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  • 451. Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Feldt, Robert
    A Systematic Mapping Study on Non-Functional Search-Based Software Testing2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 452. Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Feldt, Robert
    A systematic review of search-based testing for non-functional system properties2009Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 51, nr 6, s. 957-976Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Search-based software testing is the application of metaheuristic search techniques to generate software tests. The test adequacy criterion is transformed into a fitness function and a set of solutions in the search space are evaluated with respect to the fitness function using a metaheuristic search technique. The application of metaheuristic search techniques for testing is promising due to the fact that exhaustive testing is infeasible considering the size and complexity of software under test. Search-based software testing has been applied across the spectrum of test case design methods; this includes white-box (structural), black-box (functional) and grey-box (combination of structural and functional) testing. In addition, metaheuristic search techniques have also been applied to test non-functional properties. The overall objective of undertaking this systematic review is to examine existing work into non-functional search-based software testing (NFSBST). We are interested in types of non-functional testing targeted using metaheuristic search techniques, different fitness functions used in different types of search-based non-functional testing and challenges in the application of these techniques. The systematic review is based on a comprehensive set of 35 articles obtained after a multi-stage selection process and have been published in the time span 1996-2007. The results of the review show that metaheuristic search techniques have been applied for non-functional testing of execution time, quality of service, security, usability and safety. A variety of metaheuristic search techniques are found to be applicable for non-functional testing including simulated annealing, tabu search, genetic algorithms, ant colony methods, grammatical evolution, genetic programming (and its variants including linear genetic programming) and swarm intelligence methods. The review reports on different fitness functions used to guide the search for each of the categories of execution time, safety, usability, quality of service and security; along with a discussion of possible challenges in the application of metaheuristic search techniques.

  • 453. Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Feldt, Robert
    Prediction of fault count data using genetic programming2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software reliability growth modeling helps in deciding project release time and managing project resources. A large number of such models have been presented in the past. Due to the existence of many models, the models' inherent complexity, and their accompanying assumptions; the selection of suitable models becomes a challenging task. This paper presents empirical results of using genetic programming (GP) for modeling software reliability growth based on weekly fault count data of three different industrial projects. The goodness of fit (adaptability) and predictive accuracy of the evolved model is measured using five different measures in an attempt to present a fair evaluation. The results show that the GP evolved model has statistically significant goodness of fit and predictive accuracy.

  • 454.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Resampling Methods in Software Quality Classification2012Ingår i: International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, ISSN 0218-1940, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 203-223Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the presence of a number of algorithms for classification and prediction in software engineering, there is a need to have a systematic way of assessing their performances. The performance assessment is typically done by some form of partitioning or resampling of the original data to alleviate biased estimation. For predictive and classification studies in software engineering, there is a lack of a definitive advice on the most appropriate resampling method to use. This is seen as one of the contributing factors for not being able to draw general conclusions on what modeling technique or set of predictor variables are the most appropriate. Furthermore, the use of a variety of resampling methods make it impossible to perform any formal meta-analysis of the primary study results. Therefore, it is desirable to examine the influence of various resampling methods and to quantify possible differences. Objective and method: This study empirically compares five common resampling methods (hold-out validation, repeated random sub-sampling, 10-fold cross-validation, leave-one-out cross-validation and non-parametric bootstrapping) using 8 publicly available data sets with genetic programming (GP) and multiple linear regression (MLR) as software quality classification approaches. Location of (PF, PD) pairs in the ROC (receiver operating characteristics) space and area under an ROC curve (AUC) are used as accuracy indicators. Results: The results show that in terms of the location of (PF, PD) pairs in the ROC space, bootstrapping results are in the preferred region for 3 of the 8 data sets for GP and for 4 of the 8 data sets for MLR. Based on the AUC measure, there are no significant differences between the different resampling methods using GP and MLR. Conclusion: There can be certain data set properties responsible for insignificant differences between the resampling methods based on AUC. These include imbalanced data sets, insignificant predictor variables and high-dimensional data sets. With the current selection of data sets and classification techniques, bootstrapping is a preferred method based on the location of (PF, PD) pair data in the ROC space. Hold-out validation is not a good choice for comparatively smaller data sets, where leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) performs better. For comparatively larger data sets, 10-fold cross-validation performs better than LOOCV.

  • 455. Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Feldt, Robert
    Search-based prediction of fault count data2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Symbolic regression, an application domain of genetic programming (GP), aims to find a function whose output has some desired property, like matching target values of a particular data set. While typical regression involves finding the coefficients of a pre-defined function, symbolic regression finds a general function, with coefficients, fitting the given set of data points. The concepts of symbolic regression using genetic programming can be used to evolve a model for fault count predictions. Such a model has the advantages that the evolution is not dependent on a particular structure of the model and is also independent of any assumptions, which are common in traditional time-domain parametric software reliability growth models. This research aims at applying experiments targeting fault predictions using genetic programming and comparing the results with traditional approaches to compare efficiency gains.

  • 456. Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Feldt, Robert
    Gorschek, Tony
    Genetic programming for cross-release fault count predictions in large and complex software projects2010Ingår i: Evolutionary Computation and Optimization Algorithms in Software Engineering: Applications and Techniques / [ed] Chis, Monica, Hershey: IGI Global, Hershey, USA , 2010Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software fault prediction can play an important role in ensuring software quality through efficient resource allocation. This could, in turn, reduce the potentially high consequential costs due to faults. Predicting faults might be even more important with the emergence of short-timed and multiple software releases aimed at quick delivery of functionality. Previous research in software fault prediction has indicated that there is a need i) to improve the validity of results by having comparisons among number of data sets from a variety of software, ii) to use appropriate model evaluation measures and iii) to use statistical testing procedures. Moreover, cross-release prediction of faults has not yet achieved sufficient attention in the literature. In an attempt to address these concerns, this paper compares the quantitative and qualitative attributes of 7 traditional and machine-learning techniques for modeling the cross-release prediction of fault count data. The comparison is done using extensive data sets gathered from a total of 7 multi-release open-source and industrial software projects. These software projects together have several years of development and are from diverse application areas, ranging from a web browser to a robotic controller software. Our quantitative analysis suggests that genetic programming (GP) tends to have better consistency in terms of goodness of fit and accuracy across majority of data sets. It also has comparatively less model bias. Qualitatively, ease of configuration and complexity are less strong points for GP even though it shows generality and gives transparent models. Artificial neural networks did not perform as well as expected while linear regression gave average predictions in terms of goodness of fit and accuracy. Support vector machine regression and traditional software reliability growth models performed below average on most of the quantitative evaluation criteria while remained on average for most of the qualitative measures.

  • 457. Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Prediction of faults-slip-through in large software projects: an empirical evaluation2014Ingår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 51-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A large percentage of the cost of rework can be avoided by finding more faults earlier in a software test process. Therefore, determination of which software test phases to focus improvement work on has considerable industrial interest. We evaluate a number of prediction techniques for predicting the number of faults slipping through to unit, function, integration, and system test phases of a large industrial project. The objective is to quantify improvement potential in different test phases by striving toward finding the faults in the right phase. The results show that a range of techniques are found to be useful in predicting the number of faults slipping through to the four test phases; however, the group of search-based techniques (genetic programming, gene expression programming, artificial immune recognition system, and particle swarm optimization-based artificial neural network) consistently give better predictions, having a representation at all of the test phases. Human predictions are consistently better at two of the four test phases. We conclude that the human predictions regarding the number of faults slipping through to various test phases can be well supported by the use of search-based techniques. A combination of human and an automated search mechanism (such as any of the search-based techniques) has the potential to provide improved prediction results.

  • 458. Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Feldt, Robert
    Wikstrand, Greger
    Search-based prediction of fault-slip-through in large software projects2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A large percentage of the cost of rework can be avoided by finding more faults earlier in a software testing process. Therefore, determination of which software testing phases to focus improvements work on, has considerable industrial interest. This paper evaluates the use of five different techniques, namely particle swarm optimization based artificial neural networks (PSO-ANN), artificial immune recognition systems (AIRS), gene expression programming (GEP), genetic programming (GP) and multiple regression (MR), for predicting the number of faults slipping through unit, function, integration and system testing phases. The objective is to quantify improvement potential in different testing phases by striving towards finding the right faults in the right phase. We have conducted an empirical study of two large projects from a telecommunication company developing mobile platforms and wireless semiconductors. The results are compared using simple residuals, goodness of fit and absolute relative error measures. They indicate that the four search-based techniques (PSO-ANN, AIRS, GEP, GP) perform better than multiple regression for predicting the fault-slip-through for each of the four testing phases. At the unit and function testing phases, AIRS and PSO-ANN performed better while GP performed better at integration and system testing phases. The study concludes that a variety of search-based techniques are applicable for predicting the improvement potential in different testing phases with GP showing more consistent performance across two of the four test phases.

  • 459.
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Towards Secure Multipath TCP Communication2017Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution in networking coupled with an increasing demand to improve user experience has led to different proposals to extend the standard TCP. Multipath TCP (MPTCP) is one such extension that has the potential to overcome few inherent limitations in the standard TCP. While MPTCP's design and deployment progresses, most of the focus has been on its compatibility. The security aspect is confined to making sure that the MPTCP protocol itself offers the same security level as the standard TCP.

    The topic of this thesis is to investigate the unexpected security implications raised by using MPTCP in the traditional networking environment. The Internet of today has security middle-boxes that perform traffic analysis to detect intrusions and attacks. Such middle-boxes make use of different assumptions about the traffic, e.g., traffic from a single connection always arrives along the same path. This along with many other assumptions may not be true anymore with the advent of MPTCP as traffic can be fragmented and sent over multiple paths simultaneously.

    We investigate how practical it is to evade a security middle-box by fragmenting and sending traffic across multiple paths using MPTCP. Realistic attack traffic is used to evaluate such attacks against Snort IDS to show that these attacks are feasible. We then go on to propose possible solutions to detect such attacks and implement them in an MPTCP proxy. The proxy aims to extend the MPTCP performance advantages to servers that only support standard TCP, while ensuring that intrusions can be detected as before. Finally, we investigate the potential MPTCP scenario where security middle-boxes only have access to some of the traffic. We propose and implement an algorithm to perform intrusion detection in such situations and achieve a nearly 90% detection accuracy. Another contribution of this work is a tool, that converts IDS rules into equivalent attack traffic to automate the evaluation of a middle-box.

  • 460.
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Garcia, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Partial Signature Matching in an MPTCP World using Insert-only Levenshtein DistanceManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 461.
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Garcia, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Slice Distance: An Insert-Only Levenshtein Distance with a Focus on Security Applications2018Ingår i: Proceedings of NTMS 2018 Conference and Workshop, New York: IEEE, 2018, s. 1-5Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Levenshtein distance is well known for its use in comparing two strings for similarity. However, the set of considered edit operations used when comparing can be reduced in a number of situations. In such cases, the application of the generic Levenshtein distance can result in degraded detection and computational performance. Other metrics in the literature enable limiting the considered edit operations to a smaller subset. However, the possibility where a difference can only result from deleted bytes is not yet explored. To this end, we propose an insert-only variation of the Levenshtein distance to enable comparison of two strings for the case in which differences occur only because of missing bytes. The proposed distance metric is named slice distance and is formally presented and its computational complexity is discussed. We also provide a discussion of the potential security applications of the slice distance.

  • 462.
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Automated Testing of IDS Rules2015Ingår i: Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW), 2015 IEEE Eighth International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As technology becomes ubiquitous, new vulnerabilities are being discovered at a rapid rate. Security experts continuously find ways to detect attempts to exploit those vulnerabilities. The outcome is an extremely large and complex rule set used by Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) to detect and prevent the vulnerabilities. The rule sets have become so large that it seems infeasible to verify their precision or identify overlapping rules. This work proposes a methodology consisting of a set of tools that will make rule management easier.

  • 463.
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    IDS rule management made easy2016Ingår i: Electronics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence (ECAI), 2016 8th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Signature-based intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are commonly utilized in enterprise networks to detect and possibly block a wide variety of attacks. Their application in industrial control systems (ICSs) is also growing rapidly as modem ICSs increasingly use open standard protocols instead of proprietary. Due to an ever changing threat landscape, the rulesets used by these IDSs have grown large and there is no way to verify their precision or accuracy. Such broad and non-optimized rulesets lead to false positives and an unnecessary burden on the IDS, resulting in possible degradation of the security. This work proposes a methodology consisting of a set of tools to help optimize the IDS rulesets and make rule management easier. The work also provides attack traffic data that is expected to benefit the task of IDS assessment.

  • 464.
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013).
    Multipath TCP IDS Evasion and Mitigation2015Ingår i: Information Security: 18th International Conference, ISC 2015, Trondheim, Norway, September 9-11, 2015, Proceedings, Springer, 2015, Vol. 9290, s. 265-282Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing network security infrastructure is not ready for future protocols such as Multipath TCP (MPTCP). The outcome is that middleboxes are configured to block such protocols. This paper studies the security risk that arises if future protocols are used over unaware infrastructures. In particular, the practicality and severity of cross-path fragmentation attacks utilizing MPTCP against the signature-matching capability of the Snort intrusion detection system (IDS) is investigated. Results reveal that the attack is realistic and opens the possibility to evade any signature-based IDS. To mitigate the attack, a solution is also proposed in the form of the MPTCP Linker tool. The work outlines the importance of MPTCP support in future network security middleboxes.

  • 465.
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för HumanIT.
    Lidén, Anders
    Towards Multipath TCP Aware Security Technologies2016Ingår i: 2016 8th IFIP International Conference onNew Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS), New York: IEEE, 2016, s. 1-8Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multipath TCP (MPTCP) is a proposed extension to TCP that enables a number of performance advantages that have not been offered before. While the protocol specification is close to being finalized, there still remain some unaddressed challenges regarding the deployment and security implications of the protocol. This work attempts to tackle some of these concerns by proposing and implementing MPTCP aware security services and deploying them inside a proof of concept MPTCP proxy. The aim is to enable hosts, even those without native MPTCP support, to securely benefit from the MPTCP performance advantages. Our evaluations show that the security services that are implemented enable proper intrusion detection and prevention to thwart potential attacks as well as threshold rules to prevent denial of service (DoS) attacks.

  • 466.
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013).
    Lidén, Anders
    A Multipath TCP Proxy2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multipath TCP (MPTCP) is an extension to traditionalTCP that enables a number of performance advantages,which were not offered before. While the protocol specificationis close to being finalized, there still remain some concernsregarding deployability and security. This paper describes theon going work to develop a solution that will facilitate thedeployment of MPTCP. The solution will not only allow non-MPTCP capable end-hosts to benefit from MPTCP performancegains, but also help ease the network security concerns that manymiddleboxes face due to the possibility of data stream beingfragmented across multiple subflows.

  • 467.
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Rossebø, Judith
    Integrated Operations, ABB AS, Norway.
    Chowdhury, Mohammad
    Talha, Batool
    ABB Corporate Research, ABB AS, Norway.
    A Wireless Intrusion Detection System for 802.11 networks2016Ingår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, SIGNAL PROCESSING AND NETWORKING (WISPNET), IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, s. 828-834Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless local area networks (WLANs) deployment is increasing rapidly. At the same time, WLANs have become an attractive target for many potential attackers. In spite of that, the de facto standard used to implement most WLANs (IEEE 802.11) has what appear to be residual vulnerabilities related to identity spoofing. In this paper, a pragmatic study of two common attacks on the standard is conducted. These attacks are then implemented on test beds to learn attack behavior. Finally, novel attack signatures and techniques to detect these attacks are devised and implemented in a proof of concept Wireless Intrusion Detection System (WIDS).

  • 468.
    AGALOMBA, CHRISTINE AFANDI
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Factors contributing to failure of egovernment projects in developing countries: a literature review2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 469.
    Agalomba, Christine Afandi
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Bakibinga, Stella
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    A Review of Telecentre Literature: Sustainability, Impact and Best practices2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 470.
    Aganovic, Deni
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Åhrberg, Cecilia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Att fånga en oskuld: En undersökning kring ungdomars intresse för ekonomisk information online2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att vid 18 års ålder tvingas ansvara för sina handlingar är för många ett stort steg, inte minst då en del av ansvaret är ekonomi. Ungdomarna vänder sig ofta till föräldrarna med frågor, men var ska de vända sig när föräldrarna inte har svaret? Bankerna har börjat söka sig lägre ner i åldrarna med sin marknadsföring för att fånga kunden innan denne blir myndig, men fortfarande är det många frågetecken kring informationen ungdomarna behöver.

    Uppdraget var att undersöka vad ungdomar behöver för information i en webbplats riktad mot ungdomar från banken. En undersökning genomfördes med en enkätundersökning med 100respondenter och tre olika fokusgrupper som genererade att ungdomarna känner att banker är alldeles för avlägsna. En minskad distans skulle medföra att ungdomarna lättare vänder sig till banken vid frågor kring sin ekonomi vilket i sin tur medför att deras intresse kring privatekonomiska frågor ökar.

    Designförslaget som presenteras fokuserar mycket på en funktion med textbaserad personlig service med co-browsingfunktioner som tillåter en bankman guida den unga kunden genom webbplatsen. Strävan är att ungdomarna ska känna en samhörighet till banken och lättare kan få alla typer av frågor besvarade då de var osäkra på vilken information de behöver. Om man inför en sådan tjänst bör användbarhetstest och utvärderingar på designförslaget genomföras för att kontrollera om distansen mellan bank och ungdom minskar.

  • 471.
    Agapi, Mesodiakaki
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Zola, Enrica
    UPC BarcelonaTECH, Barcelona Spain.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för datavetenskap. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för HumanIT.
    Joint User Association and Backhaul Routing for Green 5G Mesh Millimeter Wave Backhaul Networks2017Ingår i: Proceedings Of The 20Th Acm International Conference On Modelling, Analysis And Simulation Of Wireless And Mobile Systems, ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY, , 2017, s. 179-186Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the advance of fifth generation (5G) networks, network density needs to grow significantly in order to meet the required capacity demands. A massive deployment of small cells may lead to a high cost for providing. ber connectivity to each node. Consequently, many small cells are expected to be connected through wireless links to the umbrella eNodeB, leading to a mesh backhaul topology. This backhaul solution will most probably be composed of high capacity point-to-point links, typically operating in the millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency band due to its massive bandwidth availability. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model that jointly solves the user association and backhaul routing problem in the aforementioned context, aiming at the energy efficiency maximization of the network. Our study considers the energy consumption of both the access and backhaul links, while taking into account the capacity constraints of all the nodes as well as the fulfillment of the service-level agreements (SLAs). Due to the high complexity of the optimal solution, we also propose an energy efficient heuristic algorithm (Joint), which solves the discussed joint problem, while inducing low complexity in the system. We numerically evaluate the algorithm performance by comparing it not only with the optimal solution but also with reference approaches under different traffic load scenarios and backhaul parameters. Our results demonstrate that Joint outperforms the state-of-the-art, while being able to find good solutions, close to optimal, in short time.

  • 472.
    Agapi, Mesodiakaki
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Zola, Enrica
    Univ Politecn Cataluna, Dept Network Engn, Barcelona, Spain.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    User Association in 5G Heterogeneous Networks with Mesh Millimeter Wave Backhaul Links2017Ingår i: 2017 IEEE 18th International Symposium on A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), IEEE, 2017Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Fifth generation (5G) wireless networks will target at energy and spectrum efficient solutions to cope with the increasing demands in capacity and energy efficiency. To achieve this joint goal, dense networks of small cells (SCs) are expected to overlay the existing macro cells. In parallel, for the SC connection to the core network, a promising solution lies in a mesh network of high capacity millimeter wave backhaul (BH) links. In the considered 5G architecture, each SC is able to forward its BH traffic to the core network through alternative paths, thus offering high BIT network reliability. In this context, the joint problem of user association and HI routing becomes challenging. In this paper, we focus on this problem targeting at energy and spectrum efficient solutions. A low-complexity algorithm is proposed, which bases its user association and BIT routing decision i) on minimizing the spectrum resources to guarantee the user rate, so as to provide high spectrum efficiency, and ii) on minimizing both the access network and BH route power consumption to provide high energy efficiency. Our results show that our solution provides better trade-offs between energy and spectrum efficiency than the state-of-the-art in 3GPP scenarios.

  • 473.
    Agardh, Johannes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för arbetsvetenskap och medieteknik.
    Johansson, Martin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för arbetsvetenskap och medieteknik.
    Pettersson, Mårten
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Institutionen för arbetsvetenskap och medieteknik.
    Designing Future Interaction with Today's Technology1999Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under vårt magisterarbete har vi under ett antal tillfällen följt med och studerat tre lastbilschaufförer. Syftet med studien var bland annat att få en förståelse för hur de hittar till rätt adress och därmed se om de skulle kunna vara behjälpta av ett navigeringsstöd. Vi gjorde ett designförslag inspirerat av vad vi fått fram då vi analyserat materialet från fältstudierna samt av designidéer såsom exempelvis Calm Technology och Tacit Interaction. I magisteruppsatsen beskriver vi vårt designförslag och diskuterar bland annat hur designparadigmen Calm Technology och Tacit Interaction kan användas i utformning av IT-artefakter. Vi kommer fram till att de nya designkoncepten Calm Technology och Tacit Interaction handlar om relationen mellan teknik, människor och mänsklig handling. Nyckelord: Människa-Dator Interaktion (HCI), Work Practice, IT-design, Calm Technology, Tacit Interaction, interaktionsdesign

  • 474.
    Agarwal, Prasoon
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Hematologi och immunologi.
    Regulation of Gene Expression in Multiple Myeloma Cells and Normal Fibroblasts: Integrative Bioinformatic and Experimental Approaches2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this thesis applies integrative genomic and experimental approaches to investigate mechanisms involved in regulation of gene expression in the context of disease and normal cell biology.

    In papers I and II, we have explored the role of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in multiple myeloma (MM). By using a bioinformatic approach we identified the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to be a common denominator for the underexpressed gene signature in MM. By using inhibitors of the PRC2 we showed an activation of the genes silenced by H3K27me3 and a reduction in the tumor load and increased overall survival in the in vivo 5TMM model. Using ChIP-sequencing we defined the distribution of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 marks in MM patients cells. In an integrated bioinformatic approach, the H3K27me3-associated genes significantly correlated to under-expression in patients with less favorable survival. Thus, our data indicates the presence of a common under-expressed gene profile and provides a rationale for implementing new therapies focusing on epigenetic alterations in MM.

    In paper III we address the existence of a small cell population in MM presenting with differential tumorigenic properties in the 5T33MM murine model. We report that the predominant population of CD138+ cells had higher engraftment potential, higher clonogenic growth, whereas the CD138- MM cells presented with less mature phenotype and higher drug resistance. Our findings suggest that while designing treatment regimes for MM, both the cellpopulations must be targeted.

    In paper IV we have studied the general mechanism of differential gene expression regulation by CGGBP1 in response to growth signals in normal human fibroblasts. We found that CGGBP1 binding affects global gene expression by RNA Polymerase II. This is mediated by Alu RNAdependentinhibition of RNA Polymerase II. In presence of growth signals CGGBP1 is retained in the nuclei and exhibits enhanced Alu binding thus inhibiting RNA Polymerase III binding on Alus. Hence we suggest a mechanism by which CGGBP1 orchestrates Alu RNA-mediated regulation of RNA Polymerase II. This thesis provides new insights for using integrative bioinformatic approaches to decipher gene expression regulation mechanisms in MM and in normal cells.

  • 475.
    Agbamuche, Joy
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    How does the alignment of IT to business strategy affect the organisation of the IT function?2008Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Date: 2008-06-04

    Purpose: The primary goal of this research is to describe the IT function and examine how its alignment to an organisations strategy affects the way it is organised.

    Method: The chosen method was a purely theoretical examination with the use of the case study of Windham International as primary resource and secondary resources such as book and literature review used for the thesis.

    Research Questions: How does the alignment of IT to business strategy affect the organisation of the IT function?

    Conclusion: One of the findings was that a few researchers seem to suggest that the centralized mode of organising IT was symbolic of the past, while outsourcing and decentralization are the modern approach to organising IT. Wyndham International shows the opposite, after the introduction of the CIO in 2002, centralization was the chosen mode of organisation because that was what would best fit the new strategic approach of the organisation. Insourcing rather than outsourcing proved to be a winning formula.

  • 476. Agbesi, Collinson Colin Mawunyo
    Promoting Accountable Governance Through Electronic Government2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic government (e-Government) is a purposeful system of organized delegation of power, control, management and resource allocation in a harmonized centralized or decentralized way via networks assuring efficiency, effectiveness and transparency of processes and transactions. This new phenomenon is changing the way of business and service of governments all over the world. The betterment of service to citizens as well as other groups and the efficient management of scarce resources have meant that governments seek alternatives to rendering services and efficient management processes. Analog and mechanical processes of governing and management have proved inefficient and unproductive in recent times. The search for alternative and better ways of governing and control have revealed that digital and electronic ways of governing is the best alternative and beneficial more than the mechanical process of governing. The internet, information and communication technology (ICT/IT) have registered a significant change in governments. There has also been an increased research in the area of electronic government but the field still lacks sound theoretical framework which is necessary for a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of electronic government systems, and the integration of various electronic government applications.

    Also the efficient and effective allocation and distribution of scarce resources has become an issue and there has been a concerted effort globally to improve the use and management of scarce resources in the last decade. The purpose of this research is to gain an in depth and better understanding of how electronic government can be used to provide accountability, security and transparency in government decision making processes in allocation and distribution of resources in the educational sector of Ghana. Research questions have been developed to help achieve the aim. The study has also provided detailed literature review, which helped to answer research questions and guide to data collection. A quantitative and qualitative research method was chosen to collect vital information and better understand the study area issue. Both self administered questionnaire as well as interviews were used to collect data relevant to the study. Also a thorough analysis of related works was conducted.

    Finally, the research concluded by addressing research questions, discussing results and providing some vital recommendations.  It was also found that electronic government is the best faster, reliable, accountable and transparent means of communication and interaction between governments, public institutions and citizens. Thus electronic government is crucial in transforming the educational sector of Ghana for better management of resources. It has also been noted that information and communication technology (ICT) is the enabling force that helps electronic government to communicate with its citizens, support e-government operation and provide efficiency, effectiveness and better services within the educational sector of Ghana.

  • 477.
    Agelfors, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Dahlquist, Martin
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Granström, Björn
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Lundeberg, Magnus
    Salvi, Giampiero
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Spens, Karl-Erik
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Öhman, Tobias
    A synthetic face as a lip-reading support for hearing impaired telephone users - problems and positive results1999Ingår i: European audiology in 1999: proceeding of the 4th European Conference in Audiology, Oulu, Finland, June 6-10, 1999, 1999Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 478.
    Agelfors, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Granström, Björn
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Lundeberg, Magnus
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Salvi, Giampiero
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Spens, Karl-Erik
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Öhman, Tobias
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Synthetic visual speech driven from auditory speech1999Ingår i: Proceedings of Audio-Visual Speech Processing (AVSP'99)), 1999Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed two different methods for using auditory, telephone speech to drive the movements of a synthetic face. In the first method, Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) were trained on a phonetically transcribed telephone speech database. The output of the HMMs was then fed into a rulebased visual speech synthesizer as a string of phonemes together with time labels. In the second method, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) were trained on the same database to map acoustic parameters directly to facial control parameters. These target parameter trajectories were generated by using phoneme strings from a database as input to the visual speech synthesis The two methods were evaluated through audiovisual intelligibility tests with ten hearing impaired persons, and compared to “ideal” articulations (where no recognition was involved), a natural face, and to the intelligibility of the audio alone. It was found that the HMM method performs considerably better than the audio alone condition (54% and 34% keywords correct respectively), but not as well as the “ideal” articulating artificial face (64%). The intelligibility for the ANN method was 34% keywords correct.

  • 479.
    Agelfors, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Karlsson, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Kewley, Jo
    Salvi, Giampiero
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Thomas, Neil
    User evaluation of the SYNFACE talking head telephone2006Ingår i: Computers Helping People With Special Needs, Proceedings / [ed] Miesenberger, K; Klaus, J; Zagler, W; Karshmer, A, 2006, Vol. 4061, s. 579-586Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The talking-head telephone, Synface, is a lip-reading support for people with hearing-impairment. It has been tested by 49 users with varying degrees of hearing-impaired in UK and Sweden in lab and home environments. Synface was found to give support to the users, especially in perceiving numbers and addresses and an enjoyable way to communicate. A majority deemed Synface to be a useful product.

  • 480.
    Agelis, Sacki
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jacobsson, Sofia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Alping, Arne
    Ericsson Microwave Systems, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Ligander, Per
    Ericsson Microwave Systems, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Modular interconnection system for optical PCB and backplane communication2002Ingår i: Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium., Proceedings International, IPDPS 2002, Abstracts and CD-ROM, Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Press, 2002, s. 245-250Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a way of building modular systems with a powerful optical interconnection network. Each module, placed on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), has a generic optical communication interface with a simple electronic router. Together with optical switching using micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology, packet switching over reconfigurable topologies is possible. The interconnection system gives the possibility to integrate electronics with optics without changing existing PCB technology. Great interest from industry is therefore expected and the cost advantages are several: reuse of module designs, module upgrades without changing the PCB, low-cost conventional PCB technology, etc. In the version described in this paper, the interconnection system has 48 bidirectional optical channels for intra-PCB communication on each board. For inter-PCB communication, a backplane with 192 bidirectional optical channels supports communication between twelve PCBs. With 2.5 Gbit/s per optical channel in each direction, the aggregated intra-PCB bit rate is 120 Gbit/s full duplex (on each PCB) while the aggregated inter-PCB bit rate is 480 Gbit/s full duplex. A case study shows the feasibility of the interconnection system in a parallel processing system for radar signal processing.

  • 481.
    Agelis, Sacki
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Optoelectronic router with a reconfigurable shuffle network based on micro-optoelectromechanical systems2004Ingår i: Journal of Optical Networking, ISSN 1536-5379, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An optoelectronic router with a shuffle exchange network is presented and enhanced by the addition of micro-optoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS) in the network to add the ability to reconfigure the shuffle network. The MOEMS described here are fully connected any-to-any crossbar switches. The added reconfigurability provides the opportunity to adapt the system to different common application characteristics. Two representative application models are described: The first has symmetric properties, and the second has asymmetric properties. The router system is simulated with the specified applications and an analysis of the results is carried out. By use of MOEMS in the optical network, and thus reconfigurability, greater than 50% increased throughput performance and decreased average packet delay are obtained for the given application. Network congestion is avoided throughout the system if reconfigurability is used.

  • 482.
    Agelis, Sacki
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Optoelectronic router with MOEMS–based reconfigurable shuffle network2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 483.
    Agerblad, Josefin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC).
    Andersen, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC).
    Provably Secure Pseudo-Random Generators 2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten är en litteraturstudie om bevisbart säkra pseudo-slumpmässiga generatorer. I rapporten förklarar vi vad bevisbart säkra pseudo-slumpmässiga generatorer är och vad de vanligtvis används till. Vi tar dessutom upp envägsfunktioner som är starkt kopplat till vårt ämne. Vidare beskrivs och jämförs två kända sådana generatorer, en generator av Blum och Micali och en generator av Blum, Blum och Shub. Den slutsats som vi kommit fram till är att x

    2 mod N generatorn av Blum, Blum och Shub verkar vara den bättre utav dem vad gäller hastighet, säkerhet och applikationsområden. Ni kommer även kunna läsa om hur en sådan generator kan implementeras och vi förklarar varför den presenterade koden är bra.

  • 484.
    Agevik, Niklas
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Shared UMTS Networks - A Techno-Economic Study on Mobile Network Operators’ Possibilities to Deliver Unique Products and Services2005Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, there has been a one-to-one mapping between a mobile network and the reseller of the network’s services. Recent developments challenge this model. Virtual operators have emerged in GSM networks and during the rollout of UMTS networks, many operators built shared UMTS networks. This study analyses the impact of shared networks on the mobile network operators’ abilities to deliver unique products and services to their customers. Four sharing models that are in use today are analysed and presented in detail. These are site sharing, geographical split networks, shared RAN and spectrum sharing.

    The research in this study has been done in two steps. In the first step, possible differentiation opportunities are identified through literature studies and interviews with key persons at network operators, equipment manufacturers, business analysts and the Swedish national post and telecom agency. In the second step, this study compares the implementation of these opportunities in the four forms of shared networks with their implementations in a wholly owned network. The opportunities are grouped in three categories: products, quality of service differentiation and multiaccess networks.

    By setting quality of service attributes on bearers, such as latency and the attention/retention policy, quality of service differentiation is a possibility in common shared networks and geographical split networks. Although unlicensed access technologies, such as WLAN standards, can provide coverage differentiation in one sense, this study shows that this is not economical compared to UMTS pico-cells.

    The study finds that implementing features in the underlying network requires extensive cooperation between operators in all sharing models except for site sharing. Certain services require quality of service parameters that are mutually exclusive without over-provisioning in terms of network resources. Such parameters include for example latency and capacity. Even though the 3GPP UMTS standard allow for a separation of the service creation layer and the underlying network, this study argues that many services will still be dependent upon network features, thus mitigating the advantage of developing services in the unshared domain.

  • 485.
    Aggestam, Lena
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    IT-supported Knowledge Repositories for Sharing Best Practices: Getting Dressed for Success2007Ingår i: International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2007), International Association for Technology, Education and Development, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 486.
    Aggestam, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    IT-supported Knowledge Repositories: Increasing their Usefulness by Supporting Knowledge Capture2008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations use various resources to achieve business objectives, and for financial gain. In modern business, knowledge is a critical resource, and organizations cannot afford not to manage it. Knowledge Management (KM) aims to support learning and to create value for the organization. Based on three levels of inquiry (why, what, how), work presented in this thesis includes a synthesized view of the existing body of knowledge concerning KM and hence a holistic characterization of KM. This characterization reveals a strong dependency between KM and Learning Organization (LO). Neither of them can be successful without the other. We show that a KM project resulting in an IT-supported knowledge repository is a suitable way to start when the intention is to initiate KM work. Thus, our research focuses on ITsupported knowledge repositories.

    Large numbers of KM projects fail, and organizations lack support for their KM undertakings. These are the main problems that our research addresses. In order for an IT-supported knowledge repository to be successful, it must be used. Thus, the content of the repository is critical for success. Our work reveals that the process of capturing new knowledge is critical if the knowledge repository is to include relevant and updated knowledge. With the purpose of supporting the capture process, this thesis provides a detailed characterization of the capture process as well as guidance aiming to facilitate the implementation of the capture process in such a way that knowledge is continuously captured, also after the KM implementation project is completed. We argue that the continuous capture of new knowledge which can potentially be stored in the knowledge repository will, in the long term perspective, have a positive influence on the usefulness of the repository. This will most likely increase the number of users of the repository and accordingly increase the number of successful KM projects.

    All the work presented in this thesis is the result of a qualitative research process comprising a literature review and an empirical study that were carried out in parallel. The empirical study is a case study inspired by action research, which involved participation in the project Efficient Knowledge Management and Learning in Knowledge Intensive Organizations (EKLär).

  • 487.
    Aggestam, Lena
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    IT-supported knowledge repositories: Increasing their Usefulness by Supporting Knowledge Capture2008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations use various resources to achieve business objectives, and for financial gain. In modern business, knowledge is a critical resource, and organizations cannot afford not to manage it. Knowledge Management (KM) aims to support learning and to create value for the organization. Based on three levels of inquiry (why, what, how), work presented in this thesis includes a synthesized view of the existing body of knowledge concerning KM and hence a holistic characterization of KM. This characterization reveals a strong dependency between KM and Learning Organization (LO). Neither of them can be successful without the other. We show that a KM project resulting in an IT-supported knowledge repository is a suitable way to start when the intention is to initiate KM work. Thus, our research focuses on ITsupported knowledge repositories.Large numbers of KM projects fail, and organizations lack support for their KM undertakings. These are the main problems that our research addresses. In order for an IT-supported knowledge repository to be successful, it must be used. Thus, the content of the repository is critical for success. Our work reveals that the process of capturing new knowledge is critical if the knowledge repository is to include relevant and updated knowledge. With the purpose of supporting the capture process, this thesis provides a detailed characterization of the capture process as well as guidance aiming to facilitate the implementation of the capture process in such a way that knowledge is continuously captured, also after the KM implementation project is completed. We argue that the continuous capture of new knowledge which can potentially be stored in the knowledge repository will, in the long term perspective, have a positive influence on the usefulness of the repository. This will most likely increase the number of users of the repository and accordingly increase the number of successful KM projects.All the work presented in this thesis is the result of a qualitative research process comprising a literature review and an empirical study that were carried out in parallel. The empirical study is a case study inspired by action research, which involved participation in the project Efficient Knowledge Management and Learning in Knowledge Intensive Organizations (EKLär).

  • 488.
    Aggestam, Lena
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Knowledge Losses in the Capturing Process2007Ingår i: Managing Worldwide Operations and Communications with Information Technology: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Information Resources Management Association (IRMA) Conference / [ed] Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, Idea Group Inc., 2007, s. 53-56Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 489.
    Aggestam, Lena
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Planning for Information Systems Development: A Framework for supporting the management of Success Factors2002Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    In the information systems development process there are important success factors. By doing an extensive literature survey we have found that these factors emerge mainly from organisational issues concerning the objective of the process and the stakeholders.One factor - to discuss the system, its subsystems and to define the system's boundary - is a prerequisite for all the others. Factors emerging from the objective are mainly about the objective being well analysed and defined, being accepted among the stakeholders and meeting business objectives. Factors emerging from stakeholders are mainly about involving the right stakeholders in the process, achieving a positive attitude and taking care of their needs about knowledge and confidence. Based on this we have developed a framework aiming to guide organisations in what considerations they should make before the project begins. As a result of our framework there will be both a clear objective, which support the business mission, as well as positive stakeholders to support the information systems development process.

  • 490.
    Aggestam, Lena
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Vidareutveckling av informationssystem: Vilka olika aktiviteter går att identifiera i VAD-fasen?2001Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Utmärkande för morgondagens IS är att integrera befintliga resurser med nya IS (Lindencrona 2000), dvs att vidareutveckla i stället för att nyutveckla. Då det saknas systematiserad kunskap om den utvecklingsprocess som äger rum då morgondagens IS ska utvecklas är det av yttersta vikt att arbeten vars syfte är att belysa denna process genomförs. Syftet med denna rapport är att undersöka vilka olika aktiviteter som går att identifiera i VAD-fasen, processen fram till kravspecifikationen, då ett administrativt informationssystem ska vidareutvecklas. Inom ramen för detta examensarbete har en litteratur-survey, fokuserad på att samla in material som detaljerat belyser VAD-fasen, utförts. För att samla in material som möjliggör en identifiering av olika aktiviteter i VAD-fasen då ett IS ska vidareutvecklas, har en enkät- respektive en intervju-undersökning av olika organisationer inom aktuell population genomförts.

    Då det insamlade materialet analyserats har i VAD-fasen följande fyra olika aktiviteter kunnat identifieras då ett IS ska vidareutvecklas:

    · Fatta beslut

    · Utföra undersökningar med hjälp av informationsinsamlande aktiviteter

    · Författa dokument

    · Deltaga i diskussioner

    Det erhållna resultatet innebär en god plattform att utgå ifrån då ytterligare forskning ska göras inom området och då metoder för utvecklingen av morgondagens IS ska utvecklas och arbetas fram.

  • 491.
    Aggestam, Lena
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Wanted: A Framework for IT-supported KM2006Ingår i: Emerging Trends and Challenges in Information Technology: 2006 Information Resources Management Association International Conference, Washington, DC, USA, May 21-24, 2006 / [ed] Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, Idea Group Inc., 2006, s. 46-49Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 492.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Backlund, Per
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Strategic Knowledge Management Issues when Designing Knowledge Repositories2007Ingår i: Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Information Systems, ECIS 2007, Association for Information Systems, 2007, s. 528-539Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge forms an important asset in modern organisations. In order to gain and sustain competitive advantage knowledge has to be managed. One aspect of doing this is to build knowledge repositories. In this paper we extend the strategic knowledge management framework to betters suit the process of constructing knowledge repositories. The extended framework highlights, for example, the impact of organizational culture and the importance of distinguishing between the individual and organizational knowledge processes and relating them to each other. The application of the extended framework to analyze a case in the public health care sector revealed a number of important aspects in the preparation and implementation of a knowledge management project. In particular we highlight the importance of having a strategic vision and making the dual relationship between usage and design explicit when implementing a knowledge repository.

  • 493.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Backlund, Per
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Persson, Anne
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Supporting Knowledge Evaluation to Increase Quality in Electronic Knowledge Repositories2010Ingår i: International Journal of Knowledge Management, ISSN 1548-0666, E-ISSN 1548-0658, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 23-43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge forms an important asset in modern organizations. In order to gain and sustain competitive advantage knowledge has to be managed. One aspect of this is to use Electronic Knowledge Repositories (EKR) to enhance knowledge sharing, reuse and learning. The success of an EKR is dependent on the quality of its content. For knowledge to be stored in an EKR, it has to be captured. One crucial part of the capture process is to evaluate whether the identified knowledge should be incorporated in the EKR or not. Therefore, to increase quality in an EKR, the evaluation stage of the capture process must be successfully carried out. Based on an interpretive field study and an extensive literature review, this paper identifies and characterizes Critical Success Factors (CSF) in the evaluation stage and presents guidance aiming to support implementation of the evaluation stage with the purpose to increase the quality of an EKR. In particular, the guidance supports the decision whether identified knowledge should be stored or not and it highlights the importance of performing evaluation addressing correctness, relevance, protection and redundancy. The characterization of the capture process contributes mainly to KM theory, and the guidance to KM practice.

  • 494.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Persson, Anne
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Increasing the Quality in IT-supported Knowledge Repositories: Critical Success Factors for Identifying Knowledge2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 5-8 January 2010, Koloa, Kauai, Hawaii: Abstracts and CD-ROM of Full Papers / [ed] Ralph H. Sprague, Jr., IEEE Computer Society, 2010, s. 3329-3337Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IT-supported knowledge repositories are an important part in Knowledge Management (KM) work. The success of an IT-supported knowledge repository is dependent on what is stored in the repository and hence the ability to capture the right knowledge is a key aspect. Therefore, to increase the quality in an ITsupported Knowledge Repository, the identify activity, which starts the capture process, must be successfully performed. While Critical Success Factors (CSF) for KM and KMS are frequently discussed in the literature, there is a knowledge gap concerning CSF for this specific knowledge capture activity. Based on an interpretive field study and a literature review, this paper proposes and characterizes CSF for the identify activity. For example, we highlight the importance of having organizational knowledge about what knowledge to capture and where to find it, i.e. having knowledge about potential sources of knowledge.

  • 495.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Persson, Anne
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Backlund, Per
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Evaluation criteria to increase information quality in electronic knowledge repositories2008Ingår i: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Association for Information Systems, 2008, s. 1814-1825Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge forms an important asset in modern organisations. In order to gain and sustain competitive advantage knowledge has to be managed. One aspect of this is to use Electronic Knowledge Repositories (EKRs) in order to enhance knowledge sharing, reuse and learning. The success of an EKR is dependent on the quality of its content. For knowledge to be stored in an EKR, it has to be captured. One crucial part of the capture process is to evaluate whether the identified knowledge should be incorporated in the EKR or not. Therefore, to increase information quality in an EKR, the evaluation stage of the capture process must be successfully performed. This paper characterizes Critical Success Factors (CSF) for knowledge evaluation and presents six evaluation criteria to guide the evaluation stage in order to increase information quality in EKR:s. In particular we highlight the importance of performing evaluation addressing correctness, relevance, protection and redundancy.

     

  • 496.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Söderström, Eva
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Managing Critical Success Factors in a B2B Setting2005Ingår i: International Association for Development of the Information Society, e-commerce, 2005, s. 101-108Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 497.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Söderström, Eva
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Persson, Anne
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Seven Types of Knowledge Loss in the Knowledge Capture Process2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2010), Association for Information Systems, 2010, s. Paper 13-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Society is based on knowledge and the availability thereof. Access to knowledge empowers people, and organizations must reuse knowledge to be competitive. The right knowledge to the right person at the right time is important for success, and IT plays an important role in order to achieve this goal, for example in the form of Electronic Knowlege Repositories (EKR). The success of an EKR depends on what is stored therein, and the ability to capture the right knowledge is hence a key aspect. This, however, is a complex issue. The goal of this paper is to identify and describe different types of knowledge loss, seven of which have been identified and characterized. As an example, one knowledge loss shows that not all knowledge can be stored, and critical knowledge elements may therefore be lost when attempting to store it. Some knowledge loss may be desirable, since an organization should not want to store everything. The results contribute to capturing the right knowledge, and hence to successful EKR. The results thus contribute to elevating the competitive power of an organization.

  • 498.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    Region Västra Götaland, 40544, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    How to Successfully Apply Critical Success Factors in Healthcare Information Systems Development?: A Story from the Field2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Information Systems, Barcelona, Spain 2012, Association for Information Systems, 2012, s. Paper 220-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have focused on retrospectively identifying critical success factors (CSFs) for healthcare information system (HIS) development projects. In this paper the central question is how in advance selected CSFs can be applied in the best way. An action research study has been carried out in a large Swedish healthcare organization during 2010 and 2011 where the application of four CSFs has been planned, documented and reflected upon. Challenges are identified that may arise when tailoring general CSFs to situational circumstances. For example, the self-evident CSF of ?having a clear and accepted objective? becomes tricky and complex in practice when facing 15 autonomous boards that all need to support the project. Similar insights are gained for other CSFs. More research is needed to illuminate the complexities of how to apply CSFs. Another important observation is that different CSFs strengthen one another, which implies that they should be applied and analysed in concert rather than isolated. Finally, healthcare practitioners need to be aware that CSFs are very helpful, but that tailoring general CSFs to the unique situation of the HIS development project requires much effort and continuous reflection from a holistic perspective embedded in systems thinking.

  • 499. Aggoun, Abderrahmane
    et al.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS. Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Fages, François
    Integrating rule-based modelling and constraint programming for solving industrial packing problems2010Ingår i: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, E-ISSN 1564-0094, s. 34-35Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Packing items in bins is an old but nevertheless challenging combinatorial problem with numerous applications in industry. We report on an original approach based on constraint programming and rule-based modelling, which has been investigated in the framework of the FP6 ‘specific targeted research project’ Net-WMS (Towards integrating virtual reality and optimization techniques in a new generation of Networked businesses in Warehouse Management Systems under constraints). It has applications in the automotive industry.

  • 500.
    Aghaee Ghaleshahi, Nima
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    An Efficient Temperature-Gradient Based Burn-In Technique for 3D Stacked ICs2014Ingår i: Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition (DATE), 2014, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Burn-in is usually carried out with high temperature and elevated voltage. Since some of the early-life failures depend not only on high temperature but also on temperature gradients, simply raising up the temperature of an IC is not sufficient to detect them. This is especially true for 3D stacked ICs, since they have usually very large temperature gradients. The efficient detection of these early-life failures requires that specific temperature gradients are enforced as a part of the burn-in process. This paper presents an efficient method to do so by applying high power stimuli to the cores of the IC under burn-in through the test access mechanism. Therefore, no external heating equipment is required. The scheduling of the heating and cooling intervals to achieve the required temperature gradients is based on thermal simulations and is guided by functions derived from a set of thermal equations. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

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