in the website using Uplug. The pre-cision and recall of the automatically constructed Swedish-English dictionary using Uplug were 71 and 93 percent, re-spectively. We found that precision and recall increase significantly in samples with high word frequency, but we could not confirm that POS-tags improve pre-cision. The collection of ordinary dic-tionaries, consisting of about 200 000 words, only cover 41 of the top 100 search queries at the website. The automatically built trilingual dictionary com-bined with the small manually built trilingual dictionary, consisting of about 2 300 words, and covers 36 of the top search queries.

  • 469.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rimka, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Kann, Viggo
    Using Uplug and SiteSeeker to construct a cross language search engine for Scandinavian languages2009Ingår i: 17th Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics, Nodalida 2009, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 470.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rosell, Magnus
    Sneiders, Eriks
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Clustering E-Mails for the Swedish Social Insurance Agency - What Part of the E-Mail Thread Gives the Best Quality?2010Ingår i: Advances in Natural Language Processing / [ed] Hrafn Loftsson, Eiríkur Rögnvaldsson, Sigrún Helgadóttir, Berlin: Springer Verlag , 2010, 115-120 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We need to analyse a large number of e-mails sent by the citizens to the customer services department of a governmental organisation based in Sweden. To carry out this analysis we clustered a large number of e-mails with the aim of automatic e-mail answering. One issue that came up was whether we should use the whole e-mail including the thread or just the original query for the clustering. In this paper we describe this investigation. Our results show that only the query and the answering part should be used, but not necessarily the whole e-mail thread. The results clearly show that the original question contains more useful information than only the answer, although a combination is even better. Using the full e-mail thread does not downgrade the result.

  • 471.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Sjöbergh, Jonas
    KTH, CSC, .
    Sneiders, Eriks
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Comparing Manual Text Patterns and Machine Learning for Classification of E-Mails for Automatic Answering by a Government Agency2011Ingår i: Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing: Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Alexander Gelbukh, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg , 2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    E-mails to government institutions as well as to large companies may contain a large proportion of queries that can be answered in a uniform way. We analysed and manually annotated 4,404 e-mails from citizens to the Swedish Social Insurance Agency, and compared two methods for detecting an- swerable e-mails: manually-created text patterns (rule-based) and machine learning-based methods. We found that the text pattern-based method gave much higher precision at 89 percent than the machine learning-based method that gave only 63 percent precision. The recall was slightly higher (66 percent) for the machine learning-based methods than for the text patterns (47 percent). We also found that 23 percent of the total e-mail flow was processed by the automatic e-mail answering system.

  • 472.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Skeppstedt, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Creating and Evaluating a Consensus for Negated and Speculative Words in a Swedish Clinical Corpus2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the Workshop on Negation and Speculation in Natural Language Processing ((NeSp-NLP 2010)) / [ed] Roser Morante, Caroline Sporleder, Antwerp: University of Antwerp , 2010, 5-13 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe the creation of a consensus corpus that was obtained through combining three individual annotations of the same clinical corpus in Swedish. We used a few basic rules that were executed automatically to create the consensus. The corpus contains negation words, speculative words, uncertain expressions and certain expressions. We evaluated the consensus using it for negation and speculation cue detection. We used Stanford NER, which is based on the machine learning algorithm Conditional Random Fields for the training and detection. For comparison we also used the clinical part of the BioScope Corpus and trained it with Stanford NER. For our clinical consensus corpus in Swedish we obtained a precision of 87.9 percent and a recall of 91.7 percent for negation cues, and for English with the Bioscope Corpus we obtained a precision of 97.6 percent and a recall of 96.7 percent for negation cues.

  • 473.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Velupillai, Sumithra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    De-identifying Swedish clinical text - refinement of a gold standard and experiments with Conditional random fields2010Ingår i: Journal of Biomedical Semantics, ISSN 2041-1480, Vol. 1:6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In order to perform research on the information contained in Electronic Patient Records (EPRs), access to the data itself is needed. This is often very difficult due to confidentiality regulations. The data sets need to be fully de-identified before they can be distributed to researchers. De-identification is a difficult task where the definitions of annotation classes are not self-evident.

    Results

    We present work on the creation of two refined variants of a manually annotated Gold standard for de-identification, one created automatically, and one created through discussions among the annotators. The data is a subset from the Stockholm EPR Corpus, a data set available within our research group. These are used for the training and evaluation of an automatic system based on the Conditional Random Fields algorithm. Evaluating with four-fold cross-validation on sets of around 4-6 000 annotation instances, we obtained very promising results for both Gold Standards: F-score around 0.80 for a number of experiments, with higher results for certain annotation classes. Moreover, 49 false positives that were verified true positives were found by the system but missed by the annotators.

    Conclusions

    Our intention is to make this Gold standard, The Stockholm EPR PHI Corpus, available to other research groups in the future. Despite being slightly more time-consuming we believe the manual consensus gold standard is the most valuable for further research. We also propose a set of annotation classes to be used for similar de-identification tasks.

  • 474.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Velupillai, Sumithra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    De-identifying Swedish Clinical Text - Refinement of a Gold Standard and Experiments with Conditional Random Fields2009Ingår i: The 3rd International Symposium on Languages in Biology and Medicine, Hyatt Regency, Seogwipo-si, Jeju Island, South Korea November 8-10, 2009 : Jong C. Park (KAIST, Korea) , Limsoon Wong (NUS, Singapore), See-Kiong Ng (NTU & I2R, Singapore) , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 475.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Velupillai, Sumithra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    How Certain are Clinical Assessments?: Annotating Swedish Clinical Text for (Un)certainties, Speculations and Negations2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, LREC 2010 / [ed] Nicoletta Calzolari, 2010, 3071-3075 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical texts contain a large amount of information. Some of this information is embedded in contexts where e.g. a patient status is reasoned about, which may lead to a considerable amount of statements that indicate uncertainty and speculation. We believe that distinguishing such instances from factual statements will be very beneficial for automatic information extraction. We have annotated a subset of the Stockholm Electronic Patient Record Corpus for certain and uncertain expressions as well as speculative and negation keywords, with the purpose of creating a resource for the development of automatic detection of speculative language in Swedish clinical text. We have analyzed the results from the initial annotation trial by means of pairwise Inter-Annotator Agreement (IAA) measured with F-score. Our main findings are that IAA results for certain expressions and negations are very high, but for uncertain expressions and speculative keywords results are less encouraging. These instances need to be defined in more detail. With this annotation trial, we have created an important resource that can be used to further analyze the properties of speculative language in Swedish clinical text. Our intention is to release this subset to other research groups in the future after removing identifiable information.

  • 476.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Xing, Haochun
    Zhang, Xin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Creating a Reusable English-Chinese Parallel Corpus for Bilingual Dictionary Construction2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, LREC 2010, Valletta, Malta, May 19-21, 2010, European Language Resources Association (ELRA) , 2010, 1700-1705 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper first describes an experiment to construct an English-Chinese parallel corpus, then applying the Uplug word alignment tool on the corpus and finally produce and evaluate an English-Chinese word list. The Stockholm English-Chinese Parallel Corpus (SEC) was created by downloading English-Chinese parallel corpora from a Chinese web site containing law texts that have been manually translated from Chinese to English. The parallel corpus contains 104 563 Chinese characters equivalent to 59 918 Chinese words, and the corresponding English corpus contains 75 766 English words. However Chinese writing does not utilize any delimiters to mark word boundaries so we had to carry out word segmentation as a preprocessing step on the Chinese corpus. Moreover since the parallel corpus is downloaded from Internet the corpus is noisy regarding to alignment between corresponding translated sentences. Therefore we used 60 hours of manually work to align the sentences in the English and Chinese parallel corpus before performing automatic word alignment using Uplug. The word alignment with Uplug was carried out from English to Chinese. Nine respondents evaluated the resulting English-Chinese word list with frequency equal to or above three and we obtained an accuracy of 73.1 percent.

  • 477.
    Danielson, M
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekenberg, L
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    A Method for Decision and Risk Analysis in Probabilistic and Multiple Criteria Situations2004Patent (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 478.
    Danielson, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Generalized Evaluation in Decision Analysis2005Ingår i: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, Vol. 162, nr 2, 442-449 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a discussion on evaluation methods in decision analysis. The presentation begins with the discussion of the expected value rule for selection amongst a number of available courses of action. Then a number of other evaluation rules to either replace or supplement the expected value are presented. They are discussed from a choice rather than preference view. To improve the expected value rule (or any other similar rule), it is suggested that it should be supplemented with other, qualitative rules rather than engaging in further modifications in pursuit of the perfect rule. A characteristic of qualitative rules is that they do not rely on multiplying probabilities and values but treat them as separate numeric entities. Once a rule has been agreed upon, it can be applied to all the alternatives, provided there is a computational procedure for evaluating the alternatives under that rule. Delta dominance is introduced as a unifying concept for many of the dominance rules in current use. Dominance and threshold methods are discussed and the kinship between them is pointed out.

  • 479.
    Danielson, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    History of the Faculty of Social Sciences2014Ingår i: Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm University: 1964-2014 / [ed] Gudrun Dahl, Mats Danielson, Stockholm University, 2014, nr 1, 9-25 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The faculty of Social Sciences at Stockholm University, like its sister faculties at the other large universities in Sweden, celebrates its 50th birthday this year. The Swedish faculties of social science were established following a governmental decision in 1964. Some of the senior people still active at the Faculty of Social Sciences in Stockholm were young teachers or students at the time, a couple of years before the big student ‘population boom’ and the by now legendary student revolution. The faculty has for most of this time been a central part of the working machinery of the University, in charge of the oversight over teaching and with independent responsibility for the quality of research. For those who are part of the Faculty Board or its different commissions, or for the staff of the Faculty Office, the Faculty shapes everyday life. Still, for most of the staff and students within the Faculty, it is a relatively anonymous entity. Life at the university is mainly lived within a departmental context. The chapter paints the picture of universities in Stockholm in general and the social sciences in particular in the years preceding the birth of the Faculty of Social Sciences.

  • 480.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Programvaruutveckling.
    A Method for Decision and Risk Analysis in Probabilistic and Multiple Criteria Situations2007Patent (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 481.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    A Risk-Based Decision Analytic Approach to Assessing Multi-Stakeholder Policy Problems2013Ingår i: Integrated Catastrophe Risk Modeling: Supporting Policy Processes / [ed] Aniello Amendola, Tatiana Ermolieva, Joanne Linnerooth-Bayer, Reinhard Mechler, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2013, 231-244 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 482.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, IIASA, Austria.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, IIASA, Austria.
    A Robustness Study of State-of-the-Art Surrogate Weights for MCDM2017Ingår i: Group Decision and Negotiation, ISSN 0926-2644, E-ISSN 1572-9907, Vol. 26, nr 4, 677-691 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A vast number of methods for solving multi-criteria decision problems have been suggested for assessing criteria weights requiring more exact input data than users normally are able to provide. In particular, the selection of adequate criteria weights is difficult and in order to be realistic, other methods must be introduced. One class of such methods is to introduce so called surrogate weights, where numerical weights are assigned to each criterion based on a cardinal or ordinal rank ordering, assumed to represent the information extracted from the user. One essential problem is the robustness of such methods. In this article, we compare state-of-the-art methods based on surrogate weights from the literature and, utilising a simulation approach, discuss underlying assumptions and robustness properties. This results in a quantitative measurement of these weighting methods and a methodology applicable also to forthcoming methods.

  • 483.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Architectural Considerations for Decision Analysis Software2016Ingår i: New Trends in Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques / [ed] Hamido Fujita, George Angelos Papadopoulos, IOS Press, 2016, 3-14 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In classic decision theory, it is assumed that a decision-maker can assign precise numerical values corresponding to the true value of each consequence, as well as precise numerical probabilities for their occurrences. However, in real-life situations, the ordering of alternatives from most to least preferred is often a delicate matter and an adequate mathematical representation is crucial. In attempting to address real-life problems, where uncertainty about data prevails, some kind of representation of imprecise information is important and several have been proposed. However, general methods have turned out to be insufficient and we demonstrate in this article that there is not one set of coding techniques that result in the best performing software for decision analysis.

  • 484.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Programvaruutveckling.
    Att fatta svåra beslut2007Ingår i: Miljöforskning, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 485.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Programvaruutveckling.
    Computing Upper and Lower Bounds in Interval Decision Trees2007Ingår i: European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 181, nr 2, 808–816- s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 486.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Decision Support in e-democracy - A Case from the Greater Stockholm Area2004Ingår i: Proceedings of e-challenges 2004, 2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 487.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Development of Algorithms for Decision Analysis with Interval Information2009Ingår i: Proceedings of SOMET, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 488.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Development of Software for Decision Analysis2013Ingår i: 12th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques, IEEE Computer Society, 2013, 171-177 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To be useful in reality, decision analytical tools must be able to handle imprecise information. This paper presents the algorithmic software design against a background of an evaluation method for analysing decision situations under semi-strong uncertainty. The design is built on a relaxation of the requirement for precise utilities, probabilities, and weights. To handle this, the calculations involved become computationally intensive to match an interactive work flow and the approach required implementation of new algorithms. We describe some particularly interesting implementation aspects of these and show how these computations can be tractable.

  • 489. Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Probabilistic Decision Making in Intelligent Agents2008Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 490.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rank Ordering Methods for Multi-Criteria Decisions2014Ingår i: Group Decision and Negotiation. A Process-Oriented View: Proceedings, Springer, 2014, -135 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Criteria weights are typically cognitively demanding to elicit and numeric precision is problematic since information in real-life multi-criteria decision making often is imprecise. One important class of methods rank the criteria and receive a criteria ordering which can be handled in various ways by, e.g., converting the resulting ranking into numerical weights, so called surrogate weights. In this article, we analyse the relevance of these methods and to what extent some validation processes are strongly dependent on the simulation assumptions. We also suggest more robust methods as candidates for modelling and analysing multi-criteria decision problems of this kind.

  • 491.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap, , .
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Software Development of Linear Programming Algorithms for Decision Analysis Applications2011Ingår i: Journal of Communication and Computer, ISSN 1548-7709, nr 8, 793-806 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 492.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, IIASA, Austria.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, IIASA, Austria.
    The Car Method for using Preference Strength in Multi-Criteria Decision Making2016Ingår i: Group Decision and Negotiation, ISSN 0926-2644, E-ISSN 1572-9907, Vol. 25, nr 4, 775-797 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) methods have been around for quite some time. However, the elicitation of preference information in MCDA processes, and in particular the lack of practical means supporting it, is still a significant problem in real-life applications of MCDA. There is obviously a need for methods that neither require formal decision analysis knowledge, nor are too cognitively demanding by forcing people to express unrealistic precision or to state more than they are able to. We suggest a method, the CAR method, which is more accessible than our earlier approaches in the field while trying to balance between the need for simplicity and the requirement of accuracy. CAR takes primarily ordinal knowledge into account, but, still recognizing that there is sometimes a quite substantial information loss involved in ordinality, we have conservatively extended a pure ordinal scale approach with the possibility to supply more information. Thus, the main idea here is not to suggest a method or tool with a very large or complex expressibility, but rather to investigate one that should be sufficient in most situations, and in particular better, at least in some respects, than some hitherto popular ones from the SMART family as well as AHP, which we demonstrate in a set of simulation studies as well as a large end-user study.

  • 493.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, IIASA, Austria.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, IIASA, Austria.
    Trade-Offs for Ordinal Ranking Methods in Multi-Criteria Decisions2017Ingår i: Group Decision and Negotiation. Theory, Empirical Evidence, and Application: 16th International Conference, GDN 2016, Bellingham, WA, USA, June 20-24, 2016, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Deepinder Bajwa, Sabine T. Koeszegi, Rudolf Vetschera, Springer, 2017, 16-27 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Weight elicitation methods in multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) are often cognitively demanding, require too much precision and too much time and effort. Some of the issues may be remedied by connecting elicitation methods to an inference engine facilitating a quick and easy method for decision-makers to use weaker input statements, yet being able to utilize these statements in a method for decision evaluation. One important class of such methods ranks the criteria and converts the resulting ranking into numerical so called surrogate weights. We analyse the relevance of these methods and discuss how robust they are as candidates for modelling decision-makers and analysing multi-criteria decision problems under the perspectives of several stakeholders.

  • 494.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, IIASA, Austria.
    Using Surrogate Weights for handling Preference Strength: 15th International Conference, GDN 2015, Warsaw, Poland, June 22-26, 2015, Proceedings2015Ingår i: Outlooks and Insights on Group Decision and Negotiation / [ed] Bogumił Kamiński, Gregory E. Kersten, Tomasz Szapiro, Springer, 2015, Vol. 218, 107-118 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Various proposals for how to eliminate some of the obstacles in multi-criteria decision making exist and methods for introducing so called surrogate weights have proliferated for some time in the form of ordinal ranking methods for the criteria weights. Considering the decision quality, one main problem is that the input information to ordinal methods is often too restricted. At the same time, decision-makers often possess more background information, for example regarding the relative strengths of the criteria, and might want to use that. Thus, some form of strength relation often exists that can be utilised when transforming orderings into weights. In this article, using a quite extensive simulation approach, we suggest a thorough testing methodology and analyse the relevance of a set of ordering methods including to what extent these improve the efficacy of rank order weights and provide a reasonable base for decision making.

  • 495.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekengren, Anders
    Hökby, Torsten
    Lidén, Jan
    A Process for Participatory Democracy in Electronic Government2008Ingår i: Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, ISSN 1057-9214, E-ISSN 1099-1360, Vol. 15, nr 1-2, 15-30 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a project and case study integrating decision methods into democratic processes. The case discussed is a set of three complicated decisions in a municipality in Sweden. The decisions had been postponed on several occasions prior to bringing in the method described in the paper. The method employed consists of two main parts. The interaction part contains the communication channels directed to the stakeholders. The decision-process part consists of a three-layered working process model. As a part of the method, the project was highly visible on the web. Citizens were encouraged to submit material to the project. All intermediate results of the process were continuously published, enhancing transparency. For each decision, the analysis consisted of comparing all alternatives, taking the respective criteria into account as weighted or ranked by the participants. A method for recording compromises analytically was also used. The purpose was not to replace the political process but to support it in a structured way.

  • 496.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Grönlund, Å.
    Larsson, A.
    Public Decision Support - Using a DSS to Increase Democratic Transparency2005Ingår i: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 1, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a case study in which a decision support method (ADL) was employed by a local government in order to guide and aid decisions on three complicated and politically infected issues which had remained unresolved for many years. The research inquiry was whether a well-defined and openly accessible method would aid a common understanding of the decision problems, and whether people would be able to accept a clearly motivated decision even if politically they preferred a different option. The ADL method has been used in several public sector projects ranging from very large purchasing decisions to the selection of national policies, but this test case was novel in that it involved close inspection by the public. This case was also devised as a test of new methods for potential inclusion into normal practices. The post-case analysis shows mixed understanding of and belief in the method. The results raise issues concerning both the potential for decision support methods in a political context and the nature of political decision making.

  • 497. Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Centralt. Data- och Systemvetenskap. Programvaruutveckling.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Åström, Joachim
    Towards Interactive Decision Making:Connecting Participatory Processes and Institutional Contexts2008Ingår i: Proceedings of E-challenges, 2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 498.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Göthe, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Larsson, Aron
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Department of Information and Communications Systems, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    A Decision Analytical Perspective on Public Procurement Processes2016Ingår i: Real-World Decision Support Systems: Case Studies / [ed] Jason Papathanasiou, Nikolaos Ploskas, Isabelle Linden, Cham: Springer, 2016, 125-150 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    If procurement processes are to be taken seriously, purchase managers need decision support tools beyond those that only ascertain that the formal requirements are met. This chapter demonstrates some fundamental flaws with common models used in procurement situations, flaws that are so serious that the evaluations of tenders often become meaningless and may lead to large and costly miscalculations. We demonstrate how the equitability of the tender evaluations can be significantly improved through the use of multi-criteria decision analysis with numerically imprecise input information. Due to this, the computational part of the evaluation step becomes more complex, and algorithms targeted for decision evaluation with imprecise data are used. We therefore present a procurement decision tool, Decide IT, implementing such algorithms that can be used as an instrument for a more meaningful procurement process. Of importance is to allow for a more realistic degree of precision in the valuation and ranking of tenders under each evaluation criterion, as well as the associated weighting of the criteria, since the criteria are often of a more qualitative nature. Through this, both quantitative and qualitative statements could be easily managed within the same framework and without the need to introduce ad-hoc and often arbitrary conversion formulas supposed to capture the trade-off between criteria.

  • 499.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Idefeldt, Jim
    Larsson, Aron
    Påhlman, Mona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Riabacke, Ari
    Sundgren, David
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Cross-Disciplinary Research in Analytic Decision Support Systems2006Ingår i: ITI 2006: proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces / [ed] V. Luzar-Stiffler & V. Hljuz Dobric, Zagreb: University Computing Centre SRCE, University of Zagreb , 2006, 123-128 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A main problem in decision support  contexts is that unguided decision making is difficult and can lead to inefficient decision processes and undesired consequences. Therefore, decision support systems (DSSs) are of prime concern to any organization and there have been numerous approaches to delivering decision support from, e.g., computational, mathematical, financial, philosophical, psychological, and sociological angles. A key observation, however, is that effective and efficient decision making is not easily achieved by using methods from one discipline only. This paper describes some efforts made by the DECIDE Research Group to approach DSS development and decision making  tools in a cross-disciplinary way.

  • 500.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    He, Ying
    Augmenting Ordinal Methods of Attribute Weight Approximation2014Ingår i: Decision Analysis, ISSN 1545-8490, Vol. 11, nr 1, 21-26 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multicriteria decision aid (MCDA) methods have been around for quite some time. However, the elicitation of preference information in MCDA processes and the lack of supporting practical means are problematic in real-life applications. Various proposals have been made for how to eliminate some of the obstacles and methods for introducing so-called surrogate weights have proliferated in the form of ordinal ranking methods for criteria weights. Considering the decision quality, one main problem is that the input information allowed in ordinal methods is sometimes too restricted. At the same time, decision makers often possess more background information, for example, regarding the relative strengths of the criteria, and might want to use that. We propose combined methods for facilitating the elicitation process and show how this provides a way to use partial information from the strength of preference judgment over weights in assessing weights for multiattribute utility functions.

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